WorldWideScience

Sample records for personal identity threat

  1. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  2. Personal Identity Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers concerned with the question of personal identity have typically been asking the so-called re-identification question: what are the conditions under which a person at one point in time is properly re-identified at another point in time? This is a rather technical question. In our...... everyday interactions, however, we do raise a number of personal identity questions that are quite distinct from it. In order to explore the variety of ways in which the Internet may affect personal identity, I propose in this study to broaden the typical philosophical horizon to other more mundane senses...... of the question. In Section 2, I describe a number of possible meanings of personal identity observed in everyday contexts and more philosophical ones. With some caveats, I argue that it is the specific context in which the question arises that disambiguates the meaning of the question. Online contexts are novel...

  3. Threats to social identity can trigger social deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmi, Peter; Barragan, Rodolfo Cortes; Neale, Margaret A; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2015-04-01

    We hypothesized that threats to people's social (i.e., group) identity can trigger deviant attitudes and behaviors. A correlational study and five experiments showed that experiencing or recalling situations associated with the devaluation of a social identity caused participants to endorse or engage in deviant actions, including stealing, cheating, and lying. The effect was driven by the tendency to construe social identity threats not as isolated incidents but as symbolic of the continuing devaluation and disrespectful treatment of one's group. Supplementing sociological approaches to deviance and delinquency, the results suggest the relevance and utility of a social-psychological account. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. John locke on personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  5. John Locke on Personal Identity**

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  6. John Locke on persons and personal identity

    OpenAIRE

    Boeker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    John Locke claims both that ‘person’ is a forensic term and that personal identity consists in sameness of consciousness. The aim of my dissertation is to explain and critically assess how Locke links his moral and legal account of personhood to his account of personal identity in terms of sameness of consciousness. My interpretation of Locke’s account of persons and personal identity is embedded in Locke’s sortal-dependent account of identity. Locke’s sortal-dependent ac...

  7. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  8. Personal Identity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'…

  9. Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

  10. Stereotype threat spillover: how coping with threats to social identity affects aggression, eating, decision making, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Kang, Sonia K

    2010-09-01

    Stereotype threat spillover is a situational predicament in which coping with the stress of stereotype confirmation leaves one in a depleted volitional state and thus less likely to engage in effortful self-control in a variety of domains. We examined this phenomenon in 4 studies in which we had participants cope with stereotype and social identity threat and then measured their performance in domains in which stereotypes were not "in the air." In Study 1 we examined whether taking a threatening math test could lead women to respond aggressively. In Study 2 we investigated whether coping with a threatening math test could lead women to indulge themselves with unhealthy food later on and examined the moderation of this effect by personal characteristics that contribute to identity-threat appraisals. In Study 3 we investigated whether vividly remembering an experience of social identity threat results in risky decision making. Finally, in Study 4 we asked whether coping with threat could directly influence attentional control and whether the effect was implemented by inefficient performance monitoring, as assessed by electroencephalography. Our results indicate that stereotype threat can spill over and impact self-control in a diverse array of nonstereotyped domains. These results reveal the potency of stereotype threat and that its negative consequences might extend further than was previously thought. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. PERSONAL IDENTITY IN DEAF ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna KOSSEWSKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the identity deaf adolescents. The study involved 67 deaf adolescents (38 boys and 29 girls aged 16 to 19 students of secondary school. Ninety-three hearing children constituted a comparison group. The structure of identity was explored on the basis of identification references given by the subjects who were to reply in writing, 20 times running, to the question: „Who Am I?” the test, adapted from M. H. Kuhn and T. S. McPartland by Martines and Silvestre (1995 given in written and signed mode.Results showed that the hearing status as well as mode of communication influence the description of personal identity. It was found that deaf adoles­cents used more descriptions especially in the fol­lowing categories: Civil Status, Body and Physical Appearance, Tastes and Activities, Friendship and Relationships, Personal and Social Situation, Negative Personal Traits, and Neutral Personality Traits. Although this study could demonstrate im­pact independent variables on identity, the data raise the need for further, preferably longitudinal, research. This complex phenomenon has to be examined more closely.Combined self-descriptive processes lead to the development of an organized, learned and dynamic identity, and subjective description of an individ­ual has strong emotional consequences for the in­dividual in question.

  12. Chronic illness in the workplace: stigma, identity threat and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2014-10-01

    Chronic illness affects a large and growing number of workers in the United States and globally. Stigmatization (devaluation) at work based on chronic illness may be stressful for individuals and therefore may lead to negative psychological consequences (i.e. strains). In order to better understand stressful experiences of stigma for workers with chronic illnesses, a model of stigma-related identity threat (perceptions that one is at risk of being treated negatively at work because of chronic illness) was tested on a sample of 203 working adults with chronic illnesses. The following variables related to workers' perceptions of chronic illness-related identity threat: workers' boundary flexibility (flexibility in managing their work and life), their meta-perceptions of devaluation (perceptions of others' devaluation of them based on illness) and their job self-efficacy (feelings of confidence related to performing their job). In turn, perceptions of identity threat related to both feelings of psychological strain and (lower levels of) perceived work ability. Surprisingly, neither stigma centrality (how fundamental illness is to one's identity) nor supervisor support related to workers' identity threat perceptions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists ( M age  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.

  14. Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Paul; Bruch, Sarah K.; Gamoran, Adam; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Schools with very few and relatively low-performing marginalized students may be most likely to trigger social identity threats (including stereotype threats) that contribute to racial disparities. We test this hypothesis by assessing variation in the benefits of a self-affirmation intervention designed to counteract social identity threat in a…

  15. Identity threat at work: how social identity threat and situational cues contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C

    2014-10-01

    Significant disparities remain between racial and ethnic minorities' and Whites' experiences of American workplaces. Traditional prejudice and discrimination approaches explain these gaps in hiring, promotion, satisfaction, and well-being by pointing to the prejudice of people within organizations such as peers, managers, and executives. Grounded in social identity threat theory, this theoretical review instead argues that particular situational cues-often communicated by well-meaning, largely unprejudiced employees and managers-signal to stigmatized groups whether their identity is threatened and devalued or respected and affirmed. First, we provide an overview of how identity threat shapes the psychological processes of racial and ethnic minorities by heightening vigilance to certain situational cues in the workplace. Next, we outline several of these cues and their role in creating and sustaining perceptions of identity threat (or safety). Finally, we provide empirically grounded suggestions that organizations may use to increase identity safety among their employees of color. Taken together, the research demonstrates how situational cues contribute to disparate psychological experiences for racial and ethnic minorities at work, and suggests that by altering threatening cues, organizations may create more equitable, respectful, and inclusive environments where all people may thrive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Victims’ Reactions to the Interpersonal Threat to Public Identity Posed by Copycats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal threats to public identity consist of situations where another person intentionally attempts to illegitimately undermine one’s ability to display a valued and distinctive public identity. In three studies, we examined victims’ reactions to copycatting as an interpersonal threat to public identity to test each component of this definition. In Study, participants expressed the greatest degree of anger when the copying was illegitimate and intentional. In Study 2, participants expressed a greater degree of anger to copying of an important (vs. unimportant characteristic. In Study 3, we manipulated the number of identity characteristics copied. A structural model showed that as the number of copied characteristics increased, participants’ perception of the situation as illegitimate and the copying as intentional predicted a threat to one’s freedom, which in turn predicted felt reactance predicting an unfavorable impression and a desire to confront the copycat. Together, the results support the definition of interpersonal threats to public identity and copycatting as such a situation.

  17. Responses to professional identity threat: Identity management strategies in incident narratives of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Annemiek; de Gilder, Dick; van Dyck, Cathy; Groenewegen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore sensemaking of incidents by health care professionals through an analysis of the role of professional identity in narratives of incidents. Using insights from social identity theory, the authors argue that incidents may create a threat of professional identity, and that professionals make use of identity management strategies in response to this identity threat. The paper draws on a qualitative analysis of incident narratives in 14 semi-structured interviews with physicians, nurses, and residents at a Dutch specialist hospital. The authors used an existing framework of identity management strategies to categorize the narratives. The analysis yielded two main results. First, nurses and residents employed multiple types of identity management strategies simultaneously, which points to the possible benefit of combining different strategies. Second, physicians used the strategy of patronization of other professional groups, a specific form of downward comparison. The authors discuss the implications of the findings in terms of the impact of identity management strategies on the perpetuation of hierarchical differences in health care. The authors argue that efforts to manage incident handling may profit from considering social identity processes in sensemaking of incidents. This is the first study that systematically explores how health care professionals use identity management strategies to maintain a positive professional identity in the face of incidents. This study contributes to research on interdisciplinary cooperation in health care.

  18. Interacting with sexist men triggers social identity threat among female engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logel, Christine; Walton, Gregory M; Spencer, Steven J; Iserman, Emma C; von Hippel, William; Bell, Amy E

    2009-06-01

    Social identity threat is the notion that one of a person's many social identities may be at risk of being devalued in a particular context (C. M. Steele, S. J. Spencer, & J. Aronson, 2002). The authors suggest that in domains in which women are already negatively stereotyped, interacting with a sexist man can trigger social identity threat, undermining women's performance. In Study 1, male engineering students who scored highly on a subtle measure of sexism behaved in a dominant and sexually interested way toward an ostensible female classmate. In Studies 2 and 3, female engineering students who interacted with such sexist men, or with confederates trained to behave in the same way, performed worse on an engineering test than did women who interacted with nonsexist men. Study 4 replicated this finding and showed that women's underperformance did not extend to an English test, an area in which women are not negatively stereotyped. Study 5 showed that interacting with sexist men leads women to suppress concerns about gender stereotypes, an established mechanism of stereotype threat. Discussion addresses implications for social identity threat and for women's performance in school and at work.

  19. Adolescent personality development and identity formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Personality development is not only about changes in traits but also about changes in other layers of the self, such as the identity layer. Forming one's identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. In this

  20. Social identity threat motivates science-discrediting online comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as "gamers") were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition.

  1. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  2. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-we...

  3. Social identity threat motivates science-discrediting online comments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nauroth

    Full Text Available Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly identified group members (i.e., people who identified as "gamers" were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression. A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2. Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self- affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3. These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition.

  4. Social Identity Threat Motivates Science-Discrediting Online Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as “gamers”) were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition. PMID:25646725

  5. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  6. The effects of social identity threat and social identity affirmation on laypersons' perception of scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Kozuchowski, Henrik; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    Public debates about socio-scientific issues (e.g. climate change or violent video games) are often accompanied by attacks on the reputation of the involved scientists. Drawing on the social identity approach, we report a minimal group experiment investigating the conditions under which scientists are perceived as non-prototypical, non-reputable, and incompetent. Results show that in-group affirming and threatening scientific findings (compared to a control condition) both alter laypersons' evaluations of the study: in-group affirming findings lead to more positive and in-group threatening findings to more negative evaluations. However, only in-group threatening findings alter laypersons' perceptions of the scientists who published the study: scientists were perceived as less prototypical, less reputable, and less competent when their research results imply a threat to participants' social identity compared to a non-threat condition. Our findings add to the literature on science reception research and have implications for understanding the public engagement with science.

  7. Personality disorders in persons with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duišin, Dragana; Batinić, Borjanka; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Vujović, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome.

  8. Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Duišin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II. Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS outcome.

  9. Reactance to (or Acceptance of) Stereotypes : Implicit and Explicit Responses to Group Identity Threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin; Spears, Russell; Telgal, Maika

    2015-01-01

    We propose that reactance to threats to individual freedom can be broadened to include threats to group identity and its associated values and norms. In two studies we primed women and men with (counter) stereotypical roles and measured implicit activation of reactance versus acceptance goals, task

  10. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eMcGregor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered. Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that aggressive religious radicalization is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  11. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  12. The dynamics of personality and identity in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The current dissertation focused on adolescent identity formation and personality development. We focused on how these aspects of individuality develop through adolescence, and how individual differences in (the development of) personality and identity relate to problem behavior. For that purpose,

  13. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  14. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes.

  15. It’s About Valence: Historical Continuity or Historical Discontinuity as a Threat to Social Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roth

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available National identity is underpinned by historical representations. Recent research shows that narratives presenting an in-group’s history as discontinuous rather than continuous raise collective angst, suggesting that historical discontinuity threatens social identity. This previous research has focused on positive aspects of an in-group’s past. The present research aims to extend the findings to go beyond positive histories. We suggest that when the in-group’s actions in the past are presented as negative, historical continuity instead of discontinuity will increase perceived identity threat because a negative, continuous history threatens group members’ need for a positive social identity in the present. In an experiment with a sample size of N = 316, we manipulated the narrated valence of in-group actions during the historical event of the approval of the German constitutional law by framing the group’s actions in either positive or negative terms. In addition, we presented the in-group’s history as connected or disconnected to the in-group’s present. Results demonstrate that historical continuity only decreased identity threat compared to historical discontinuity when the in-group’s past behavior was presented as positive. When the in-group’s past was presented as negative, continuity even increased identity threat compared to historical discontinuity. These results were particularly pronounced for people who strongly identified with their national in-group. We discuss implications of the findings for political communication and managing a nation’s perception of social identity threat.

  16. Identity processes, threat, and interpersonal relations: accounts from British Muslim gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Cinnirella, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This study explores identity processes, identity threat, and interpersonal relations with other gay men in a qualitative interview study with a sample of young British Muslim gay men of Pakistani background. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. Data were analyzed through the interpretive lens of Identity Process Theory. Three superordinate themes are reported: (a) self-continuity and the transition from straight to gay space; (b) interpersonal relations with other gay men and self- and other categorization; and (c) interpersonal contact or identification with White gay men as an identity enhancer. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  17. Advance directives and personal identity: what is the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Elisabeth

    2012-02-01

    The personal identity problem expresses the worry that due to disrupted psychological continuity, one person's advance directive could be used to determine the care of a different person. Even ethicists, who strongly question the possibility of the scenario depicted by the proponents of the personal identity problem, often consider it to be a very potent objection to the use of advance directives. Aiming to question this assumption, I, in this paper, discuss the personal identity problem's relevance to the moral force of advance directives. By putting the personal identity argument in relation to two different normative frameworks, I aim to show that whether or not the personal identity problem is relevant to the moral force of advance directives, and further, in what way it is relevant, depends entirely on what normative reasons we have for respecting advance directives in the first place.

  18. Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self-presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard; Björklund, Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (N = 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = -0.41 [-0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (d = 0.44 [-0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (d = 0.49 [-0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (d = 0.04 [-0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (d = 0.23 [-0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Stereotype Threat Vulnerability: A Psychometric Investigation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann V.; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale developed by Picho and Brown, which captures an individual's vulnerability to Stereotype Threat effects. Confirmatory factor analyses and group invariance tests conducted on a diverse sample of 516 college students revealed adequate reliability and…

  20. Stereotype Threat in U.S. Students Abroad: Negotiating American Identity in the Age of Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    An underinvestigated and significant source of stress for U.S. student sojourners across racial/ethnic groups is exposure to stereotypes that target their American identity. This study built on the extensive research literature on stereotype threat to investigate U.S. students' vulnerability and reactions to being the target of stereotypes.…

  1. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparov Igor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  2. Identity and Conflict: Personality, Sociality and Culturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Pinxten

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available We presented a model which describes the field of questions on identity as a field of dynamics. It is structured by means of particular, temporal configurations of identity through time and space. The theory of dynamic systems provides us with precise models for the representation of forms of identity, or of their evolution towards types of so-called chaos, given certain conditions. The model allows us to work in a comparative perspective, which is a sure advantage in conflict analysis. The complexity of identity phenomena is captured covering individual, group and community dynamics of identity.

  3. Project risk as identity threat: explaining the development and consequences of risk discourse in an infrastructure project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, A.; van Berkel, F.J.F.W.; de Gilder, T.C.; van Dyck, C.; Groenewegen, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role of social identity threat in risk discourse in an infrastructure project, and the consequences risk discourse has for cooperation between stakeholders. We show that risks posed a threat to the identity of the project team, resulting in a discourse focused on attributing

  4. Reimagining the self at late-career transitions: how identity threat influences academic physicians' retirement considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyura, Betty; Bohnen, John; Wasylenki, Don; Jarvis, Anna; Giblon, Barney; Hyland, Robert; Silver, Ivan; Leslie, Karen

    2015-06-01

    There is scant empirical work exploring academic physicians' psychosocial adjustment during late-career transitions or on the factors that influence their retirement decisions. The authors examine these issues through the lens of sociopsychological identity theory, specifically examining how identity threat influences academic physicians' decisions about retirement. Participants were academic physicians at a Canadian medical school and were recruited via e-mail requests for clinical faculty interested in discussing late-career and retirement planning issues. Participants included 15 males and 6 females (N = 21; mean age = 63, standard deviation = 7.54), representing eight specialties (clinical and surgical). Data were collected in October and November 2012 via facilitated focus groups, which were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and anonymized, then analyzed using thematic analysis. Four primary themes were identified: centrality of occupational identity, experiences of identity threat, experiences of aging in an indifferent system, and coping with late-career transitions. Identity threats were manifested in apprehensions about self-esteem after retirement, practice continuity, and clinical competence, as well as in a loss of meaning and belonging. These identity challenges influenced decisions on whether to retire. Organizational and system support was perceived as wanting. Coping strategies included reimagining and revaluing various aspects of the self through assimilating new activities and reprioritizing others. Identity-related struggles are a significant feature of academic physicians' considerations about late-career transitions. Understanding these challenges, their antecedents, and their consequences can prepare faculty, and their institutions, to better manage late-career transitions. Individual- and institution-level implications are discussed.

  5. Multiple social identities and stereotype threat: imbalance, accessibility, and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; McConnell, Allen R; Beilock, Sian L

    2009-05-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors showed that concurrently making positive and negative self-relevant stereotypes available about performance in the same ability domain can eliminate stereotype threat effects. Replicating past work, the authors demonstrated that introducing negative stereotypes about women's math performance activated participants' female social identity and hurt their math performance (i.e., stereotype threat) by reducing working memory. Moving beyond past work, it was also demonstrated that concomitantly presenting a positive self-relevant stereotype (e.g., college students are good at math) increased the relative accessibility of females' college student identity and inhibited their gender identity, eliminating attendant working memory deficits and contingent math performance decrements. Furthermore, subtle manipulations in questions presented in the demographic section of a math test eliminated stereotype threat effects that result from women reporting their gender before completing the test. This work identifies the motivated processes through which people's social identities became active in situations in which self-relevant stereotypes about a stigmatized group membership and a nonstigmatized group membership were available. In addition, it demonstrates the downstream consequences of this pattern of activation on working memory and performance. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Theory of Prejudice and American Identity Threat Transfer for Latino and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Remedios, Jessica D

    2018-03-01

    Latinos and Asian Americans confront similar stereotypes as they are often presumed to be foreigners and subjected to American identity denial. Across six studies (total N = 992), we demonstrate that Latinos and Asians anticipate ingroup prejudice and specific types of subordination (e.g., American identity threat) in the face of outgroup threats that target one another (i.e., stigma transfer). The studies explore whether stigma transfer occurred primarily when shared Latino and Asian stereotype content was a salient component of the prejudice remark (e.g., foreigner stereotypes; Study 3), or when outgroup prejudice targeted a social group with shared stereotype content (Study 4), though neither appeared to substantively moderate stigma transfer. Minority group members who conceptualize prejudiced people as holding multiple biases (i.e., a monolithic prejudice theory) were more susceptible to stigma transfer suggesting that stereotype content is not necessary for stigma transfer because people assume that prejudice is not singular.

  7. Functions of personal and vicarious life stories: Identity and empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Majse; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates functions of personal and vicarious life stories focusing on identity and empathy. Two-hundred-and-forty Danish high school students completed two life story questionnaires: One for their personal life story and one for a close other’s life story. In both...... questionnaires, they identified up to 10 chapters and self-rated the chapters on valence and valence of causal connections. In addition, they completed measures of identity disturbance and empathy. More positive personal life stories were related to lower identity disturbance and higher empathy. Vicarious life...... stories showed a similar pattern with respect to identity but surprisingly were unrelated to empathy. In addition, we found positive correlations between personal and vicarious life stories for number of chapters, chapter valence, and valence of causal connections. The study indicates that both personal...

  8. Life Stories, Cultural Métissage, and Personal Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article encompasses an underlying notion of personal identities and processes of interaction, which distinguish essentialist identity from relational identity in contexts involving subjects, fields of possibilities, and cultural metamorphosis. It addresses the idea of the individual and her/his transformations: “I am who I want to be if I can be that person.” Any one of us could hypothetically have been someone else. The question of the reconstruction of individual identities is a vital aspect in the relationship between objective social conditions and what each person subjectively does with them, in terms of auto-construction. The complexity of this question reflects the idea of a cultural kaleidoscope, in which similar social conditions experienced by different individuals can produce differentiated identities. The title and structure of this text also seek to encompass the idea that in a personal life story, the subject lives between various spheres and sociocultural contexts, with a composite, mestizo, and superimposed or displaced identity, in each context. This occurs as the result of a cultural metamorphosis, which is constructed both by the individual as well as by heterogeneous influences between the context of the starting and finishing points at a given moment. This complex process of cultural metamorphosis—the fruit of interweaving subjective and objective forces—reveals a new dimension: the truly composite nature of personal identities.

  9. The air's got to be far cleaner here: a discursive analysis of place-identity threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Madill, Anna

    2009-12-01

    That talk is never disinterested complicates the relationship between the environment and the claims people make about it. Talk about place, and one's self in it, is particularly complex when the environment poses risk or is otherwise problematized. This study, a secondary analysis of interview data, seeks to extend discursive work on place-identity by examining the ways in which 14 residents of a small English village talk about themselves and their locale. The locale accommodates an active quarry, and many residents had lodged complaints to the quarry about dust, noise and vibrations from blasting. Attention to the interactional context of the interviews illustrates the ways in which (simply) interviewing people about their locale can threaten self- and place-identity. When asked about life in the village, interviewees oriented to two main dilemmas in protecting self- and place-identity: (1) how to justify continued residence in a challenging environment and (2) how to complain about the locale whilst maintaining positive place-identity. Discursive responses to these dilemmas drew upon typical identity processes, such as self- and place distinctiveness and the formulation of out-groups, as well as upon constructions of localized power-sharing and morally obligated tolerance of risk. We suggest that research on problematical places, and of environmental risk, needs to be sensitized to how it may constitute a threat to self- and place-identity, and how this may mediate formulations self and place, as well as of environmental risk.

  10. Disarming the Threat to Feminist Identification: An Application of Personal Construct Theory to Measurement and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Martin, Annelise; Brewster, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals endorse feminist values but do not identify as feminist. The present set of studies tests the concept of threat, grounded in G. A. Kelly's personal construct theory of personality, as a potential factor in feminist nonidentification. Study 1 introduces the theoretically grounded "Feminist Threat Index" and evaluates its…

  11. Biography, Identity, Improvisation, Sound: Intersections of Personal and Social Identity through Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians' lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of "sound" appeared to serve as a strong metaphor for identity. In addition,…

  12. Communicating Gender-Equality Progress, Reduces Social Identity Threats for Women Considering a Research Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Tellhed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of top-level researchers are men, how does this vertical gender-segregation affect students’ perceptions of a research career? In the current study, an experimental manipulation either reminded students of academia’s current dominance of men or of its improving gender-balance. The results showed that women primed with the dominance of men anticipated much higher social identity threats (e.g., fear of discrimination in a future research career as compared to a control group. In contrast, women primed with the improving gender-balance anticipated much lower threat. Further, the dominance of men prime increased men’s interest in the PhD program, as compared to controls. Women’s interest was unaffected by the prime, but their lower interest as compared to men’s across conditions was mediated by their lower research self-efficacy (i.e., competence beliefs. The results imply that communicating gender-equality progress may allow women to consider a career in research without the barrier of social identity threat.

  13. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Der Gang, Ineke

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is

  14. Protecting Personal Information in the Era of Identity Theft: Just how Safe is Our Personal Information from Identity Thieves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Identity theft has become one of the fastest growing white collar crimes in the world. It occurs when an individual's personal information such as inter alia his or her name, date of birth or credit card details is used by another individual to commit identity fraud. Identity theft can be committed via physical means or online. The increased use of the Internet for business and financial transactions, social networking and the storage of personal information has facilitated the work of identity thieves. Identity theft has an impact on the personal finances and emotional well-being of victims, and on the financial institutions and economies of countries. It presents challenges for law enforcement agencies and governments worldwide. This article examines how identity thieves use the personal information of individuals to commit identity fraud and theft, and looks at legislative solutions introduced in South Africa, the United States of America, the United Kingdom and India to combat identity theft crimes. The article examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract such crimes. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such crimes in the future. The study reveals that identity theft is a growing and evolving problem that requires a multi-faceted and multi-disciplinary approach by law enforcement agencies, businesses, individuals and collaboration between countries. It is advocated that businesses and institutions should take measures to protect personal information better and that individuals should be educated about their rights, and be vigilant and protect their personal information offline and in cyberspace.

  15. Identity Development in Personal Branding Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ann K.; Anumudu, Chinedu

    2016-01-01

    Increased technology, integration of the global economy, and the shift from investing in long-term employees to hiring temporary contract workers have spawned pervasive employment insecurity. This trend has led to a growing industry of career and marketing professionals, who have found a career niche in helping job seekers create personal brands…

  16. Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: how self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, David K; Hartson, Kimberly A; Binning, Kevin R; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Garcia, Julio; Taborsky-Barba, Suzanne; Tomassetti, Sarah; Nussbaum, A David; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2013-04-01

    To the extent that stereotype and identity threat undermine academic performance, social psychological interventions that lessen threat could buffer threatened students and improve performance. Two studies, each featuring a longitudinal field experiment in a mixed-ethnicity middle school, examined whether a values affirmation writing exercise could attenuate the achievement gap between Latino American and European American students. In Study 1, students completed multiple self-affirmation (or control) activities as part of their regular class assignments. Latino American students, the identity threatened group, earned higher grades in the affirmation than control condition, whereas White students were unaffected. The effects persisted 3 years and, for many students, continued into high school by lifting their performance trajectory. Study 2 featured daily diaries to examine how the affirmation affected psychology under identity threat, with the expectation that it would shape students' narratives of their ongoing academic experience. By conferring a big-picture focus, affirmation was expected to broaden construals, prevent daily adversity from being experienced as identity threat, and insulate academic motivation from identity threat. Indeed, affirmed Latino American students not only earned higher grades than nonaffirmed Latino American students but also construed events at a more abstract than concrete level and were less likely to have their daily feelings of academic fit and motivation undermined by identity threat. Discussion centers on how social-psychological processes propagate themselves over time and how timely interventions targeting these processes can promote well-being and achievement.

  17. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwry, Jonathan; Yaden, David B; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-01-01

    As noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technology advances, these methods may become increasingly capable of influencing complex networks of mental functioning. We suggest that these might include cognitive and affective processes underlying personality and belief systems, which would raise important questions concerning personal identity and autonomy. We give particular attention to the relationship between personal identity and belief, emphasizing the importance of respecting users' personal values. We posit that research participants and patients should be encouraged to take an active approach to considering the personal implications of altering their own cognition, particularly in cases of neurocognitive "enhancement." We suggest that efforts to encourage careful consideration through the informed consent process would contribute usefully to studies and treatments that use NIBS.

  18. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Iwry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS technology advances, these methods may become increasingly capable of influencing complex networks of mental functioning. We suggest that these might include cognitive and affective processes underlying personality and belief systems, which would raise important questions concerning personal identity and autonomy. We give particular attention to the relationship between personal identity and belief, emphasizing the importance of respecting users' personal values. We posit that research participants and patients should be encouraged to take an active approach to considering the personal implications of altering their own cognition, particularly in cases of neurocognitive “enhancement.” We suggest that efforts to encourage careful consideration through the informed consent process would contribute usefully to studies and treatments that use NIBS.

  19. The impact of corporate visual identity on brand personality

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Zeenat

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. It is argued that there is a need to extend our understanding and knowledge of the magnitude to which the elements of corporate visual identity (CVI) are perceived as the communicators of brand personality and hence corporate image, by the consumers. This thesis extends the knowledge about corporate visual identity (CVI) factors, particularly, name, logo, and colours, by developing a comprehe...

  20. Head Transplants and Personal Identity: A Philosophical and Literary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    The criterion of personal identity is clearly called into question by the project to perform a human head transplant. Is identity provided by psychological continuity alone, or does it depend on bodily continuity as well? And how do these different perspectives interface with our notion of mind and mind-body relationship? The reader will be provided with a discussion concerning these problems, together with a philosophical and literary survey about the conception of body-mind relationship from the Greek thought to contemporary philosophy. The analysis will conclude with a discussion concerning the possibility to consider the issue of personal identity from a statistic point of view, which privileges the general perception of identity, so as it has been shaped by the cultural trends of the last four centuries. It could hence be argued that personal identity is not something which can be defined once and for all. On the contrary, the general perception of identity is subject to significant alterations resulting from one's cultural environment. However, the cultural environment itself can be changed by particularly notable events, such as, hypothetically, the successful outcome of a human head transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. THE EFFECT OF MEDIA LITERACY ON THE SOCIAL IDENTITY OF VOLLEYBALL SPECTATORS THROUGH PERSONAL IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Nematzadeh

    2017-01-01

    This research aim was investigating the effect of media literacy on volleyball spectator's social identity through personal identity. The present study, psychologically, is divided in to 8 layers of view paradigm, the main type of applied research: deductive research approaches, quantity research strategies theories, field research tone, cross sectional survey methods, research objectives, description and finally data collection methods, library resource reviews, and questionnaires. The stati...

  2. Research Trends and Issues in the Study of Identity of Multi-ethnic Persons

    OpenAIRE

    TABA, Ayumi; TAKAI, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    In this article, concepts of identity are considered and surveyed researches of ego identity and group identity in social identity theory, self-categorization theory. It indicates ethnic identity is related to selfconcept, well-being, academic achievement, mental health, and so on. Furthermore, identity management theory reveals that cross- cultural communication occurs depending on management of cultural identity as group identity and relational identity as personal identity. However, there ...

  3. Threat and Guilt Aspects of Internalized Antilesbian and Gay Prejudice: An Application of Personal Construct Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.

    2009-01-01

    Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…

  4. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ian eMcGregor; Joseph eHayes; Mike ePrentice; Mike ePrentice

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxi...

  5. The Use of Personal Identity Numbers in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltén-Cavallius, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The paper of Katarina Hyltén-Cavallius focuses on personal identity numbers in Sweden and Denmark. This paper looks into formal and informal structures, which organise society in a host member state and which can make it difficult for a non-national Union citizen to, in practice, access public an...

  6. Pedagogic Approach to the Mechanisms of Personality Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakurova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the problem of defining and attributing pedagogic essence to the mechanisms of personality identity development. It is based on the general mechanism of social interaction. Its structure contains, on the one hand, pedagogic interaction, including the forms of pedagogic assistance and pedagogic support; on the other hand, it…

  7. Passion for a cause, passion for a creed: on ideological passion, identity threat, and extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rip, Blanka; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-06-01

    Passion energizes and directs both peaceful and violent ideologically inspired movements. The type of ideological passion that underlies people's political or religious commitment was proposed to moderate the effect of social identity-threatening circumstances on their choice of activist tactics. Ideological passion was defined as a strong inclination toward a loved, valued, and self-defining cause, ideology, or group in which people invest considerable time and energy. Harmonious ideological passion was expected to promote peaceful activism and nonviolence partly because it is anchored in a strong and secure sense of identity-one that facilitates nondefensiveness in identity-threatening circumstances. Obsessive ideological passion, in contrast, was expected to engender hatred and aggressive extremism in identity-threatening circumstances partly because it is anchored in a strong, but insecure, sense of identity. Results from 2 studies, conducted with nationalist activists (N = 114) and devout Muslims (N = 111), supported these hypotheses. Implications for the motivation/passion and intergroup literatures are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Game as the Way of Personal Identity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Belyayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper suggests the game interpretation as the universal and phenomenal way of developing personal identity by a relaxed participation in game activity. Unlike the extended definitions of game as a culturalogical and pedagogical phenomenon, the authors suggest the game analysis in philosophical perspective revealing its existential status. Being the active form of personal existence, the game facilitates self-awareness by means of self-understanding and self-determination in the course of game activity developing the attitude of «I am another one», and giving a chance to experiment with personal identity, taking and playing various social and cultural roles. The existential significance of games activating self-understanding and meaning of self-existence is growing nowadays, given pluralism and reassessment of values. 

  9. The effects of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and social identity threat on racial minorities' attitudes about police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Lee, J Katherine; Renauer, Brian; Henning, Kris R; Stewart, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes. A serial multiple mediation model confirmed that racial minorities' self-rated phenotypic racial stereotypicality indirectly affected future cooperation through social identity threat and trust. Due to the lack of negative group stereotypes in policing, the model did not hold for Whites. This study provides evidence that phenotypic stereotypicality influences racial minorities' psychological experiences interacting with police.

  10. Biography, identity, improvisation, sound: intersections of personal and social identity through improvisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians’ lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of sound appeared to serve as a

  11. Investigation of Personality Disordes and Personality Traits in Men with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Noorian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigation of personality disorders and personality traits in men who have gender identity disorder (GID. Identification of personality disorders can be useful for enhancement of the quality of help to the patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross-sectional study was a comparative and case – control research. 40 men with gender identity disorder were selected by convenient sampling from individuals who have been referred to Tehran Navab Safavi welfare center. Also, 40 available individuals who have no any diagnostic criteria about gender identity disorder in DSM-IV-TR and worked in Islamic Azad University (Tehran Sciences and Researches Unit were selected as control group and matched with patients. Personality disorders and those frequencies were evaluated with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Data were analyzed using by Chi-square and Independent T tests. Results: The results showed that gender identity disorder patients get higher scores as compared to control group in scales “Dependent” (P=0/038, “Histrionic” (P<0/001, “Antisocial” (P=0/017, “Passive – aggressive” (P=0/007, “Borderline” (P<0/001 and “Paranoid” (P=0/021 and their difference was significant. Conclusion: Generally, the results of this study showed persons who have gender identity disorder also have some symptoms of personality disorders more than normal people.

  12. Struggling to adapt: caring for older persons while under threat of organizational change and termination notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fläckman, Birgitta; Hansebo, Görel; Kihlgren, Annica

    2009-03-01

    Organizational changes are common in elder care today. Such changes affect caregivers, who are essential to providing good quality care. The aim of the present study was to illuminate caregivers' experiences of working in elder care while under threat of organizational change and termination notice. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine interview data from 11 caregivers. Interviews were conducted at three occasions during a two-year period. The findings show a transition in their experiences from 'having a professional identity and self-confidence', to 'being a professional in a threatening situation caused by someone else' and to 'struggling to adapt to a changed working environment as a person and a professional'. The caregivers experienced a loss of pride and satisfaction. Previous literature indicates that this may have consequences for the quality of care and that employees may be at risk of negative health effects. However, the caregivers continued to struggle, doing their best to complete their duties. The study has implications for high-level decision-makers, managers and caregivers in similar work-life situations in that it deals with factors that facilitate or impede similar transitions.

  13. Self and partner personality and responses to relationship threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies examined the relations between three different types of jealousy and personality characteristics of self and partner in two large heterogeneous community samples of heterosexual couples (459 and 230 couples, respectively). It was expected that partners would resemble each other to some

  14. Identity processes and personality traits and types in adolescence : Directionality of effects and developmental trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Teppers, E.; Klimstra, T.A.; Rassart, J.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are

  15. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  16. 76 FR 12712 - Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 201-2, Personal Identity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ...-02] Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 201-2, Personal Identity..., ``Personal Identity Verification of Federal Employees and Contractors Standard.'' Draft FIPS 201-2 amends... Issuing Personal Identity Verification Cards under HSPD-12.'' The purpose of this change is to update the...

  17. Striving for Group Agency: Threat to Personal Control Increases the Attractiveness of Agentic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine eStollberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93 that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects. Turning to groups people are not (yet part of, Study 2 (N = 47 showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78 replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  18. Facilitating women's success in business: Interrupting the process of stereotype threat through affirmation of personal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinias, Zoe; Sim, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    Two field experiments examined if and how values affirmations can ameliorate stereotype threat-induced gender performance gaps in an international competitive business environment. Based on self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988), we predicted that writing about personal values unrelated to the perceived threat would attenuate the gender performance gap. Study 1 found that an online assignment to write about one's personal values (but not a similar writing assignment including organizational values) closed the gender gap in course grades by 89.0% among 423 Masters of Business Administration students (MBAs) at an international business school. Study 2 replicated this effect among 396 MBAs in a different cohort with random assignment and tested 3 related mediators (self-efficacy, self-doubt, and self-criticism). Personal values reflection (but not reflecting on values including those of the organization or writing about others' values) reduced the gender gap by 66.5%, and there was a significant indirect effect through reduced self-doubt. These findings show that a brief personal values writing exercise can dramatically improve women's performance in competitive environments where they are negatively stereotyped. The results also demonstrate that stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) can occur within a largely non-American population with work experience and that affirming one's core personal values (without organizational values) can ameliorate the threat. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Personal privacy, information assurance, and the threat posed by malware techology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2006-04-01

    In spite of our best efforts to secure the cyber world, the threats posed to personal privacy by attacks upon networks and software continue unabated. While there are many reasons for this state of affairs, clearly one of the reasons for continued vulnerabilities in software is the inability to assess their security properties and test their security systems while they are in development. A second reason for this growing threat to personal privacy is the growing sophistication and maliciousness of malware coupled with the increasing difficulty of detecting malware. The pervasive threat posed by malware coupled with the difficulties faced when trying to detect its presence or an attempted intrusion make addressing the malware threat one of the most pressing issues that must be solved in order to insure personal privacy to users of the internet. In this paper, we will discuss the threat posed by malware, the types of malware found in the wild (outside of computer laboratories), and current techniques that are available for from a successful malware penetration. The paper includes a discussion of anti-malware tools and suggestions for future anti-malware efforts.

  20. Personality traits, interpersonal identity, and relationship stability : Longitudinal linkages in late adolescence and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Branje, S.T.J.; Teppers, E.; Goossens, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are characterized by important changes in personality, changes toward a more stable identity, and the establishment of intimate relationships. We examined the role of personality traits in establishing intimate relationships, the interplay between personality traits

  1. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  2. Losing Its Expected Communal Value: How Stereotype Threat Undermines Women's Identity as Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Deemer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women's worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use…

  3. 'I am not a depressed person': how identity conflict affects help-seeking rates for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Caroline; Farrand, Paul; O'Mahen, Heather

    2012-10-02

    There is a significant treatment gap for patients with depression. A third of sufferers never seek help, and the vast majority of those who do only do so after considerable delay. Little is understood regarding poor help-seeking rates amongst people with depression, with existing research mainly focussed on the impact of barriers to treatment. The current study explored psychological factors affecting help-seeking behaviour in clinically depressed individuals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 current or previously clinically depressed participants who either had or had not sought professional help. Thematic analysis was used to analyse results. The onset of depressive symptoms created conflict with participants' identity and personal goals. Delays in seeking help were primarily attributed to the desire to protect identity and goals from the threat of depressive symptoms. Participants used avoidance strategies to reduce the perceived threat of depressive symptoms on identity. These strategies interfered with help-seeking. Help-seeking was only undertaken once participants reached a point of acceptance and began to make concessions in their identity and goals, at which time they reduced their use of avoidance. Difficulties resolving conflict between identity and depressive symptoms may account for significant delays in seeking help for depression. The results have implications for predicting health behaviour and improving treatment uptake for depression, and may inform existing help-seeking models.

  4. [Threats to Identity: A Grounded Theory Approach on Student Nurses' Experience of Incivility during Clinical Placement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ran

    2018-02-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of incivility among nursing students. Sixteen nursing students who had experienced incivility during their clinical placement were invited for one-on-one interviews until the point of theoretical saturation. The grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strauss was adopted to analyze transcribed interview contents. Incivility occurred in the context of a hierarchical organizational culture, due to nursing students' position as outsiders, non-systematic clinical education, and poor nursing work environment. The experience of incivility was identified as "being mistreated as a marginal person," and nursing students responded to this phenomenon in the following three steps: reality shock, passive action, and submissive acceptance. This process caused students to lose self-esteem and undergo role conflict. Furthermore, nursing students' experience of incivility could eventually lead to workplace bullying in nurses. The results of this study suggest that nursing students' experience of incivility can be a process that threatens their identity. It is necessary to develop educational programs and provide appropriate counseling services so that nursing students can actively cope with the incivility. In addition, institutional plans are needed to ensure safe and supportive clinical learning environments. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.

  5. Personal dimensions of identity and empirical research in APA journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Patrick H; Anderson, Mary Z; Baines, Tonita C; Borgman, Amy L; Briggs, Denise; Dolan, James P; Koyama, Miki

    2002-11-01

    This study reviewed 402 empirical research papers published during 1999 in 9 American Psychological Association journals from the perspective of the Personal Dimensions of Identity (PDI) model. Descriptions of participants were reviewed to determine whether researchers reported information concerning Dimensions A, B, and C of the PDI model. PDI A and B Dimensions of age, gender, education, and geographic location were reported with the highest frequency: 88.56%, 89.30%, 78.50%, and 73.88%, respectively, whereas race/ethnicity was reported with moderate frequency, 60.70%. The remaining PDI A Dimensions of language, physical disability, sexual orientation, and social class, and the remaining B Dimensions of citizenship status, employment status, income, marital status, military experience, occupation, and religion, were reported in relatively low percentages of studies.

  6. Social Identification in Sports Teams: The Role of Personal, Social, and Collective Identity Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William E; Brown, Rupert; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Vignoles, Vivian L; Manzi, Claudia; D'Angelo, Chiara; Holt, Jeremy J

    2017-04-01

    Based on motivated identity construction theory (MICT; Vignoles, 2011), we offer an integrative approach examining the combined roles of six identity motives (self-esteem, distinctiveness, belonging, meaning, continuity, and efficacy) instantiated at three different motivational levels (personal, social, and collective identity) as predictors of group identification. These identity processes were investigated among 369 members of 45 sports teams from England and Italy in a longitudinal study over 6 months with four time points. Multilevel change modeling and cross-lagged analyses showed that satisfaction of four personal identity motives (individuals' personal feelings of self-esteem, distinctiveness, meaning, and efficacy derived from team membership), three social identity motives (individuals' feelings that the team identity carries a sense of belonging, meaning, and continuity), and one collective identity motive (a shared belief in group distinctiveness) significantly predicted group identification. Motivational processes underlying group identification are complex, multilayered, and not reducible to personal needs.

  7. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation.

  8. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M. P.; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation. PMID:29494705

  9. Perspectivism and Intersubjective Criteria for Personal Identity: A Defense of Bernard Williams’ Criterion of Bodily Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Torriani, Tristan Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    In this article I revisit earlier stages of the discussion of personal identity, before Neo-Lockean psychological continuity views became prevalent. In particular, I am interested in Bernard Williams’ initial proposal of bodily identity as a necessary, although not sufficient, criterion of personal identity. It was at this point that psychological continuity views came to the fore arguing that bodily identity was not necessary because brain transplants were logically possible, even if physica...

  10. When Is Group Membership Zero-Sum? Effects of Ethnicity, Threat, and Social Identity on Dual National Identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smithson

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi. Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China. Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.

  11. 'I'm Black and I'm Proud': A Majority Ecological Context Protects Affective Aspects of Black Identity Under Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Andre'; Andemeskel, Ghilamichael; King, Carlise R; Wallace, Lyndsey; McDougal, Serie; Monteiro, Kenneth P; Ben-Zeev, Avi

    2017-12-01

    We provide evidence that stereotype threat, a phenomenon that causes stigmatized individuals to experience group-based evaluative concerns (Steele in Am Psychol 52:613-629, 1997; Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us, W.W. Norton, New York, 2010), impacts affective aspects of Black identity as a function of majority versus minority ecological contexts. Black/African-American students, enrolled in either Africana Studies (Black ecological majority) or Psychology (Black ecological minority), completed private and public regard subscales from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (Sellers et al. in Pers Soc Psychol Rev 2:18-39, 1998) at baseline (Time 1) and after being randomly assigned to a stereotype threat or no-threat/control condition (Time 2). In threat, participants were introduced to a 'puzzle' task as diagnostic of intellectual abilities, whereas in no-threat the same task was introduced as culture fair, such that people from different racial/ethnic groups had performed similarly on this task in the past. In Psychology, students under threat exhibited a simultaneous decrease and increase in private and public regard, respectively, a pattern shown in the literature to be associated with discrimination-based distress and lesser well-being in Black ecological minority environments. In contrast, Africana Studies students' racial identity under threat remained intact. We discuss the protective effects of Africana Studies on racial identity and implications for educational reform.

  12. [AIT (Adolescent Identity Treatment) - an Integrative Treatment Model for the Treatment of Personality Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Müller, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    AIT (Adolescent Identity Treatment) - an Integrative Treatment Model for the Treatment of Personality Disorders Personality disorders are patterns of maladaptive personality traits that have an impact on the individual throughout the life span. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a very severe, but treatable mental disorder. Identity disturbance is seen as the central construct for detecting severe personality pathology - and, most notably, borderline personality disorder - in adults and adolescents. Crises in the development of identity usually resolve into a normal and consolidated identity with flexible and adaptive functioning whereas identity diffusion is viewed as a lack of integration of the concept of the self and significant others. It is seen as the basis for subsequent personality pathology, including that of borderline personality disorder. Although BPD has its onset in adolescence and emerging adulthood the diagnosis is often delayed. In most cases, specific treatment is only offered late in the course of the disorder and to relatively few individuals. Adolescent Identity Treatment (AIT) is a treatment model that focuses on identity pathology as the core characteristic of personality disorders. This model integrates specific techniques for the treatment of adolescent personality pathology on the background of object-relation theories and modified elements of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy. Moreover, psychoeducation, a behavior-oriented homeplan and intensive family work is part of AIT.

  13. Rorschach Assessment of Two Distinctive Personality States of a Person With Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ellen; Benum, Kirsten

    2017-12-13

    This case study used test data from a patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) to illustrate how two main personality states of the patient ("Ann" and "Ben") seemed to function. The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-64; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000 ), administered to Ann and Ben in separate settings, exposed two diverse R-PAS and IIP-64 profiles. Ann's R-PAS profile suggested an intellectualized style of information processing with few indications of psychological problems. Ben's profile indicated severe perceptual, cognitive, and interpersonal difficulties combined with suspicion and anxiety. Ann's IIP-64 profile suggested minor interpersonal problems, whereas Ben's indicated serious relational difficulties. The findings were discussed in relation to the theory of trauma-related structural dissociation of the personality (van der Hart, Nijenhuis, & Steele, 2006 ), which implies an enduring split in the organization of the personality with more or less separate entities with their own sense of self, perception of the world, and ways of organizing emotional, cognitive, and social functions. The DID personality structure is seen as a defense strategy and as a pathway in the personality development producing serious psychological pain and symptoms.

  14. I and Us: A Longitudinal Study on the Interplay of Personal and Social Identity in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica

    2018-04-01

    The development of personal and social identity is crucial in adolescence. On the one hand, adolescents face the task of forming and consolidating their personal identity in multiple domains, with educational and interpersonal domains particularly salient. On the other hand, they enlarge their social horizon and increasingly define themselves as members of multiple peer groups, such as groups of classmates and friends met outside school. There is however a lack of integrative research on the interplay among and between personal and social identity processes. Hence the purpose of this study was threefold. First, we examined how personal identity processes in the educational and interpersonal domains are associated longitudinally. Second, we investigated to what extent social identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are associated over time. Third, with an original approach we examined the longitudinal interplay between personal and social identity processes, to connect theoretical contributions that have so far proceeded largely in parallel. Participants were 304 adolescents (61.84% female, M age  = 17.49) involved in a three-wave longitudinal study. We found that (a) the ways in which adolescents develop their identity in the educational and interpersonal domains become more closely intertwined over time; (b) identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are interconnected; and (c) personal and social identity processes are associated both concurrently and longitudinally, with most cross-lagged effects showing that social identifications influence personal identity formation and consolidation in the interpersonal identity domain. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  15. Self-Determination and Personal Identity in University Students: The Mediating Role of Future Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming; Kam, Chester Chun Seng

    2018-05-17

    In this study, we sought to extend the research on self-determination, future orientation, and personal identity construction by integrating the theories on self-determination and future orientation to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the relations between personal identity and the following individual characteristics: Hope, optimism, awareness of self, and perceived choice. 191 university students in China responded surveys in hardcopies on an individual basis. Our SEM results revealed that proximal future orientation influenced the mechanisms through which distal psychological traits affected identity construction. Specifically, hope mediated the effects of self-awareness on the participants' personal identity ratings (b = .45, p identity. This study suggested an extended framework through which we could understand how the interaction between future orientation and self-determination can predict personal identity. The findings have significant implications for interventions in educational settings.

  16. Identity Processes and Personality Traits and Types in Adolescence: Directionality of Effects and Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A.; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more…

  17. Which came first, personality traits or identity processes during early and middle adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatano, Kai; Sugimura, Kazumi; Klimstra, T.A.

    No previous studies examined longitudinal associations between personality facets and identity dimensions in early and middle adolescence. To uncover these relationships; we test the direction of effects of domain-and facet-level personality traits with identity dimensions in early and middle

  18. Associations of identity dimensions with Big Five personality domains and facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Goossens, L.; Teppers, E.; De Fruyt, F.

    2013-01-01

    Personality is among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity formation. However, previous studies mainly focused on broad personality domains and neglected more specific facets. In addition, it has only recently been recognized that identity formation is guided

  19. Social identity threat and performance motivation : the interplay between ingroup and outgroup domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Belle

    2007-01-01

    Being a member of a socially devalued group (e.g., women, ethnic minorities) threatens social identity, leading people to lower their investment in performance domains that determine societal status (e.g., education, career success). The experiments discussed in this dissertation show that offering

  20. The Stuff of Stereotypes: Toward Unpacking Identity Threats amid African American Students' Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnell, Gregory V.; Boston, Denise; Bragelman, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed light on scenarios in which threatening stereotypes unfold, specifically in an institutional context in which African Americans are overrepresented. Drawing on data and findings from a recent study examining mathematics learning and identity in non-credit-bearing remedial math courses, we present three…

  1. Growing trend of identity theft poses safety and billing loss threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Identity theft is more than just a legal issue. Patients with improper identification are at risk for receiving potentially harmful treatment. Have registration department require photo identification from all patients. Ask additional questions, such as the patient's date of birth. Ask staff members to be the "eyes and ears" of registration and security, and ask them to report anything suspicious.

  2. A Threat Enfleshed: Muslim College Students Situate Their Identities amidst Portrayals of Muslim Violence and Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad Imtiaz

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the raced representations of the "Muslim Other" and how these representations engaged the lived realities and found footing in how Muslim youth understood their identities. Utilizing qualitative life history interviews with 24 Muslim undergraduates, I examine student talk addressing the construction of the Muslim in…

  3. Daily dynamics of personal identity and self-concept clarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, S.J.; Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Hale, W.W.; Frijns, T.; Oosterwegel, A.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the daily dynamics among self-concept clarity and identity processes, and their effects on distress, among a sample of 580 Dutch adolescents. Participants completed measures of identity, self-concept clarity, anxiety and depression at annual intervals; and daily single-item measures of

  4. Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.

  5. How is Civic Engagement Related to Personal Identity and Social Identity in Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults? A Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Chevrier, Basilie; Perchec, Cyrille; Carrizales, Alexia

    2018-04-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in life when individuals both question and define their place in society and form their identity. Meanwhile, active youth civic engagement represents a challenge for each democracy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the different forms of civic engagement among late adolescents and emerging adults and how they are related to personal identity and social identity, while adopting an integrative perspective through the lens of a person-oriented approach. The participants were 1217 (62.3% female) 16-24 year-old French students (M age  = 19.17; SD age  = 1.83). First, derived from cluster analyses, the findings emphasized diversity in civic engagement, from strong civic participation (in different formal and informal ways) to various forms of passivity. Diversity was also highlighted for personal identity and social identity profiles. Second, a Configural Frequency Analysis revealed a typical pattern associating passivity in civic engagement, personal carefree diffusion and rejection of social identity. Overall, these findings highlight an absence of general youth disaffection and provide a meaningful specific pattern for the understanding of passivity in political and civic matters in late adolescence and emerging adulthood.

  6. Human identity versus gender identity: The perception of sexual addiction among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtagh, Mozhgan; Mirlashari, Jila; Rafiey, Hassan; Azin, Ali; Farnam, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore the images of personal identity from the perspective of women with sexual addiction. The data required for the study were collected through 31 in-depth interviews. Sensing a threat to personal identity, dissatisfaction with gender identity, dissociation with the continuum of identity, and identity reconstruction in response to threat were four of the experiences that were common among women with sexual addiction. Painful emotional experiences appear to have created a sense of gender and sexual conflict or weakness in these women and thus threatened their personal identity and led to their sexual addiction.

  7. Personality traits and individual differences predict threat-induced changes in postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaback, Martin; Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L

    2015-04-01

    This study explored whether specific personality traits and individual differences could predict changes in postural control when presented with a height-induced postural threat. Eighty-two healthy young adults completed questionnaires to assess trait anxiety, trait movement reinvestment (conscious motor processing, movement self-consciousness), physical risk-taking, and previous experience with height-related activities. Tests of static (quiet standing) and anticipatory (rise to toes) postural control were completed under low and high postural threat conditions. Personality traits and individual differences significantly predicted height-induced changes in static, but not anticipatory postural control. Individuals less prone to taking physical risks were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes. Individuals more prone to conscious motor processing were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at larger amplitudes. Individuals more self-conscious about their movement appearance were more likely to sway at smaller amplitudes. Evidence is also provided that relationships between physical risk-taking and changes in static postural control are mediated through changes in fear of falling and physiological arousal. Results from this study may have indirect implications for balance assessment and treatment; however, further work exploring these factors in patient populations is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Consumer Identity and Brand Personality as a Factor of Brand Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relationship between consumer identity and brand personality as a factor of consumer commitment to the brand. We hypothesized that: a there is a link between consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality; b the higher the similarity between the consumer identity and preferred brand’s personality, the higher the brand commitment. The sample included 150 subjects aged 18—25. Methods: the method of J. Aaker was used to study brand personality, and its modification was used to study consumer identity. The questionnaire of J. Brovkina was used to study brand loyalty. Results: high correlations between consumer identity and brand personality were obtained on the scales Ruggedness, Sophistication, Excitement, and high correlations between brand loyalty and deltas of the values of consumer identity and brand personality on the same scales were also discovered. On the scales of Competence and Sincerity the correlations were lower, although important as well. Thus, the hypotheses were confirmed: a it is shown that there is a correlation between consumer identity and brand personality; b the higher this correlation is, the higher is the commitment to the preferred brand.

  9. Impact of Personal Growth Projects on Leadership Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Summer F.; Boyd, Barry L.; Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Within personal leadership education courses, leadership educators should include experiences which help students develop themselves as leaders. In this article, the authors discuss results from a qualitative research study involving the analysis of Personal Growth Project (PGP) assignments in a personal leadership education collegiate course. The…

  10. Goal-directedness and personal identity as correlates of life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Barry M; Masterson, Suzanne S; Locke, Edwin A; Groth, Markus; Jensen, David G

    2002-08-01

    Although much research has been conducted on goal setting, researchers have not examined goal-directedness or propensity to set goals as a stable human characteristic in adults. In this study, a survey was developed and distributed to 104 adult participants to assess their goal-directedness, personal identity, and various life outcomes. A theoretical model was developed and tested using structural equation modeling that proposed that both goal-directedness and personal identity should positivcly influence important life outcomes. Analysis showed that goal-directedness and personal identity are positively related to personal well-being, salary, and marital satisfaction. Further, personal identity was positively related to job satisfaction but, contrary to related research, goal-directedness did not predict job satisfaction.

  11. Demystifying values-affirmation interventions: writing about social belonging is a key to buffering against identity threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Cook, Jonathan E; Garcia, Julio; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments examined for the first time whether the specific content of participant-generated affirmation essays-in particular, writing about social belonging-facilitated an affirmation intervention's ability to reduce identity threat among negatively stereotyped students. Study 1, a field experiment, revealed that seventh graders assigned to a values-affirmation condition wrote about social belonging more than those assigned to a control condition. Writing about belonging, in turn, improved the grade point average (GPA) of Black, but not White students. In Study 2, using a modified "belonging-affirmation" intervention, we directly manipulated writing about social belonging before a math test described as diagnostic of math ability. The more female participants wrote about belonging, the better they performed, while there was no effect of writing about belonging for males. Writing about social belonging improved performance only for members of negatively stereotyped groups. Implications for self-affirmation theory and practice are discussed.

  12. AR.Drone: security threat analysis and exemplary attack to track persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, Fred; Fruth, Jana; Hildebrandt, Mario; Hoppe, Tobias; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-01-01

    In this article we illustrate an approach of a security threat analysis of the quadrocopter AR.Drone, a toy for augmented reality (AR) games. The technical properties of the drone can be misused for attacks, which may relate security and/or privacy aspects. Our aim is to sensitize for the possibility of misuses and the motivation for an implementation of improved security mechanisms of the quadrocopter. We focus primarily on obvious security vulnerabilities (e.g. communication over unencrypted WLAN, usage of UDP, live video streaming via unencrypted WLAN to the control device) of this quadrocopter. We could practically verify in three exemplary scenarios that this can be misused by unauthorized persons for several attacks: high-jacking of the drone, eavesdropping of the AR.Drones unprotected video streams, and the tracking of persons. Amongst other aspects, our current research focuses on the realization of the attack of tracking persons and objects with the drone. Besides the realization of attacks, we want to evaluate the potential of this particular drone for a "safe-landing" function, as well as potential security enhancements. Additionally, in future we plan to investigate an automatic tracking of persons or objects without the need of human interactions.

  13. GETTING PERSONAL: ETHICS AND IDENTITY IN GLOBAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2011-01-01

    ‘Researcher identity’ affects global health research in profound and complex ways. Anthropologists in particular have led the way in portraying the multiple, and sometimes tension-generating, identities that researchers ascribe to themselves, or have ascribed to them, in their places of research. However, the central importance of researcher identity in the ethical conduct of global health research has yet to be fully appreciated. The capacity of researchers to respond effectively to the ethical tensions surrounding their identities is hampered by lack of conceptual clarity, as to the nature and scope of the issues involved. This paper strives to provide some clarification of these ethical tensions by considering researcher identity from the perspective of (1) Guillemin and Heggen’s (2009) key distinction between procedural ethics and ethics in practice, and (2) our own distinction between perceptions of identity that are either symmetrical or asymmetrical, with the potential to shift research relationships toward greater or lesser ethical harmony. Discussion of these concepts is supported with ethnographic examples from relevant literature and from our own (United States (US) Government-funded) research in South Africa. A preliminary set of recommendations is provided in an effort to equip researchers with a greater sense of organization and control over the ethics of researcher identity. The paper concludes that the complex construction of researcher identity needs to be central among the ethical concerns of global health researchers, and that the conceptual tools discussed in the paper are a useful starting point for better organizing and acting on these ethical concerns. PMID:21426482

  14. The Survey of Personal and National Identity on Cell Phone Addicts and Non-Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Ghanizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi Kalhory, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Smart phones have rapidly become an integral, and for some, an essential communication device worldwide. The issue of identity has always been a subject of interest among psychologists. The present study was conducted to compare personal and national identity and their subscales between cell phone addicts and non-addicts. Method : In this cross-sectional study, 500 student cell phone users from various universities in Tehran were recruited using stratified sampling. Participants completed cell phone addiction questionnaires including Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), Cell Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ), Personal Identity Development Questionnaire, Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS) and National Identity Questionnaire. Then, the subscales of these instruments were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results: Results of this study revealed significant differences between cell phone addicts and non-addicts in the scores of national identity, personal identity, and most subscales, except for some subscales (Pphone addiction (r=-0.35, -0.33, respectively).On the other hand, after controlling for the confounder variables, we found that national identity had an effect on cell phone addiction(OR=0.05, CI=0.92-0.98). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cell phone overuse may be correlated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity.

  15. Trajectories of Identity Formation Modes and Their Personality Context in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolewska-Siedzik, Ewa; Cieciuch, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Identity formation is a dynamic process during adolescence. Trajectories of identity formation were assessed longitudinally in early and middle adolescents, taking into account the personality underpinnings of this process. Identity formation was conceptualized according to the circumplex of identity formation modes. The model distinguishes basic modes rooted in Marcia's categories of exploration and commitment. Plasticity and stability, the two higher order Big Five meta-traits, were used to assess personality underpinnings. This study includes five measurement waves over 1.5 years and involves 1,839 Polish participants; 914 early adolescents (53.9% girls) and 925 middle adolescents (63.8% girls). The results suggest that (1) the four identity formation modes change dynamically, showing linear and curvilinear growth and that (2) identity formation mode trajectories are more dynamic in middle adolescence than in early adolescence. The results also showed that, in the conditional model, (3) the higher-order personality factors and gender affect the growth factors of identity formation modes. Overall, trajectories of identity formation modes are more linear during early adolescence and more curvilinear during middle adolescence. The initial levels in identity trajectories are influenced by the personality metatraits but only plasticity is related to change among early adolescents.

  16. Associations between identity diffusion, Axis II disorder, and psychopathology in inpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Daniel; Gremaud-Heitz, Daniela; Riemenschneider, Anke; Küchenhoff, Joachim; Dammann, Gerhard; Walter, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from instability in their relationships, their affectivity, and their identity. However, the associations between these dimensions are not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between identity diffusion and psychopathology in BPD. In the second week of inpatient treatment, 52 patients with BPD were assessed with the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO) and questionnaires measuring general psychiatric symptoms, mood states, and negative affects (SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI, and STAXI). A median split was examined to differentiate BPD patients with high identity diffusion from those with low identity diffusion. BPD patients with high identity diffusion did not differ in their social data from BPD patients with low identity diffusion. However, BPD patients with high identity diffusion showed significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms, as well as higher anxiety, anger, and depression scores (p personality disorders (p identity diffusion with psychopathological symptoms and features of personality disorder and emphasize the clinical significance of identity diffusion for patients with BPD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Liberalism in Ergonomicon as a Threat to Lingua-Cultural Identity (the Case of Modern Kazan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Solnyshkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is written to identify lingua-cultural norms and axiological determinants of modern ergonomicon of Kazan implemented in borrowings from foreign languages, they serve markers of major changes in the linguistic landscape of the modern city viewed as a socio-linguistic category. The borrowed elements in the city ergonyms register synchronous state of axiological determinants of participants of interaction: individuals, organizations and companies that create public and commercial signs. The common significance of the language of this kind of phenomena is determined by the possibility of using them to predict the range and diversity of linguistic and axiological changes, including the partial loss of national and ethnic identity. To create a high perlocutionary effect of ergonyms nominators use a variety of creative mechanisms, changing the shape and functions of native lexems, by borrowing lexems from foreign languages, resorting to different methods of derivation such as contamination, transliteration, hybridization, pun, etc. Unfortunately, at present time these processes demonstrate fast increase. The majority of them are not followed by gradual and harmonious integration into the host (Russian and Tatar cultures, but the erosion of values or partial /complete loss of identity is noted. Most clearly this kind of phenomenon is explicated in preferred nominator names of urban sites, and advertising slogans, transmitting an alien principles and postulates to traditional Russian culture.

  18. Community structure analysis of rejection sensitive personality profiles: A common neural response to social evaluative threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortink, Elise D; Weeda, Wouter D; Crowley, Michael J; Gunther Moor, Bregtje; van der Molen, Melle J W

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i.e., the feedback-related negativity and P3) to social feedback. Sixty-five undergraduate female participants (mean age = 19.69 years) participated in the Social Judgment Paradigm, a fictitious peer-evaluation task in which participants provided expectancies about being liked/disliked by peer strangers. Thereafter, they received feedback signaling social acceptance/rejection. A community structure analysis was employed to delineate personality profiles in our data. Results provided evidence of two subgroups: one group scored high on attachment-related anxiety and fear of negative evaluation, whereas the other group scored high on attachment-related avoidance and low on fear of negative evaluation. In both groups, unexpected rejection feedback yielded a significant increase in theta power. The feedback-related negativity was sensitive to unexpected feedback, regardless of valence, and was largest for unexpected rejection feedback. The feedback-related P3 was significantly enhanced in response to expected social acceptance feedback. Together, these findings confirm the sensitivity of frontal midline theta oscillations to the processing of social threat, and suggest that this alleged neural alarm system behaves similarly in individuals that differ in personality constructs relevant to social evaluation.

  19. Group affiliation in self-management: support or threat to identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, Dagmara; Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Rogers, Anne; Foss, Christina

    2017-02-01

    Self-management is considered important in chronic illness, and contemporary health policy recommends participation in support groups for individuals with chronic conditions. Although withdrawal from or non-participation in support groups is an important problem, there is limited knowledge about individuals' own motivation for participation in or withdrawal from self-management support groups. To investigate how individuals with type 2 diabetes perceive participation in group-based self-management support. This is a qualitative focus group study using a semi-structured interview guide. Sixteen participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. Individuals with and without group affiliations were mixed in three focus groups to trigger discussions. In the analysis, reoccurring themes of engagement and discussions between participants were focused within a theoretical frame of institutional logic. The focus groups are seen as social spaces where participants construct identity. Both participation and non-participation in group-based self-management support are associated with dealing with the stigma of having type 2 diabetes. Negotiations contribute to constructing an illness dignity as a response to the logic of moral responsibility for the disease. Contemporary policy contributes to societal understandings of individuals with type 2 diabetes as morally inadequate. Our study shows that group-based self-management support may counteract blame and contribute in negotiations of identity for individuals with type 2 diabetes. This mechanism makes participation in groups beneficial for some but stigma inducing for others. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Is Personal Identity Evaluative? | Poltera | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martha Nussbaum subscribes to the view that our identity is an evaluative question determined by our common, deeply held beliefs about what is worthwhile in human life. In so doing, she asserts that for an account of ethics to have “philosophical power” it needs to be grounded in an account of human nature that is both ...

  1. Personal identity in college and the work context : Developmental trajectories and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Schwartz, S.J.; Duriez, B.

    2013-01-01

    Personal identity formation represents a core developmental challenge for adolescents and young adults. Because much of the identity literature focuses on college students, it is necessary to conduct a detailed inquiry into the ways in which specific commitment and exploration processes develop over

  2. Secondary Uses of Personal Identity Information: Policies, Technologies and Regulatory Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Although personal identity information must primarily be used for protecting and promoting the physical needs of individuals, it has also become central to the business models of the digital age due to its use for other secondary purposes, resulting in various innovative identity management (Id...

  3. Personal identity processes from adolescence through the late 20s : Age trends, functionality, and depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Duriez, B.; van Petegem, S.; Beyers, W.

    2013-01-01

    Personal identity formation constitutes a crucial developmental task during the teens and 20s. Using a recently developed five-dimensional identity model, this cross-sectional study (N = 5834) investigated age trends from ages 14 to 30 for different commitment and exploration processes. As expected,

  4. Personal identity processes and self-esteem : Temporal sequences in high school and college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Duriez, B.; Van Petegem, S.; Beyers, W.; Teppers, E.; Goossens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Personal identity formation constitutes a crucial developmental task during the teens and 20s. Using a recently developed five-dimensional identity model, this cross-sectional study (N = 5834) investigated age trends from ages 14 to 30 for different commitment and exploration processes. As expected,

  5. Why do identical twins differ in personality: shared environment reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Anne Mari; Janson, Harald

    2002-02-01

    While heritability studies show that most of the variance in adult personality can be attributed to genetic or so-called nonshared environmental influence, this does not mean that shared events lack importance for the development of later personality differences. We studied the relationship between Big Five personality differences in monozygotic (MZ) twins at age 29, and life stressors at age 6 to 15, using prospective data from 26 MZ pairs studied from birth onwards. A positive significant correlation was found between stressors in childhood and early adolescence, and intrapair personality differences in Agreeableness, Openness, Conscientiousness, and five-factor profiles. We note that the effects of shared events are labeled "nonshared" environment when the effect is to make siblings more different. Case examples illustrate the relationship between stress and personality differences, and provide hypotheses for further studies in larger samples.

  6. 'Person' seeks 'Man'. A very quick immersion in, and evaluation of, the philosophical debate on personal identity since Locke

    OpenAIRE

    De Vleeschouwer, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the question of how a person can be a unity throughout his life was answered by referring to the objective realm: the cartesian soul guaranteed our personal unity. But for Locke, the soul was considered irrelevant to the real question of personal identity, which was: how can I know that I am the same person throughout my life? For Locke that question was not answerable from an objective point of view, but only by a 'person', which for Locke meant as much as 'consciousness' or t...

  7. Optimal Experience and Personal Growth: Flow and the Consolidation of Place Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Psalti, Anastasia; Ariccio, Silvia; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory (EIT) which prioritizes self-defining activities as important for an individual's identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one's own identity development or enhancement. This study focuses on place identity, the identity's features relating to a person's relation with her/his place. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one's own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities, irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one's own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-defining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for EIT's understanding and enrichment, especially by its generalization from the traditional, personal identity level up to that of place identity. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one's own place identity, and therefore people-place relations, by means of facilitating a person's flow experience within psychologically meaningful places.

  8. Being Riveted to Oneself: Shame and Personal Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Sánchez, Alba

    2011-01-01

    II Workshop on Identity, Memory and Experience. Getafe (Spain), March 1-4th, 2011 In Shame and Necessity, his brilliant book on the ethics of the Ancient Greeks, Bernard Williams performed a detailed and intriguing analysis of an emotion that, up to then, had been given little merit in connection to morality. Arguing with his former professor, E.R. Dodds, and picking up on a distinction between "shame cultures" and "guilt cultures" drawn by American anthropologist Ruth Benedict, William...

  9. Person-first and identity-first language: Developing psychologists' cultural competence using disability language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Andrews, Erin E

    2015-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) advocates the use of person-first language (e.g., people with disabilities) to refer to individuals with disabilities in daily discourse and to reduce bias in psychological writing. Disability culture advocates and disability studies scholars have challenged the rationale for and implications of exclusive person-first language use, promoting use of identity-first language (e.g., disabled people). We argue that psychologists should adopt identity-first language alongside person-first constructions to address the concerns of disability groups while promoting human dignity and maintaining scientific and professional rigor. We review the evolution of disability language and then discuss the major models used to characterize disability and people with disabilities. The rationale for person-first language and the emergence of identity-first language, respectively, are linked to particular models. We then discuss some language challenges posed by identity-first language and the current intent of person-first language, suggesting that psychologists make judicious use of the former when it is possible to do so. We conclude by offering five observations of ways that use of both person-first and identity-first language could enhance psychologists' cultural competence regarding disability issues in personal and scientific communications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Pragmatics of the Development of Personal Identity in Adolescents in the Latin American Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Javier; Rojas, Adrián; Picado, Karol

    2017-03-01

    The present work proposes a pragmatic perspective of the development of personal identity. Such perspective is based on a unifying vision that incorporates the contribution of communicative pragmatics and becomes aware of the contribution of semiotics to psychology, without leaving aside the eriksonian point of view and other significant contributions in the field. The article defines identity in adolescence from a development approach, and adopts a systemic perspective concerning the insertion of adolescents in their context of formation as individuals. It then proposes a way to understand identity from a pragmatic-communicative perspective. Finally, it introduces two communicative use contexts from which personal identity can emerge, showing the importance of communication and language in the formation and development of identity.

  11. Personal and social facets of job identity : A person-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.; Avanzi, L.; Hawk, S.T.; Fraccaroli, F.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine ego-identity (Erikson, Psychol Issues 1:1–171, 1959; Identity, youth and crisis, Norton, New York, 1968; Marcia, J Pers Soc Psychol 3:551–558, 1966) and social identity (Tajfel and Turner, In: Austin WG, Worchel S (Eds.) The social psychology of

  12. Features of the differential diagnosis of persons with gender identity disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.D. Novikova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We presented a study of the features of gender identity in people undergoing gender, psychological and psychiatric examination to address the issue of gender reassignment. We analyze the specifics of gender identity, levels of masculinity and femininity, the similarities and differentiation within four nosological groups, which include persons with gender identity disorders (GID with transsexualism, personality disorders, diseases of the schizophrenia spectrum, and with organic mental disorders. We address the question of the differential diagnosis in the process of psychological screening of people with transsexualism and other types of GID. The analytical description of the four algorithms and their comparison are psychologically specific, qualitative research, almost impossible using statistical method of data processing. The data presented may be useful to specialists involved in the study of persons with gender identity disorders

  13. Personality Traits and Educational Identity Formation in Late Adolescents: Longitudinal Associations and Academic Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Germeijs, Veerle; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Changes in personality traits in late adolescence and young adulthood are believed to co-occur with changes in identity, but little research is available that supports this hypothesis. The present study addressed this relatively understudied area of research by examining longitudinal associations of Big Five personality traits (i.e., Neuroticism,…

  14. Big Five Personality Traits as the Predictors of Creative Self-Efficacy and Creative Personal Identity: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Maciej; Lebuda, Izabela; Wisniewska, Ewa; Gralewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation of the Big Five personality factors to two self-concept variables of growing importance in creativity literature: creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creative personal identity (CPI). The analysis, conducted on a large (N = 2674, 49.6% women) and varied-in-age (15-59 years old) nationwide sample of…

  15. Threat/reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality modulate cognitive-control and attentional neural processes to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Hu, Xiaoqing; Nusslock, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Temperamental-traits (e.g. threat/reward-sensitivity) are found to modulate cognitive-control and attentional-processes. Yet, it is unclear exactly how these traits interact with emotional-stimuli in the modulation of cognitive-control, as reflected by the N2 event-related potential (ERP), and attentional-processes, as reflected by the P2 and P3 ERPs. Here in an ERP emotional-Go/NoGo task, 36 participants were instructed to inhibit their response to Fearful- and Happy-faces. Individual-differences in threat-sensitivity, reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality were assessed through self-report. Hypomanic-personality was assessed, given its relationship with reward-sensitivity and relevance to mood-disorder symptoms. Concerning cognitive-control, individuals with elevated threat-sensitivity displayed more-negative N2s to Happy-NoGo (relative to Fearful-NoGo) faces, whereas both individuals with elevated reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality displayed more-negative N2s to Fearful-NoGo (relative to Happy-NoGo) faces. Accordingly, when cognitive-control is required (during Go/NoGo), a mismatch between one's temperament and the valence of the NoGo-stimulus elevates detection of the need for cognitive-control. Conversely, the modulation of attentional-processing was specific to threat-sensitivity, as there was no relationship between either reward-sensitivity or hypomanic-personality and attentional-processing. Elevated threat-sensitivity was associated with enhanced early (P2s) and later (P3s) attentional-processing to Fearful-NoGo (relative to Happy-NoGo) faces. These latter findings support the negative attentional-bias model relating elevated threat-sensitivity with attentional-biases toward negative-stimuli and away from positive-stimuli. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Owning Up to Negative Ingroup Traits: How Personal Autonomy Promotes the Integration of Group Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Lisa; Weinstein, Netta; Mitchell, Jahlil; Inzlicht, Michael; Pyke, Kristen; Upal, Afzal

    2017-10-01

    Our experiences, attributes, and behaviors are diverse, inconsistent, and often negative. Consequently, our capacity to assimilate divergent experiences-particularly negative aspects-is important to the development of a unified self. Whereas this process of integration has received attention at the level of personal identity, it has not been assessed at the level of group identity. We examined the mechanisms involved in integrating positive and negative ingroup identities, as well as related outcomes. In three experiments, participants (N = 332) high and low in autonomy identified either positive or negative aspects of their ingroup and then indicated the extent to which they integrated the attribute. Those high in personal autonomy integrated both positive and negative identities, whereas those low in autonomy acknowledged only positive identities. Study 2 showed that, regardless of identity valence, those high in autonomy felt satisfied and close with their group. Conversely, those low in autonomy felt less close and more dissatisfied with their group after reflecting on negative identities. Finally, reflecting on a negative identity reduced prejudice, but only for those high in autonomy. Owning up to negative group traits is facilitated by autonomy and demonstrates benefits for ingroup and intergroup processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Oxytocin influences avoidant reactions to social threat in adults with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Ebert, Andreas; Kolb, Meike; Tas, Cumhur; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Roser, Patrik

    2013-11-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by interpersonal dysfunction, emotional instability, impulsivity, and risk-taking behavior. Recent research has focused on the role of oxytocin in BPD, with mixed results as regards the processing of social stimuli. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 13 BPD patients and 13 controls performed a dot probe task to examine attentional biases to happy and angry faces after intranasal application of oxytocin or placebo. Childhood trauma was examined using the childhood trauma questionnaire. In the placebo condition, patients with BPD (but not controls) showed an avoidant reaction to angry faces (but not happy faces). The strength of the avoidant reaction correlated with the severity of childhood trauma. This behavioral response (as well as the correlation) was abolished in the oxytocin condition. Adult patients with BPD show an avoidant response to social threat, a reaction that is linked with traumatic experiences during childhood. This response pattern is altered by oxytocin, possibly by reducing stress and inhibiting social withdrawal from distressing social stimuli. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Assessing cultural intelligence, personality and identity amongst young white Afrikaans-speaking students: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nel

    2015-04-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between personality, identity and CQ amongst young Afrikaans-speaking South Africans. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative research design was used in this study. This study was cross-sectional in nature. For the purpose of this study, a sample of young South African university students (N = 252 was used. The personal identity subscale from the Erickson Psychosocial Stage Inventory, the Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure, the Religious Identity Short Scale, the South African Personality Inventory questionnaire and the Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence Scale were applied as the measuring instruments. Main findings: Religious identity and ethnic identity have a relationship with cognitive CQ. Soft-heartedness and conscientiousness have a relationship with behavioural CQ. Also, soft-heartedness, facilitating, extroversion and religious identity have a relationship with motivational CQ. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations within South Africa will gain a better understanding of CQ and the benefits of having a culturally intelligent workforce as a strengths-based approach. Culturally intelligent employees will be able to adjust to working with co-workers from another culture, not feel threatened when interacting with co-workers and clients and be able to transfer knowledge from one culture to another, which will aid the organisation in completing overseas assignments, cross-cultural decision-making, leadership in multicultural environments and managing international careers. Contribution/value-add: CQ is a relatively new concept and empirical research on positive subjects is still very limited. Research on personality, identity and CQ within the South African context is still very limited. Therefore, this study will contribute to literature on positive psychology and cultural intelligence.

  19. The Personal and Professional Selves of Teachers: Stable and Unstable Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Day, C.; Kington, Alison; Stobart, G.; Sammons, P.

    2006-01-01

    In much educational literature it is recognised that the broader social conditions in which teachers live and work, and the personal and professional elements of teachers' lives, experiences, beliefs and practices are integral to one another, and that there are often tensions between these which impact to a greater or lesser extent upon teachers' sense of self or identity. If identity is a key influencing factor on teachers' sense of purpose, self‐efficacy, motivation, commitment, job satisfa...

  20. Perspectivism and Intersubjective Criteria for Personal Identity: A Defense of Bernard Williams’ Criterion of Bodily Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Guillermo Torriani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I revisit earlier stages of the discussion of personal identity, before Neo-Lockean psychological continuity views became prevalent. In particular, I am interested in Bernard Williams’ initial proposal of bodily identity as a necessary, although not sufficient, criterion of personal identity. It was at this point that psychological continuity views came to the fore arguing that bodily identity was not necessary because brain transplants were logically possible, even if physically impossible. Further proposals by Shoemaker of causal relations between mental states in our memory and Parfit’s discussion of branching causal chains created additional complications. My contention in this paper is that psychological continuity views deflected our attention from what should have remained in the spotlight all the time: the intersubjective character (or not of criteria proposed to decide personal identity in our language game, and ultimately our form of life concerning ourselves as persons. B. Williams’ emphasis on the body was not just common sense. It was also recognition of the importance of giving priority to criteria that could be kept under intersubjective control.

  1. Perspectivism and Intersubjective Criteria for Personal Identity: A Defense of Bernard Williams’ Criterion of Bodily Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Guillermo Torriani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I revisit earlier stages of the discussion of personal identity, before Neo-Lockean psychological continuity views became prevalent. In particular, I am interested in Bernard Williams’ initial proposal of bodily identity as a necessary, although not sufficient, criterion of personal identity. It was at this point that psychological continuity views came to the fore arguing that bodily identity was not necessary because brain transplants were logically possible, even if physically impossible. Further proposals by Shoemaker of causal relations between mental states in our memory and Parfit’s discussion of branching causal chains created additional complications. My contention in this paper is that psychological continuity views deflected our attention from what should have remained in the spotlight all the time: the intersubjective character (or not of criteria proposed to decide personal identity in our language game, and ultimately our form of life concerning ourselves as persons. B. Williams’ emphasis on the body was not just common sense. It was also recognition of the importance of giving priority to criteria that could be kept under intersubjective control.

  2. Optimal Experience and Personal Growth: Flow and the Consolidation of Place Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Psalti, Anastasia; Ariccio, Silvia; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory (EIT) which prioritizes self-defining activities as important for an individual’s identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one’s own identity development or enhancement. This study focuses on place identity, the identity’s features relating to a person’s relation with her/his place. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one’s own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities, irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one’s own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-defining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for EIT’s understanding and enrichment, especially by its generalization from the traditional, personal identity level up to that of place identity. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one’s own place identity, and therefore people–place relations, by means of facilitating a person’s flow experience within psychologically meaningful places. PMID:27872600

  3. The Relationship between Cell Phone Use and Identity Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lewis O.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of mobile phone use has paralleled increased reports of identity theft. Identity theft can result in financial loss and threats to a victim's personal safety. Although trends in identity theft are well-known, less is known about individual cell phone users' attitudes toward identity theft and the extent to which they connect it to cell…

  4. Identity uncertainty and commitment making across adolescence : Five-year within-person associations using daily identity reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, Andrik I.; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    A central assumption of identity theory is that adolescents reconsider current identity commitments and explore identity alternatives before they make new commitments in various identity domains (Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1966). Yet, little empirical evidence is available on how commitment and

  5. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  6. Change in Identity Diffusion and Psychopathology in a Specialized Inpatient Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Daniel; Gremaud-Heitz, Daniela; Riemenschneider, Anke; Agarwalla, Puspa; Benecke, Cord; Schwald, Oliver; Küchenhoff, Joachim; Walter, Marc; Dammann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show various psychopathological symptoms and suffer especially from disturbance in their identity. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes-particularly in affective BPD symptoms and identity diffusion-during a structured, disorder-specific inpatient treatment (DST) that combined a psychodynamic transference-focused psychotherapy approach with modules of dialectical behavioural skills training. In a prospective, two-group comparison trial, 44 patients with BPD were assessed with questionnaires addressing identity diffusion and state, as well as trait affective psychopathology, before and after 12 weeks of inpatient treatment. Thirty-two patients received DST, whereas 12 patients were given inpatient treatment-as-usual (TAU). The patients were allocated in a non-random procedure for two groups, in order of admission and availability of treatment options in the DST unit. In the pre-post-comparison, the DST group showed a significant decrease in identity diffusion (p borderline symptomatology and in the personality structure feature of identity diffusion. This highlights the significance of a short-term specific inpatient therapy for BPD. A structured, disorder-specific inpatient treatment of patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) combined a psychodynamic transference-focused psychotherapy treatment approach (focusing on pathological features in personality organization, particularly on non-integrated images of self and others) with modules of dialectical behavioural skills training. This treatment is associated with a decrease in identity diffusion of these patients after 12 weeks of treatment. The treatment is also related to a significant decrease in borderline typical psychopathological symptoms such as depressive symptoms, as well as an improvement in state anger. The outcomes of this structured, disorder-specific inpatient treatment of severely ill BPD patients indicated

  7. Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Igor; Eliasson, Ingegärd

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite site...

  8. Contribution of past and future self-defining event networks to personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demblon, Julie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2017-05-01

    Personal identity is nourished by memories of significant past experiences and by the imagination of meaningful events that one anticipates to happen in the future. The organisation of such self-defining memories and prospective thoughts in the cognitive system has received little empirical attention, however. In the present study, our aims were to investigate to what extent self-defining memories and future projections are organised in networks of related events, and to determine the nature of the connections linking these events. Our results reveal the existence of self-defining event networks, composed of both memories and future events of similar centrality for identity and characterised by similar identity motives. These self-defining networks expressed a strong internal coherence and frequently organised events in meaningful themes and sequences (i.e., event clusters). Finally, we found that the satisfaction of identity motives in represented events and the presence of clustering across events both contributed to increase in the perceived centrality of events for the sense of identity. Overall, these findings suggest that personal identity is not only nourished by representations of significant past and future events, but also depends on the formation of coherent networks of related events that provide an overarching meaning to specific life experiences.

  9. Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Eliasson, Ingegärd

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county ( N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

  10. Involved and Focused? Students' Perceptions of Institutional Identity, Personal Goal Orientation and Levels of Campus Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; McCarthy, Brendan J.; Milner, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between students' perception of their institution's mission identity, personal goal orientation tendencies, and the extent to which they engage in mission-driven activities. Goal orientation research categorizes student motivations in three ways: mastery orientation (MO), performance-approach (PAp)…

  11. Unpacking Personal Identities for Teaching Mathematics within the Context of Prospective Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Thomas E.; Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the personal identities of two prospective elementary teachers as they progressed from mathematics methods coursework into their capstone student teaching semester. Results indicate that both prospective teachers perceived contrasting obligations of effective mathematics teaching in the teacher education and student teaching…

  12. Longitudinal Relations between Personality Traits and Aspects of Identity Formation during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L.; Allemand, Mathias; Grob, Sabine Zehnder; Peng, Aristide; Morgenthaler, Christoph; Kappler, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The current study focused on three aspects of identity development relevant to the adolescent years: being an authentic person, perceiving control over and consistency in one's environment, and having consistent expectations from close others. In a two-wave study of adolescents (n = 750), we examined how these aspects change over the course of a…

  13. Ethnic Identity and Personal Well-Being of People of Color: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B.; Silva, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes research examining the relationship between the constructs of ethnic identity and personal well-being among people of color in North America. Data from 184 studies analyzed with random effects models yielded an omnibus effect size of r = 0.17, suggesting a modest relationship between the 2 constructs. The relationship was…

  14. 17 CFR 229.1003 - (Item 1003) Identity and background of filing person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1003) Identity and background of filing person. 229.1003 Section 229.1003 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND...

  15. "Irreplaceable": Exploring Identity and Relationships through the Discussion of Invaluable Personal Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharp, Kristina M.; Canfield, Clair

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Interpersonal Communication, Family Communication, Relational Communication. Objectives: Students reflect on and discuss how personal objects are connected to their identity and relationships with others. This activity illustrates the ways course concepts such as relational metaphors, stories, rules, rituals, and other patterns of…

  16. 75 FR 28771 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-027, Personal Identity Verification of Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-027, Personal Identity Verification of Contractor Personnel AGENCIES... of collecting from contractors all forms of Government provided identification once they are no..., titled Controls Over the Contractor Common Access Card (CAC) Life Cycle, was performed to determine...

  17. 75 FR 82575 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Personal Identity Verification of Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... 9000-AL60 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Personal Identity Verification of Contractor Personnel AGENCY... requirement of collecting from contractors all forms of Government-provided identification once they are no...D Inspector General Audit Report No. D-2009-005, entitled ``Controls Over the Contractor Common...

  18. Self and identity in borderline personality disorder: Agency and mental time travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Natalie; Kyratsous, Michalis

    2017-10-01

    We consider how conceptions of the self and identity from the philosophical literature can help us to understand identity disturbance in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We present 3 philosophical approaches: connectedness, narrative, and agency. We show how these map on to 3 different ways in which the self can be temporally extended. The connectedness approach is dominant in philosophy, and the narrative approach has been used by psychiatry, but we argue that the lesser-known agency approach provides a promising way to theorize some aspects of identity disturbance in BPD. It relates the 2 diagnostic criteria of identity disturbance and disinhibition and is consistent with evidence of memory deficits and altered self-processing in BPD patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Self and identity in women with symptoms of borderline personality: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Agnew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Identity disturbance has been suggested to be a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, there is little known about the identity of individuals with symptoms of BPD from the participant's perspective. This study availed of in-depth lightly structured life story interviews with five female participants. Thematic analysis was utilized to derive three themes of identity: connection, distance between us, and hurt and healing. Results provided support for multiple and flexible conceptualizations of identity in comparison to the idea of a unitary self/identity. Results also suggested that participants were able to establish differing connections to others ranging from disconnection to intimacy and care. Participants reported that their identities were impacted upon by historical and current family/relationship dysfunction, but life stories also illustrated the positive impact of healing relationship experiences. Findings provide support for psychological theories that consider a multiple and relational self/identity and the empowerment of healthy aspects of the self in BPD recovery. Studies that assess the association between insight and change may further our knowledge into this complex population.

  20. Awareness of identity alteration and diagnostic preference between borderline personality disorder and dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze; Tayakısı, Emre; Öğülmüş, Ezgi F; Sönmez, Doğuş

    2017-01-01

    This study inquires into identity alteration among college students and its relationship to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs). Steinberg Identity Alteration Questionnaire (SIAQ), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and self-report screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1301 college students. Participants who fit the diagnostic criteria of BPD (n = 80) according to the clinician-administered SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV DDs (SCID-D) by two psychiatrists blind to the group membership and scale scores. Test-retest evaluations and internal consistency analyses suggested that SIAQ was a reliable instrument. Of the participants, 11.3% reported a SIAQ score 25 or above alongside some impairment. SIAQ scores differentiated participants who fit the diagnostic criteria for a DD from those who did not. While self-report identity alteration was correlated with all childhood trauma types, clinician-assessed identity alteration was correlated with childhood sexual abuse only. Those who fit criteria for both disorders had the highest identity alteration scores in self-report and clinician-assessment. Although both syndromes had significant effect on self-report identity alteration total scores, in contrast to DD, BPD did not have an effect on the clinician-administered evaluation. An impression of personality disorder rather than a DD may seem more likely when identity alteration remains subtle in clinical assessment, notwithstanding its presence in self-report. Lack of recognition of identity alteration may lead to overdiagnosis of BPD among individuals who have a DD.

  1. The association of personal semantic memory to identity representations: insight into higher-order networks of autobiographical contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task. The narrative responses were scored for retrieval of episodic, experience-near personal semantic and experience-far (i.e., abstract) personal semantic contents. Results revealed that to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, experience-far personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-near personal semantic contents. In contrast, to reflect on recently formed identity representations, experience-near personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-far personal semantic contents. Although episodic memory contents were retrieved less than both personal semantic content types to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, this content type was retrieved at a similar frequency as experience-far personal semantic content to reflect on recently formed identity representations. These findings indicate that the association of personal semantic content to identity representations is robust and related to time since acquisition of these knowledge structures.

  2. CORPORATE IDENTITY DAN PERSONALITY BANK SYARIAH DI SURAT KABAR NASIONAL (Tekstual Analisis Konstruksi Meelalui Publikasi Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwono Tri Atmodjo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate identity and personality manner that allows employers to formulate and differentiated from other companies (regular bank. Identity and personality can be realized by the company shows the vision and mission of the company, the company philosophy, corporate culture. The study is to assess the identity and personality were constructed through advetorian and Newspaper coverage related to the identity and personality of Islamic banks. Qualitative analysis with textual analysis strategy for observing any publication of the contents of the message, type, appearance, construction built with various combinations of text and images and the meaning behind it seems. Textual research results show that the identity and personality banks Islamic banks, care for the young entrepreneurs of the campus, BNI sharia requires political support, regulatory support, is an ISO 9001: 2008 as the bank has a good quality management. Construction as a bank with a foundation of Sharia as the implementation of Islamic teachings are constructed differently degan regular bank to provide the product name, the expression of interest, section or division, spirit or values and norms derived from the teachings of Islam. Ordinances of service, petuhas services, ornaments firm up souvenirs derived from the values of Islam. Cultural references conveyed Islamic banks oriented to the culture of Islamic countries that appear on the financial system based on gold. Identitas perusahaan dan personaliti cara yang memungkinkan perusahaan menyusun dan dibedakan dari perusahaan lain (reguler bank. Indentitas dan personaliti perusahaan dapat diwujudkan dengan menunjukkan visi dan misi perusahaan, filosofi perusahaan, budaya perusahaan. Studi ini untuk menilai identitas dan personaliti yang dikonstruksikan melalui advetorian dan liputan Surat Kabar berkaitan dengan identitas dan personaliti bank syariah. Analisis kualitatif dengan strategi analisis tektual untuk mengobservasi berbagai

  3. Reproductive autonomy, the non-identity problem, and the non-person problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The Non-Identity Problem is the problem of explaining the apparent wrongness of a decision that does not harm people, especially since some of the people affected by the decision would not exist at all were it not for the decision. One approach to this problem, in the context of reproductive decisions, is to focus on wronging, rather than harming, one's offspring. But a Non-Person Problem emerges for any view that claims (1) that only persons can be wronged and (2) that the person-making properties allow for there to be human non-persons. Consider an individual human organism that is prevented from ever possessing the person-making properties. On person-only accounts of the victims of wronging, this organism cannot be wronged by anyone. Hence even individuals whose decisions prevent it from ever possessing the person-making properties cannot wrong it. But this is counter-intuitive. We can think of examples where a human organism is wronged by precisely those decisions that prevent it from possessing the person-making properties. The best solution to this problem, in the case where the person-making property is rational self-governance in pursuit of a meaningful life, is to adjust the concept of a person so that it refers, not merely to those with the immediate capacity for rational self-governance in pursuit of a meaningful life, but also to those with a higher-order capacity for such self-governance. Any solution to the Non-Identity Problem that focuses on wronging rather than harming should incorporate this sort of solution to the Non-Person Problem.

  4. Personal and cultural identity development in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, Alan; Sabet, Raha F; Farrelly, Colleen M; Benitez, Cynthia G; Schwartz, Seth J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Picariello, Simona; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M

    2017-07-01

    This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. The sample consisted of 302 recent (identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Beliefs About the Causal Structure of the Self-Concept Determine Which Changes Disrupt Personal Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie Y; Urminsky, Oleg; Bartels, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    Personal identity is an important determinant of behavior, yet how people mentally represent their self-concepts and their concepts of other people is not well understood. In the current studies, we examined the age-old question of what makes people who they are. We propose a novel approach to identity that suggests that the answer lies in people's beliefs about how the features of identity (e.g., memories, moral qualities, personality traits) are causally related to each other. We examined the impact of the causal centrality of a feature, a key determinant of the extent to which a feature defines a concept, on judgments of identity continuity. We found support for this approach in three experiments using both measured and manipulated causal centrality. For judgments both of one's self and of others, we found that some features are perceived to be more causally central than others and that changes in such causally central features are believed to be more disruptive to identity.

  6. Change and persistence of personal identities after the transition to retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how retired people's self-image differs from that of working people, and what factors predict people's self-definition as professionals or retirees. Seven hundred ninety-two Swiss persons aged 58-70 (386 men, 406 women; 349 not retired, 443 retired) were asked to rate the importance of different self-description domains (such as profession, family-roles, personal values, etc.). Results indicated that the profession domain remains important for self-description even after retirement, to the extent that retirement status does not predict the importance of the professional identity at all. Rather, consistent with social identity theory, the importance of the profession for self-description is best predicted by the status of the (former or current) job. The importance of the retirement status for self-definition is predicted best by a positive attitude toward aging. In general, retired respondents rated more domains of self-description as important than did not-yet-retired respondents, and no domain was less important after retirement. In other words, identity diversity was higher for the retired than for the not-yet-retired persons. In addition, high identity diversity correlated with a high satisfaction across different life domains.

  7. Mentalizing and interpersonal problems in borderline personality disorder: The mediating role of identity diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulemeester, Celine; Lowyck, Benedicte; Vermote, Rudi; Verhaest, Yannic; Luyten, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by problems in interpersonal functioning and their long-term social integration often remains problematic. Extant theories have linked identity diffusion to many of the interpersonal problems characteristic of BPD patients. Recent theoretical accounts have suggested that identity diffusion results from problems with mentalizing or reflective functioning, that is, the capacity to understand oneself and others in terms of intentional mental states. In this study we tested these assumptions, i.e., whether identity diffusion plays a mediating role in the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems, in a sample of 167 BPD patients. Highly significant correlations were found between mentalizing impairments, identity diffusion and interpersonal problems. Mediation analyses showed that identity diffusion fully mediated the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems. This study provides preliminary evidence that impairments in mentalizing are related to identity diffusion, which in turn is related to interpersonal problems in BPD. Further longitudinal research is needed to further substantiate these conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Survey personal and national identity between individual with cell phone addiction disorder and normal smartphone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Smart phones have rapidly become an integral, and for some, an essential communication device worldwide. The issue of identity has always been a subject of interest among psychologists. The present study was conducted to compare personal and national identity and their subscales between cell phone addicts and non-addicts.Method: In this cross-sectional study, 500 student cell phone users from various universities in Tehran were recruited using stratified sampling. Participants completed cell phone addiction questionnaires including Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS, Cell Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ, Personal Identity Development Questionnaire, Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS and National Identity Questionnaire. Then, the subscales of these instruments were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.Results: Results of this study revealed significant differences between cell phone addicts and non-addicts in the scores of national identity, personal identity, and most subscales, except for some subscales (P<0.05. In addition, a negative and significant relationship was found between personal and national identity and cell phone addiction (r=-0.35, -0.33, respectively.On the other hand, after controlling for the confounder variables, we found that national identity had an effect on cell phone addiction(OR=0.05, CI=0.92-0.98.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cell phone overuse may be correlated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity.

  9. Rebuilding lives and identities: The role of place in recovery among persons with complex needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Smith, Bikki; Padgett, Deborah K; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2015-05-01

    Photo-elicitation interviews (PEIs) were conducted to explore the role of place in recovery - specifically, narrative identity reconstruction - among persons with complex needs. PEIs with 17 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring disorders in New York City produced 243 photos. Content analysis of photos revealed three categories - apartment, neighborhood and people. Two narrative themes - having my own and civic identity - were mapped onto the apartment and neighborhood categories, respectively. Three additional cross-categorical narrative themes were identified: (re)negotiating relationships and boundaries, moving beyond old identities and future possibilities. Housing was central across themes. Understanding of recovery is enhanced when viewed through participant-controlled visual methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-defining memories, scripts, and the life story: narrative identity in personality and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jefferson A; Blagov, Pavel; Berry, Meredith; Oost, Kathryn M

    2013-12-01

    An integrative model of narrative identity builds on a dual memory system that draws on episodic memory and a long-term self to generate autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories related to critical goals in a lifetime period lead to life-story memories, which in turn become self-defining memories when linked to an individual's enduring concerns. Self-defining memories that share repetitive emotion-outcome sequences yield narrative scripts, abstracted templates that filter cognitive-affective processing. The life story is the individual's overarching narrative that provides unity and purpose over the life course. Healthy narrative identity combines memory specificity with adaptive meaning-making to achieve insight and well-being, as demonstrated through a literature review of personality and clinical research, as well as new findings from our own research program. A clinical case study drawing on this narrative identity model is also presented with implications for treatment and research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gender identity and sexual orientation in women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devita; McMain, Shelley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2011-02-01

    In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (and earlier editions), a disturbance in "identity" is one of the defining features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Gender identity, a person's sense of self as a male or a female, constitutes an important aspect of identity formation, but this construct has rarely been examined in patients with BPD. In the present study, the presence of gender identity disorder or confusion was examined in women diagnosed with BPD. We used a validated dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Recalled gender identity and gender role behavior from childhood was also assessed with a validated dimensional measure, and current sexual orientation was assessed by two self-report measures. A consecutive series of 100 clinic-referred women (mean age, 34 years) with BPD participated in the study. The women were diagnosed with BPD using the International Personality Disorder Exam-BPD Section. None of the women with BPD met the criterion for caseness on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Women who self-reported either a bisexual or a homosexual sexual orientation had a significantly higher score on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria than the women who self-reported a heterosexual sexual orientation, and they also recalled significantly more cross-gender behavior during childhood. Results were compared with a previous study on a diagnostically heterogeneous group of women with other clinical problems. The importance of psychosexual assessment in the clinical evaluation of patients with BPD is discussed. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Mindfulness and personal identity in the Western cultural context: A plea for greater cosmopolitanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaïoti, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    In the psychological sciences, mindfulness practices are increasingly being used, studied, and theorized, but their indigenous theoretical foundations in Buddhist accounts of the dynamics and psychology of personal identity tend to be overlooked. This situation is mirrored in the discipline of philosophy: here, Buddhist views on personal identity are beginning to draw attention, but almost invariably in a way which entirely blanks out the role of mindfulness practices in cultivating Buddhist insights on selfhood. The aggregate result is a failure, in the West, to reflect upon and seriously consider Buddhist theory and Buddhist practice in an integrated, holistic fashion. In its effort to overcome the compartmentalization of Buddhist theory (in philosophy) versus Buddhist practice (in psychology) and to embrace the challenges this might pose to fundamental Western beliefs about the self, this paper is intended both as a plea for and an exercise in greater, more venturesome cosmopolitanism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Motivation and Justice at Work: The Role of Emotion and Cognition Components of Personal and Collective Work Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhall, Ola; Knez, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity (including emotion and cognition components), in predicting work motivation (operationalized as work self-determined motivation) and organizational justice (operationalized as organizational pay justice). Digitized questionnaires were distributed by e-mail to 2905 members, teachers, of a Swedish trade union. A total of 768 individuals answered the questionnaire and by that participated in this study. Personal- compared to collective work identity was shown to positively associate with self-determined motivation accounted for by the emotion component of personal work identity. Collective compared to personal work identity was reported to positively associate with organizational pay justice accounted for by the cognition component of collective work identity. All this suggests that both work-related motivation and organizational justice might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work identity and that, as predicted, different types of work identity, play different significant roles in predicting motivation and justice at work. More precisely, the emotion component of work identity was more pronounced in personal work-bonding relationships, and the cognitive component, of work identity in contrast, was more pronounced in collective work-bonding relationships.

  14. Motivation and Justice at Work: The Role of Emotion and Cognition Components of Personal and Collective Work Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Nordhall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity (including emotion and cognition components, in predicting work motivation (operationalized as work self-determined motivation and organizational justice (operationalized as organizational pay justice. Digitized questionnaires were distributed by e-mail to 2905 members, teachers, of a Swedish trade union. A total of 768 individuals answered the questionnaire and by that participated in this study. Personal- compared to collective work identity was shown to positively associate with self-determined motivation accounted for by the emotion component of personal work identity. Collective compared to personal work identity was reported to positively associate with organizational pay justice accounted for by the cognition component of collective work identity. All this suggests that both work-related motivation and organizational justice might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work identity and that, as predicted, different types of work identity, play different significant roles in predicting motivation and justice at work. More precisely, the emotion component of work identity was more pronounced in personal work-bonding relationships, and the cognitive component, of work identity in contrast, was more pronounced in collective work-bonding relationships.

  15. Motivation and Justice at Work: The Role of Emotion and Cognition Components of Personal and Collective Work Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhall, Ola; Knez, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity (including emotion and cognition components), in predicting work motivation (operationalized as work self-determined motivation) and organizational justice (operationalized as organizational pay justice). Digitized questionnaires were distributed by e-mail to 2905 members, teachers, of a Swedish trade union. A total of 768 individuals answered the questionnaire and by that participated in this study. Personal- compared to collective work identity was shown to positively associate with self-determined motivation accounted for by the emotion component of personal work identity. Collective compared to personal work identity was reported to positively associate with organizational pay justice accounted for by the cognition component of collective work identity. All this suggests that both work-related motivation and organizational justice might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work identity and that, as predicted, different types of work identity, play different significant roles in predicting motivation and justice at work. More precisely, the emotion component of work identity was more pronounced in personal work-bonding relationships, and the cognitive component, of work identity in contrast, was more pronounced in collective work-bonding relationships. PMID:29379454

  16. Dysfunctional freezing responses to approaching stimuli in persons with a looming cognitive style for physical threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Riskind

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immobilizing freezing responses are associated with anxiety and may be etiologically related to several anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms in freezing responses that are so problematic in many forms of anxiety, cognitive factors related to anxiety have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the potential moderating role of a well-documented cognitive vulnerability to anxiety, the Looming Cognitive Style (i.e., LCS; Riskind et al., 2000, which assesses the extent to which individuals tend to routinely interpret ambiguous threats (e.g., physical or social threats in a biased manner as approaching. We assessed participants’ Reaction Times (RTs when they made judgments about images of animals that differed in threat valence (threat or neutral and motion direction (approach or recede. As expected, LCS for concerns about the approach of physical dangers appeared to moderate freeze reactions. Individuals who were high on this LCS factor tended to generally exhibit a freeze-response (slower RTs and this was independent of the threat valence or motion direction of the animals. These general freezing reactions were in stark contrast to those of individuals who were low on the LCS factor for concerns about the approach of physical dangers. These participants tended to exhibit more selective and functional freezing responses that occurred only to threatening animals with approach motion; they did not exhibit freezing to neutral stimuli or any stimuli with receding motion. These findings did not appear to be explicable by a general slowing of RTs for the participants with high LCS. Moreover, the LCS factor for concerns about social threats (such as rejection or embarrassment was not related to differences in freezing; there was also no additional relationship of freezing to behavioral inhibition scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System and the Behavioral Activation System

  17. Threat perception after the Boston Marathon bombings: The effects of personal relevance and conceptual framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Quigley, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to "shoot" armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., "Terror Strikes Boston") made more false alarms (i.e., more errors "shooting" unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., "Boston Strong") and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favouring the "shoot" response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community.

  18. Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Domoff, Sarah E; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Hinman, Nova G; Davis, Alan K; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m². Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  19. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Carels

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group and source (i.e., the self or others. This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method: 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64 years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5 kg/m2. Results: Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat. Conclusion: Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

  20. The centrality of affective instability and identity in Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence from network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Giulio; De Panfilis, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    We argue that the series of traits characterizing Borderline Personality Disorder samples do not weigh equally. In this regard, we believe that network approaches employed recently in Personality and Psychopathology research to provide information about the differential relationships among symptoms would be useful to test our claim. To our knowledge, this approach has never been applied to personality disorders. We applied network analysis to the nine Borderline Personality Disorder traits to explore their relationships in two samples drawn from university students and clinical populations (N = 1317 and N = 96, respectively). We used the Fused Graphical Lasso, a technique that allows estimating networks from different populations separately while considering their similarities and differences. Moreover, we examined centrality indices to determine the relative importance of each symptom in each network. The general structure of the two networks was very similar in the two samples, although some differences were detected. Results indicate the centrality of mainly affective instability, identity, and effort to avoid abandonment aspects in Borderline Personality Disorder. Results are consistent with the new DSM Alternative Model for Personality Disorders. We discuss them in terms of implications for therapy. PMID:29040324

  1. Modeling the contribution of personality, social identity and social norms to problematic Facebook use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Claudia; Vieno, Alessio; Pastore, Massimiliano; Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2016-12-01

    Facebook is the most popular social networking site in the world providing the opportunity to maintain and/or establish relationships, to share media contents and experiences with friends, and to easily communicate with them. Despite the resources and the innovative social features offered by Facebook research has emerged indicating that its use may become problematic, with negative consequences on personal psycho-social well-being, especially among adolescents and young adults. The main aim of this study was to examine the unique contribution of personality traits and social influence processes (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, and social identity) to perceived frequency of Facebook Use and Problematic Facebook Use in a sample of adolescents. A total of 968 Italian adolescents participated in the study. Structural equation modeling showed that emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness and norms directly predicted Problematic Facebook Use, whereas gender, group norms and social identity predicted perceived frequency of Facebook use. In conclusion, both personal and social variables appear to explain perceived frequency of Facebook use and Problematic Facebook Use among adolescents, and should be taken into account by researchers and educational practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Soul and Personal Identity. Derek Parfit’s Arguments in the Substance Dualist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepetyi Dmytro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-evaluates Derek Parfit’s attack on the commonly held view that personal identity is necessarily determinate and that it is what matters. In the first part we first argue against the Humean view of personal identity; secondly, we classify the remaining alternatives into three kinds: the body theory and the brain theory, the quasi-Humean theory, and the soul theory, and thirdly we deploy Parfit’s arguments and related considerations to the point that none of the materialistic alternatives is consistent with the commonly held view. This leaves us with the alternative: either we accept the radical and highly implausible materialistic view Parfit calls ‘Reductionism’, or we accept the view that we are nonphysical indivisible entities—Cartesian egos, or souls. The second part of the paper discusses Parfit’s objections against the Cartesian view: that there is no reason to believe in the existence of such nonphysical entities; that if such entities exist, there is no evidence that they are enduring (to span a human life; that even if they exist and are enduring, they are irrelevant for the psychological profile and temporal continuity of a person; that experiments with ‘brain-splitted’ patients provide strong evidence against the Cartesian view. We argue that these objections are in part mistaken, and that the remaining (sound part is not strong enough to make the Cartesian view less plausible than Reductionism.

  3. An approach to discussing personal and social identity terminology with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Alexander; Mustafa, Aesha; Schober, Justine

    2018-03-01

    As the United States of America becomes more socially diverse, it is more important now than ever for health care providers to become more aware of their patients' social identities. It is imperative that providers engage with their patients and see how each of them identifies personally in relation to social construction terminology. As with the terminology of human anatomy, there is a vast and diverse vocabulary concerning the anatomy of society, which is also clinically relevant to health care providers. If health care providers take the initiative to discuss how their patients identify, they can understand better how those patients experience the world, and this can significantly affect many facets of their health and health care experience. Giving respect fosters the creation of a strong relationship within which patients can share very personal and intimate information, which in turn allows health care providers the possibility of providing the best healthcare. This discussion will build upon and integrate current academic research and opinion for tangible clinical use while discussing various social and personal identities, including but not limited to race, gender, gender expression, sex, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and physical and mental abilities. Clin. Anat. 31:136-139, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparing the symptoms and mechanisms of "dissociation" in dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F; Korzekwa, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45). The core MID symptoms-exhibited at all ranges of MID scores-for DID patients (the presence of alters, identity confusion, and memory problems) and BPD patients (flashbacks, identity confusion, and memory problems) were ostensibly similar but were considered to be mostly produced by different underlying processes. Multiple regression analyses showed that the core MID symptoms of DID patients had different predictors than did the core MID symptoms of BPD patients. Alter identities seemed to generate most-but not all-dissociative phenomena in DID patients, whereas only the 24% highest scoring BPD patients (MID ≥45) seemed to manifest alter-driven dissociative experiences. Most BPD dissociative experiences appeared to be due to 5 other mechanisms: (a) BPD-specific, stress-driven, rapid shifts of self-state; (b and c) nondefensive disruptions of the framework of perceptual organization with or without an accompanying BPD-specific, dissociation-like disintegration of affective/neurocognitive functioning; (d) a defensive distancing or detachment from distress (i.e., simple depersonalization); and (e) Allen, Console, and Lewis's (1999) severe absorptive detachment.

  5. Academic Sensemaking and Behavioural Responses--Exploring How Academics Perceive and Respond to Identity Threats in Times of Turmoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, Lise

    2018-01-01

    Reforms and changing ideas about what higher education institutions are and should be have put pressure on academic identity. The present paper explores the way academics in Danish universities make sense of their changing circumstances, and how this affects their perceptions of their organization, their leaders and of themselves. The study…

  6. Academic sensemaking and behavioural responses – exploring how academics perceive and respond to identity threats in times of turmoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Lise

    2018-01-01

    Reforms and changing ideas about what higher education institutions are and should be have put pressure on academic identity. The present paper explores the way academics in Danish universities make sense of their changing circumstances, and how this affects their perceptions of their organization...

  7. Masculinity and Femininity: Essential to the Identity of the Human Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell Nancy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The title of this congress begins with the word “identity”. It also includes the word “reciprocity,” which indicates a form of relationship and finally, “gift of self”. This would lead us to conclude that the identity of the human person has something to do with reciprocity and that reciprocity involves giving of oneself to others. This talk will attempt to shed light on how the concept of gender might in some way be incorporated into these three concepts.

  8. When I equals we: exploring the relation between social and personal identity of extreme right-wing political party members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baray, Gamze; Postmes, Tom; Jetten, Jolanda

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the concept of self-defining groups to explain how personal and social aspects of identity relate to each other among members of an extreme right-wing political party. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 examined how affiliation with a social group that has clear-cut, rigid norms and values affects the personal and social self-concept. Participants were members of a (self-defining) Turkish nationalist organisation (N=66) and a control group of Turkish university students (N=58). Paradoxically, high levels of national identification were associated with stronger personal identity. Study 2 used the same participant population (N=177) and manipulated self-focused attention by means of a mirror. Self-aware members reported the highest levels of identification with the nationalist organisation. Results suggest that members of this groups show no signs of 'vanishing individuality': although boundaries between personal and social identities are blurred, extremist group members retain a distinct and strengthened sense of personal identity. This raises some interesting questions for the concept of personal identity and how it can be informed by the content of one's social identity.

  9. Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women's empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Yazdkhasti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women

  10. Dynamic Personal Identity and the Dynamic Identity Grid: How Theory and Concept Can Transform Information into Knowledge and Secure the American Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    80 Figure 12. Dynamic Identity Grid Strategy Canvas ..........................................................81 Figure 13. Hurdles to...GIG Global Information Grid HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive IAFIS Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System IP...recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometric features that can be measured include: facial, fingerprint , hand

  11. Personality, threat, and cognitive and emotional reactions to stressful intercultural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, K; van Oudenhoven, JP; de Grijs, E

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in appraisal of and affective reactions to intercultural situations. A sample of 160 students filled out the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and participated in an experiment in which they received a description of an intercultural

  12. Motivation for helping behavior after the floods in 2014: The role of personality and national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otašević Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The severe floods, which struck Serbia in May 2014, inflicted enormous material damage and forced tens of thousands of people to leave their homes. The goal of this research was to investigate the motivation of citizens who helped, i.e. to establish the predictors of the motivation for helping behavior as well as its effects on different ways of providing help. Volunteer Functions Inventory, National Identity Scale, Big Five Inventory, and Helping Behavior Questionnaire were applied to the sample of 183 people who provided the flood victims with help. Multivariate analysis of covariance, where the predictors were gender, the prior acquaintance with the victims, six volunteer functions (Social, Understanding, Protective, Enhancement, Values, Career, age, education and financial status, while the criteria were dimensions of helping behavior, shows that the model provides statistically significant explanation of all dimensions of helping behavior, where the Social Motives and Understanding have significant multivariate effects. MANCOVA was used for establishing the predictors of helping motivation. Along with the control variables from the first analysis, the predictors were Big Five personality traits and national identity, and the criteria were 6 volunteer functions. The results showed significant multivariate effects of Openness, Agreeableness, Extraversion and national identity. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  13. Philosophy teaching and the constitution of personal identity: Formation, autonomy and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Aparecida Kuhnen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the contribution of philosophy in basic education classes for the formation of the students as individuals, helping them in the process of identity construction. Philosophy teaching in high school contributes to constituteself-aware individuals in space and time. It helps them with the ability to reflect critically on the social context in which they are inserted and on the expectations in terms of fixed gender roles imposed from the outside in. In this sense, the particularity of philosophical knowledge, as critical thinking through the creation of concepts, entails a more authentic and autonomous individual formation. This also justifies the presence of philosophy as a subject in high school. The personal gender experience is central in the formation of identity. So it is important to discuss this topic with the students. Due to that, we advocate the importance of bringing gender issues to philosophy classes. It refers a real experience that can be problematized in order to deconstruct naturalized gender performativity and think about the inequalities that pervade this social category. Thus, students can constitute a more conscious individual identity, critical to social position that their genders occupy in the social environment.

  14. Identity-related autobiographical memories and cultural life scripts in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Carsten René; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bech, Morten; Kjølbye, Morten; Bennedsen, Birgit E; Ramsgaard, Stine B

    2012-06-01

    Disturbed identity is one of the defining characteristics of Borderline Personality Disorder manifested in a broad spectrum of dysfunctions related to the self, including disturbances in meaning-generating self-narratives. Autobiographical memories are memories of personal events that provide crucial building-blocks in our construction of a life-story, self-concept, and a meaning-generating narrative identity. The cultural life script represents culturally shared expectations as to the order and timing of life events in a prototypical life course within a given culture. It is used to organize one's autobiographical memories. Here, 17 BPD-patients, 14 OCD-patients, and 23 non-clinical controls generated three important autobiographical memories and their conceptions of the cultural life script. BPD-patients reported substantially more negative memories, fewer of their memories were of prototypical life script events, their memory narratives were less coherent and more disoriented, and the overall typicality of their life scripts was lower as compared with the other two groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. (In)visible threats? The third-person effect in perceptions of the influence of Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Angela; Sullivan, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of Facebook has generated numerous discussions on the individual-level effects of social networking. However, we know very little about people's perceptions of the effects of the most popular social networking site, Facebook. The current investigation reports the findings from a survey designed to help us better understand young people's estimates of the perceived negative effects of Facebook use on themselves and others in regard to three outcome categories: (1) personal relationships, (2) future employment opportunities, and (3) privacy. Congruent with Davidson's third-person effect theory, respondents, when asked about the three outcome categories, believed that the use of Facebook had a larger negative impact on others (e.g., "your closest friends," "younger people," "people in your Facebook network of friends," and "Facebook users in general") than on themselves. Overall, results were inconclusive when it came to the link between the third-person perceptual gap and support for enhanced regulation of Facebook. Implications and limitations of this research are discussed.

  16. Politicization during the 2012 U.S. Presidential Elections: bridging the personal and the political through an identity content approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Zwinkels, Felicity; van Zomeren, Martijn; Postmes, Tom

    2015-03-01

    We investigated U.S. citizens' politicization (i.e., switching from not self-defining to self-defining as an active political party supporter) during the 2012 U.S. Presidential Elections. We used a novel identity content approach to explore qualitative changes in overlap between personal and politicized identity traits. We collected longitudinal data from a community sample of U.S. citizens (N = 760), tracking whether and how personal and politicized identity content developed: two months before (T1), immediately before (T2), and 2 months after (T3) the election. We explored a subsample of participants who met inclusion criteria (n = 115), comparing 87 participants who did not politicize with 28 participants who self-labeled as unpoliticized at T1, but politicized at T2/T3. Results confirmed hypotheses: Only politicizers showed greater integration between their personal and politicized identity content over time; moreover, identity content was a significant positive predictor of politicization and action engagement. We discuss the value of identity content for politicization research. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. The Racial and Economic Context of Trump Support: Evidence for Threat, Identity, and Contact Effects in the 2016 Presidential Election

    OpenAIRE

    Tropp, Linda; Knowles, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Donald Trump's ascent to the Presidency of the United States defied the expectations of many social scientists, pundits, and laypeople. To date, most efforts to understand Trump's rise have focused on personality and demographic characteristics of White Americans. In contrast, the present work leverages a nationally representative sample of Whites to examine how contextual factors may have shaped support for Trump during the 2016 presidential primaries. Results reveal that neighborhood-level ...

  18. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation

  19. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-01-01

    In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics) lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium) women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation of the study is

  20. Personality moderates the links of social identity with work motivation and job searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baay, Pieter E; van Aken, Marcel A G; van der Lippe, Tanja; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Work motivation is critical for successful school-to-work transitions, but little is known about its determinants among labor market entrants. Applying a social identity framework, we examined whether work motivation and job searching are social-contextually determined. We expected that some job seekers are more sensitive to contextual influence, depending on their personality. Mediation analyses on 591 Dutch vocational training students indicate that the perception of more positive work norms in someone's social context was related to higher levels of intrinsic motivation, which in turn predicted higher preparatory job search behavior and job search intentions. Multi-group analysis shows that perceived work norms more strongly predict work motivation among overcontrollers compared to resilients and undercontrollers. In conclusion, work motivation and job searching appear contextually determined: especially among those sensitive to contextual influence, people seem to work when they believe that is what people like them do.

  1. The collective past, group psychology and personal narrative: shaping Jewish identity by memoirs of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, S; Handelsman, I

    1990-06-01

    Through honing its collective memory, especially after the Holocaust, the Jewish community has attempted to sustain its culture, bolster the Jewish identity of its members, and regain a resolute sense that its narrative is again proceeding. To some degree, all these aims are realized by instilling in its members the Jewish modal character structure: a psychological configuration with two contrastable entities. One chronically discomposed self-structure, defining itself as polluted and helpless, trembles with the appalling imagery of historical and imminent community disasters. The other entity believes in its unmatched capacity for reparative, socially beneficial actions. The paradigm of this psychological organization is found in many children of survivors. The memory of a tragic history abides alongside the community's hopes in the Jewish modal personality. The need to set forth and accommodate these two motifs imprints upon the Jewish "national" character many of its distinctive qualities. The designs of the Jewish community for this particularly Jewish twofold personality formation are augmented by the personal revelations of survivors. Therefore, Holocaustic testimonies are invested with a sacred aura. In measure, these recitals of the disaster with their stark images, plus the clashing affects aroused in the reader toward main characters of the narrative, dictate the way Jews define themselves in the world and the way they live. A confluence of being covertly commissioned by the Jewish community joins with the narrators' more idiosyncratic longings. Together they generate a steady stream of Holocaustic accounts. Complementary vectors drive the reader to peruse these records. The results therefrom, intimate knowledge of the disaster, plus the twofold personality motifs stamp many Jews as scions of the Holocaust.

  2. The effect of job insecurity on employee health complaints: A within-person analysis of the explanatory role of threats to the manifest and latent benefits of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Näswall, Katharina; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The current study contributes to the literature on job insecurity by highlighting threat to the benefits of work as an explanation of the effect of job insecurity on health complaints. Building on the latent deprivation model, we predicted that threats to both manifest (i.e., financial income) and latent benefits of work (i.e., collective purpose, social contacts, status, time structure, activity) mediate the relationships from job insecurity to subsequent mental and physical health complaints. In addition, in line with the conservation of resources theory, we proposed that financial resources buffer the indirect effect of job insecurity on health complaints through threat to the manifest benefit. Hypotheses were tested using a multilevel design, in which 3 measurements (time lag of 6 months between subsequent measurements) were clustered within 1,994 employees (in Flanders, Belgium). This allowed for the investigation of within-person processes, while controlling for variance at the between-person level. The results demonstrate that job insecurity was related to subsequent threats to both manifest and latent benefits, and that these threats in turn were related to subsequent health complaints (with an exception for threat to the manifest benefit that did not predict mental health complaints). Three significant indirect effects were found: threat to the latent benefits mediated the relationships between job insecurity and both mental and physical health complaints, and threat to the manifest benefit mediated the relationship between job insecurity and physical health complaints. Unexpectedly, the latter indirect effect was exacerbated by financial resources. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Putting the "we" into teamwork: effects of priming personal or social identity on flight attendants' perceptions of teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jane; O'Hare, David; Henderson, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a manipulation derived from social categorization and social identity theory to promote greater cabin crew willingness to engage in intergroup communication and teamwork in airline operations. Failures of communication and teamwork between airline crew have been implicated in a number of airline crashes. Flight attendants based domestically (n = 254) or overseas (n = 230) received a manipulation designed to prime either their social identity or personal identity and then read a brief outline of an in-flight event before completing a teamwork questionnaire. Flight attendants who received a social identity prime indicated increased willingness to engage in coordinated team action compared with those who received a personal identity prime. Priming social identity can enhance attitudes toward teamwork and communication, potentially leading to increased willingness to engage in intergroup cooperation. Social categorization and social identity theories can be used to inform joint training program development for flight attendants and pilots to create increased willingness for group members to participate in effective communication and teamwork behaviors.

  4. New Trends and Directions in Ethnic Identity among Internationally Transracially Adopted Persons: Summary of Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Baden, Amanda L.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host…

  5. Teacher Identity in Language Teaching: Integrating Personal, Contextual, and Professional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Martha C.; Richards, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews notions of identity and teacher identity, how these relate to the specific characteristics of language teaching, and how teacher identity can evolve or be developed through experience and teacher education. The notion of teacher identity highlights the individual characteristics of the teacher and how these are integrated with…

  6. Names in Psychological Science: Investigating the Processes of Thought Development and the Construction of Personal Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Rocco; Longobardi, Claudio; Mendola, Manuela; Prino, Laura Elvira

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the name as an issue of interest in the psychology field. In thinking about the role played by names for some of the most important approaches on the psychology panorama, it has been found that the analysis of names can be used as an instrument for the investigation of thought formation processes, or as an element in the process of constructing personal identity. In the first case, the focus is on the so-called "common" names, which designate objects; in the second case, instead, it is on people's given names and on the way they are perceived by their bearers and those who surround them. We have examined both domains, since it is essential to understand how the psychological concepts related to names develop in children's minds, if we aim to grasp their importance as designators of people's internal and external realities. Lastly, we have proposed our own view of the person's name, linked to the relational systems perspective which essentially sees the name as a signifier or "representative" of the child-parent relationship, while the "relationship" is the signified.

  7. Would an obese person whistle vivaldi? Targets of prejudice self-present to minimize appearance of specific threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Neufeld, Samantha L; Neuberg, Steven L

    2013-05-01

    How do targets of stigma manage social interactions? We built from a threat-specific model of prejudice to predict that targets select impression-management strategies that address the particular threats other people see them to pose. We recruited participants from two groups perceived to pose different threats: overweight people, who are heuristically associated with disease and targeted with disgust, and Black men, who are perceived to be dangerous and targeted with fear. When stereotypes and prejudices toward their groups were made salient, overweight people (Studies 1 and 2) and Black men (Study 2) selectively prioritized self-presentation strategies to minimize apparent disease threat (wearing clean clothes) or physical-violence threat (smiling), respectively. The specific threat a group is seen to pose plays an important but underexamined role in the psychology of being a target of prejudice.

  8. The Importance of Sensing Own's Movements in the World for the Sense of Personal Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Broens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within philosophy and cognitive science, the focus in relation to the problem of personal identity has been almost exclusively on the brain. We submit that the resulting neglect of the body and of bodily movements in the world has been detrimental in understanding how organisms develop a sense of identity. We examine the importance of sensing one’s own movements for the development of a basic, nonconceptual sense of self. More specifically, we argue that the origin of the sense of self stems from the sensitivity to spontaneous movements. Based on this, the organism develops a sense of “I move” and, finally, a sense of “I can move”. Proprioception and kinesthesis are essential in this development. At the same time, we argue against the traditional dichotomy between so-called external and internal senses, agreeing with Gibson that perception of the self and of the environment invariably go together. We discuss a traditional distinction between two aspects of bodily self: the body sense and the body image. We suggest that they capture different aspects of the sense of self. We argue that especially the body sense is of great importance to our nonconceptual sense of self. Finally, we attempt to draw some consequences for research in cognitive science, specifically in the area of robotics, by examining a case of missing proprioception. We make a plea for robots to be equipped not just with external perceptual and motor abilities but also with a sense of proprioception. This, we submit, would constitute one further step towards understanding creatures acting in the world with a sense of themselves.

  9. The Use of Personal Identity Numbers in Sweden and Denmark: A Barrier to Union Citizens' Enjoyment of Free Movement Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltén-Cavallius, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The paper of Katarina Hyltén-Cavallius focuses on personal identity numbers in Sweden and Denmark. This paper looks into formal and informal structures, which organise society in a host member state and which can make it difficult for a non-national Union citizen to, in practice, access public an...

  10. Changes in coping behavior and the relationship to personality, health threat communication and illness perceptions from the diagnosis of diabetes: a 2-year prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie L. Lawson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coping behavior is of critical importance in diabetes because of its impact upon self-care and hence eventual medical outcome. We examined how coping behavior and its relationship to personality, diabetes health threat communication (DHTC and illness representations changes after diagnosis of diabetes. Newly diagnosed diabetic patients were assessed after diagnosis and at 6, 12 and 24 months using the DHTC, Illness Perceptions and Coping inventory questionnaires. Personality traits were assessed at baseline. Active coping, planning, positive reinterpretation and growth (PRG, seeking emotional and instrumental (social support decreased over the 2 years from diagnosis while passive acceptance increased. Openness/intellect and conscientiousness traits were associated with active coping and seeking instrumental support. Openness/intellect also associated with planning and PRG. These relationships did not vary over time. Perceived threat and serious consequences were associated with active coping but the effect diminished over time. Illness coherence (understanding of diabetes, personal and treatment control were associated with active coping, planning and seeking instrumental support and did not change over time. The coping strategies most commonly employed by diabetic patients are adaptive. Coping behavior changes over the 2 years from diagnosis. Promoting better understanding of diabetes, perceptions of personal control and treatment effectiveness are more likely than perception of health threat to sustain adaptive problem focused coping behavior.

  11. Telling the Tale and Living Well: Adolescent Narrative Identity, Personality Traits, and Well-Being Across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Myftari, Ella; McAnally, Helena M; Chen, Yan; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona; Robertson, Sarah-Jane

    2017-03-01

    This study explored links between narrative identity, personality traits, and well-being for 263 adolescents (age 12-21) from three New Zealand cultures: Māori, Chinese, and European. Turning-point narratives were assessed for autobiographical reasoning (causal coherence), local thematic coherence, emotional expressivity, and topic. Across cultures, older adolescents with higher causal coherence reported better well-being. Younger adolescents with higher causal coherence instead reported poorer well-being. Personal development topics were positively linked to well-being for New Zealand European adolescents only, and thematic coherence was positively linked to well-being for Māori adolescents only. Negative expressivity, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness were also linked to well-being. Implications of these cultural similarities and differences are considered for theories of narrative identity, personality, and adolescent well-being. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Identity's identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    -specialized language in which it also serves a number of functions – some of which are quite fundamental to society as such. In other words, the lexeme identity is a polysemic word and has multiple, well, identities. Given that it appears to have a number of functions in a variety of registers, including terminologies...... in Academic English and more everyday-based English, identity as a lexeme is definitely worth having a look at. This paper presents a lexicological study of identity in which some of its senses are identified and their behaviors in actual discourse are observed. Drawing on data from the 2011 section...... of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a behavioral profile of the distributional characteristics of identity is set up. Behavioral profiling is a lexicographical method developed by the corpus linguist Stefan Th. Gries which, by applying semantic ID tagging and statistical analysis, provides a fine...

  13. Influences of gender identity on children's maltreatment of gender-nonconforming peers: a person × target analysis of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Rachel E; Cooper, Patrick J; Perry, David G

    2014-05-01

    We investigated whether gender identity influences preadolescents' tendency to single out gender-atypical peers for abuse. Data were gathered from 195 boys and girls (M age = 10.1 years) in the fall and spring of a school year. Children self-reported multiple dimensions of gender identity (intergroup bias, felt pressure for gender differentiation, felt gender typicality, gender contentedness); peers assessed each other's social behavior (gender nonconformity, aggression toward each classmate). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how children's attacks on gender-nonconforming peers (relative to their attacks on other peers) changed over the school year depending on their gender identity. There was modest support for the hypothesis that overconfident, arrogant gender identity promotes abuse of gender-atypical peers but considerable support for the hypothesis that insecure, self-questioning gender identity fosters this tendency. Implications for issues central to contemporary personality theory (e.g., Person × Situation interaction) are discussed. New and somewhat surprising information about the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of gender-nonconforming preadolescents is provided.

  14. Personal identity narratives of therapeutic songwriting participants following Spinal Cord Injury: A case series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Chantal; Rickard, Nikki; Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity Anne

    2018-07-01

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients face unique identity challenges associated with physical limitations, higher comorbid depression, increased suicidality and reduced subjective well-being. Post-injury identity is often unaddressed in subacute rehabilitation environments where critical physical and functional rehabilitation goals are prioritized. Therapeutic songwriting has demonstrated prior efficacy in promoting healthy adjustment and as a means of expression for post-injury narratives. The current study sought to examine the identity narratives of therapeutic songwriting participants. Case-series analysis of the individual identity trajectories of eight individuals. Subacute rehabilitation facility, Victoria, Australia. Eight individuals with an SCI; 7 males and 1 female. Six-week therapeutic songwriting intervention facilitated by a music therapist to promote identity rehabilitation. Identity, subjective well-being and distress, emotional state. Three participants demonstrated positive trajectories and a further three showed negative trajectories; remaining participants were ambiguous in their response. Injury severity differentiated those with positive trajectories from those with negative trajectories, with greater injury severity apparent for those showing negative trends. Self-concept also improved more in those with positive trajectories. Core demographic variables did not however meaningfully predict the direction of change in core identity or wellbeing indices. Identity-focused songwriting holds promise as a means of promoting healthy identity reintegration. Further research on benefits for those with less severe spinal injuries is warranted.

  15. Reorganization of personal identity in the context of motivational dynamics and internal dialogical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Identity is constantly constructed and reconstructed. It may be assumed that there are six fundamental motivational goals according to which it is organized: self-esteem, self-efficacy, continuity, distinctiveness, belonging, and meaning (Vignoles, 2011). Moreover, identity is shaped by its dialogical nature (Hermans, 2003; van Halen & Janssen, 2004). The longitudinal study was conducted to examine both the motivational and the dialogical basis of identity structure dynamics. The results showed that the more the identity element was connected with a sense of continuity and the more dialogical it was, the greater the perceived centrality of this element was after two months. Furthermore, the more the identity element satisfied the self-esteem and belonging motives, the more positive was the affect ascribed to it. In the behavioral domain of identity, participants more strongly manifested those identity aspects that were earlier rated as more dialogical and satisfying the motive of belonging. The results showed that the motivational underpinnings of identity along with its dialogical nature explain changes in identity structure. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  17. Split Personality: Assessing the Potential for Organizational Identity in Reinforcing U.S. Military Jointness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    of Identity ...........................................................................................................36 Hybrid -Organizational...force through a theoretical lens, developing a working understanding of military identity. Analysis of the environment will illustrate the hybrid ... departmental civilians, and contractors in the DoD’s employ, and is consistent with CJCS usage. Joint Force. The Joint Force describes a notional

  18. Differential contributions of the anterior temporal and medial temporal lobe to the retrieval of memory for person identity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Suzuki, Chisato; Shigemune, Yayoi; Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko

    2008-12-01

    Although previous studies have suggested the importance of the bilateral anterior temporal (ATL) and medial temporal lobes (MTL) in the retrieval of person identity information, there is little evidence concerning how these regions differentially contribute to the process. Here we investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Before scanning, subjects learned associations among faces (F), names (N), and job titles (as a form of person-related semantics, S). During retrieval with fMRI, subjects were presented with previously learned and new S stimuli, and judged whether the stimuli were old or new. Successful retrieval (H) trials were divided into three conditions: retrieval of S and associated F and N (HSFN); retrieval of S and associated F (HSF); and retrieval of S only (HS). The left ATL was significantly activated in HSFN, compared to HSF or HS, whereas the right ATL and MTL were significantly activated in HSFN and HSF relative to HS. In addition, activity in bilateral ATL was significantly correlated with reaction time for HSFN, whereas we found no significant correlation between activity in the right MTL and reaction time in any condition. The present findings suggest that the left ATL may mediate associations between names and person-related semantic information, whereas the right ATL mediates the association between faces and person-related semantic information in memory for person identity information. In addition, activation of the right MTL region implies that this area may contribute to a more general relational processing of associative components, including memory for person identity information. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. [Psychological features of body integrity identity disorder (BIID): personality traits, interpersonal aspects, coping mechanisms regarding stress and conflicts, body perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, S; Möller, J; Skoruppa, S; Stirn, A

    2014-05-01

    In BIID a disorder of body identity, concerned subjects desire an amputation of a healthy limb. So far, no psychiatric comorbidity was found in the few studies on BIID-subjects. This study explored clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, interpersonal aspects and coping strategies in 15 BIID persons. Psychometric testing on the topics (1) clinical symptoms, (2) personality and interpersonal aspects, (3) coping strategies, (4) attitudes towards the body were used and statistically evaluated with the T-test for one sample. Some psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) could be excluded although an increased tendency of depressiveness was found. BIID subjects showed specific personality and interpersonal characteristics: high agreeableness, autonomy, autarky and restrained behaviour towards others. Stress and conflicts are managed by self-control and self-affirmation. Their subjective physical attractiveness was low. BIID persons do not exhibit psychopathological characteristics (such as anxiety, depression or OCD), but do show specifics in personality, relationships and coping mechanisms. In the future, further personality traits and personality disorders should be investigated to shed more light on the categorisation and treatment of BIID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Motivation and Justice at Work: The Role of Emotion and Cognition Components of Personal and Collective Work Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Nordhall; Ola Nordhall; Igor Knez

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity (including emotion and cognition components), in predicting work motivation (operationalized as work self-determined motivation) and organizational justice (operationalized as organizational pay justice). Digitized questionnaires were distributed by e-mail to 2905 members, teachers, of a Swedish trade union. A total of 768 individuals answered the questionnaire and by that participated in this study. Pe...

  2. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  3. Who commits virtual identity suicide? Differences in privacy concerns, Internet addiction, and personality between Facebook users and quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph; Bohn, Manuel; Voracek, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Social networking sites such as Facebook attract millions of users by offering highly interactive social communications. Recently, a counter movement of users has formed, deciding to leave social networks by quitting their accounts (i.e., virtual identity suicide). To investigate whether Facebook quitters (n=310) differ from Facebook users (n=321), we examined privacy concerns, Internet addiction scores, and personality. We found Facebook quitters to be significantly more cautious about their privacy, having higher Internet addiction scores, and being more conscientious than Facebook users. The main self-stated reason for committing virtual identity suicide was privacy concerns (48 percent). Although the adequacy of privacy in online communication has been questioned, privacy is still an important issue in online social communications.

  4. Supervising the Professional Doctoral Student: Less Process and Progress, More Peripheral Participation and Personal Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Kate; Abbott, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a discussion around issues of identity for part-time professional doctoral students. The current supervision arrangements of a professional doctoral programme were considered, using an exploratory study, to explore the idea that supervision for competent confident professionals should, in the early stages, focus on identity…

  5. School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…

  6. "Not the Same Person Anymore": Groupwork, Identity and Social Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Rowaida; Kennedy, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that identity may be key to understanding why social presence has been considered so important to successful learning experiences. A qualitative case study of 10 students and 4 tutors in an online postgraduate education program was conducted. The research applied the work of Goffman to explain the relationship between social…

  7. Education for Cosmopolitanism: Cosmopolitanism as a Personal Cultural Identity Model for and within International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunesch, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a model of cosmopolitanism, taken from the conceptual part of the author's research study into "The Relationship between Multilingualism and Cosmopolitanism". Cosmopolitan cultural identity is introduced as straddling the global and the local, encompassing questions of cultural mastery, metaculturality, mobility and…

  8. Prevention for HIV-Seropositive Persons: Successive Approximation Toward a New Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Swendeman, Dallas

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a three-module intervention based on social action theory that focuses on health promotion and social identity formation for seropositive youth. The modules are designed to reduce transmission of HIV by reducing sexual and substance abuse acts, increasing healthy acts and adherence to care, and maintaining positive behavioral…

  9. Identity Crises in Love and at Work: Dispositional Optimism as a Durable Personal Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 453), the identity stress process is investigated in terms of crises in intimate relationships and at the workplace. I discuss dispositional optimism as a psychological resource that is relatively independent of the situation and the self, making it ideal for structurally disadvantaged actors and for…

  10. How Living or Traveling to Foreign Locations Influences Adults' Worldviews and Impacts Personal Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2014-01-01

    People are living and traveling to places all over the world. An exploration of how this movement influences learners' worldviews has implications for adult development, identity, and learning. The purpose of this paper is to present a phenomenological study conducted in the U.S. that examined how individuals' living or traveling…

  11. Motivations, Values, and Conflict Resolution: Students' Integration of Personal and Professional Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Edicts within the Council on Social Work Education's 2008 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards address the importance of understanding the intersection of personal and professional values. Twenty MSW students, chosen on the basis of diverse cultural and personal characteristics, were interviewed about their motivations for pursuing a MSW…

  12. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  13. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  14. Professional development in person: identity and the construction of teaching within a high school science department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneroff, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    This is a narrative inquiry into the role of professional development in the construction of teaching practice by an exemplary urban high school science teacher. I collected data during 3 years of ethnographic participant observation in Marie Gonzalez's classroom. Marie told stories about her experiences in ten years of professional development focused on inquiry science teaching. I use a social practice theory lens to analyze my own stories as well as Marie's. I make the case that science teaching is best understood as mediated by socially-constructed identities rather than as the end-product of knowledge and beliefs. The cognitive paradigm for understanding teachers' professional learning fails to consistently produce transformations of teaching practice. In order to design professional development with science teachers that is generative of new knowledge, and is self-sustaining, we must understand how to build knowledge of how to problematize identities and consciously use social practice theory.

  15. Designer's identity: Development of personal attributes and design skills over education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Designers’ Professional identity (DPI) is a social- and self-perceptive construct through which designers are able to identify themselves. To understand the development of DPI, not just as a profession but also as an educational process, there is a need to consider the designer as both individual...... and trained professional. These interactions become also a necessary foundation for professionalism that is especially important for design activity. For this study, a psychometric survey was developed by taking in consideration both aspects of DPI, making use of a set of elements distilled from literature...... to the process of identity consolidation over the educational period. Further, DPI consolidates through a lifelong learning process. These results provide an initial insight into the development of DPI and the challenges of measuring this subjective aspect over education....

  16. Simulation of multiple personalities: a review of research comparing diagnosed and simulated dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A; VanBergen, Alexandra

    2014-02-01

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) has long been surrounded by controversy due to disagreement about its etiology and the validity of its associated phenomena. Researchers have conducted studies comparing people diagnosed with DID and people simulating DID in order to better understand the disorder. The current research presents a systematic review of this DID simulation research. The literature consists of 20 studies and contains several replicated findings. Replicated differences between the groups include symptom presentation, identity presentation, and cognitive processing deficits. Replicated similarities between the groups include interidentity transfer of information as shown by measures of recall, recognition, and priming. Despite some consistent findings, this research literature is hindered by methodological flaws that reduce experimental validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role identity and its implications in the athlete’s personal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Miron

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study seeks to highlight the strong identification of athletes with the role they fulfill and the possible consequences that a limited self-identity can have upon entering a transition phase towards another career outside the sporting world and other social settings.Methods. For accomplishing the goals of this essay I have used the methods of observation and bibliographical study.Conclusions. Analysis reveals that coincidences, both positive and negative, associated with this strong sportive identity, do indeed exist. Sportive identity has been related to improvement of sportive performances rise of self-confidence improvement of the social relations and interactions and diminishment of anxiety. On the other hand, one-dimensional orientation towards achieving sportive excellence, which comes along with competing in the elite class, can have potential psychological and social dangers The high level of identification with the role of an athlete can devalorify a quality education or even completely ignore it in some of the development stages, thus taking away from the athletes’ important competences necessary in the development of the individual.

  18. Beliefs about dangerousness of people with mental health problems: the role of media reports and personal exposure to threat or harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, N J; Jorm, A F; Morgan, A J

    2016-09-01

    To assess the associations between beliefs about the dangerousness of people with mental health problems and exposure to media reports of violence or personal experiences of fear, threat or harm. Telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18+. Respondents heard a vignette of a person with depression or early schizophrenia and were asked whether they believed him to be dangerous. Other questions covered past 12-month recall of media reports of violence and mental health problems, contact with and experiences of fear, threat or harm by people with mental health problems. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the associations between beliefs about dangerousness and media and these types of contact with people with mental health problems. For the early schizophrenia vignette, recall of media reports and having felt afraid of someone were associated with beliefs about dangerousness. For the depression vignette, media reports about violence and mental health problems or the experiences of feeling afraid or having been threatened or harmed were not strongly associated with beliefs about dangerousness. For both vignettes, knowing someone with a mental health problem and having a higher level of education were associated with less belief in dangerousness. Media reports may play a greater role in forming attitudes in low prevalence disorders and further efforts to reduce any adverse impact of media reporting should focus on these disorders. The study also supports the effectiveness of contact with people with mental health problems in reducing beliefs about dangerousness.

  19. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Tacit metarepresentation and affective sense of personal identity. An approach to understanding severe psychiatric disorders of adolescence and young adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The results of present-day research in the field of "Dissociation Paradigm", regarding the capacity of the human mind to perceive, learn, and store information that in appearance passes as unnoticed, support the constructivist hypothesis of the active, selective and constructive condition of consciousness, in addition to the existence of a tacit dimension of knowledge that operates in functional relationship with the former. Unconscious mental states are intrinsically intentional. This is to say that they imply a semantic or cognitive connotation that is capable of affecting phenomenical experience and therefore behavior. In addition, the precocious existence of a tacit metarepresentational system in normally developed children has been proven, which is essential for guaranteeing the deployment of the process of functional coevolution between affectivity and consciousness, by which the experience of personal identity is acquired. These discoveries allow the inference of a "tacit affective metarepresentational recurrence", the organizational foundation on which a unified, sustainable, and continuous sense of the experience of personal identity is structured, and also allow us to hypothesize a "tacit metarepresentational mourning", a specific type of grief which is the chief foundation of the majority of psychopathological disorders. This concept may represent a potential explanation of the severe mental disorders of adolescence and young adulthood. The hypothesis of the present work is that, in the ambiguous context of Postmodern Culture, the prolongation of the adolescent period, facilitated by the welfare state, hinders the dealing with the aforementioned mourning, leading to an increment of depressive states and suicidal behavior among young people.

  1. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    OpenAIRE

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer scre...

  2. The acquisition of face and person identity information following anterior temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Maria; Seidenberg, Michael; Sabsevitz, Dave; Swanson, Sara; Hermann, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    Thirty unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) subjects (15 right and 15 left) and 15 controls were presented a multitrial learning task in which unfamiliar faces were paired with biographical information (occupation, city location, and a person's name). Face recognition hits were similar between groups, but the right ATL group committed more false-positive errors to face foils. Both left and right ATL groups were impaired relative to controls in acquiring biographical information, but the deficit was more pronounced for the left ATL group. Recall levels also varied for the different types of biographical information; occupation was most commonly recalled followed by city name and person name. In addition, city and person name recall was more likely when occupation was also recalled. Overall, recall of biographical information was positively correlated with clinical measures of anterograde episodic memory. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of the temporal lobe and associative learning ability in the successful acquisition of new face semantic (biographical) representations.

  3. On being peripheral: Effects of identity insecurity on personal and collective self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Branscombe, N.R.; Spears, R.

    2002-01-01

    We examined collective self-esteem and personal self-esteem as a function of anticipated changes in one's prototypicality within a valued ingroup. In Study 1 (N = 80), all participants received information that they were currently peripheral group members. Expectations for the future were then

  4. Change and Persistence of Personal Identities after the Transition to Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how retired people's self-image differs from that of working people, and what factors predict people's self-definition as professionals or retirees. Seven hundred ninety-two Swiss persons aged 58-70 (386 men, 406 women; 349 not retired, 443 retired) were asked to rate the importance of different…

  5. College Experiences for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Personal Identity, Public Disclosure, and Institutional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Bradley E.; Thompson, Kerry; Anderson, Amelia; Mintz, Amanda; Locks, Taylor; Morgan, Lindee; Edelstein, Jeffrey; Wolz, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are completing high school with reasonable expectations for postsecondary success. College educators are likely ill prepared to provide appropriate support for these students. Based on personal interviews with a diverse group of students with autism, this study (a) amplifies these students' voices,…

  6. On being peripheral : effects of identity insecurity on personal and collective self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J; Branscombe, NR; Spears, R

    2002-01-01

    We examined collective self-esteem and personal self-esteem as a function of anticipated changes in one's prototypicality, within a valued ingroup. In Study, 1 (N=80), all participants received information that they, it-ere currently peripheral group members. Expectations for the future were then

  7. Perceived In-Group Homogeneity as a Function of Group Membership Salience and Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Ting; Ottati, Victor

    1995-01-01

    Considers two determinants--one cognitive and the other motivational--of perceptual fluctuations of in-group variation. Results indicate that when motivation to protect social or personal identity from threat is absent, priming the in-group social category promotes a homogeneous and cohesive view of the in-group. (RJM)

  8. Personal practical theories, self-identity, and astronomy teachers' interactive decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Marvin Elliot

    2005-12-01

    Research has suggested that beliefs play a major role in selecting and defining teaching tasks and organizing the knowledge needed to perform those tasks. Teachers, consciously or unconsciously, depend on beliefs because they work in ill-structured domains where traditional problem solving techniques and academic knowledge do not work as well. The goal of this project was to establish, if possible, a causal link between teacher beliefs and interactive decision making through empirical, qualitative research. The hypothesis was, that when faced with those sorts of situations, the participants would fall back on belief systems that did not necessarily have a rational basis. The research focused on astronomy teachers in community colleges. Since most science reform efforts are directed toward primary and secondary schools, community college science teaching remains a neglected area of study. Yet community colleges are predicted to play an increasingly important role in higher education in the near future. For many students, community college science classes may represent their last encounter with formal, academic, science programs. The three participants were interviewed and observed in the classroom over an extended period. Initial interviews were conducted with each participant to capture stated beliefs. After the extensive classroom observations, stimulated recall interviews were held with each participant viewing short, edited segments of the classroom videotapes. No direct causal link between beliefs (in the conventional sense of the word) and participant decision making is apparent from this empirical research. However, the construct of personal practical theories, which includes beliefs as one component, shows promise as a significant determining factor in interactive decision making. Themes have been developed that represent each participant's personal practical theories. The strongest theme, applicable to all participants, is based on the notion of

  9. THE ANALYZE OF THE PERSONALITY, THE VISUAL IDENTITY AND BRAND COMMUNICATION OF DESTINATION - ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IORDACHE MARIA CARMEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of a national tourist brand has an impact on medium term both on the country brand development as well as on the growth of domestic and foreign tourist markets. Tourism is one of the axes that generate income to the government and a tourist brand is only a part of a country brand - indeed an important one through the high visibility it enjoys. The development of a national tourist brand is particularly important as Romania does not have a sharp image as a tourist destination, with its internal and external promotion quite inadequate and undersized. Therefore, this activity must overcome the identity crisis that Romania faces today. A wider involvement in promoting national resources and values would generate benefits for various categories: raising living standards through the expansion and development of economic activities, openness to what a value system means in tourism and sustainable tourism, attracting foreign investors, new business opportunities, increasing public confidence in the business environment, international fundraising for developing ecological and cultural projects etc

  10. Three cases of dissociative identity disorder and co-occurring borderline personality disorder treated with dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Susan M; Gregory, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is an under-researched entity and there are no clinical trials employing manual-based therapies and validated outcome measures. There is evidence that borderline personality disorder (BPD) commonly co-occurs with DID and can worsen its course. The authors report three cases of DID with co-occurring BPD that we successfully treated with a manual-based treatment, Dynamic Deconstructive Psychotherapy (DDP). Each of the three clients achieved a 34% to 79% reduction in their Dissociative Experiences Scale scores within 12 months of initiating therapy. Dynamic Deconstructive Psychotherapy was developed for treatment refractory BPD and differs in some respects from expert consensus treatment of DID. It may be a promising modality for DID complicated by co-occurring BPD.

  11. The Civil Identity Registry Unification and Personal Data Protection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Gaziero Cella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has long been treated the idea of discipline society and control society, dealing, for example, the works of Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze. The contemporary brought numerous developments in relation to the concepts assigned by Foucault and Deleuze, and many of these results were predicted by the analysis of events by these thinkers, however we are still in search for understanding the evolution of societies in relation to power and its maintenance, Law, Ethics, and possible future social outcomes. It is necessary to understand the dialectics of this topic to understand the current situation and thinking about the future. The scope of this paper is to understand the social control and the ramifications of power called the Information Society, both in public and in the private sphere. The state of the art, with the advent of internet, it is significant in the history of communications in terms of speed and agility. In light of the theoretical framework chosen for the development of this paper, the control is established by the idea of discipline and the society of control is the successor to the disciplinary paradigm (the discipline is already incorporated. For Deleuze, surveillance and monitoring activities are forms of control, ie, the reinvention of Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon. The ramifications of this form of society make use of the internet and its easy access to propagate the largest number of people possible, whether through social networking programs, reality shows, including surveillance cameras, just like George Orwell referred in his book 1984. We intend to analyze the information quickly overcomes the lack of security, given that it is today, for example, cases such as the Steering Committee of the National Civil Identification Record System - Brazilian Sirc, just implement a project- emission pilot of the new ID card - RIC, where you may have a unification of personal data and the bureaucracy of citizen service services

  12. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  13. Neural correlates of ostracism in transgender persons living according to their gender identity: a potential risk marker for psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Wierckx, Katrien; Boccadoro, Sara; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2018-01-15

    Stigmatization in society carries a high risk for development of psychopathology. Transgender persons are at particularly high risk for such stigmatization and social rejection by others. However, the neural correlates of ostracism in this group have not been captured. Twenty transgender men (TM, female-to-male) and 19 transgender women (TW, male-to-female) already living in their gender identity and 20 cisgender men (CM) and 20 cisgender women (CW) completed a cyberball task assessing both exclusion and re-inclusion during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During psychosocial stress between-group differences were found in the dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Patterns were consistent with sex assigned at birth, i.e. CW showed greater activation in dorsal ACC and IFG relative to CM and TW. During re-inclusion, transgender persons showed greater ventral ACC activity relative to CW, possibly indicating persistent feelings of exclusion. Functional connectivity analyses supported these findings but showed a particularly altered functional connectivity between ACC and lateral prefrontal cortex in TM, which may suggest reduced emotional regulation to the ostracism experience in this group. Depressive symptoms or hormonal levels were not associated with these findings. The results bear implications for the role of social exclusion in development of mental health problems in socially marginalized groups.

  14. Social reintegration of convicts. The paradigm of personal, social and cultural-civilization identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bałandynowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of the social situation of children and youth shows a presence of at least three unfavourable phenomena determining the result of resocialization. Firstly, it is an individual and group depression resulting in a loss of control over everyday environment and the loss of social value as a consequence of a feeling of lack of usefulness, autonomy, and independence. High degree of unfulfilling of the basic and developmental needs leads the young people to pauperization, exclusion and resignation from their own aspirations and life goals. Another phenomenon which distorts the entity’s process of taking root in a society is sociopathy, understood as a form of egoism and indifference to human fate. It emerges in an atmosphere of excessive competition and fulfilling needs even at a price of harming others and extreme indifference, lack of empathy for their existential and educational problems. The process of social sociopathy is accompanied by an excessive commercialisation and careerism. Person becomes an object, loses his distinctness and ceases to be responsible for his choices made in the process of socialization. Present knowledge of the resocialization proves that the analyses of functioning of the children and adults in their real environment gives the most valuable diagnostic data, helpful when setting strategy for correcting faulty interactions between family members.

  15. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  16. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  17. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  18. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  19. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tsujimura

    2017-09-01

    Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.

  20. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance ofindigenous concepts of personal identity to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kipton; Gaie, Joseph Br

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the possible relevance of African communalism to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We examine various interpretations of African communalism, which many consider to be the cardinal insight of African thought. We suggest several applications of this indigenous notion of personhood to HIV prevention in general and to routine HIV-testing policies in particular. This analysis demonstrates some of the ethical dilemmas and cultural complexities inherent in designing as well as implementing effective HIV-prevention programmes that strike a conscientious balance between protecting individual freedoms and securing public health. Recovering past traditions (such as African conceptions of personal identity) is valuable not only for the purpose of self-identification but also for helping us meet the challenges and problems of today in Africa. We also suggest that the human-rights-based approach to HIV prevention, which strives to protect individuals, is possibly incompatible with the socio-ethical ideals espoused by African communalism. We conclude that public health programmes in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa would be more effective if those who designed and implemented them possessed a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices.

  1. Fashioning Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    We dress to communicate who we are, or who we would like others to think we are, telling seductive fashion narratives through our adornment. Yet, today, fashion has been democratized through high-low collaborations, social media and real-time fashion mediation, complicating the basic dynamic...... of identity displays, and creating tension between personal statements and social performances. Fashioning Identity explores how this tension is performed through fashion production and consumption,by examining a diverse series of case studies - from ninety-year old fashion icons to the paradoxical rebellion...... by readdressing Fred Davis' seminal concept of 'identity ambivalence' in Fashion, Culture and Identity (1992), Mackinney-Valentin argues that we are in an epoch of 'status ambivalence', in which fashioning one's own identity has become increasingly complicated....

  2. Personal Identity Verification

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIV is the system USAID uses to comply with Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-12, which requires Federal agencies to adopt policies, procedures, and...

  3. OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES OF PARENTS AND STUDENTS FOR SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT, SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND GENDER IDENTITY OF PERSONS WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisera MLADENOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Persons with autism can experience severe issues during the puberty and adolescence resulting from the changes that occur in their body. People with autism are sexual beings. They have sexual needs and desires as other people. Sexual development is part of the overall development of their personality.The main objective of this research was to present sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity among persons with autism. Furthermore, we determined the views and opinions of the parents and students, special educators and rehabilitators, about children with autism. Basic tasks of this research were: to determine whether persons with autism have a clear picture and concept of their sexuality, whether the parents discuss this topic with their children, whether and how persons with autism know what sex is, what is contraception, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases or intimate parts of the body, whether they show some kind of sexual behavior, and whether the parents and students should be educated regarding the sexual development, behavior, and sexual identity of persons with autism.The survey was conducted over a period of almost 3 months, which included 94 respondents.Obtained data was collected, grouped, tabled, and processed with the standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Еxact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and interpretation of the results, we can conclude that in Macedonian families and schools there is a very small extent or no existence of communication between the parents and professionals with persons with autism about sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity. Persons with autism have very little or no general knowledge about sexuality.

  4. 'I am not a dyslexic person I'm a person with dyslexia': identity constructions of dyslexia among students in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William

    2014-02-01

    To introduce how nursing students discursively construct their dyslexic identities. Identity mediates many important facets of a student's scholarly journey and the availability and use of discourses play a critical part in their ongoing construction. A discourse-based design was used to examine the language employed by students in constructing their dyslexic identities. Using narrative methods, 12 student nurses with dyslexia from two higher education institutions in the Republic of Ireland were interviewed during the period February-July 2012. Discourse analysis of interviews entailed a two-stage approach: leading identity analysis followed by thematic analysis. Discourses used by students to construct their dyslexic identity correspond with positions on an 'Embracer, Passive Engager and Resister' continuum heuristic. The majority of students rejected any reference to using medical or disabled discourses and instead drew on contemporary language in constructing their dyslexic identity. Nine of the 12 students did not disclose their dyslexic identity in practice settings and drew on not being understood to support this position. In addition, a discourse linking 'being stupid' with dyslexia was pervasive in most student narratives and evolved from historical as well as more recent interactions in nurse education. This study indicates variation in how students discursively construct their dyslexic identities, which, in turn, has an impact on disclosure behaviours. Policy leaders must continue to be mindful of wider sociocultural and individualized understandings of dyslexic identities to enhance inclusion prerogatives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The signer and the sign: cortical correlates of person identity and language processing from point-light displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; Capek, Cheryl M; Gazarian, Karine; MacSweeney, Mairéad; Woll, Bencie; David, Anthony S; McGuire, Philip K; Brammer, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the first to explore the cortical correlates of signed language (SL) processing under point-light display conditions, the observer identified either a signer or a lexical sign from a display in which different signers were seen producing a number of different individual signs. Many of the regions activated by point-light under these conditions replicated those previously reported for full-image displays, including regions within the inferior temporal cortex that are specialised for face and body-part identification, although such body parts were invisible in the display. Right frontal regions were also recruited - a pattern not usually seen in full-image SL processing. This activation may reflect the recruitment of information about person identity from the reduced display. A direct comparison of identify-signer and identify-sign conditions showed these tasks relied to a different extent on the posterior inferior regions. Signer identification elicited greater activation than sign identification in (bilateral) inferior temporal gyri (BA 37/19), fusiform gyri (BA 37), middle and posterior portions of the middle temporal gyri (BAs 37 and 19), and superior temporal gyri (BA 22 and 42). Right inferior frontal cortex was a further focus of differential activation (signer>sign). These findings suggest that the neural systems supporting point-light displays for the processing of SL rely on a cortical network including areas of the inferior temporal cortex specialized for face and body identification. While this might be predicted from other studies of whole body point-light actions (Vaina, Solomon, Chowdhury, Sinha, & Belliveau, 2001) it is not predicted from the perspective of spoken language processing, where voice characteristics and speech content recruit distinct cortical regions (Stevens, 2004) in addition to a common network. In this respect, our findings contrast with studies of voice/speech recognition (Von Kriegstein, Kleinschmidt, Sterzer

  6. Did Curiosity Kill the Cat? Relationship Between Trait Curiosity, Creative Self-Efficacy and Creative Personal Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Karwowski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study presented in this article was to examine the relationship between trait curiosity and two self-concept constructs which are gaining popularity in the creativity literature – creative self-efficacy (CSE and creative personal identity (CPI. Although the role of curiosity in creativity seems well established, in fact there is little empirical evidence of the relationship between curiosity treated as a trait and both CSE and CPI. In a study conducted on a sample of middle and high school Polish students (N = 284; 55% female, aged 13–18, M = 14.74, SD = 1.14, curiosity was measured by the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II: Kashdan, Gallagher, Silvia, Winterstein, Breen, Terhar, & Steger, 2009 and CSE and CPI by the Short Scale of Creative Self (SSCS; Karwowski, Lebuda, & Wiśniewska, in press. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the existence of substantial correlations between measured constructs. Latent factor of CSE correlated strongly with a tendency to seek out new experiences (stretching, r = .72 and an acceptance of unpredictability (embracing, r = .67, while CPI correlated substantially with stretching (r = .62 and slightly less with embracing (r = .48 – all correlations were highly reliable (p < .001. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis showed the existence of a strong relationship between the higher-order factor of curiosity (composed of stretching and embracing and creative self (composed of CSE and CPI: r = .75, which may indicate common basis of creativity and curiosity. The consequences of curiosity for the development of CSE and CPI are discussed.

  7. Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: a prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylens, Gunter; Verroken, Charlotte; De Cock, Sanne; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Cuypere, Griet

    2014-01-01

    At the start of gender reassignment therapy, persons with a gender identity disorder (GID) may deal with various forms of psychopathology. Until now, a limited number of publications focus on the effect of the different phases of treatment on this comorbidity and other psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to investigate how gender reassignment therapy affects psychopathology and other psychosocial factors. This is a prospective study that assessed 57 individuals with GID by using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) at three different points of time: at presentation, after the start of hormonal treatment, and after sex reassignment surgery (SRS). Questionnaires on psychosocial variables were used to evaluate the evolution between the presentation and the postoperative period. The data were statistically analyzed by using SPSS 19.0, with significance levels set at P < 0.05. The psychopathological parameters include overall psychoneurotic distress, anxiety, agoraphobia, depression, somatization, paranoid ideation/psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and sleeping problems. The psychosocial parameters consist of relationship, living situation, employment, sexual contacts, social contacts, substance abuse, and suicide attempt. A difference in SCL-90 overall psychoneurotic distress was observed at the different points of assessments (P = 0.003), with the most prominent decrease occurring after the initiation of hormone therapy (P < 0.001). Significant decreases were found in the subscales such as anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility. Furthermore, the SCL-90 scores resembled those of a general population after hormone therapy was initiated. Analysis of the psychosocial variables showed no significant differences between pre- and postoperative assessments. A marked reduction in psychopathology occurs during the process of sex reassignment therapy, especially after the initiation of hormone therapy. © 2013

  8. Identity processes and coping strategies in college students : Short-term longitudinal dynamics and the role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Duriez, B.; Schwartz, S.J.; Vanhalst, J.

    2012-01-01

    Coping strategies and identity processes are hypothesized to influence one another over time. This three-wave longitudinal study (N = 458; 84.9% women) examined, for the first time, how and to what extent identity processes (i.e., commitment making, identification with commitment, exploration in

  9. Personal and Interpersonal Value System, Self-Perception and Identity of Spanish Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the predominant values system among a sample of Spanish nurses, to identify how values are tied to professional nursing identity and determine differences in values and identity between socio-demographic variables as a gender, citizenship and/or nursing service. Cross-sectional study was performed with a…

  10. "It Is Not Wit, It Is Truth:" Transcending the Narrative Bounds of Professional and Personal Identity in Life and in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Michelle L

    2016-09-01

    Taking inspiration from the film Wit (2001), adapted from Margaret Edson's (1999) Pulitzer Prize-winning play, this article explores the particularities of witnessing a cinematic cancer narrative juxtaposed with the author's own cancer narrative. The analysis reveals the tenuous line between death and dying, illness and wellness, life and living and the resulting identities shaped in the process of understanding both from a personal and professional lens. By framing these representations of illness experience within the narrative constructions of drama, time, metaphor and morality, the personal stories of intellectual knowledge converging with intimate and embodied knowing are revealed.

  11. A pessoa com deficiência e a crise das identidades na contemporaneidade The handicapped person and identity crisis in the present day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Barbosa Paiva Magalhães

    2010-04-01

    those individuals who differ from what is socially expected. The identity of the handicapped person tends, because of the stigma, to undergo processes of social control, in which important opportunities for metamorphosis are denied. Discussing identity seems to be, therefore, the connecting thread for understanding social and scholastic inclusion of the handicapped person

  12. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  13. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  14. RELATION OF IDENTITY AND SUBJECTIVE PICTURE OF THE COURSE OF LIFE OF THE PERSONALITY AT TEENAGERS AND YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yuryevich Kuzmin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of relation between identity and subjective picture of a personality’s life line in subjects -adolescents and young people. In the course of theoretical analysis of the problem in native (Kulesh, Burovihina, Vechkanova and foreign sources the authors come to the conclusion that the type of the relation between identity and subjective picture of life line in the subjects of different age remains debatable. The empiric research was conducted on the sample of 150 subjects with the help of LifeLine by Cronic, SJeI-test bt Soldatova and Semantic differential methods. As a result the authors found out that there exists specific relation between identity and life line picture different in adolescents and young people. The higher the subjects-young people esteem themselves on the scales of Semantic differential method, the less attention they pay to their past. In general, it is typical for the subjects undergoing the crisis stages of identity forming and having low self-esteem to direct much attention to their past. And on the contrary, the subjects with mature, formed identity typically pay attention to their future.

  15. The threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, S.; Touchard, P.; Ferrandery, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Second chapter of the book on the geopolitics of the sustainable development, this chapter deals with the threats of the climatic change on the earth and the humans. the authors analyze the consequences of the climatic change on the developing countries of the South and the necessity of a sustainable development implementation in the North. They inform on the resources depletion, the water problem, the nuclear activities and the public health and the french government policy facing the sustainable management of the territory. (A.L.B.)

  16. Healthcare Stereotype Threat in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W; Jackson, James S; Wheaton, Felicia

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare stereotype threat is the threat of being personally reduced to group stereotypes that commonly operate within the healthcare domain, including stereotypes regarding unhealthy lifestyles and inferior intelligence. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which people fear being judged in healthcare contexts on several characteristics, including race/ethnicity and age, and to test predictions that experience of such threats would be connected with poorer health and negative perceptions of health care. Data were collected as part of the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). A module on healthcare stereotype threat, designed by the research team, was administered to a random subset (n=2,048 of the total 20,555) of HRS participants. The final sample for the present healthcare stereotype threat experiment consists of 1,479 individuals. Logistic regression was used to test whether healthcare stereotype threat was associated with self-rated health, reported hypertension, and depressive symptoms, as well as with healthcare-related outcomes, including physician distrust, dissatisfaction with health care, and preventative care use. Seventeen percent of respondents reported healthcare stereotype threat with respect to one or more aspects of their identities. As predicted, healthcare stereotype threat was associated with higher physician distrust and dissatisfaction with health care, poorer mental and physical health (i.e., self-rated health, hypertension, and depressive symptoms), and lower odds of receiving the influenza vaccine. The first of its kind, this study demonstrates that people can experience healthcare stereotype threat on the basis of various stigmatized aspects of social identity, and that these experiences can be linked with larger health and healthcare-related outcomes, thereby contributing to disparities among minority groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Happiness and Values in the Formation of Personal Identity in Students of the Fifth and Sixth Grade at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorro, Estefanía Gomis; Fernández, María Ángela Morales; Corbí, Raquel Gilar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is twofold: first intending to assess the level at which students prioritize happiness; and second discerning how the experience of happiness affects the formation of their identity and their relationship with their environment, taking into account the values deduced from their perceptions, and understanding from…

  18. Ideology and Personality: Aspects of Identity Formation in Adolescents with Strong Attitudes Toward Sex-Role Equalitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Patricia Ann; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adolescents with strong attitudes for and against the sex role ideology of the Women's Movement were administered a Q-sort to study flexibility-rigidity and independence-dependence. The results showed that beliefs in equalitarian sex role behaviors are significantly related to aspects of identity formation in white middle class adolescent boys and…

  19. Exploring Type-and-Identity-Based Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme to Securely Manage Personal Health Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Gangopadhyay, Aryya; Tang, Qiang; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Commercial Web-based Personal-Health Record (PHR) systems can help patients to share their personal health records (PHRs) anytime from anywhere. PHRs are very sensitive data and an inappropriate disclosure may cause serious problems to an individual. Therefore commercial Web-based PHR systems have

  20. "He Shouldn't Have Put It That Way!" How Face Threats and Mitigation Strategies Affect Person Perception in Online Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Jucks, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Instructional strategies such as prompts, requests for clarification, and explicit feedback counter social desires of autonomy and appreciation, i.e., they threaten the face of their receiver. We report an online experiment on how readers perceive instructional face threats and what they accept as appropriate. One hundred and twenty-three…

  1. Bilingualism versus identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    1988-01-01

    During the last hundred years psychologists, philosophers and theologians have developed two different conceptions of personal identity. One of them insists that each person is a unique and transcendental being, whereas the other finds the personality deriving from interaction with other persons....... (This is the prevailing view today.) These theories are placed in relation to the difficulties an immigrant encounters....

  2. Shifting social identities as a strategy for deflecting threatening social comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, T; Gabriel, S; Bodenhausen, G V

    2000-09-01

    Results of three studies suggest that the multifaceted nature of identity provides a strategic basis for reducing the threat involved in upward social comparisons. After performing worse than a comparison standard, people may strategically emphasize aspects of their identity that differentiate them from the standard, thereby making the standard less relevant for self-evaluation. On the basis of previous research showing that persons low in self-esteem are less likely to make effective use of self-protection strategies, we hypothesized that this strategy of deflecting the threat involved in upward comparison (i.e., decreasing perceived comparability by emphasizing an unshared social identity) would be used primarily by persons who are characteristically high in self-esteem. This pattern was confirmed in three studies. Moreover, use of the strategy was associated with relatively more positive affect following threatening upward comparisons.

  3. Personal number Management : personal numbers and identity fraud – number strategies for security and privacy in an information society - part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    For the sake of clarity and manageability, this article is in the form of a checklist. It will be published in two parts. The first part in this issue presents some practical and juridical characteristics of personal number systems. But at the end of the day, it is the number strategy that

  4. Pleasure, pursuit of health or negotiation of identity? Personality correlates of food choice motives among young and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, M; Stark, K

    1999-08-01

    The clustering of four food choice motives (health, weight concern, pleasure and ideological reasons) and the relationship between personality and the food choice motives were analysed among young and middle-aged women in two studies. The personality variables included personal strivings, magical beliefs about food, awareness and internalization of thinness pressures, appearance and weight dissatisfaction, depression, self-esteem and symptoms of eating disorders. Study 1 was done with 171 young and middle-aged women. In Study 2, with data provided by 118 senior high-school girls, one cluster of girls who did not regard any of the food choice motives as important was found, otherwise the food choice clusters were fairly similar in both studies. They were labelled as health fosterers, gourmets, ideological eaters, health dieters and distressed dieters. Only the second dieter group, distressed dieters, showed low psychological well-being and symptoms of disordered eating. The results also indicated that ideological food choice motives (i.e. expression of one's identity via food) were best predicted by vegetarianism, magical beliefs about food and health, and personal strivings for ecological welfare and for understanding self and the world. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. How does a newly encountered face become familiar? The effect of within-person variability on adults' and children's perception of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kristen A; Laurence, Sarah; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2017-04-01

    Adults and children aged 6years and older easily recognize multiple images of a familiar face, but often perceive two images of an unfamiliar face as belonging to different identities. Here we examined the process by which a newly encountered face becomes familiar, defined as accurate recognition of multiple images that capture natural within-person variability in appearance. In Experiment 1 we examined whether exposure to within-person variability in appearance helps children learn a new face. Children aged 6-13years watched a 10-min video of a woman reading a story; she was filmed on a single day (low variability) or over three days, across which her appearance and filming conditions (e.g., camera, lighting) varied (high variability). After familiarization, participants sorted a set of images comprising novel images of the target identity intermixed with distractors. Compared to participants who received no familiarization, children showed evidence of learning only in the high-variability condition, in contrast to adults who showed evidence of learning in both the low- and high-variability conditions. Experiment 2 highlighted the efficiency with which adults learn a new face; their accuracy was comparable across training conditions despite variability in duration (1 vs. 10min) and type (video vs. static images) of training. Collectively, our findings show that exposure to variability leads to the formation of a robust representation of facial identity, consistent with perceptual learning in other domains (e.g., language), and that the development of face learning is protracted throughout childhood. We discuss possible underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Getting Personal: How Early Childhood Teacher Education Troubles Students' and Teacher Educators' Identities Regarding Subjectivity and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

    2005-01-01

    This article constitutes an attempt to investigate how student teachers and teacher educators in the context of Swedish early childhood teacher education are invented and reinvented by practices that are inspired by feminist and post-structural thinking. I give examples of practice that explicitly make use of different aspects of the personal,…

  7. Esprit de corps. On the relevance of Peirce's notion of 'person' in the study of the notion of 'Identity' in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Fadda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is the first survey on the relevance and the possible fertility of the notion of "person(ality" as emerging from Peirce's cosmologic and metaphysical essays published on The Monist in the 1890s (see CP 6.268 ff. and set in the frame of some semiotic and socio-psychologic questions connected to the New Media. The article is preceded by a short reflection on the peculiar way some Peircean terms can be set in the semiotic debate. My proposal consists in the application to the study of identity management in today's social networks (in particularly Facebook. Both the pars destruens (radical devaluation of individuality and the pars construens (the idea of person as "coordination and connection of ideas", together with their intersections, help us draw a perspective (based on the notion of continuity that may support us in focusing on the most recent trends of the social networks as, for instance, the progressive shrinking of the "private" dimension, and in particular the irruption - up to sheer invasion - of corporeality in the digital universe, though the body seemed, at the outset, to be banned or at least concealed. The Peircean devaluation of individuality implies, indeed, that the body is not more individual than the mind (as Rossella Fabbrichesi has recently and brilliantly shown, becoming at any time potentially available to public existence and fruition.

  8. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    on consumers' self-identities. The second part explored the role of food and beverage products in the construction of self-identities. The final part focused on the construction of brand identity for Supermalt. Findings - The article provides information on the self-identities constructed by Afro......-Caribbean informants. The food and beverage consumption of informants reflects their mixed cultural identity. The brand identity Supermalt appears to be malleable, with ample room for consumer co-construction. Perceptions of brand identity differ markedly among informants, who are all able to construct Supermalt......Purpose - The objective of this article is to conduct a case study of the Supermalt brand of malt beer, which has become the preferred beverage of Afro-Caribbean consumers in Brixton on a very limited marketing budget. Design/methodology/approach - The article uses the concepts of personal identity...

  9. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Of greatest importance in ethnic folklore are the recognised and unrecognised elements that are used when founding identity on tradition. For the aim of ethnic identification is to note and know the cultural features that connect me with people like me and separate me from people who are not like me. Every group and each of its members thus needs an opponent, a contact partner in order to identify itself. What about the Lapps? The ethnocentric values of ethnic folklore provide a model for this generalising comparison. 'They' are a potential danger, are unknown, strange, a threat from beyond the fells. They are sufficiently common for the group's ethnic feeling. It is here that we find tradition, folk tales, describing the community's traditional enemies, describing the threat from without, engendering preconceived ideas, conflicts and even war. The Lapps have never had an empire, they have never conquered others' territory, they have never engaged in systematic warfare against other peoples. For this reason Lapp tradition lacks an offensive ethnic folklore proper with emphasis on aggression, power, violence, heroism and an acceptance of the ideology of subordinating others. On the contrary,Lapp folklore is familiar with a tradition in which strangers are always threatening the Lapps' existence, plundering their territories, burning and destroying. The Lapp has always had to fight against alien powers, to give in or to outwit the great and powerful enemy. In the Lapp tradition the staalo represents an outside threat that cannot be directly concretised. If foes are regarded as concrete enemies that may be defeated in physical combat or that can be made to look ridiculous, a staalo is more mythical, more supranormal, more vague. One basic feature of the staalo tradition is that it only appears as one party to a conflict. The stories about the Lapp who succeeds in driving away a staalo threatening the community, to outwit the stupid giant or to kill

  10. Linear equations and rap battles: how students in a wired classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities in hybrid spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    This paper draws on the constructs of hybridity, figured worlds, and cultural capital to examine how a group of African-American students in a technology-driven, project-based algebra classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities during group work. Analyses of several vignettes of small group dynamics highlight how hybridity was established as the students engaged in multiple on-task and off-task computer-based activities, each of which drew on different lived experiences and forms of cultural capital. The paper ends with a discussion on how classrooms that make use of student-led collaborative work, and where students are afforded autonomy, have the potential to support the academic engagement of students from historically marginalized communities.

  11. I Move, therefore I am - A Comment on "The Importance of Sensing One's Movements in the World for the Sense of Personal Identity" by Haselager, Broens, & Quilici Gonzalez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nannini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The position taken by Haselager, Broens and Quilici Gonzalez in The Importance of Sensing One’s Movements in the World for the Sense of Personal Identity consists in three fundamental theses which can be summarized as follows: (1 The fundamental core of human self-consciousness is not language or thought but the body sense; (2 The traditional dichotomy between external and internal senses is false; (3 There is no prominence of the brain over the rest of the body with regard to the sense of identity that every human being has. This paper aims at showing that – while thesis (1 is perfectly convincing - theses (2 and (3 must be revisited in part since they are too committed to the kind of anti-representationalism proposed by Brooks. In fact, several experimental findings (see above all the vestibulo-ocular reflex show – in contrast to (2 – that the brain distinguishes even at a purely perceptual level between self and external world. Moreover, while other experiments do confirm the “importance”of the body for cognition and the steady interaction between the brain and the body including for the execution of cognitive tasks, they also show – in contrast to (3 – that the influence of bodily movement on the associative areas of the cortex is not directly due to the motor schemata that direct bodily movements but to “higher” brain representations of actions each of which can be executed by different motor schemata.

  12. 25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation...

  13. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. 475. J. Biosci. ... pathogens and are of major global health concern. Recently, ..... cases among persons in 14 countries in Asia, the Middle ... of influenza, investment in pandemic vaccine research and.

  14. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-05-01

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming task while ERPs were measured and implicit evaluative bias was assessed. Study 1 revealed that non-Muslims showed stronger differentiation between ingroup and outgroup faces in both early (N200) and later processing stages (implicit evaluations) when they identified more strongly with their ethnic group. Moreover, identification effects on implicit bias were mediated by intergroup differentiation in the N200. In Study 2, social identity threat (vs control) was manipulated among Muslims. Results revealed that high social identity threat resulted in stronger differentiation of Muslims from non-Muslims in early (N200) and late (implicit evaluations) processing stages, with N200 effects again predicting implicit bias. Combined, these studies reveal how seemingly bottom-up early social categorization processes are affected by individual and contextual variables that affect the meaning of social identity. Implications of these results for the social identity perspective as well as social cognitive theories of person perception are discussed. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  16. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  17. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  18. Effects of intergroup upward comparison, trait self-esteem, and identity shift on state self-esteem and affect in upward comparison with in-group members

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Chikae; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in...

  19. Perception, experience and body identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan J; Ortiz, Tomás; López-Ibor, María I

    2011-12-01

    Physician has to know the patient in the disease and not only the disease in the patient, from the dual perspective of the body as object and the body as subject. This also affects the patient who has to cope with the reality of having a body that bursts into the subject's consciousness as a vital threat, as source of discomfort and inability and being a body (Marcel). The human body in its dual aspect has been and is a great unknown, if not a great outrage in spite of the fact that we are our body and our body is each of us. We sometimes do not feel as we are and thus a confrontation arises, sometimes more normal, others more morbid. This forces the physician to face complex ethics considerations and the scientist to accept a personal identity disorder. Dualism considers that there are two substances in us, one that distinguishes us from other beings and from the rest of the individuals of the human species, the soul, the psychic life, mind or consciousness, and another more insubstancial one, the body. The aim of the first substance is to dominate the body, to survive it after death when it is, already a corpse is meant to become putrefied, is buried, incinerated or thrown to the depth of the sea. This dualism aims to explain the origin of the evil and the attitude to defeat it and it does so efficiently. This anthropology has very ancient roots (the Upvanishads, in the orphic texts, in Plato), it is the core of Gnostic thought and the foundation of the modern science since Descartes. Some monist perspectives are a masked dualism or a mereologic fallacy, according to which, the brain is conscious, when that what is conscious is the subject, although the subject, with the brain could not be conscious. Therefore, a new perspective is proposed, chiasmatic or janicular monism, that considers the adaptive value of focusing on the reality from two perspectives, as physical universe and the world of interpersonal relationships. In the agnosias and in the phantom limb

  20. By the numbers: Structure-seeking individuals prefer quantitative over qualitative representations of personal value to compensate for the threat of unclear performance contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    What combination of dispositional and situational factors leads people to represent their personal value in quantitative terms (e.g., salary) rather than qualitative terms (e.g., virtue)? Integrating research on quantitative information seeking, dispositional epistemic motivation, and learned helplessness, the current article hypothesized that individuals high, but not low, in uncertainty avoidance (measured with the Personal Need for Structure Scale [PNS]) would prefer quantitative (over qualitative) value representations to compensate for the diminished self-esteem certainty caused by exposure to unclear performance contingencies. Accordingly, in Study 1 high-PNS participants exposed to unclear (vs. clear) performance contingencies in one domain (visual intelligence) preferred a quantitative value representation in another domain (verbal intelligence). Study 2 showed that this effect is mediated by self-esteem certainty, not self-esteem level. Study 3 included a failure feedback condition to further isolate the role of epistemic motivation, as distinct from self-enhancement motivation, in driving the tendency to quantify personal value.

  1. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    Very little has been elucidated about sexual interest in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons. To investigate the sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons vs that of men using an eye-tracking system. The study included 15 men and 13 FtM transsexual subjects who viewed three sexual videos (clip 1: sexy clothed young woman kissing the region of the male genitals covered by underwear; clip 2: naked actor and actress kissing and touching each other; and clip 3: heterosexual intercourse between a naked actor and actress) in which several regions were designated for eye-gaze analysis in each frame. The designation of each region was not visible to the participants. Visual attention was measured across each designated region according to gaze duration. For clip 1, there was a statistically significant sex difference in the viewing pattern between men and FtM transsexual subjects. Longest gaze time was for the eyes of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. For clip 2, there also was a statistically significant sex difference. Longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects, and there was a significant difference between regions with longest gaze time. The most apparent difference was in the gaze time for the body of the actor: the percentage of time spent gazing at the body of the actor was 8.35% in FtM transsexual subjects, whereas it was only 0.03% in men. For clip 3, there were no statistically significant differences in viewing patterns between men and FtM transsexual subjects, although longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. We suggest that the characteristics of sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons are not the same as those of biological men. Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons

  2. The Future of Community and Personal Identity in the Coming Electronic Culture. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (3rd, Aspen, Colorado, August 18-21, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollier, David

    The 1994 Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology began as a look at the changing nature of the home. In building scenarios of the "new home," the participants expressed many significant insights into issues of personal identity, community-building, and setting boundaries in our lives and environments. This report captures…

  3. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  4. Exchange Sex Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in the New York Metropolitan Area: The Importance of Local Context, Gender and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Rivera, Alexis V; Reilly, Kathleen H; Anderson, Bridget J; Bolden, Barbara; Wogayehu, Afework; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2018-02-21

    Exchanging sex for money or drugs is known to increase risk for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To better understand determinants of exchange sex among PWID we examined factors associated with exchange sex in the New York metropolitan area-defined as New York City (NYC), NY; Newark, NJ; and Long Island, NY-using data from the 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system cycle on injection drug use. Of the 1160 PWID in this analysis, 24% reported exchange sex, with differences in gender and sexual identity by location. In multivariable analysis gay/bisexual men, heterosexual women, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) women were more likely to exchange sex compared to heterosexual men. Exchange sex was also associated with race/ethnicity, homelessness, incarceration, location, and non-injection crack and cocaine use. We find that heterosexual women and LGB women who injected drugs residing in Newark were more likely to report exchange sex compared to NYC. This study highlights how local conditions impact exchange sex.

  5. Automated personal identification: a new technique for controlling access to nuclear materials and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Special nuclear materials must be protected against the threat of diversion or theft, and nuclear facilities against the threat of industrial sabotage. Implicit in this protection is the means of controlling access to protected areas, material access areas, and vital areas. With the advent of automated personal identification technology, the processes of access control can be automated to yield both higher security and reduced costs. This paper first surveys the conventional methods of access control; next, automated personal identification concepts are presented and various systems approaches are highlighted; finally, Calspan's FINGERSCAN /sub TM/ system for identity verification is described

  6. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  7. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  8. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  9. Leadership identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Questioning the assumption that identities can be controlled through a shared organisational culture, the article explores the inculcation of a discourse of diversity into leadership identities in a Danish bank and building society. Thus, it intends to demonstrate that, on the one hand, discourse...... plays a significant role in identity construction and, on the other, that leaders’ constructions may have many sources of inspiration within and outside the organisation, emphasising that identity construction is a complex process in which organisational efforts to promote a common leadership identity...... to construct their leadership identities. While the respondents present comparable identities to the interviewer, the analysis reveals that the they draw on different discourses and employ a number of different discursive means to present this identity. This, the article argues, may be the result of a number...

  10. El cuidado al paciente cardiovascular en situaciones que generan un gran sentimiento de pérdida, amenaza, temor o muerte Caring of a person with a cardiovascular disease in situation that generates feelings of loss, threat, fear, or death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ NELLY RIVERA ÁLVAREZ

    2008-07-01

    disease and his/ her family to cope with it. Death as the ending point of existence and a natural happening in the life of human beings, is one of the everyday phenomena which nursing personnel have to face. Its approach has emotional, spiritual and cultural implications; thus, strategies to face it are suggested for the nursing personnel, aimed at the person caring for the patient suffering cardiovascular disease and who experiences feelings of loss and threat or fear of death.

  11. Caring of a person with a cardiovascular disease in situation that generates feelings of loss, threat, fear, or death El cuidado al paciente cardiovascular en situaciones que generan un gran sentimiento de pérdida, amenaza, temor o muerte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIVERA ÁLVAREZ LUZ NELLY

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available People living with cardiovascular disease find themselves permanently affected by uneasiness, disfunctionality and the feeling it causes. This situation creates changes in the patient's self-esteem, losses, mourning for these losses, changes in their lifestyle and the perception of death; this scenery is part not only of the individual, but it also involves the family and his/ her social environment. The purpose of this article is to review the types of losses, the stages of the mourning process, some considerations about death, the phasic process of dying suggested by Elizabeth Kubler Ross and the difficulties faced by nursing personnel, the person suffering the cardiovascular disease and his/ her family to cope with it. Death as the ending point of existence and a natural happening in the life of human beings, is one of the everyday phenomena which nursing personnel have to face. Its approach has emotional, spiritual and cultural implications; thus, strategies to face it are suggested for the nursing personnel, aimed at the person caring for the patient suffering cardiovascular disease and who experiences feelings of loss and threat or fear of death.Las personas que viven una enfermedad cardiovascular se encuentran permanentemente afectadas por el malestar, la disfuncionalidad y el sentimiento que esta causa, situación que genera alteraciones en la autoestima del sujeto, pérdidas, duelo frente a estas pérdidas, cambios en su estilo de vida y la percepción de morir; este escenario forma parte no solo del individuo, involucra la familia y su ámbito social. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo revisar los tipos de pérdidas, las etapas del proceso de duelo, algunas consideraciones sobre la muerte, el modelo fásico de morir planteado por Elizabeth Kubler Ross y las dificultades de afrontamiento del personal de enfermería, de la persona que vive una situación de enfermedad cardiovascular y de su familia. La muerte como

  12. Ternutator identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Fairlie, David; Nuyts, Jean; Weingart, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The ternary commutator or ternutator, defined as the alternating sum of the product of three operators, has recently drawn much attention as an interesting structure generalizing the commutator. The ternutator satisfies cubic identities analogous to the quadratic Jacobi identity for the commutator. We present various forms of these identities and discuss the possibility of using them to define ternary algebras.

  13. Keeping identity private

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    information. On the other hand, consumers have expressed concerns that their rights and ability to control their personal information are violated. Paradoxically, it appears that users provide personal data freely and willingly, as it has been observed on Facebook and other social networks. This study...... is an attempt to understand the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information, their actual personal information disclosure behaviours, and how these can be leveraged to develop privacy-enhancing identity management systems (IDMS) that users can trust. Legal, regu...

  14. Ego identity formation in middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J C

    1976-12-01

    Assumed determinants of ego identity were investigated in this study using sophomore, junior, and senior high school males and females. Subjects were administered the Marcia Ego Identity Status Scale and measures of sex-role identification, personality development, psychological functioning, self-concept, and parental socialization practices. Data analyses, using a median split on identity score, showed that high-identity adolescents obtained more positive scores on sex-role identification, personality development, psychological adjustment, and self-concept than low-identity adolescents. Socialization practices also differed for the two groups. The sex differences which emerged were congruent with the identity literature. Overall, the data supported Erikson's theory of ego identity development.

  15. Web threat and its implication for E-business in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Web threat is any threat that uses the internet to facilitate identity theft , fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering. Web -based vulnerabilities now outnumber traditional computer security concerns. Such threats use multiple types of malware and fraud, all of which utilize HTTP or HTTPS protocols, but may also employ ...

  16. Countering Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    threat, and to develop a common vision of how an insider can be categorized as well as an integrated approach that allows a qualitative reasoning about the threat and the possibilities of attacks. This report gives an overview of the discussions and presentations during the week, as well as the outcome...

  17. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  18. Exploring Japanese university English teachers' professional identity

    CERN Document Server

    Nagatomo, Diane Hawley

    2012-01-01

    This book examines the professional identities of Japanese university English teachers. It focuses on how relatively new teachers develop their professional identities, how gender impacts the professional identities of female professors, and how teaching practices and beliefs reflect personal and professional identity.

  19. Applying the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, C. R.; Kaye, L. K.; McCann, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-targe...

  20. The Visual Identity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are…

  1. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  2. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  3. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merillat, Bethany D.; Corrigan, Diane G.; Harper, Brian E.

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests student performance may be negatively influenced by stereotype threat, "being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (Steele and Aronson in "J Personal Soc Psychol" 69(5):797, 1995). However, studies have also found that educating students about stereotype…

  4. Identity Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides information for identity management services on the creation, modification and eventual deletion of accounts and entitlements based on user relationships on...

  5. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    The study aims at exploring how identity is enacted within the context of a two-year programme in Service, Hospitality, and Tourism Management (SHTM). This research thus investigates how students and educators go about their daily lives in different educational contexts both on and off campus...... as a contribution to the body of literature of ANT-based studies. Second, it contributes to existing identity theories by exemplifying a socio-material approach to identity issues. Third, the study enables reflections upon how educational institutions as fundamentally identity-producing organisations acknowledge...

  6. The Identity of Czech Deaf Roma

    OpenAIRE

    Kalousová, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    With the definition of Deaf people as a cultural and linguistic minority the research of Deaf identity became possible. Following this, questions of identity of minority deaf persons emerged. Do these persons affiliate to the Deaf community or to their ethnic minority? This bachelor thesis focuses on the topic of Czech deaf Roma identity. The underlying assumption of the paper is that identity is a continuing process dependent on the interaction of an individual and society and that it consti...

  7. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  8. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  9. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  10. Bridging Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  11. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  12. Ritual Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Rituals are often used as opportunities for self-reflection and identity construction. The Camino to Santiago de Compostela, which has become a singularly popular pilgrimage since the late 1980s, is an example of a ritual that is explicitly used to gain a deeper understanding of one’s identity

  13. Organizational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken

    This text presents the classic works on organizational identity alongside more current thinking on the issues. Ranging from theoretical contributions to empirical studies, the readings in this volume address the key issues of organizational identity, and show how these issues have developed through...

  14. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notion...

  15. Effects of Desktop Virtual Reality Environment Training on State Anxiety and Vocational Identity Scores among Persons with Disabilities during Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Andre Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how desktop virtual reality environment training (DVRET) affected state anxiety and vocational identity of vocational rehabilitation services consumers during job placement/job readiness activities. It utilized a quantitative research model with a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design plus some qualitative descriptive…

  16. The Role of Social and Personal Identities among At-Risk and Non-at-Risk Singapore Youths during Peer Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Vivien S.

    2006-01-01

    Peer mediation is a school-based intervention program that was implemented in response to the rising violence in schools, and to the need for alternative and more proactive discipline plans. Using the theoretical framework of the Social Identity Theory, this article highlighted the importance of peer mediation in helping adolescents resolve their…

  17. Physician office readiness for managing Internet security threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavjee, K; Pairaudeau, N; Bhanji, A

    2006-01-01

    Internet security threats are evolving toward more targeted and focused attacks.Increasingly, organized crime is involved and they are interested in identity theft. Physicians who use Internet in their practice are at risk for being invaded. We studied 16 physician practices in Southern Ontario for their readiness to manage internet security threats. Overall, physicians have an over-inflated sense of preparedness. Security practices such as maintaining a firewall and conducting regular virus checks were not consistently done.

  18. Software Requirement Specifications For ASocial Media Threat Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    media means a much higher volume of threats than before, which taxes law enforcement’s ability to investigate each one. Complicating the investigation...Obtaining the identity of a Twitter account holder requires court paperwork based on probable cause or exigent circumstances. Second, social media...instant connectivity of social media means a much higher number of threats than before, which taxes law enforcement’s ability to investigate each one

  19. Identity Management

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with its implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user’s privacy when completed traceability is enforced and some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  20. Identity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, A [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN.

  1. Identity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  2. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  3. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  4. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  5. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  6. Learning to Teach and Professional Identity: Images of Personal and Professional Recognition (Aprender a enseñar e identidad profesional: imágenes de reconocimiento personal y profesional)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Castañeda, J. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how pre-service teachers construct their professional identities from the interplay between participation in a teacher community and their systems of knowledge and beliefs. A group of six Colombian pre-service teachers in the final stage of their five-year teacher education programme were the research participants.…

  7. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  8. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  9. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Very little has been elucidated about sexual interest in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons. Aims: To investigate the sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons vs that of men using an eye-tracking system. Methods: The study included 15 men and 13 FtM transsexual subjects who viewed three sexual videos (clip 1: sexy clothed young woman kissing the region of the male genitals covered by underwear; clip 2: naked actor and actress kissing and touching each other; and cl...

  10. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Meertens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and

  11. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The Threat of Sexism in a STEM Educational Setting: The Moderating Impacts of Ethnicity and Legitimacy Beliefs on Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T.; Garcia, Donna M.; Adams, Glenn; Villalobos, J. Guillermo; Hammer, Elliott; Gilbert, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Social identity threat has negative consequences for women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The present study examined whether legitimacy beliefs--beliefs that status differences between men and women in STEM fields are fair--put women at risk for experiencing social identity threat and poorer performance on a…

  13. An Art Educator's Journey of Becoming a Researcher: A Self-Reflective Auto-Ethnography of Identity Construction and Personal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, Martina

    2016-01-01

    In this self-reflective auto-ethnographic research, the author shares her experiences of introspection, change and professional growth as an art educator in an international context. Auto-ethnography is an approach to qualitative inquiry in which the researcher employs self-reflection to explore her personal experiences and connect these…

  14. Insider Threat Indicator Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    be aware that building a model is part science, part rules, and part art . Differences among analysts during language interpretation can affect...automated extraction of semantics from natural text, some of which would improve the current state of the art significantly. There are also efforts to...isBeneficiaryOrganization Of hasBoyfrie nd hasFriendRe lation This relates a person to a male friend with whom that person has a romantic relationship. Person Person

  15. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  16. I am remix your web identity

    CERN Document Server

    Sordi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    I Am: Remix Your Web Identity explores methods of designing and developing a personal website with RSS feeds that aggregate blog posts along with posts on social networks, such as Flickr, YouTube, Goodreads, Last.fm, and Delicious, in order to regain control and ownership (as well as authorship) of one's identity in one consistent and customized location. The book provides a short overview of the evolution of digital identity and the transformation of personal websites from Geocities to blogs...

  17. [Identity theft

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinksy, H

    2003-01-01

    "A new survey by the Federal Trade Commission indicates that over the last five years one in four American households has been hit by identity theft, which can result in thieves tapping their victims' credit cards or bank accounts" (1 page).

  18. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  19. How Is Existential Threat Related to Intergroup Conflict? Introducing the Multidimensional Existential Threat (MET) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Leidner, Bernhard; Saguy, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Existential threat lies at the heart of intergroup conflict, but the literature on existential concerns lacks clear conceptualization and integration. To address this problem, we offer a new conceptualization and measurement of existential threat. We establish the reliability and validity of our measure, and to illustrate its utility, we examine whether different existential threats underlie the association between political ideology and support for specific political policies. Study 1 (N = 798) established the construct validity of the scale, and revealed four distinct existential threats: personal death (PD), physical collective annihilation (PA), symbolic collective annihilation (SA), and past victimization (PV). Study 2 (N = 424) confirmed the 4-factor structure, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. Study 3 (N = 170) revealed that the association between a hawkish political ideology and support for hardline policies was mediated by PV, whereas the association between a dovish political ideology and conciliatory policies was mediated by concerns over collective symbolic annihilation. Study 4 (N = 503) conceptually replicated the pattern of findings found in Study 3, and showed that at times of conflict, PA concerns also mediate the relationship between hawkish ideologies and support for hardline policies. In both Studies 3 and 4, when controlling for other threats, PD did not play a significant role. These results underscore the need to consider the multidimensional nature of existential threat, especially in the context of political conflict. PMID:27994561

  20. When mere exposure leads to less liking: the incremental threat effect in intergroup contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J; Hutter, Russell R C; Young, Bryony

    2009-02-01

    In two experiments we tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure to out-group-relevant attitude objects would lead to less liking following a threat to identity. In Experiment 1 exposure to abstract artwork ostensibly created by a member of an out-group university led to more liking under baseline conditions, but not following a manipulation of threat. In Experiment 2 we observed a negative relationship between exposure and liking following threat: liking reversed the typical mere exposure effect. Reported emotion mediated the interactive effect of threat and exposure on liking. These findings illustrate how social identity threat can be experienced incrementally as a function of exposure. We discuss the findings in the context of an integration of research on exposure, identity, attitudes, and contact.

  1. Insider threats to cybersecurity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakha, D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ? Acting on opportunity Taking revenge for perceived injustice Making a statement Doing competitor s bidding Seeing themselves as a future competition INSIDER THREATS | Combating it! Darshan Lakha 7 5 January 2017 General Investigations...! Darshan Lakha 11 5 January 2017 Monitor user actions Use auditing to monitor access to files Examine cached Web files Monitor Web access at the firewall Monitor incoming and outgoing e-mail messages Control what software employees can install...

  2. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  3. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  4. Students as Threats: Schooling inside a Youth Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez Young-Alfaro, Morghan

    2017-01-01

    This ethnography explores incarcerated students' experiences and dynamics of identity formation inside a youth prison school. Across two years, 100 students and 50 adults were engaged. The structure, discourse, and adult-student interactions revealed a fixation on framing students as threats with a racialized undertone while also exposing the…

  5. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiation and regulation of employee work identity.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data.Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance.Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work. 

  6. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  7. Iraqi adolescents: self-regard, self-derogation, and perceived threat in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-02-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related to their sense of threat? Do age, religion, ethnicity, and gender alter the link between perceived threat and self-esteem? We use data from 1000 randomly selected adolescents living in Baghdad during July 2004. Iraqi adolescents reported high levels of threat; those feeling more threatened reported higher levels of self-esteem. Social background correlates with both self-esteem and perceived threat, but controlling for social background does not eliminate the relationship between self-esteem and perceived threat. We interpret our results in light of theory and research concerning social identity, mortality threats, and war trauma.

  8. Potential Threats of Information Disclosure in Social Media: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yulianto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the growth of social media, a variety of potential threats to users is also increasing. These kinds of threats often occur because the users accidentally or unknowingly disclose their information or identity on social media. Threats resulted from the disclosure of information are needed to be known so that the users can understand the risks that arise and take precautions. This research was aimed to summarize the potential threats arising from the information disclosure in social media. The research method used was a systematic literature review to explore and summarize the literatures that discuss the specific topic. The research results show that the potential threats are mostly social threats and identity theft. 

  9. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  10. Inter-Identity Autobiographical Amnesia in Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  11. Survivorship and discourses of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Paul, Kim; Jordens, Christopher F C; Sayers, Emma-Jane

    2002-01-01

    Personal identity is self-evidently important to us all. Identity is a philosophically complex subject, but there is some agreement that memory, embodiment and continuity are essential components. The sense of memory includes 'future memory', the kind of memory we would like to construct for ourselves as our lives proceed. While the sense of personal identity is internal to the individual, a sense of that person's identity exists in the minds of others. Extreme experiences threaten the element of continuity, because they may bring bodily changes as well as cognitive changes that challenge central values. Restoring or preserving continuity is a major task for survivors. The ways in which people experience discontinuity because of cancer illness, and the ways in which they manage this experience emerges from the narratives of the survivors of cancer and in the narratives of health care workers who look after them. People manage discontinuity by reference to stable 'anchor points' in their beliefs and values; by re-constructing versions of their pre-experience identities, drawing on past memory and finding ways to preserve a continuity between past memory, present experience and constructions of the future; by using the experience to develop established facets of identity; and by imbuing the experience with meaning and recognising the enlarged identity made possible by survival. Those who cannot achieve a sense of continuity may feel alienated from themselves, their friends and family. All these methods of management may be used by one person to negotiate the post-experience identity in its different social interactions. The experience of the survivor can be further understood by recognising the challenge posed by extreme experience to the sense of continuity of both embodied self and memory. A satisfactory discourse of survival has yet to enter the public domain. This lack adds to the burdens of survivors, including those who have survived cancer. Copyright 2002 John

  12. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  13. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  14. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  15. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  16. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  17. Mediating Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Morsing, Mette; Ravasi, Davide

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal field study on the effects of positive media coverage on the reconstruction of organizational identity. The study highlights how intense positive coverage – to the point of turning an organization into a ‘celebrity’– influences both the way members understand...... their organization (sensemaking effect) and the gratification they derive from its positive representation (self-enhancement effect). Our findings suggest that positive media representations foster members' alignment around an emergent new understanding of what their organization is. Over time, however, celebrity...

  18. Unravelling identities

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The decision to go to war by the government of the day is assumed to be a decision taken on behalf of all citizens of the nation, conceived as a collective united by a harmony of interests. Yet in the case of the Iraq War, there is clearly no unified voice of support from the British people. There is division between the state and its citizens, and the latter also reflect the multilayered identities of an increasingly multicultural society. How do individuals displaying mu...

  19. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hindrances are not threats: advancing the multidimensionality of work stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Searle, Ben J; Boyd, Carolyn M; Winefield, Anthony H; Winefield, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    The challenge-hindrance framework has proved useful for explaining inconsistencies in relationships between work stressors and important outcomes. By introducing the distinction between threat and hindrance to this framework, we capture the potential for personal harm or loss (threat) associated with stressors, as distinct from the potential to block goal attainment (hindrance) or promote gain (challenge). In Study 1, survey data were collected from 609 retail workers, 220 of whom responded 6 months later. The results supported a 3-factor threat-hindrance-challenge stressor structure and showed that threat stressors are associated with increased psychological distress and emotional exhaustion, and reduced dedication, whereas hindrance stressors undermine dedication but may not be related to distress or exhaustion with threats included in the model. Study 2 utilized a diary study design, with data collected from 207 workers over 3 workdays. Findings revealed that the threat, hindrance, and challenge appraisals of individual workers are statistically distinct, and associated with stressors and well-being as anticipated: threats with role conflict and anxiety, hindrances with organizational constraints and fatigue, and challenges with skill demands and enthusiasm. Overall, moving to a 3-dimensional challenge-hindrance-threat framework for stressors and stress appraisals will support a more accurate picture regarding the nature, processes, and effects of stressors on individuals and organizations, and ensure prevention efforts are not misguided. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  2. Development and Validation of a Q-Sort Measure of Identity Processing Style: The Identity Processing Style Q-Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joe F.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Lamke, Leanne K.; Sollie, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    Identity styles represent strategies individuals use to explore identity-related issues. Berzonsky (Berzonsky, M. D. (1992). Identity style and coping strategies. "Journal of Personality, 60", 771-788) identified three styles: informational, normative, and diffuse. In three studies, this paper presents (a) the identity processing style Q-sort…

  3. Identity Management A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Sharoni, Ilan; Williamson, Graham; Yip, David

    2009-01-01

    In an age in which the boundaries between the real and the virtual are becoming increasingly blurred, this timely guide teaches both the key issues of identity management as well as appropriate strategies and preventative measures for ensuring personal safety in the virtual world. In a corporate setting, it is essential to identify and control the way in which the organization deals with customers, suppliers, employees, and other users who may interact with the information systems of the company. Providing strategies for overcoming this task in real-world terms as well as questions that assist

  4. Threats, protests greet conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-04

    In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate.

  5. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  6. Cuerpo e identidad en la experiencia de Alzheimer: Intentos por recuperar la condición de persona Body and identity in the experience of Alzheimer: intents to recover person's condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Antonia Martorell Poveda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuestiones como la condición de persona o la identidad han formado y forman parte del debate filosófico entorno a la existencia humana. En términos filosóficos, una persona individual "es un ser con un cuerpo, conciencia, continuidad, compromiso y responsabilidad." Sin embargo, ¿qué sucede con el cuerpo del sujeto cuando su conciencia se ve truncada por la presencia de una enfermedad como el Alzheimer? Desde diferentes colectivos se han construido y divulgado una serie de respresentaciones culturales entorno a este padecimiento incorporadas y normalizadas en la experiencia del Alzheimer hasta el punto de colaborar en la construcción de la persona con Alzheimer como alguien "sin vida". Tomando como referente teórico el interaccionismo simbólico y recuperando las narrativas de cuidadoras familiares de personas con Alzheimer, se pretende ilustrar y analizar cómo a pesar de una construcción dominante entorno a una supuesta "pérdida del ser" del sujeto con Alzheimer, en ocasiones, sus cuidadoras favorecen, a través de sus discursos y prácticas, la emergencia de la identidad de la persona y un reconocimiento de la misma a través de su corporeidad, condición necesaria para su identificación social. Como conclusión, desde los profesionales, resulta preciso (re-construir y difundir una imagen del Alzheimer centrada en la persona que permita su (re-conocimiento e identificación cotidiana otorgándole una ubicación particular en la sociedad.Question as person's condition or the identity have formed and are part from the debate philosophical about to the human existence. In philosophical terms, an person is a being with a body, makes aware, continuity, commitment and responsibility. However, what does it happen to the fellow's body when their conscience is truncated by the presence of an illness like the Alzheimer? Different collective have been built and disclosed a series of cultural representations about Alzheimer’s disease

  7. Academic identities of black female first-year students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    sense of security, confidence, self-esteem and identity. South Africa is ... own personal manner (De Wet & Ackermann:2001:2). When looking ..... The Relationship between Identity. Development ... Self-disclosure of College Students to Faculty:.

  8. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work. Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data. Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance. Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity. Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work.

  9. Feminist Identity among Latina Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Adriana M.; Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    This study explores developing conceptions of feminism among Latina adolescents, their prevalence of feminist endorsement, and whether home environment and well-being are related to feminist identity. One hundred and forty Latina girls (Grades 9 to 12, M age = 15) wrote personal narratives of their understanding of feminism and whether they…

  10. Federated Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses the topic of federated identity management. It discusses in detail the following topics: what is digital identity, what is identity management, what is federated identity management, Kim Camerons 7 Laws of Identity, how can we protect the users privacy in a federated environment, levels of assurance, some past and present federated identity management systems, and some current research in FIM.

  11. Human Rights and the Excess of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tamimi, Yussef

    2017-01-01

    Identity is a central theme in contemporary politics, but legal academia lacks a rigorous analysis of this concept. The aim of this article is twofold: (i) firstly, it aims to reveal presumptions on identity in human rights law by mapping how the European Court of Human Rights approaches identity and (ii) secondly, it seeks to analyse these presumptions using theoretical insights on identity. By merging legal and theoretical analysis, this article contributes a reading of the Court’s case law which suggests that the tension between the political and apolitical is visible as a common thread in the Court’s use of identity. In case law concerning paternity, the Court appears to hold a specific view of what is presented as an unquestionable part of identity. This ostensibly pre-political notion of identity becomes untenable in cases where the nature of an identity feature, such as the headscarf, is contended or a minority has adopted a national identity that conflicts with the majoritarian national identity. The Court’s approach to identity in such cases reflects a paradox that is inherent to identity; identity is personal while simultaneously constituted and shaped by overarching power mechanisms. PMID:29881144

  12. Social Identity in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An Examination of Family Identity and Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alex B; Lincoln, Nadina B; Hunt, Nigel; dasNair, Roshan

    2018-01-01

    Mood disorders are highly prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS causes changes to a person's sense of self. The Social Identity Model of Identity Change posits that group membership can have a positive effect on mood during identity change. The family is a social group implicated in adjustment to MS. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether family identity can predict mood in people with MS and to test whether this prediction was mediated by social support and connectedness to others. This cross-sectional survey of 195 participants comprised measures of family identity, family social support, connectedness to others, and mood. Family identity predicted mood both directly and indirectly through parallel mediators of family social support and connectedness to others. Family identity predicted mood as posited by the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. Involving the family in adjustment to MS could reduce low mood.

  13. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  14. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  15. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  16. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  17. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  18. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  19. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  20. When Is Humiliation More Intense? The Role of Audience Laughter and Threats to the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta H. Fischer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In personal accounts, humiliation is often reported as a very intense, painful, negative emotion. We report two scenario studies in which we explored two factors that may contribute to the intense character of humiliation: (1 unwanted, negative public exposure, and (2 a threat to central aspects of one's identity. Study 1 (N = 115 assessed emotional reactions to a public insult when an audience responded with either laughter or not and when someone from the audience offered support after the insult or no support was offered. Results showed that the intensity of humiliation increased when people laughed after the insult. However, support offered after the insult had no effect on reported humiliation. Study 2 (N = 99 focused on threats to different self-related values and showed stronger reports of humiliation when central self-related values were threatened than when less central self-related values were threatened. Study 2 also replicated the audience-effect from Study 1, but only when central self-related values were threatened and not when less central self-related values were threatened. Limitations of these studies (e.g., the use of scenarios and potential avenues for future research, such as the (long-term consequences of humiliation and humiliation in the context of social media, are discussed.

  1. Personal use of countermeasures seen in a coping perspective. Could the development of expedient countermeasures as a repertoire in the population, optimise coping and promote positive outcome expectancies, when exposed to a contamination threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennessen, A.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Panova, J.; Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The appraisal and use of countermeasures in a rural district of Russia with quite high deposition after the Chernobyl accident is studied from a coping perspective. The field work was done during the summer of 1994, in the Bryansk region. There are important methodological shortages in the study, the sample of respondents is not a random sample and therefore not necessarily representative for the villages covered, and in some parts of the questionnaire the frequency of 'don't know/missing' responses is too high. With these limitations in mind the current study tries to expand the knowledge about reactions to diffuse environmental threats by studying populations as they continue their daily lives living in a contaminated area. The data from interviews with the final net sample of 163 respondents shows that about one in four were users of countermeasures such as, refraining from consumption of natural foods, or radiometric inspection of the food. Of the different countermeasures that were included in the questionnaire, the renunciation of natural products was most frequently employed. Findings indicate that the respondents who used countermeasures had lower levels of radiocaesium content in their bodies, they felt more able to influence possible health effects of the accident, and at the same time answered that they were more afraid of possible health effects than the non-users of countermeasures. This higher emotional concern is seen in a perspective of 'realistic anxiety', and the use of countermeasures is related to perceived control and outcome expectancies. (author)

  2. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  3. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  4. Patriotic Acts: Five Activities for Identity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetoro-Ng, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Building a personal identity is a lifelong, thoughtful process that takes into account not only one's race and ethnicity, but also life experiences, relationships, and communities. The process of exploring and evolving one's identity deserves a place in the classroom. Educators can play a key role in supporting their students' in this process by…

  5. Identity, storytelling and the philanthropic journey

    OpenAIRE

    Maclean, Mairi; Harvey, Charles; Gordon, Jillian; Shaw, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    This article develops theoretical understanding of the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs in socially transformative projects by offering a foundational theory of philanthropic identity narratives. We show that these narratives are structured according to the metaphorical framework of the journey, through which actors envision and make sense of personal transformation. The journey provides a valuable metaphor for conceptualizing narrative identities in entrepreneurial careers as individuals...

  6. The symbiosis between identity and migrant entrepreneurship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I have attempted to situate entrepreneurial identity in its more comprehensive personal context by tracking cultural transformations and attempting to understand how Ghanaian women entrepreneurs in Durban negotiate their day-to-day social identities. These women entrepreneurs found themselves projecting ...

  7. Stereotype threat in classroom settings: the interactive effect of domain identification, task difficulty and stereotype threat on female students' maths performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Johannes

    2007-06-01

    Stereotype threat research revealed that negative stereotypes can disrupt the performance of persons targeted by such stereotypes. This paper contributes to stereotype threat research by providing evidence that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths performance. The study was designed to test theoretical ideas derived from stereotype threat theory and assumptions outlined in the Yerkes-Dodson law proposing a nonlinear relationship between arousal, task difficulty and performance. Participants were 108 high school students attending secondary schools. Participants worked on a test comprising maths problems of different difficulty levels. Half of the participants learned that the test had been shown to produce gender differences (stereotype threat). The other half learned that the test had been shown not to produce gender differences (no threat). The degree to which participants identify with the domain of maths was included as a quasi-experimental factor. Maths-identified female students showed performance decrements under conditions of stereotype threat. Moreover, the stereotype threat manipulation had different effects on low and high domain identifiers' performance depending on test item difficulty. On difficult items, low identifiers showed higher performance under threat (vs. no threat) whereas the reverse was true in high identifiers. This interaction effect did not emerge on easy items. Domain identification and test item difficulty are two important factors that need to be considered in the attempt to understand the impact of stereotype threat on performance.

  8. Recognizing Moral Identity as a Cultural Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fanli; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Current research on moral identity shows that moral identity predicts moral action in Western cultures but not in non-Western cultures. The present paper argues that this may be due to the fact that the concept of moral identity is culturally biased. In order to remedy this situation, we argue that researchers should broaden their scopes of inquiry by adding a cultural lens to their studies of moral identity. This change is important because although some concept of moral identity likely exists in all cultures, it may function in different ways and at different levels in each place. We propose that moral identity is a context-dependent construct tied to varying social and cultural obligations. We argue that Western moral identity stresses an individually oriented morality, whereas, people from Eastern cultures consider a highly moral person to be societally oriented. We conclude by discussing the implications of this view for future research.

  9. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  10. Negotiation of identities in intercultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janík Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of identities in communication entails affirming the identities we want others to recognize in us and ascription of identities we mutually assign to each other in communication. The study of intercultural communication focuses on cultural identity as the principal identity component that defines intercultural communication. In this article, the assumption that cultural group membership factors determine the context of intercultural communication is questioned. The article examines how intercultural interlocutors negotiate their identities in various intercultural interactions. The aims of the research presented in this paper are: 1 to examine which identities - cultural, personal, or social - intercultural interlocutors activate in intercultural communication; 2 to determine whether interlocutors’ intercultural communication is largely influenced by their cultural identities; 3 and to identify situations in which they activate their cultural identities (3. The research data were collected from 263 international students studying at Masaryk University in Brno in the years 2010 - 2016. Although the research results are not conclusive, they indicate that cultural identities predominate in the students’ ethnocentric views and that stereotypes constrain the students’ cultural identities and affect the negotiation of identities in intercultural communication.

  11. Threat bias, not negativity bias, underpins differences in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    Although disparities in political ideology are rooted partly in dispositional differences, Hibbing et al.'s analysis paints with an overly broad brush. Research on the personality correlates of liberal-conservative differences points not to global differences in negativity bias, but to differences in threat bias, probably emanating from differences in fearfulness. This distinction bears implications for etiological research and persuasion efforts.

  12. The Millennial generation as an insider threat: high risk or overhyped?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Cyber security experts agree that insider threats are and will continue to be a threat to every organization. These threats come from trusted co-workers who, for one reason or another, betray their organizations and steal data, disrupt information systems, or corrupt the data. Millennials are commonly thought of as entitled, high maintenance, and less trustworthy than the older generations; in other words, they have personality traits ...

  13. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  14. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  15. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoszcze, M.

    2007-01-01

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  16. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  17. IDENTITY FRAUD: Prevalence and Links to Alien Illegal Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    To discuss the significance of "identity fraud"-a term that encompasses a broad range of illegal activities based on fraudulent use of identifying information of a real person or of a fictitious person...

  18. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  19. Hypersonic Threats to the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    ADAM) system . This ground based system protects 7 soldiers against rocket threats and utilizes a 10 kW laser with an effective range out to...early warning systems for response to hypersonic threats . The integration of directed energy defensive systems with Space Based Infrared Sensors (SBIRS...and early warning radars already in operation will save costs. By capitalizing on Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system capabilities

  20. Identity development in adolescents with mental problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Emanuel; Pick, Oliver; Schlüter-Müller, Susanne; Schmeck, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin

    2013-07-31

    In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), "Identity" is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Aim of the present study is to investigate differences in identity development between adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. Participants were 86 adolescent psychiatric in- and outpatients aged 12 to 18 years. The test set includes the questionnaire AIDA and two semi-structured psychiatric interviews (SCID-II, K-DIPS). The patients were assigned to three diagnostic groups (personality disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders). Differences were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA. In line with our hypotheses, patients with personality disorders showed the highest scores in all AIDA scales with T>70. Patients with externalizing disorders showed scores in an average range compared to population norms, while patients with internalizing disorders lay in between with scores around T=60. The AIDA total score was highly significant between the groups with a remarkable effect size of f= 0.44. Impairment of identity development differs between adolescent patients with different forms of mental disorders. The AIDA questionnaire is able to discriminate between these groups. This may help to improve assessment and treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems.

  1. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  2. Applying the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte R Pennington

    Full Text Available Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-target or gender group's ability (group-as-target or would be non-diagnostic of gaming ability (control. In Experiment 2, 90 females were primed that their performance would be judged by a group of other females (in-group source or males (out-group source, or would be non-diagnostic of ability (control. Participants then completed a casual gaming task, as well as measures of competence beliefs, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings from Experiment 1 indicate that neither a self-as-target nor a group-as-target stereotype affected significantly gaming performance, or game-related self-efficacy, self-esteem and competency beliefs. Findings from Experiment 2 reveal further that females' gaming performance and associated self-perceptions were not impacted significantly by an in-group or out-group source of stereotype threat. The discussion turns to potential explanations for these findings, proposing that females may not perceive negative gender-gaming stereotypes to be an accurate representation of their personal or social group's gaming ability. We also discuss the implications of the experimental design and difficulty, as well as the potential for domain identification to moderate performance outcomes under stereotype threat.

  3. Applying the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat in the context of digital gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Kaye, Linda K; McCann, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-target) or gender group's ability (group-as-target) or would be non-diagnostic of gaming ability (control). In Experiment 2, 90 females were primed that their performance would be judged by a group of other females (in-group source) or males (out-group source), or would be non-diagnostic of ability (control). Participants then completed a casual gaming task, as well as measures of competence beliefs, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings from Experiment 1 indicate that neither a self-as-target nor a group-as-target stereotype affected significantly gaming performance, or game-related self-efficacy, self-esteem and competency beliefs. Findings from Experiment 2 reveal further that females' gaming performance and associated self-perceptions were not impacted significantly by an in-group or out-group source of stereotype threat. The discussion turns to potential explanations for these findings, proposing that females may not perceive negative gender-gaming stereotypes to be an accurate representation of their personal or social group's gaming ability. We also discuss the implications of the experimental design and difficulty, as well as the potential for domain identification to moderate performance outcomes under stereotype threat.

  4. Organizational Security Threats Related to Portable Data Storage Devices: Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant growth of portable devices capable of storing both personal data as well as sensitive organizational data. This growth of these portable devices has led to an increased threat of cyber-criminal activity. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of security threats to the data assets of organizations…

  5. Apparent Amnesia : interidentity memory functioning in dissociative identity disdorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the individual s behavior. Between 95 and 100 % of DID patients report experiences of blank spells for periods of time when other identities

  6. 22 CFR 50.9 - Card of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Card of identity. 50.9 Section 50.9 Foreign... of United States Nationality of a Person Abroad § 50.9 Card of identity. When authorized by the Department, consular offices or designated nationality examiners may issue a card of identity for travel to...

  7. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  8. Signaling threat: how situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary C; Steele, Claude M; Gross, James J

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the cues hypothesis, which holds that situational cues, such as a setting's features and organization, can make potential targets vulnerable to social identity threat. Objective and subjective measures of identity threat were collected from male and female math, science, and engineering (MSE) majors who watched an MSE conference video depicting either an unbalanced ratio of men to women or a balanced ratio. Women who viewed the unbalanced video exhibited more cognitive and physiological vigilance, and reported a lower sense of belonging and less desire to participate in the conference, than did women who viewed the gender-balanced video. Men were unaffected by this situational cue. The implications for understanding vulnerability to social identity threat, particularly among women in MSE settings, are discussed.

  9. Autonoesis and dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder is characterised by the presence in one individual of two or more alternative personality states (alters). For such individuals, the memory representation of a particular event can have full episodic, autonoetic status for one alter, while having the status of knowledge or even being inaccessible to a second alter. This phenomenon appears to create difficulties for a purely representational theory and is presented to Mahr & Csibra (M&C) for their consideration.

  10. Intersecting Sexual, Gender, and Professional Identities among Social Work Students: The Importance of Identity Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L.; Iacono, Gio; Paceley, Megan S.; Dentato, Michael P.; Boyle, Kerrie E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Discrimination toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social work students can negatively affect academic performance and personal and professional identity development. Intersectionality is a conceptual approach that states that social identities interact to form different meanings and experiences from those that could be…

  11. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, Rafaele JC; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Methods: Using a c...

  12. The Significance of Mandatory Data Breach Warnings to Identity Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Holm; Geraldine Mackenzie

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between data breaches and identity crime has been scarcely explored in current literature. However, there is an important relationship between the misuse of personal identification information and identity crime as the former is in many respects the catalyst for the latter. Data breaches are one of the ways in which this personal identification information is obtained by identity criminals, and thereby any response to data breaches is likely to impact the incidence of identit...

  13. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  14. Identity after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory....../value: This paper addresses an apparent gap in the literature on identity and death; exploring identity narratives in a bankrupted bank, the paper considers constructions of legacy organizational identities in times of disruptive death....

  15. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  16. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Reducing the risk of cyber threats in utilities through log management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patnaik, A. [ArcSight, Cupertino, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Electrical blackouts caused by terrorists hacking into targeted control systems have already occurred in Brazil. A patchwork of security tools is needed to reduce potential threats. The continuous collection and analysis of data is also needed to detect cyber threats. The real time correlation of logs across all systems, applications and users is needed to ensure the reliability and security of the power grid. Solutions must also integrate well with identity management sources in order to prevent remote access account hijacking. Effective log management can be used to detect threats and reduce the risk of power outages. 1 fig.

  18. Religion, group threat and sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Sheikh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sacred or protected values have important influences on decision making, particularly in the context of intergroup disputes. Thus far, we know little about the process of a value becoming sacred or why one person may be more likely than another to hold a sacred value. We present evidence that participation in religious ritual and perceived threat to the group lead people to be more likely to consider preferences as protected or sacred values. Specifically, three studies carried out with Americans and Palestinians show: (a that the more people participate in religious ritual the more likely they are to report a preference to be a sacred value (Studies 1--3; (b that people claim more sacred values when they are reminded of religious ritual (Study 2; and (c that the effect of religious ritual on the likelihood of holding a sacred value is amplified by the perception of high threat to the in-group (Study 3. We discuss implications of these findings for understanding intergroup conflicts, and suggest avenues for future research into the emergence and spread of sacred values.

  19. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Aaltonen, H.; Laaksonen, J.; Lahtinen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Reponen, H.; Rytoemaa, T.; Suomela, M.; Toivonen, H.; Varjoranta, T.

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  20. The Brand Identity: A Strategic Shift for Success

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Danciu

    2010-01-01

    The strong identity is a key condition for the real success of a brand strategy. The identity reflects the inner value of the brand and describes its potential success. In order to maximize this value a brand identity should include and develop all dimensions of its complex structure. The product, the organizational, the personality and the symbolic dimension of the brand identity could develop a great capability for many associations that could be made to the brand. Apple is a brand that has...

  1. Personal Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  2. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  3. Identity and identity conflict in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Horton (Kate); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAs individuals, we define ourselves according to various characteristics that include our values and beliefs. This gives us our identity. As organisations become increasingly complex, understanding the concept of identity conflict may mean the difference between success and failure.

  4. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  5. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  6. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  7. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  8. The threat of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, I.N.; Tsanis, I.K.; Koutroulis, A.; Kourgialas, N.N.; Varouchakis, A.E.; Karatzas, G.P.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinisation is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring in Europe. The effects of salinisation can be observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Drivers of salinisation can be detected both in the natural and man-made environment, with climate and

  9. Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    this challenge. CMU/SEI-2012-TR-007 | 2 2 The Components of the ITSRA Figure 2 shows the four layers of the ITSRA. The Business Security layer......organizations improve their level of preparedness to address the insider threat. Business Security Architecture Data Security Architecture

  10. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  11. La identidad a través de la moda = Identity through fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Sánchez-Contador Uría

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Esta reflexión teórica tiene como objetivo aportar un modelo de experimentación de la moda que impacte positivamente de los procesos de configuración de identidad. Esto requerirá conceptualización de la moda como Industria Cultural y Creativa que ha dado lugar a un fenómeno capaz de integrar lo económico y lo cultural y de influir notablemente en las percepciones, los hábitos y la identidad de las personas. También se señalará el papel de la moda en la configuración de la identidad para el desarrollo personal y social, así como las amenazas y los problemas derivados de la misma. Como conclusión se presentará una interpretación innovadora y enriquecedora de la teoría del ocio humanista que será el eje vertebrador de un modelo de ocio de la moda cuya experimentación ofrece beneficios y soluciones ante los problemas que genera la industria en relación a la configuración de identidad.Abstract: This theoretical reflection aims to provide a model of fashion experience that impacts positively in the identity construction processes. This will require the conceptualization of fashion as a cultural and creative industry; therefore, it is defined as a phenomenon capable of integrating economic and cultural dimensions and influencing significantly our perceptions, habits and identities. Furthermore, it addresses the importance of identity building in personal and social development as well as the challenges and threats it faces. In conclusion, this paper presents an innovative and enriching interpretation of the humanist theory of leisure that will support a model of experimentation of fashion through leisure that provides benefits and solutions to problems generated by the industry in relation to identity construction.

  12. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  13. On Fay identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michev, Iordan P.

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we consider the transformation of the cubic identities for general Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) tau functions from [Mishev, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2419-2428 (1999)] to the specific identities for trigonometric KdV tau functions. Afterwards, we consider the Fay identity as a functional equation and provide a wide set of solutions of this equation. The main result of this paper is Theorem 3.4, where we generalize the identities from Mishev. An open problem is the transformation of the cubic identities from Mishev to the specific identities for elliptic KdV tau functions

  14. Identities as organizational practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Asmuß, Birte

    Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity......) reveal the intersubjective, multimodal and embodied nature of identity work; 2) demonstrate identity work as organizational practices, used in order to accomplish specific actions; and 3) pose a question on the view on identity as a layered/leveled phenomenon....

  15. Cyber threats to health information systems: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Raul; Rhine, Emily; Myhra, Matthew; Sullivan, Ross; Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2016-01-01

    Recent legislation empowering providers to embrace the electronic exchange of health information leaves the healthcare industry increasingly vulnerable to cybercrime. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the biggest threats to healthcare via cybercrime. The rationale behind this systematic review is to provide a framework for future research by identifying themes and trends of cybercrime in the healthcare industry. The authors conducted a systematic search through the CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases to gather literature relative to cyber threats in healthcare. All authors reviewed the articles collected and excluded literature that did not focus on the objective. Researchers selected and examined 19 articles for common themes. The most prevalent cyber-criminal activity in healthcare is identity theft through data breach. Other concepts identified are internal threats, external threats, cyber-squatting, and cyberterrorism. The industry has now come to rely heavily on digital technologies, which increase risks such as denial of service and data breaches. Current healthcare cyber-security systems do not rival the capabilities of cyber criminals. Security of information is a costly resource and therefore many HCOs may hesitate to invest what is required to protect sensitive information.

  16. Implicit self-esteem compensation: automatic threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Truck bomb and insider threats to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, D.

    1987-01-01

    In the nuclear field, two the these weak links in the security chain are the truck bomb threat and the insider threat. The risks associated with terrorist use of vehicular bombs against nuclear targets surfaced (actually, resurfaced) followed the terrorist attacks on the US Embassy annex and the Marine compound in Leb Concern was expressed that similar attacks against nuclear facilities could result in substantial damage and release of radioactivity. Since the current regulations of the NRC require licensees to protect only against attacks on foot (and even then, only against very small attacking forces), shortly after the Lebanon bombings, that agency commenced an urgent rulemaking to require its licensees to protect against truck bombs. Inexplicably, that rulemaking was called off after research results indicated that the truck bomb threat to nuclear facilities was even more serious than previously thought. Even were nuclear facilities adequately protected against external attack, be the aim theft or sabotage, the greatest security risk to these sites - the threat of action by insiders - would remain. The traditional methods of protecting against the insider threat - such as the two-person rule, strict compartmentalization of vital areas, and design features that make damage to two or more redundant systems by one individual difficult - are generally expensive and have encountered substantial resistance from the nuclear industry, which has restrained the NRC from requiring them

  18. "Double crap!" abuse and harmed identity in Fifty Shades of Grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E; Altenburger, Lauren E; Walton, Nicole L

    2013-09-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 25% of women and impairs health, current societal conditions-including the normalization of abuse in popular culture such as novels, film, and music-create the context to support such violence. Fifty Shades of Grey, a best-selling novel, depicts a "romantic" and "erotic" relationship involving 28-year-old megamillionaire, Christian Grey, and a 22-year-old college student, Anastasia Steele. We argue that the relationship is characterized by IPV, which is harmful to Anastasia. All authors engaged in iterative readings of the text, and wrote narrative summaries to elucidate themes. Validity checks included double review of the first eight chapters of the novel to establish consistency in our analysis approach, iterative discussions in-person and electronically to arbitrate discrepancies, and review of our analysis with other abuse and sexual practice experts. To characterize IPV, we used the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions of emotional abuse (intimidation/threats; isolation; stalking; and humiliation) and sexual violence (forced sex acts/contact against a person's will, including using alcohol/drugs or intimidation/pressure). To characterize harm, we used Smith's conceptualizations of perceived threat, managing, altered identity, yearning, entrapment, and disempowerment experienced by abused women. Emotional abuse is present in nearly every interaction, including: stalking (Christian deliberately follows Anastasia and appears in unusual places, uses a phone and computer to track Anastasia's whereabouts, and delivers expensive gifts); intimidation (Christian uses intimidating verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as routinely commanding Anastasia to eat and threatening to punish her); and isolation (Christian limits Anastasia's social contact). Sexual violence is pervasive-including using alcohol to compromise Anastasia's consent, as well as intimidation (Christian initiates sexual encounters

  19. Identity transformation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell J M; Kay, Abigail; Youakim, James M; Balaicuis, John M; Balacius, John M

    2009-03-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the impact of medical school on personal development and consolidation of core identity. The limited literature relies on reports from medical students' journaling exercises, discussion groups, post-graduation surveys, and repeated personality testing. We review forces acting on medical students, with potential transforming effects. These forces include high external expectations and internal fear of superficial knowledge and skills, entry into the culture of medicine with its insider jargon and hierarchy, high academic workload, and the emotional burdens of confronting cadavers and death as well as bearing witness to patients' suffering. Potential developmental delay, emergence of substance abuse and hedonic acting out, cynicism, and loss of individual core values are possible consequences. Protections against these adverse outcomes include identification of strong mentors and role models, developing post-conventional morality and relativistic thinking, finding healthy coping strategies such as peer support, and remaining intellectually creative and personally reflective.

  20. Identity, storytelling and the philanthropic journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Mairi; Harvey, Charles; Gordon, Jillian; Shaw, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    This article develops theoretical understanding of the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs in socially transformative projects by offering a foundational theory of philanthropic identity narratives. We show that these narratives are structured according to the metaphorical framework of the journey, through which actors envision and make sense of personal transformation. The journey provides a valuable metaphor for conceptualizing narrative identities in entrepreneurial careers as individuals navigate different social landscapes, illuminating identities as unfolding through a process of wayfinding in response to events, transitions and turning-points. We delineate the journey from entrepreneurship to philanthropy, and propose a typology of rewards that entrepreneurs claim to derive from giving. We add to the expanding literature on narrative identities by suggesting that philanthropic identity narratives empower wealthy entrepreneurs to generate a legacy of the self that is both self- and socially oriented, these ‘generativity scripts’ propelling their capacity for action while ensuring the continuation of their journeys. PMID:26456976

  1. Identity, storytelling and the philanthropic journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Mairi; Harvey, Charles; Gordon, Jillian; Shaw, Eleanor

    2015-10-01

    This article develops theoretical understanding of the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs in socially transformative projects by offering a foundational theory of philanthropic identity narratives. We show that these narratives are structured according to the metaphorical framework of the journey , through which actors envision and make sense of personal transformation. The journey provides a valuable metaphor for conceptualizing narrative identities in entrepreneurial careers as individuals navigate different social landscapes, illuminating identities as unfolding through a process of wayfinding in response to events, transitions and turning-points. We delineate the journey from entrepreneurship to philanthropy, and propose a typology of rewards that entrepreneurs claim to derive from giving. We add to the expanding literature on narrative identities by suggesting that philanthropic identity narratives empower wealthy entrepreneurs to generate a legacy of the self that is both self- and socially oriented, these 'generativity scripts' propelling their capacity for action while ensuring the continuation of their journeys.

  2. The effect of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction among immigrants: Does host national identity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Maria; Fujishiro, Kaori; Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2017-11-01

    Overqualification is a form of person-job misfit that is common among those who reside in a foreign country. It is associated with poor work-related well-being and can inhibit full adjustment to the host society. The goal of our study is to examine the impact of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction among immigrants. Furthermore, we investigated immigrants' host national identity as a moderator of the impact of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction. We analysed longitudinal online survey data from 124 Italian and Spanish immigrants who migrated to Germany between 2000 and 2014. Regression analyses show that perceived overqualification is negatively associated with job satisfaction six months later. Furthermore, host national identity moderates the association between perceived overqualification and job satisfaction: low overqualification is beneficial for job satisfaction whereas high overqualification is a threat for job satisfaction, especially for immigrants who identify strongly with the host society. We do not find corresponding direct and moderating effects on career satisfaction. We conclude that indicators of acculturation, such as host national identity, are worth considering in order to understand the impact of person-job misfit on work-related well-being among immigrants.

  3. Researching Identity and Interculturality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp.......Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp....

  4. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  5. State surveillance as a threat to personal security of individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Czapnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in modern society are crucial to individuals. Article starts with analysis of control in nowadays societies. Then author tries to understand useful categories, as "Panopticon", "ban-opticon" and "synopticon". Last part is focused on stete surveillance, i.e. surveillance by American National Security Agency.

  6. Privacy Threats and Practical Solutions for Genetic Risk Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Ludovic; El Graini, Mohammed-Taha; Raisaro, Jean Louis; Ayday, Erman; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several solutions have been proposed to address the complex challenge of protecting individuals’ genetic data during personalized medicine tests. In this short paper, we analyze different privacy threats and propose simple countermeasures for the generic architecture mainly used in the literature. In particular, we present and evaluate a new practical solution against a critical attack of a malicious medical center trying to actively infer raw genetic information of patients.

  7. Artificial Intelligence: Threat or Boon to Radiologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Michael; Bryan, R Nick

    2017-11-01

    The development and integration of machine learning/artificial intelligence into routine clinical practice will significantly alter the current practice of radiology. Changes in reimbursement and practice patterns will also continue to affect radiology. But rather than being a significant threat to radiologists, we believe these changes, particularly machine learning/artificial intelligence, will be a boon to radiologists by increasing their value, efficiency, accuracy, and personal satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  9. Mobile Identity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity management consists of the processes and all underlying technologies for the creation, management, and usage of digital identities. Business rely on identity management systems to simplify the management of access rights to their systems and services for both their employees and their

  10. Being Tolerant about Identity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, R.; Gutzmann, D.; Köpping, J.; Meier, C.

    2014-01-01

    Identity and identification are very important concepts in philosophy and logic. They are crucial for the analysis of quantification and for counting. According to some philosophers, many examples that are supposed to show that identity is contingent, in fact show that the notion of identity is

  11. [Background and practical use of the assessment of identity development in adolescence (AIDA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhölzer, Marc; Goth, Kirstin; Schrobildgen, Christian; Schmeck, Klaus; Schlüter-Müller, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards early detection and intervention of personality disorders in adolescence to prevent persistent and chronic suffering is currently taking place. Aside further distinct areas of impaired psychosocial integrity, disturbed identity development is seen as one core component of personality disorders. Thus, the detection of early antecedents of impaired identity development is an important step to allow for early intervention. The self-report questionnaire Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence (AIDA) is a reliable and valid diagnostic instrument to detect disturbed identity development. This questionnaire allows for global assessment of identity and a differentiation in fundamental subdomains as well and distinguishes between identity diffusion on one side and consolidated and stable identity on the other. In clinical practice, it supports the differentiation between severely disturbed identity as the core component of personality disorders and identity crisis or stable identity development that can be found in other mental disorders.

  12. An integrated developmental model for studying identity content in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliher, Renee V; McLean, Kate C; Syed, Moin

    2017-11-01

    Historically, identity researchers have placed greater emphasis on processes of identity development (how people develop their identities) and less on the content of identity (what the identity is). The relative neglect of identity content may reflect the lack of a comprehensive framework to guide research. In this article, we provide such a comprehensive framework for the study of the content of identity, including 4 levels of analysis. At the broadest level, we situate individual identity within historical, cultural, and political contexts, elaborating on identity development within the context of shifting cultural norms, values, and attitudes. Histories of prejudice and discrimination are relevant in shaping intersections among historically marginalized identities. Second, we examine social roles as unique and central contexts for identity development, such that relationship labels become integrated into a larger identity constellation. Third, domains of individual or personal identity content intersect to yield a sense of self in which various aspects are subjectively experienced as an integrated whole. We explore the negotiation of culturally marginalized and dominant identity labels, as well as idiosyncratic aspects of identities based on unique characteristics or group memberships. Finally, we argue that the content of identity is enacted at the level of everyday interactions, the "micro-level" of identity. The concepts of identity conflict, coherence, and compartmentalization are presented as strategies used to navigate identity content across these 4 levels. This framework serves as an organizing tool for the current literature, as well as for designing future studies on the identity development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  14. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  15. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  16. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  17. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contending with Stereotype Threat at Work: A Model of Long-Term Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Caryn J.; Koch, Sandy M.; Liberman, Benjamin E.; Merriweather, Tarani J.; Roberson, Loriann

    2011-01-01

    Women and people of color are still underrepresented in many occupational roles. Being in a situation where one is underrepresented, and thus in the demographic minority, has been shown to be a factor leading to the experience of stereotype threat--the expectation that one will be judged or perceived on the basis of social identity group…

  19. Creating a Critical Mass Eliminates the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Women's Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R.; Heim, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women in mathematical domains may become attuned to situational cues that signal a discredited social identity, contributing to their lower achievement and underrepresentation. Aim: This study examined whether heightened in-group representation alleviates the effects of stereotype threat on women's mathematical performance. It further…

  20. PORT SECURITY-Threats and Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kusi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Takoradi port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vul-nerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Takoradi port operations are being conducted in other to ide...

  1. The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale: Factor Analytic Evidence and Associations with Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Burks, Alixandra C.; Golom, Frank D.; Stroud, Caroline H.; Graham, James L.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the psychometric properties of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. Findings included (1) a three-factor structure (i.e., Negative Identity, Identity Uncertainty, Identity Superiority); (2) less positive identities among HIV-positive persons, African Americans, males, and bisexuals; and (3) convergent patterns with subjective…

  2. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  3. Education and identity of adult educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Jelenc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult education and learning has because of its wide extensiveness and variability huge difficulties with its identity. Difficulties appear in all three spheres of identity: professional identity of adult education; societal identity of the field; and personal identity with the profession. In our contribution we list and describe difficulties in all three identity areas. Insufficient identity is a great obstacle for continuing education and further training of those who work or wish to work in adult education or they are obliged to carry out such education. They are all named ‘adult educators’ but their roles and tasks in education are different. Contents and ways of realization of programs have to be adapted to that. We recommend: modular programs for different target groups should be created from a wide list of contents; more sophisticated methods of marketing and recruiting should be used for the better realization of programs; programs should enable participants to get publicly recognized certificates and in this way current program of pedagogical-andragogical education which does not follow enough above-named difficulties of identity should be replaced; successful programs should be distributed all over Slovenia and performed in cooperation with another providers.

  4. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  5. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  6. Wildland fire and organic discourse: Negotiating place and leisure identity in a changing wildland urban inteface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph G. Champ; Daniel R. Williams; Katie Knotek

    2009-01-01

    A lack of research on the conceptual intersection of leisure, place and wildland fire and its role in identity prompted this exploratory study. The purpose of this research was to gather evidence regarding how people negotiate identities under the threat of wildland fire. Qualitative interviews with 16 homeowners and recreationists who value leisure activities in...

  7. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, T.

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of

  8. Tearing the Fabric of Canada: The Broadcast Media and Canadian Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elaine F.

    This paper explores the perceived threat of American cultural "imperialism" in Canada, the effect of constant exposure to American broadcasting on the Canadian national identity, the role broadcasting plays in shaping Canadian identity, and the efforts by the Canadian government to "Canadianize" its broadcasting. A brief…

  9. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA. The real brunt of the virus is, however, borne by children and adults alike. Case studies of the ZIKV outbreaks in the French Polynesia and other places have suggested that there is a close link between the ZIKV and Gullian-Barre syndrome (GBS. The GBS has closely followed in areas facing ZIKV outbreaks. Although solid evidence is yet to emerge, clinical data integration has revealed a large number of ZIKV patients having GBS. Moreover, the amniotic fluids, blood cord, and miscarriage tissues of mothers have been detected with ZIKV, which indicates that the virus either gets transferred from mother to fetus or seeks direct entry in the fetus, causing microcephaly and other brain anomalies in the newborn babies. Studies on mice have confirmed the link between the ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in babies. Reports have highlighted the sexual transmission of the ZIKV, as it has been detected in the semen and saliva of affected persons. The intensity with which the ZIKA is spreading can collapse the health sector of several countries, which are poor. A comprehensive strategy is a need of an hour to combat this virus so as to prevent its transmission and avert the looming threat. At the same time, more research on the cure of the ZIKV is imperative.

  10. Improving Visual Threat Detection: Research to Validate the Threat Detection Skills Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    26 Threat Detection and Mitigation Strategies...quicker when identifying threats in relevant locations. This task utilized the Flicker paradigm (Rensink, O’Regan, & Clark, 1997; Scholl, 2000...the meaning and implication of threats, why cues were relevant, strategies used to detect and mitigate threats, and challenges when attempting to

  11. Integrating Personal and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitt, Gordon L.

    1980-01-01

    The author outlines ways to integrate work identity and social identity in order to improve the quality of life. He presents a model for maintaining balance between personal and professional growth, which can stimulate achievement in six areas of human potential. (SK)

  12. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  13. On the early detection of threats in the real world based on open-source information on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Worm, D.T.H.; Versloot, C.A.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to detect threats in an early stage and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time

  14. Development of naive personality perception

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Tomoyuki

    2004-01-01

    Lay persons usually understand that the personality has consistency and causality. They also have the knowledge of what contents the personality consists of. Research of "theories of mind," which focuses on the developmental processes of the naive understanding of mind, suggests three stages : (a) alignment of actions (imitation) fosters the foundation of social cognition in young children (i.e., understanding that the mind causes behaviors, grasping the identity of a person, and discovering ...

  15. Inter-Identity Autobiographical Amnesia in Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J. C.; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Background A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Methods Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. Findings Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. Conclusion The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature. PMID:22815769

  16. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature.

  17. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaële J C Huntjens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. METHODS: Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. FINDINGS: Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. CONCLUSION: The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature.

  18. New threats to academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  20. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours