WorldWideScience

Sample records for permissible behavior limits

  1. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.

  2. Behavior of water gel permissibles in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribovich, J.; Watson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the successful use of water gel permissibles, since their introduction in 1970, with an emphasis on some problems of behavior in their field application. One is the metal clip or ties used to seal the water gel package. Miners are occasionally hit by the 2.4 mm metal wire expelled from boreholes in normal shooting operations. Manufacturers have consequently reduced the mass of the metal ties by 25-50%, providing a partial solution. Another problem concerned two reported instances of misfired water gel burning after coal shooting operations. Extensive tests have offered no satisfactory solution as yet, except to point up a principal shortcoming of water gels: that of pressure desensitization. Two other factors affecting sensitivity, and possibly resulting in misfires, are low temperature and aging. There is a decline in air-gap sensitivity with prolonged storage but all approved water gels seem capable of meeting requirements for long periods under normal storage conditions. Low temperature tests indicate the majority of water gels become insensitive to a No. 6 EBC at temperatures easily attained in cold weather storage. An attempt was made to determine the minimum temperature at which a nitroglycerin-sensitized permisslbe could be initiated with a No. 8 cap; a particularly granular one was initiated as low as minus 196 C. (5 refs.) (In English)

  3. [Behavior of Orf virus in permissive and nonpermissive systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, M; Czerny, C P; Schumm, M

    1995-04-01

    Dogs were immunized i.m. with attenuated poxvirus vaccines (vaccinia virus, Orf-virus) and a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine. After intradermal (i.d.) application of the vaccine viruses a specific delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction of the skin occurred only with vaccinia virus. The i.d. application of Orf-virus caused a short-term, non-specific inflammatory reaction of the skin, even in dogs not immunized with Orf-virus. Out of 30 sera from Orf-virus immunized beagles (n = 4) only eight were found reactive to Orf-virus in a competition ELISA. Three sera from dogs not Orf-virus immunized but skin-tested with the virus contained low antibody titers. Using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in flow cytometry, the existence of Orf-virus antigens was examined on the surface and in the cytoplasm of permissive (BFK and Vero)- and questionable permissive MDCK cells. The canine kidney MDCK cell line was found to be non-permissive for Orf-virus replication; the occurrence of an Orf-(ecthyma contagiosum) like disease in dogs is unlikely.

  4. 42 CFR 433.67 - Limitations on level of FFP for permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations on the amount of bona fide provider-related donations that a State may receive without a reduction in FFP...

  5. Threshold limit values, permissible exposure limits, and feasibility: The bases for exposure limits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of exposure limits in the United States has always relied heavily upon the threshold limit values (TLVs) developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In fact, the TLVs were adopted as official exposure limits by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1972 and 1989. Given the continuing importance of the ACGIH limits, this paper compares the basis of the TLVs with that employed by OSHA de novo in its 12 new permissible exposure limits (PELs). Using benzene as an example, it is shown that OSHA's new PELs have been established following a rigorous assessment of the inherent risks and the feasibility of instituting the limit. The TLVs, on the other hand, have been developed by ad hoc procedures and appear to have traditionally reflected levels thought to be achievable at the time. However, this might be changing. Analysis of the historical reductions of TLVs, for 27 substances on the 1991-1992 list of intended changes, indicates smaller reductions in the past (median reduction of 2.0-2.5-fold between 1946 and 1988) compared to those currently being observed (median reduction of 7.5-fold between 1989 and 1991). Further analysis suggests a more aggressive policy of the ACGIH regarding TLVs for carcinogens but not for substances that produce effects other than cancer. Regardless of whether the basis of the TLVs has changed recently, it would take a relatively long time for the impact of any change to be felt, since the median age of the 1991-1992 TLVs is 16.5 years, and 75% of these limits are more than 10 years old. The implications of OSHA's continued reliance on the TLVs as a means of updating its PELs are discussed, and four alternatives are presented to the ACGIH regarding the future of its activities related to exposure limits. It is concluded that new mechanisms are needed for OSHA to update its PELs in a timely fashion so that the TLVs will not be adopted by default in the future

  6. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-10-01

    Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is 85 dBA for 8 hours of noise exposure. This study aimed to assess the development of hearing threshold levels beyond 25 dBA on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit compared to 90 dBA. This is an intervention study done on two automobile factories. There were 203 employees exposed to noise levels beyond the action level. Hearing protection devices were distributed to reduce noise levels to a level between the permissible exposure limit and action level. The permissible exposure limits were 90 and 85 dBA in factories 1 and 2, respectively, while the action levels were 85 and 80 dBA, respectively. The hearing threshold levels of participants were measured at baseline and at first month of postshift exposure of noise. The outcome was measured by a manual audiometer. McNemar and chi-square tests were used in the statistical analysis. We found that hearing threshold levels of more than 25 dBA has changed significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention among participants from both factories (3000 Hz for the right ear and 2000 Hz for the left ear). There was a statistically significant association between participants at 3000 Hz on the right ear at 'deteriorated' level ( χ² (1) = 4.08, φ = - 0.142, P = 0.043), whereas there was worsening of hearing threshold beyond 25 dBA among those embraced 90 dBA. The adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit has preserved hearing threshold level among participants at 3000 Hz

  7. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA

    OpenAIRE

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institut...

  8. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  9. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  10. Permission of change of limits in the vapor generators of the Atucha I Nuclear Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the mark of the modification of the Atucha-I Nuclear Central Installation (CNA-I) as consequence of the Introduction of the System 'Second Drain of Heat' (SSC), the Entity Responsible for the CNA-I (NASA) requested authorization to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) to modify the value of the minimum level of water in the secondary side in the Steam generators (GVs) to activate the signal 'shoot of the Cut of the Reactor' (RESA-LLV). As the level in the GVs is one of those parameters that are used to shoot the Emergency Feeding System (RX), component of the SSC System, also was analyzed the change in the activation of the shoot signal of the 'Second Drain of Heat' (2SSC-LLV). The ARN uses for the study of the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants, the series of prediction programs RELAP5/MOD3.X. It participates of the evaluation and maintenance activities of these codes through specific agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC). It is necessary to account with programs of this type since the ARN it licenses the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and other outstanding facilities and it inquires its operation according to its own standards. With these tools its are auditing the calculations that the Responsible Entities of the operation make to guarantee the operability of the NPPs assisting the mentioned standards. The analysis with computational codes is used as a tool to achieve the best understanding in the behavior of the plant in union with the engineering approach, the manual calculations, the data analysis and the experience in the operation of the machine. (Author)

  11. Permissive Parenting, Deviant Peer Affiliations, and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence: the Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined two measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as moderators of the indirect path from permissive parenting to deviant peer affiliations to delinquency among a community sample of adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 53 % boys; 66 % European American, 34 % African American). A multi-method design was employed to address the research questions. Two indicators of SNS reactivity, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) and cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEPR) were examined. SNS activity was measured during a baseline period and a problem-solving task (star-tracing); reactivity was computed as the difference between the task and baseline periods. Adolescents reported on permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, externalizing behaviors, and substance use (alcohol, marijuana). Analyses revealed indirect effects between permissive parenting and delinquency via affiliation with deviant peers. Additionally, links between permissive parenting to affiliation with deviant peers and affiliation with deviant peers to delinquency was moderated by SNS reactivity. Less SNS reactivity (less PEPR and/or less SCLR) were risk factors for externalizing problems and alcohol use. Findings highlight the moderating role of SNS reactivity in parenting and peer pathways that may contribute to adolescent delinquency and point to possibilities of targeted interventions for vulnerable youth.

  12. Natural penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu and recommendation on permissible limits for radioactivity of building material made of silicate cinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangzao

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of external exposure rate of penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu. The average exposure rate was 24.3+-3.5 R/h. It was evidently higher than of red brick dwellings. The average effective equivalent of the population in silicate dwellings was 123.4+-10.4 mrem/y and the average additional dose was 29.5+-12.5 mrem/y. The permissible limits recommended for silicate building material would be 6 pCi/g, 7 pCi/g and 102 pCi/g for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The total activity must fulfill the formula of Csub(Ra)/6 + Csub(Th)/7 + Csub(k)/102 1. Under ordinary condition the exposure rate (10+background) R/h of penetrating radiation from the surface of dry building material might be taken as the permissible limit for dwellings and other public buildings

  13. The Limits of Fair Use in Military Scholarship: When, How, and From Whom to Request Permission to Use Copyrighted Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    69 J. AIR L. & COM. 743 (2004) (citing a popular song performed by the Beatles ). 152 E.g., Emily Kathryn Taylor, Note, Infringicus Maximus! An...16 JANUARY 2010 • THE ARMY LAWYER • DA PAM 27-50-440 The Limits of Fair Use in Military Scholarship: When, How, and From Whom to Request...throughout the military.1 Specialty journals, such as The Army Lawyer, and the Military, Naval, and Air Force Law Reviews (combined military publications

  14. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  15. Rethinking Permissioned Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Current blockchain platforms, especially the recent permissioned systems, have architectural limitations: smart contracts run sequentially, all node executes all smart contracts, consensus protocols are hard-coded, the trust model is static and not exible, and non-determinism in smart-contract execution poses serious problems. Overcoming these limitations is critical for improving both functional properties of blockchains, such as con dentiality and consistency, as well as their non-functiona...

  16. Suggested Safeguards and Limitations for Effective and Permissible Parenting Coordination (Facilitation or Case Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene (Leentjie de Jong

    2015-07-01

    arbitration in respect of matrimonial matters. Lastly, the cost of parenting coordination is indicated as an area of contention. To properly address these problems, various safeguards for and limitations on parenting coordination practice are considered. It is proposed that the internationally accepted term "parenting coordination" is also consistently used in South Africa. It is further proposed that adequate qualifications, proper training and sufficient experience for parenting coordinators are set. To counter the argument that parenting coordination is an unlawful delegation of judicial power, the necessary authority for courts to refer parties for parenting coordination is sought, firstly in the inherent power of the High Court as upper guardian to ensure the best interests of children, and secondly in the Children's Act and the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as far as the children's court and divorce courts are concerned. In addition, various limitations regarding the conditions under which and the stage at which a parenting coordinator should be appointed, the scope of a parenting coordinator's decision-making powers and the finality of his or her directives are suggested. Lastly, the issue of the affordability of parenting coordination is addressed and suggestions are made on ways to provide fair access to this new intervention

  17. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  18. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  19. Permission of change of limits in the vapor generators of the Atucha I Nuclear Central; Permiso de cambio de limites en los GVs de la CNA-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Libertador 8250 (1429), Capital Federal (Argentina)]. e-mail: mventura@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In the mark of the modification of the Atucha-I Nuclear Central Installation (CNA-I) as consequence of the Introduction of the System 'Second Drain of Heat' (SSC), the Entity Responsible for the CNA-I (NASA) requested authorization to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) to modify the value of the minimum level of water in the secondary side in the Steam generators (GVs) to activate the signal 'shoot of the Cut of the Reactor' (RESA-LLV). As the level in the GVs is one of those parameters that are used to shoot the Emergency Feeding System (RX), component of the SSC System, also was analyzed the change in the activation of the shoot signal of the 'Second Drain of Heat' (2SSC-LLV). The ARN uses for the study of the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants, the series of prediction programs RELAP5/MOD3.X. It participates of the evaluation and maintenance activities of these codes through specific agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC). It is necessary to account with programs of this type since the ARN it licenses the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and other outstanding facilities and it inquires its operation according to its own standards. With these tools its are auditing the calculations that the Responsible Entities of the operation make to guarantee the operability of the NPPs assisting the mentioned standards. The analysis with computational codes is used as a tool to achieve the best understanding in the behavior of the plant in union with the engineering approach, the manual calculations, the data analysis and the experience in the operation of the machine. (Author)

  20. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2014-10-07

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control that restricts the access of apps to core facilities of devices. However, it imparts a significant responsibility to the app developers with regard to accurately specifying the requested permissions and to the users with regard to fully understanding the risk of granting certain combinations of permissions. Android permissions requested by an app depict the app\\'s behavioral patterns. In order to help understanding Android permissions, in this paper, we explore the permission-induced risk in Android apps on three levels in a systematic manner. First, we thoroughly analyze the risk of an individual permission and the risk of a group of collaborative permissions. We employ three feature ranking methods, namely, mutual information, correlation coefficient, and T-test to rank Android individual permissions with respect to their risk. We then use sequential forward selection as well as principal component analysis to identify risky permission subsets. Second, we evaluate the usefulness of risky permissions for malapp detection with support vector machine, decision trees, as well as random forest. Third, we in depth analyze the detection results and discuss the feasibility as well as the limitations of malapp detection based on permission requests. We evaluate our methods on a very large official app set consisting of 310 926 benign apps and 4868 real-world malapps and on a third-party app sets. The empirical results show that our malapp detectors built on risky permissions give satisfied performance (a detection rate as 94.62% with a false positive rate as 0.6%), catch the malapps\\' essential patterns on violating permission access regulations, and are universally applicable to unknown malapps (detection rate as 74.03%).

  1. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  2. Android Permission Model

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra, Chalise

    2016-01-01

    The recent evolution on the smart phone technology has made its application market huge and less secure. Every single day large number of apps introduced in the android market (mostly on google play store) without any particular inspections which creates a lot of security issues and they remain unresolved. There are a lot of recent and increasing security issues which are mostly caused by the android apps. Mainly, the access of user data through the apps relied on the users given permission t...

  3. The behavioral ecology of a cognitive constraint: limited attention

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Clark; Reuven Dukas

    2003-01-01

    Limited attention may constrain animal behavior in situations in which the rate of relevant information exceeds the threshold processing capacity of the brain. In the present study, we examine why attention is limited by quantifying how attention affects the ubiquitous problem of balancing foraging and antipredator activity. We analyze how a given attentional capacity affects feeding requirements, the optimal attentional focus during predator scanning, and the probability of detecting predato...

  4. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; Pparental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; PParental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Puzzle of Visual Development: Behavior and Neural Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiorpes, Lynne

    2016-11-09

    The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants. The high degree of visual plasticity that has been documented during the sensitive period in young children and animals leaves the brain vulnerable to abnormal visual experience. Abnormal visual experience during the sensitive period can lead to amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision affecting ∼3% of children. This review provides a historical perspective on research into visual development and the disorder amblyopia. The mismatch between the status of the primary visual cortex and visual behavior, both during visual development and in amblyopia, is discussed, and several potential resolutions are considered. It seems likely that extrastriate visual areas further along the visual pathways may set important limits on visual function and show greater vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. Analyses based on multiunit, population activity may provide useful representations of the information being fed forward from primary visual cortex to extrastriate processing areas and to the motor output. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611384-10$15.00/0.

  6. Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature. We experimentally evaluate physics of wind wave growth in fetch and depth limited estuaries. We demonstrate that wave growth rate in shallow estuaries is a function of wind fetch to water depth ratio, which helps to develop a new set of parametric wave growth equations. We find that the final stage of wave growth in shallow estuaries can be presented by a product of water depth and wave number, whereby their product approaches 1.363 as either depth or wave energy increases. Suggested wave growth equations and their asymptotic constraints establish the magnitude of wave forces acting on wetland erosion that must be included in ecosystem restoration design.

  7. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  8. Take control of permissions in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Permissions problems got you down? Turn to Unix expert Brian Tanaka's unique guide to the permissions in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard that control access to your files, folders, and disks. You'll learn how to keep files private, when to set Ignore Permissions, what happens when you repair permissions, how to delete stuck files, and the best ways to solve permissions-related problems. Advanced concepts include the sticky bit, Leopard's more-important access control lists, bit masks, and symbolic versus absolute ways to set permissions. The book covers how to take control of permissions via the Finder

  9. Is the maximum permissible radiation burden for the population indeed permissible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renesse, R.L. van.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that legislation based on the ICRP doses will, under economical influences, lead to a situation where the population is exposed to radiation doses near the maximum permissible dose. Due to cumulative radiation effects, this will introduce unacceptable health risks. Therefore, it will be necessary to lower the legal dose limit of 170 millrem per year per person by a factor 10 to 20

  10. A concept of dynamic permission mechanism on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Lukas; Hanacek, Petr

    2016-02-01

    This paper discuss the main security topic in mobile security area and this topic is protect user against the leakage of data. This work primarily contains the proposal of concept of dynamic permission mechanism for Android operating system. This mechanism deals with assignment or enforcement permissions to the application according to files that the application works with. Application has set of permissions that can use, but if the user opens confident files the application permissions should change its permission set and there should not be possible leakage of this secret data. The permissions set should be stricter according to opened confidential file or more open (without restriction) if the file is not secret file. The concept proposes the solution for protecting this data leakage. Idea covers rule that user should be avoided of change this permissions himself, but this behavior should be dynamic, automatic and independent. This proposal is mainly aimed to Android operating system, but the concept can be applied to other mobile platforms with some implementation changes.

  11. Permissive hypercapnia and risk for brain injury and developmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P; Palta, Mari

    2008-09-01

    Permissive hypercapnia is a respiratory-care strategy that is used to reduce the risk for lung injury. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether permissive hypercapnia is associated with higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage and early childhood behavioral and functional problems than normocapnia among very low birth weight infants. Very low birth weight infants from a statewide cohort were eligible for this study when they were born at <32 weeks' gestational age and survived at least 24 hours. Infants were classified as receiving a permissive hypercapnia, normocapnia, or unclassifiable respiratory strategy during the first 24 hours after birth according to an algorithm based on Pco(2) values and respiratory-treatment decisions that were abstracted from medical charts. Intraventricular hemorrhage diagnosis was also abstracted from the medical chart. Behavioral and functional outcomes were assessed by parent interview at 2 to 3 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between intraventricular hemorrhage and respiratory strategy; ordinary linear regression was used to evaluate differences in behavior and function scores between children by respiratory strategy. Infants who received a permissive hypercapnia strategy were not more likely to have intraventricular hemorrhage than those with normocapnia. There were no differences in any of the behavioral or functional scores among children according to respiratory strategy. There was a significant interaction between care strategy and 1-minute Apgar score, indicating that infants with lower Apgar scores may be at higher risk for intraventricular hemorrhage with permissive hypercapnia. This study suggests that permissive hypercapnia does not increase risk for brain injury and impairment among very low birth weight children. The interaction between respiratory strategy and Apgar score is a potential worrisome exception to this conclusion. Future research should further evaluate the effect

  12. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    OpenAIRE

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-01-01

    Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA). F...

  13. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    grouping in duration of rest and rest with a neighbor. In conclusion, from the age of 3wk of life, calves housed with full social contact performed more social behaviors than calves housed individually with limited social contact, whereas only minor differences were found in the social behavior of calves......This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F...... sniffing and licking another calf more than were the L calves. No difference was found in duration of lying down in body contact with another calf between F and LF calves on d 22; however, on d 34, LF calves performed more of this behavior than did F calves. Continuous recordings of social behavior were...

  14. Arthritis and employment: an examination of behavioral coping efforts to manage workplace activity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M

    2005-06-15

    To examine ways in which individuals with arthritis manage their employment and health by focusing on the type and determinants of diverse behavioral coping strategies used to manage activity limitations, and to examine the relationship between coping behaviors and participation in employment. The study group comprised 492 patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. All participants were employed, and all participants were administered an in-depth, structured questionnaire. The study used an inductive approach and distinguished among 4 categories of coping behaviors as follows: adjustments to time spent on activities; receipt of help; modification of behaviors; and anticipatory coping. Fewer coping behaviors were reported at the workplace than outside of the workplace. Anticipatory coping was used most often in the workplace. Workplace activity limitations were related to increased reports of all types of coping. Women, those with more joints affected, and people expecting to remain employed reported more anticipatory coping. Expectations of continued employment were also related to modifications of activities, as was longer disease duration and discussing arthritis with one's employer. Help from others was associated with talking to an employer and positive job perceptions. Compared with work, reports of a greater number of coping behaviors used at home were associated with changes in overall work participation (e.g., absenteeism). These results expand our understanding of the experience of having a chronic illness and working and highlight the ways in which people accommodate to workplace limitations by using a variety of different behavioral coping efforts to remain employed.

  15. JOB BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AND TURNOVER INTENTION: EVIDENCE FROM SIME DARBY PROPERTY LIMITED

    OpenAIRE

    Amran Awang; Abdul Razak Amir; Wirda Osman

    2013-01-01

    Some job behavioral factors are utilized to examine their relationship with turnover intention among 201 employees in Sime Darby Property (Malaysia) Limited. Job satisfaction, job stress, organizational commitment, job enrichment and person-organization fit are the job behavioral factors selected for the study. The variables used in the study justify the reliability scores consistent with indicators in previous studies. Research methodology justifies the quantitative requirements ...

  16. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investments. 703.14 Section 703.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.14 Permissible investments. (a) Variable rate investment. A Federal...

  17. Nutrition Education Brings Behavior and Knowledge Change in Limited-Resource Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W.; Jayaratne, K.S.U.; Bird, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, controlled, randomized, crossover design was used to examine a nutrition education curriculum's effects on knowledge and behavior of 463 limited-resource older adults in 13 counties. Counties were randomized to begin with the treatment or control curriculum and then the remaining curriculum. Participants completed a pre-test…

  18. Suggested safeguards and limitations for effective and permissible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... offers will be elucidated in the following pages.1 As parenting coordination has been implemented in haste and in an unsystematic and uncoordinated fashion, it has given rise to considerable confusion and both ethical and practice dilemmas.

  19. Understanding of flux-limited behaviors of heat transport in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yangyu, E-mail: yangyuhguo@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.es [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Wang, Moran, E-mail: mrwang@tsinghua.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The classical Fourier's law of heat transport breaks down in highly nonequilibrium situations as in nanoscale heat transport, where nonlinear effects become important. The present work is aimed at exploring the flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models in terms of their theoretical foundations. Different saturation heat fluxes are obtained, whereas the same qualitative variation trend of heat flux versus exerted temperature gradient is got in diverse nonlinear models. The phonon hydrodynamic model is proposed to act as a standard to evaluate other heat flux limiters because of its more rigorous physical foundation. A deeper knowledge is thus achieved about the phenomenological generalized heat transport models. The present work provides deeper understanding and accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit. - Highlights: • Exploring flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models. • Proposing phonon hydrodynamic model as a standard to evaluate heat flux limiters. • Providing accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit.

  20. Size effects in non-linear heat conduction with flux-limited behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang

    2017-11-01

    Size effects are discussed for several non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors, including the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier, hierarchy moment, nonlinear phonon hydrodynamic, tempered diffusion, thermon gas and generalized nonlinear models. For the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier and tempered diffusion models, heat flux will not exist in problems with sufficiently small scale. The existence of heat flux needs the sizes of heat conduction larger than their corresponding critical sizes, which are determined by the physical properties and boundary temperatures. The critical sizes can be regarded as the theoretical limits of the applicable ranges for these non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors. For sufficiently small scale heat conduction, the phonon hydrodynamic and Lagrange multiplier models can also predict the theoretical possibility of violating the second law and multiplicity. Comparisons are also made between these non-Fourier models and non-linear Fourier heat conduction in the type of fast diffusion, which can also predict flux-limited behaviors.

  1. Generalized space-charge limited current and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional drift space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhanfeng; Liu, Guozhi; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the space-charge limited current (SLC) and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional grounded drift space. A simple general analytical solution and an approximate solution for the planar diode are given. Through a semi-analytical method, a general solution for SLC in one-dimensional drift space is obtained. The behaviors of virtual cathode in the drift space, including dominant frequency, electron transit time, position, and transmitted current, are yielded analytically. The relationship between the frequency of the virtual cathode oscillation and the injected current presented may explain previously reported numerical works. Results are significant in facilitating estimations and further analytical studies

  2. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...... until the limit of total decorrelation, when no fringes will be formed, is reached. A quantitative evaluation of the partially decorrelated fringe pattern is presented for the case of decorrelation due to both tilt and in-plane translation of an object surface element. It is shown that the fringe...

  3. Stochastic models for structured populations scaling limits and long time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Meleard, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, several probabilistic tools to study population dynamics are developed. The focus is on scaling limits of qualitatively different stochastic individual based models and the long time behavior of some classes of limiting processes. Structured population dynamics are modeled by measure-valued processes describing the individual behaviors and taking into account the demographic and mutational parameters, and possible interactions between individuals. Many quantitative parameters appear in these models and several relevant normalizations are considered, leading  to infinite-dimensional deterministic or stochastic large-population approximations. Biologically relevant questions are considered, such as extinction criteria, the effect of large birth events, the impact of  environmental catastrophes, the mutation-selection trade-off, recovery criteria in parasite infections, genealogical properties of a sample of individuals. These notes originated from a lecture series on Structured P...

  4. An Ethics of Permission: A Response to the California End of Life Option Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    An ethics of permission can be helpful in framing a response to the ethical differences surrounding the California End of Life Option Act. Law does not define morality, and reaching a moral understanding demands thorough reflection. An ethics of permission examines the ethical demands of a permissive law for both clinician and patient. Serving the good of the patient, respecting professional conscience, and following the law are three ethical elements. Although developing an ethics of permission includes these three elements, these elements do not exhaust all the moral implications involved. An ethics of permission also includes the importance of exercising professional tolerance in the honoring of clinicians who choose to participate or refuse to participate. In addition, an ethics of permission also provides insight in implementing just and fair behavior among medical professionals.

  5. Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M

    1995-08-01

    Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.

  6. Birth spacing and fertility limitation: a behavioral analysis of a nineteenth century frontier population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D L; Bean, L L

    1985-05-01

    Our analysis of changing birth interval distributions over the course of a fertility transition from natural to controlled fertility has examined three closely related propositions. First, within both natural fertility populations (identified at the aggregate level) and cohorts following the onset of fertility limitation, we hypothesized that substantial groups of women with long birth intervals across the individually specified childbearing careers could be identified. That is, even during periods when fertility behavior at the aggregate level is consistent with a natural fertility regime, birth intervals at all parities are inversely related to completed family size. Our tabular analysis enables us to conclude that birth spacing patterns are parity dependent; there is stability in CEB-parity specific mean and birth interval variance over the entire transition. Our evidence does not suggest that the early group of women limiting and spacing births was marked by infecundity. Secondly, the transition appears to be associated with an increasingly larger proportion of women shifting to the same spacing schedules associated with smaller families in earlier cohorts. Thirdly, variations in birth spacing by age of marriage indicate that changes in birth intervals over time are at least indirectly associated with age of marriage, indicating an additional compositional effect. The evidence we have presented on spacing behavior does not negate the argument that parity-dependent stopping behavior was a powerful factor in the fertility transition. Our data also provide evidence of attempts to truncate childbearing. Specifically, the smaller the completed family size, the longer the ultimate birth interval; and ultimate birth intervals increase across cohorts controlling CEB and parity. But spacing appears to represent an additional strategy of fertility limitation. Thus, it may be necessary to distinguish spacing and stopping behavior if one wishes to clarify behavioral

  7. Virtual harm reduction efforts for Internet gambling: effects of deposit limits on actual Internet sports gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Anja; LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; LaBrie, Richard A; Bosworth, Leslie B; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-08-06

    In an attempt to reduce harm related to gambling problems, an Internet sports betting service provider, bwin Interactive Entertainment, AG (bwin), imposes limits on the amount of money that users can deposit into their online gambling accounts. We examined the effects of these limits on gambling behavior. We compared (1) gambling behavior of those who exceeded deposit limits with those who did not, and (2) gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits. We analyzed 2 years of the actual sports gambling behavior records of 47000 subscribers to bwin. Only 160 (0.3%) exceeded deposit limits at least once. Gamblers who exceeded deposit limits evidenced higher average number of bets per active betting day and higher average size of bets than gamblers who did not exceed deposit limits. Comparing the gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits revealed slightly more unfavorable gambling behavior after exceeding deposit limits. Our findings indicate that Internet gamblers who exceed deposit limits constitute a group of bettors willing to take high risks; yet, surprisingly, they appear to do this rather successfully because their percentage of losses is lower than others in the sample. However, some of these gamblers exhibit some poor outcomes. Deposit limits might be necessary harm reduction measures to prevent the loss of extremely large amounts of money and cases of bankruptcy. We discuss how these limits might be modified based on our findings.

  8. Virtual harm reduction efforts for Internet gambling: effects of deposit limits on actual Internet sports gambling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sarah E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to reduce harm related to gambling problems, an Internet sports betting service provider, bwin Interactive Entertainment, AG (bwin, imposes limits on the amount of money that users can deposit into their online gambling accounts. We examined the effects of these limits on gambling behavior. Methods We compared (1 gambling behavior of those who exceeded deposit limits with those who did not, and (2 gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits. We analyzed 2 years of the actual sports gambling behavior records of 47000 subscribers to bwin. Results Only 160 (0.3% exceeded deposit limits at least once. Gamblers who exceeded deposit limits evidenced higher average number of bets per active betting day and higher average size of bets than gamblers who did not exceed deposit limits. Comparing the gambling behavior before and after exceeding deposit limits revealed slightly more unfavorable gambling behavior after exceeding deposit limits. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Internet gamblers who exceed deposit limits constitute a group of bettors willing to take high risks; yet, surprisingly, they appear to do this rather successfully because their percentage of losses is lower than others in the sample. However, some of these gamblers exhibit some poor outcomes. Deposit limits might be necessary harm reduction measures to prevent the loss of extremely large amounts of money and cases of bankruptcy. We discuss how these limits might be modified based on our findings.

  9. The calculation of maximum permissible exposure levels for laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum permissible exposure data of the revised standard BS 4803 are presented as a set of decision charts which ensure that the user automatically takes into account such details as pulse length and pulse pattern, limiting angular subtense, combinations of multiple wavelength and/or multiple pulse lengths, etc. The two decision charts given are for the calculation of radiation hazards to skin and eye respectively. (author)

  10. Phase behavior of the modified-Yukawa fluid and its sticky limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll-Paschinger, Elisabeth; Valadez-Pérez, Néstor E; Benavides, Ana L; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2013-11-14

    Simple model systems with short-range attractive potentials have turned out to play a crucial role in determining theoretically the phase behavior of proteins or colloids. However, as pointed out by D. Gazzillo [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124504 (2011)], one of these widely used model potentials, namely, the attractive hard-core Yukawa potential, shows an unphysical behavior when one approaches its sticky limit, since the second virial coefficient is diverging. However, it is exactly this second virial coefficient that is typically used to depict the experimental phase diagram for a large variety of complex fluids and that, in addition, plays an important role in the Noro-Frenkel scaling law [J. Chem. Phys. 113, 2941 (2000)], which is thus not applicable to the Yukawa fluid. To overcome this deficiency of the attractive Yukawa potential, D. Gazzillo has proposed the so-called modified hard-core attractive Yukawa fluid, which allows one to correctly obtain the second and third virial coefficients of adhesive hard-spheres starting from a system with an attractive logarithmic Yukawa-like interaction. In this work we present liquid-vapor coexistence curves for this system and investigate its behavior close to the sticky limit. Results have been obtained with the self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) for values of the reduced inverse screening length parameter up to 18. The accuracy of SCOZA has been assessed by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Legitimate Permissions And Specifity Of Their Enforceability In Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  12. LEGITIMATE PERMISSIONS AND SPECIFITY OF THEIR ENFORCEABILITY IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  13. Limiting Behavior of Travelling Waves for the Modified Degasperis-Procesi Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuli Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an improved qualitative method which combines characteristics of several methods, we classify all travelling wave solutions of the modified Degasperis-Procesi equation in specified regions of the parametric space. Besides some popular exotic solutions including peaked waves, and looped and cusped waves, this equation also admits some very particular waves, such as fractal-like waves, double stumpons, double kinked waves, and butterfly-like waves. The last three types of solutions have not been reported in the literature. Furthermore, we give the limiting behavior of all periodic solutions as the parameters trend to some special values.

  14. Permission Marketing and Privacy Concerns - Why Do Customers (Not) Grant Permissions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krafft, Manfred; Arden, Christine M.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Little is known about the influence of motivators that drive consumers to grant permission to be contacted via personalized communication. In this study, a framework is developed to investigate the effect of select drivers of consumers granting permission to receive personalized messages. The

  15. Permissive Subsorted Partial Logic in CASL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerioli, Maura; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a permissive subsorted partial logic used in the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language. In contrast to other order-sorted logics, subsorting is not modeled by set inclusions, but by injective embeddings allowing for more general models in which subtypes can have different data...

  16. User-centric android flexible permissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scoccia, Gian Luca; Malavolta, Ivano; Autili, Marco; Di Salle, Amleto; Inverardi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Privacy in mobile apps is a fundamental aspect to be considered, particularly with regard to meeting end user expectations. Due to the rigidities of the Android permission model, desirable trade-offs are not allowed. End users are confined into a secondary role, having the only option of choosing

  17. Gender Differences In Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of premariatal sexual permissiveness among selected University undergraduates in a state owned university in Nigeria, believing that the policy of non-residential status of the University will facilitate premarital sexual activity among the students. Using a total of 400 purposively selected ...

  18. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-12-20

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict.

  19. Study on the determination of permissible concentration in sea food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.M.; Lee, K.J.; Lee, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive permissible concentration limit using the data which is suitable for Koreans is not established. In this paper, concentration limit is determined by using Korean food intake. Ministry of science of technology will adopt the new recommendation soon, so at this paper, dose limit of new value in ICRP 60 is used. Experts who have studied on this area worry about over-exposure by estimation of the case that intake contaminated a food by one radionuclide, therefore, complex intake limit is determined about all kinds of fishery products to solve this problem. Derived Food Concentration in single food divided by S(number of samples) and N(number of radionuclides) gives Complex intake limit (Derived Food Concentration in plural food). The value of N and S in this study is 3 and 12 respectively

  20. Plasma-induced evolution behavior of space-charge-limited current for multiple-needle cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Limin; Liu Lie; Zhang Jun; Wen Jianchun; Liu Yonggui; Wan Hong

    2009-01-01

    Properties of the plasma and beam flow produced by tufted carbon fiber cathodes in a diode powered by a ∼500 kV, ∼400 ns pulse are investigated. Under electric fields of 230-260 kV cm -1 , the electron current density was in the range 210-280 A cm -2 , and particularly at the diode gap of 20 mm, a maximum beam power density of about 120 MW cm -2 was obtained. It was found that space-charge-limited current exhibited an evolution behavior as the accelerating pulse proceeded. There exists a direct relation between the movement of plasma within the diode and the evolution of space-charge-limited current. Initially in the accelerating pulse, the application of strong electric fields caused the emission sites to explode, forming cathode flares or plasma spots, and in this stage the space-charge-limited current was approximately described by a multiple-needle cathode model. As the pulse proceeded, these plasma spots merged and expanded towards the anode, thus increasing the emission area and shortening the diode gap, and the corresponding space-charge-limited current followed a planar cathode model. Finally, the space-charge-limited current is developed from a unipolar flow into a bipolar flow as a result of the appearance of anode plasma. In spite of the nonuniform distribution of cathode plasma, the cross-sectional uniformity of the extracted electron beam is satisfactory. The plasma expansion within the diode is found to be a major factor in the diode perveance growth and instability. These results show that these types of cathodes can offer promising applications for high-power microwave tubes.

  1. Rationalizing the Permissibility of Mosque Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spahic Omer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the subject of mosque decoration and some of the criteria which determine its permissibility or otherwise. Some aspects of the matter are somewhat sensitive and double-edged. Thus, the paper presents an objective, balanced and scientific account of the theme, steering clear of the sentimental aspects of the evidences often put forth by both the proponents and opponents of mosque decoration. The main thrusts of the paper are the issues pertaining to the legitimacy of decoration in general, the subject of the function of mosques vis-à-vis their decoration, as well as the broad guidelines that regulate mosque decoration emphasizing the decoration of the mihrab (praying niche area and the qiblah wall. The paper concludes that in principle mosque decoration is permissible so long as it conforms to the requirements of the Islamic spirituality and the quintessence of genuine Islamic art and architecture.

  2. Investigating genotype specific response in photosynthetic behavior under drought stress and nitrogen limitation in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.; Aston, T.

    2015-12-01

    Challenges in terrestrial ecosystem modeling include characterizing the impact of stress on vegetation and the heterogeneous behavior of different species within the environment. In an effort to address these challenges the impacts of drought and nutrient limitation on the CO2 assimilation of multiple genotypes of Brassica rapa was investigated using the Farquhar Model (FM) of photosynthesis following a Bayesian parameterization and updating scheme. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements from an unstressed group (well-watered/well-fertilized) and two stressed groups (drought/well-fertilized and well-watered/nutrient limited) were used to estimate FM model parameters. Unstressed individuals were used to initialize Bayesian parameter estimation. Posterior mean estimates yielded a close fit with data as observed assimilation (An) closely matched predicted (Ap) with mean standard error for all individuals ranging from 0.8 to 3.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Posterior parameter distributions of the unstressed individuals were combined and fit to distributions to establish species level Bayesian priors of FM parameters for testing stress responses. Species level distributions of unstressed group identified mean maximum rates of carboxylation standardized to 25° (Vcmax25) as 101.8 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 29.0) and mean maximum rates of electron transport standardized to 25° (Jmax25) as 319.7 μmol m-2 s-1 (± 64.4). These updated priors were used to test the response of drought and nutrient limitations on assimilation. In the well-watered/nutrient limited group a decrease of 28.0 μmol m-2 s-1 was observed in mean estimate of Vcmax25, a decrease of 27.9 μmol m-2 s-1 in Jmax25 and a decrease in quantum yield from 0.40 mol photon/mol e- in unstressed individuals to 0.14 in the nutrient limited group. In the drought/well-fertilized group a decrease was also observed in Vcmax25 and Jmax25. The genotype specific unstressed and stressed responses were then used to

  3. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Moussaoui

    Full Text Available A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%, self-grooming (69%, and putting the pups back to the nest (167%. LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring.

  4. Analysis of vertical stability limits and vertical displacement event behavior on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark; Battaglia, Devon; Gerhardt, Stefan; Menard, Jonathan; Mueller, Dennis; Myers, Clayton; Sabbagh, Steven; Smith, David

    2017-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) completed its first run campaign in 2016, including commissioning a larger center-stack and three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources. NSTX-U operates at increased aspect ratio due to the larger center-stack, making vertical stabilization more challenging. Since ST performance is improved at high elongation, improvements to the vertical control system were made, including use of multiple up-down-symmetric flux loop pairs for real-time estimation, and filtering to remove noise. Similar operating limits to those on NSTX (in terms of elongation and internal inductance) were achieved, now at higher aspect ratio. To better understand the observed limits and project to future operating points, a database of vertical displacement events and vertical oscillations observed during the plasma current ramp-up on NSTX/NSTX-U has been generated. Shots were clustered based on the characteristics of the VDEs/oscillations, and the plasma parameter regimes associated with the classes of behavior were studied. Results provide guidance for scenario development during ramp-up to avoid large oscillations at the time of diverting, and provide the means to assess stability of target scenarios for the next campaign. Results will also guide plans for improvements to the vertical control system. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Feeding Immunity: Physiological and Behavioral Responses to Infection and Resource Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Budischak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources are a core currency of species interactions and ecology in general (e.g., think of food webs or competition. Within parasite-infected hosts, resources are divided among the competing demands of host immunity and growth as well as parasite reproduction and growth. Effects of resources on immune responses are increasingly understood at the cellular level (e.g., metabolic predictors of effector function, but there has been limited consideration of how these effects scale up to affect individual energetic regimes (e.g., allocation trade-offs, susceptibility to infection, and feeding behavior (e.g., responses to local resource quality and quantity. We experimentally rewilded laboratory mice (strain C57BL/6 in semi-natural enclosures to investigate the effects of dietary protein and gastrointestinal nematode (Trichuris muris infection on individual-level immunity, activity, and behavior. The scale and realism of this field experiment, as well as the multiple physiological assays developed for laboratory mice, enabled us to detect costs, trade-offs, and potential compensatory mechanisms that mice employ to battle infection under different resource conditions. We found that mice on a low-protein diet spent more time feeding, which led to higher body fat stores (i.e., concentration of a satiety hormone, leptin and altered metabolite profiles, but which did not fully compensate for the effects of poor nutrition on albumin or immune defenses. Specifically, immune defenses measured as interleukin 13 (IL13 (a primary cytokine coordinating defense against T. muris and as T. muris-specific IgG1 titers were lower in mice on the low-protein diet. However, these reduced defenses did not result in higher worm counts in mice with poorer diets. The lab mice, living outside for the first time in thousands of generations, also consumed at least 26 wild plant species occurring in the enclosures, and DNA metabarcoding revealed that the consumption of different

  6. Behavior of the particle transport coefficients near the density limit in MTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinak, M.M.

    1993-04-01

    The perturbed particle transport coefficients were determined for a range of plasma conditions in the Alcator C tokamak, a component of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), from analysis of density perturbations created in gas modulation experiments. Density measurements from a 15 chord far-infrared interferometer were sufficiently detailed to allow radial profiles of the transport coefficients to be resolved. Gas modulation experiments were carried out on plasmas over a range of relatively low currents and a wide variety of line-averaged densities, including values near the Greenwald density limit. With this technique the perturbed diffusion coefficient D and the perturbed convection velocity V can be determined simultaneously. Measured profiles of D rise toward the outside of the plasma column in a manner generally similar to those determined previously for χ e,HP from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Values of D are typically smaller than those of χ e,HP given for the same line-averaged densities by a factor of 2-5. Diffusion coefficients from a series of discharges at constant current showed little variation with density through most of the saturated ohmic confinement regime. At the Greenwald density limit threshold a dramatic increase occurred in both the perturbed convective and diffusive transport coefficients in the outer region of the plasma. The increases were most pronounced at the outermost range of the radii where coefficients were determined (r/a = 0.8), but were apparent over a region which extended well into the plasma interior. Density profiles maintained a similar shape near the density limit, congruous with the similar behavior of the transport coefficients. No dramatic deterioration was evident in the global energy confinement

  7. An analysis of factors affecting participation behavior of limited resource farmers in agricultural cost-share programs in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Buddhi Gyawali; Jianbang Gan; Mark Dubois; John Schelhas

    2004-01-01

    This study examines factors that affect the participation behavior of limited resource farmers in agricultural cost-share programs in Alabama. The data were generated from a survey administered to a sample of limited resource farm operators. A binary logit model was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that college education, age, gross sales, ratio of owned...

  8. A permissive graphical patcher for supercollider synths

    OpenAIRE

    Dufeu, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the first version of a permissive graphical patcher (referred to in the text as SCPGP) dedicated to fluid interconnection and control of SuperCollider Synths. With SCPGP, the user programs her/his SynthDefs normally as code in the SuperCollider environment, along with a minimal amount of additional information on these SynthDefs, and programs Patterns according to a simple SuperCollider-compliant syntax.\\ud From the execution of this SuperCollider session, the SCPGP inte...

  9. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PERMISSIBLE TRAIN SPEED ON THE CURVED TURNOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Turnouts play a key role in the railway transportation process. One-sided and many-sided curved turnouts were railed over the last 20 years in difficult conditions (curved sections, yard necks. They have a number of geometric features, unlike the conventional one-sided turnouts. Today the normative documents prohibit laying such turnouts in curved track sections and only partially regulate the assessment procedure of their real condition. The question of establishment the permissible train speed within the curved turnouts is still open. In this regard, authors propose to set the train speed according to the driving comfort criterion using the results of field measurements of ordinates from the baseline for the particular curved turnout. Methodology. The article considers the criteria using which one can set the permissible speed on the turnouts. It defines the complexity of their application, advantages and disadvantages. Findings. The work analyzes the speed distribution along the length of the real curved turnout for the forward and lateral directions. It establishes the change rate values of unbalanced accelerations for the existing norms of the curved track sections maintenance according to the difference in the adjacent bend versine at speeds up to 160 km/h. Originality. A method for establishing the trains’ speed limit within the curved turnouts was developed. It takes into account the actual geometric position in the plan of forward and lateral turnout directions. This approach makes it possible to establish a barrier places in plan on the turnouts limiting the train speed. Practical value. The proposed method makes it possible to objectively assess and set the trains’ permissible speed on the basis of the ordinate measurement of the forward and lateral directions of the curved turnouts from the baseline using the driving comfort criteria. The method was tested using real turnouts, which are located within the Pridneprovsk

  10. Limit behavior of mass critical Hartree minimization problems with steep potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujin; Luo, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-06-01

    We consider minimizers of the following mass critical Hartree minimization problem: eλ(N ) ≔inf {u ∈H1(Rd ) , ‖u‖2 2=N } Eλ(u ) , where d ≥ 3, λ > 0, and the Hartree energy functional Eλ(u) is defined by Eλ(u ) ≔∫Rd|∇u (x ) |2d x +λ ∫Rdg (x ) u2(x ) d x -1/2 ∫Rd∫Rdu/2(x ) u2(y ) |x -y |2 d x d y . Here the steep potential g(x) satisfies 0 =g (0 ) =infRdg (x ) ≤g (x ) ≤1 and 1 -g (x ) ∈Ld/2(Rd ) . We prove that there exists a constant N* > 0, independent of λg(x), such that if N ≥ N*, then eλ(N) does not admit minimizers for any λ > 0; if 0 N N*, then there exists a constant λ*(N) > 0 such that eλ(N) admits minimizers for any λ > λ*(N) and eλ(N) does not admit minimizers for 0 N). For any given 0 N N*, the limit behavior of positive minimizers for eλ(N) is also studied as λ → ∞, where the mass concentrates at the bottom of g(x).

  11. Moving beyond a limited follow-up in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Christenhusz, Lieke C.A.; Seydel, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions typically use a dichotomous outcome criterion. However, achieving behavioral change is a complex process involving several steps towards a change in behavior. Delayed effects may occur after an intervention period ends, which can

  12. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  13. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2017-07-12

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  14. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO2 and Al2O3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO2, Al2O3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  15. Limiting hydrophobic behavior and reflectance response of dragonfly and damselfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aideo, Swati Nawami; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-11-01

    In this work, through water contact angle (CA) measurements, we explore hydrophobic behavior of different parts of the hind wings of a dragonfly, Gynacantha Dravida and of a damselfly, Pseudagrion Microcephalum. As we move from the basal to distal region, the contact angle (θ) was found to vary in the range of 120-136° for both the species. Moreover, the wing of the dragonfly was seen to be more hydrophobic than that of the damselfly one. An attempt has also been made to link roughness factor (rφ) and solid-water fraction (φ) through the simplified Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models. We noticed that, rφ and φ tend to follow a linear relation that gives rφ = 1.47 in the limit, Δθ segment was believed to be stronger than that of the basal part, the edge parts of the dragonfly and damselfly wings exhibited exponential associated growing trends with increasing wavelength. The relative reflectance response, corresponding to ∼494 nm and 370 nm peaks, gets nearly doubled for the edge specimen as compared to the distal and basal parts. The edge- specimen, which comprises of rectangular shaped, periodic microstructures, displayed carotenoid based two broad peak maxima at ∼422 nm and ∼494 nm. The surface roughness which arises through the distribution of oblate-shaped nano-fibrils is believed to be the basis of sub-surface volume scattering. Interrelating nanostructure surface roughness based wettability and reflectance characteristics would provide new insights on structure-property relationship in naturally available soft matter systems including templates of biological origin.

  16. Can ‘Mobile Platform’ and ‘Permission Marketing’ dance a tango to the consumers' tune? Modeling adoption of ‘SMS based Permission Advertising’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Bamoriya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many a times situation of advertising clutter is further aggrieved by the markers’ intrusive practices i.e. not asking for consumer’s explicit permission. It results in consumers’ alienation and reduced advertising effectiveness. Solution could be integration of Permission Marketing with an innovative advertising platform like Mobile. This study aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive model for understanding consumers’ adoption behavior towards SMS Based Permission Advertising (SBPA. For this, data was collected using systematic random sampling from 524 respondents and was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Study revealed some critical variables along with complex relationships among such variables, in form of an empirically validated model. At last, study made some important implications for practitioners and researchers.

  17. Android Multi-Level System Permission Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yang; Zhang, Qixun; Shen, Qingni; Liu, Hongzhi; Wu, Zhonghai

    2017-01-01

    With the expansion of the market share occupied by the Android platform, security issues (especially application security) have become attention focus of researchers. In fact, the existing methods lack the capabilities to manage application permissions without root privilege. This study proposes a dynamic management mechanism of Android application permissions based on security policies. The paper first describes the permissions by security policies, then implementes permission checking code ...

  18. A Dynamic Operation Permission Technique Based on an MFM Model and Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akio, Gofuku; Masahiro, Yonemura

    2011-01-01

    It is important to support operator activities to an abnormal plant situation where many counter actions are taken in relatively short time. The authors proposed a technique called dynamic operation permission to decrease human errors without eliminating creative idea of operators to cope with an abnormal plant situation by checking if the counter action taken is consistent with emergency operation procedure. If the counter action is inconsistent, a dynamic operation permission system warns it to operators. It also explains how and why the counter action is inconsistent and what influence will appear on the future plant behavior by a qualitative influence inference technique based on a model by the Mf (Multilevel Flow Modeling). However, the previous dynamic operation permission is not able to explain quantitative effects on plant future behavior. Moreover, many possible influence paths are derived because a qualitative reasoning does not give a solution when positive and negative influences are propagated to the same node. This study extends the dynamic operation permission by combining the qualitative reasoning and the numerical simulation technique. The qualitative reasoning based on an Mf model of plant derives all possible influence propagation paths. Then, a numerical simulation gives a prediction of plant future behavior in the case of taking a counter action. The influence propagation that does not coincide with the simulation results is excluded from possible influence paths. The extended technique is implemented in a dynamic operation permission system for an oil refinery plant. An MFM model and a static numerical simulator are developed. The results of dynamic operation permission for some abnormal plant situations show the improvement of the accuracy of dynamic operation permission and the quality of explanation for the effects of the counter action taken

  19. 30 CFR 62.130 - Permissible exposure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible exposure level. 62.130 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.130 Permissible exposure level. (a) The mine operator must assure that no miner is exposed during any work shift to noise that exceeds the permissible exposure level. If...

  20. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  1. Legal Permissibility of Unilateral Humanitarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Perisic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.

  2. Childhood-Limited Versus Persistent Antisocial Behavior : Why Do Some Recover and Others Do Not? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Possible differences between childhood-limited antisocial youth and their stable high-antisocial counterparts were examined. Children were 11 years old at wave 1 (T1) and 13.5 at wave 2 (T2). At both waves, the same parent, teacher, and self-reports of antisocial behavior were used. Stable highs and

  3. The behavior of steady quasisolitons near the limit cases of third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.; Shagalov, A.G.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of steady quasisoliton solutions to the extended third-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation is studied in two cases: (i) when the coefficients in the equation approach the Hirota conditions, and (ii) near the limit of the regular NLS equation. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier...

  4. Estimating permissible /sup 129/I-emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebschmann, W G

    1976-06-01

    A mathematical method of iodine release limitation is presented which, in assessing the radiological effectiveness of /sup 129/I, takes advantage of the fact that the chemical behaviour of /sup 129/I resembles that of /sup 131/I and relies on the already extensive knowledge of the chemical and biological behaviour of /sup 131/I. If this method is used for calculating permissible /sup 129/I emission rates it is stated that no unnecessary restrictions need be imposed on a fuel reprocessing plant and that the grazing season for the pasture-cow-milk pathway can be taken into account. The concept is currently in use at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and seems to be appropriate for licensing of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  5. Statistic method of research reactors maximum permissible power calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosheva, N.A.; Kirsanov, G.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Chmshkyan, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The technique for calculating maximum permissible power of a research reactor at which the probability of the thermal-process accident does not exceed the specified value, is presented. The statistical method is used for the calculations. It is regarded that the determining function related to the reactor safety is the known function of the reactor power and many statistically independent values which list includes the reactor process parameters, geometrical characteristics of the reactor core and fuel elements, as well as random factors connected with the reactor specific features. Heat flux density or temperature is taken as a limiting factor. The program realization of the method discussed is briefly described. The results of calculating the PIK reactor margin coefficients for different probabilities of the thermal-process accident are considered as an example. It is shown that the probability of an accident with fuel element melting in hot zone is lower than 10 -8 1 per year for the reactor rated power [ru

  6. The behavioral basis of policies fostering long-run transitions: Stakeholders, limited rationality and social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazheli, A.; Antal, A.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Writings on sustainability transitions generally pay slight attention to the specific behavioral characteristics of individuals, groups and organizations. This paper examines how modern insights about bounded rationality, social interaction and learning can contribute to making transition polices

  7. Trial-to-trial reoptimization of motor behavior due to changes in task demands is limited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orban de Xivry J-J

    Full Text Available Each task requires a specific motor behavior that is tuned to task demands. For instance, writing requires a lot of accuracy while clapping does not. It is known that the brain adjusts the motor behavior to different task demands as predicted by optimal control theory. In this study, the mechanism of this reoptimization process is investigated by varying the accuracy demands of a reaching task. In this task, the width of the reaching target (0.5 or 8 cm was varied either on a trial-to-trial basis (random schedule or in blocks (blocked schedule. On some trials, the hand of the subjects was clamped to a rectilinear trajectory that ended 2 cm on the left or right of the target center. The rejection of this perturbation largely varied with target width in the blocked schedule but not in the random schedule. That is, subjects exhibited different motor behavior in the different schedules despite identical accuracy demands. Therefore, while reoptimization has been considered immediate and automatic, the differences in motor behavior observed across schedules suggest that the reoptimization of the motor behavior is neither happening on a trial-by-trial basis nor obligatory. The absence of trial-to-trial mechanisms, the inability of the brain to adapt to two conflicting task demands and the existence of a switching cost are discussed as possible sources of the non-optimality of motor behavior during the random schedule.

  8. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid hinders integration of behavioral health into the medical home model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Dylan H; Jones, Erynne E

    2016-02-01

    The potential expansion of insurance coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 can facilitate the reduction of access barriers and improved quality for behavioral health care. More than 5 million of the newly insured are expected to have mental health and substance use disorders. In addition, state and federal efforts to integrate behavioral and medical health needs through patient-centered medical home models and innovations in payment strategies provide an unprecedented opportunity to use federal financial support to improve not only access to care, but also improve quality through active care coordination, use of interdisciplinary teams, colocating services, and engaging in warm hand-offs between providers in the same setting. These potential advances are hindered in 24 different states because of Medicaid payment policy, with 7 explicitly limiting the ability to reimburse for physical health and behavioral health services on the same day for all providers. Without the ability for providers to be reimbursed for different services on the same day to improve behavioral and medical health care coordination, these states could be limited in their ability to improve care via patient-centered approaches and interdisciplinary team-based care that would involve physicians, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid programs could impact up to 36.7 million people in 24 states, which is approximately 52.6% of all Medicaid enrollees. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. [The psychopathology of the unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations in traumatic brain-injured patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim-Gluckman, H; Fayol, P; de Collasson, P; Dumond, J J; Azouvi, P

    2003-02-01

    To explore the unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations using a psychopathological approach. Fifteen patients with chronic severe TBI. Outpatient TBI rehabilitation programs in three different centers. Case reports. The data from semi-structured interviews with the patients and their families, at least six months after the accident, were compared with data supplied by the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) and the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised (NRS-R). Nine patients demonstrated unawareness of their limitations according to the PCRS (Group I), whereas six did not (Group II). Psychic phenomena specific to patients of group I were found. Some of these were specific to brain injury, such as the lack of representation of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations or the difficulty to integrate the brain-injury into one's psychic space. Others were not specific to brain injury such as mourning process difficulties, personality characteristics, defense mechanisms. Several psychic phenomena coexisted in the same patient. This study shows the complexity of unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations and makes future clinical and theoretical definition indispensable.

  10. Observation of Wigner crystal phase and ripplon-limited mobility behavior in monolayer CVD MoS2 with grain boundary

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jyun-Hong; Zhong, Yuan-Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2018-01-01

    -limited mobility behavior at lower temperatures. Although these mobility behaviors have been studied on the surface of liquid helium through theories and experiments, they have not previously analyzed in 2D materials and semiconductors. We are the first research

  11. Behavioral Flexibility and Response Selection Are Impaired after Limited Exposure to Oxycodone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip-Cammack, Katharine M.; Shapiro, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to adapt to situations in which rewards and goals change. Potentially addictive drugs may impair flexible decision-making by altering brain mechanisms that compute reward expectancies, thereby facilitating maladaptive drug use. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested the effects of oxycodone exposure on…

  12. Pilot Control Behavior Discrepancies Between Real and Simulated Flight Caused by Limited Motion Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, P.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Flight simulators provide a flexible, efficient, and safe environment for research and training at much lower costs than real flight. The ultimate validity of any simulation would be achieved when – for a particular task – human cognitive and psychomotor behavior in the simulator corresponds

  13. Resistance to Change: Overcoming Institutional and Individual Limitations for Improving Student Behavior through PLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Many public schools currently have organizational structures that form barriers for dealing more effectively with students' challenging behaviors even though positive school-wide approaches exist and provide empirical support for their use. Nevertheless, resistance to change occurs at both institutional and individual levels. Improving student…

  14. Crossover to Fermi-liquid behavior for weakly-coupled Luttinger liquids in the anisotropic large-dimension limit

    OpenAIRE

    Arrigoni, E.

    1999-01-01

    We study the problem of the crossover from one- to higher-dimensional metals by considering an array of Luttinger liquids (one-dimensional chains) coupled by a weak interchain hopping {\\tp.} We evaluate the exact asymptotic low-energy behavior of the self-energy in the anisotropic infinite-dimension limit. This limit extends the dinamical mean field concept to the case of a chain embedded in a self-consistent medium. The system flows to a Fermi-liquid fixed point for energies below the dimens...

  15. Multitasking vs. multiplexing: Toward a normative account of limitations in the simultaneous execution of control-demanding behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, S. F.; Schwemmer, M.; Gershman, S. J.; Cohen, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Why is it that behaviors that rely on control, so striking in their diversity and flexibility, are also subject to such striking limitations? Typically, people cannot engage in more than a few — and usually only a single — control-demanding task at a time. This limitation was a defining element in the earliest conceptualizations of controlled processing, it remains one of the most widely accepted axioms of cognitive psychology, and is even the basis for some laws (e.g., against the use of mob...

  16. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Hsuan; Cline, Hollis T

    2016-07-06

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual conditioning

  17. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment of Android Permissions and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Yang; Zheng , Jun; Sun , Chen; Mukkamala , Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Mobile Computing; International audience; The booming of the Android platform in recent years has attracted the attention of malware developers. However, the permissions-based model used in Android system to prevent the spread of malware, has shown to be ineffective. In this paper, we propose DroidRisk, a framework for quantitative security risk assessment of both Android permissions and applications (apps) based on permission request patterns from benign apps and malware, which aims ...

  18. Limits to behavioral evolution: the quantitative genetics of a complex trait under directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E; Carter, Patrick A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-11-01

    Replicated selection experiments provide a powerful way to study how "multiple adaptive solutions" may lead to differences in the quantitative-genetic architecture of selected traits and whether this may translate into differences in the timing at which evolutionary limits are reached. We analyze data from 31 generations (n=17,988) of selection on voluntary wheel running in house mice. The rate of initial response, timing of selection limit, and height of the plateau varied significantly between sexes and among the four selected lines. Analyses of litter size and realized selection differentials seem to rule out counterposing natural selection as a cause of the selection limits. Animal-model analyses showed that although the additive genetic variance was significantly lower in selected than control lines, both before and after the limits, the decrease was not sufficient to explain the limits. Moreover, directional selection promoted a negative covariance between additive and maternal genetic variance over the first 10 generations. These results stress the importance of replication in selection studies of higher-level traits and highlight the fact that long-term predictions of response to selection are not necessarily expected to be linear because of the variable effects of selection on additive genetic variance and maternal effects. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: a limited role of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-03-23

    This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  20. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...

  1. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  2. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints.

  3. The limiting behavior of the estimated parameters in a misspecified random field regression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Qin, Yu

    This paper examines the limiting properties of the estimated parameters in the random field regression model recently proposed by Hamilton (Econometrica, 2001). Though the model is parametric, it enjoys the flexibility of the nonparametric approach since it can approximate a large collection of n...

  4. A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits†

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits). The color changes in an array of chemically responsive nanoporous pigments provide facile identification of the TICs with an error rate below 0.7%.

  5. Impact of Load Behavior on Transient Stability and Power Transfer Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents utility based load modeling practices and explores the interaction between loads and the power system and the effect of the interaction on transient stability and power transfer limitations. The effect of load composition is investigated at major load centers together with the......This paper presents utility based load modeling practices and explores the interaction between loads and the power system and the effect of the interaction on transient stability and power transfer limitations. The effect of load composition is investigated at major load centers together...... with the impact on rotor angle excursions of large scale generators during the transient and post-transient period. Responses of multi-induction motor stalling are also considered for different fault clearances in the system. Findings of the investigations carried out on the Eastern Australian interconnected...

  6. ACTIVE POWER LOSSES IN LONG LINES DURING COORDINATED, LIMITING AND MALFUNCTION BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimsky V.X.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Exact formulas for calculation of limiting values of transmitted capacity and efficiency of lines of a variable voltage with active loading on the reception end are resulted. Critical resistance and losses of capacity are determined depending on length Air-lines of an electricity transmission of a class of a voltage 500 … 750 kV. Emergency operation in the loaded electricity transmission is investigated.

  7. The quasi-invariant limit for a kinetic model of sociological collective behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Salvarani , Francesco

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The paper is devoted to the study of the asymptotic behaviour of a kinetic model proposed to forecast the phenomenon of opinion formation, with both effect of self-thinking and compromise between individuals. By supposing that the effects of self-thinking and compromise are very weak, we deduce, asymptotically, some simpler models who lose the kinetic structure. We explicitly characterize the asymptotic state of the limiting equation and study the speed of convergence ...

  8. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  9. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 176.700 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for...

  10. 14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.35 Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 399.35 Section...

  11. 42 CFR 433.66 - Permissible provider-related donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of this...

  12. 45 CFR 1639.4 - Permissible representation of eligible clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible representation of eligible clients... CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.4 Permissible representation of eligible clients. Recipients may represent an individual eligible client who is seeking specific relief from a welfare agency. [62 FR 30766...

  13. The ecological determination of the permissible concentrations for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononovich, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    It is supposed that all inhabitants of the ecosystem are enjoying equal rights. The report describes the approximate method of ecology normalizing of the permissible radionuclide concentrations. Definition of the permissible concentration is made by an indirect way, since the defining criterion is unknown

  14. May I sleep in your bed? Getting permission to book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, L.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Dolnicar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Demand for tourist accommodation offered on peer-to-peer networks is skyrocketing. In such networks tourists can only book if the accommodation provider (host) gives their permission. Needing permission to book accommodation is radically new in tourism. No hotel, motel or B&B assesses a tourist

  15. Collective magnetic behaviors of Fe-Ag nanostructured thin films above the percolation limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.; Barandiaran, J. M.; Svalov, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Fernandez Barquin, L.; Pedro, I. de; Orue, I.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of sputtered and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) Fe x Ag 100-x thin films with 27≤x≤55 has been studied by means of ac and dc magnetic measurements. Sputtered samples present a continuous decrease in the magnetization, down to 310 K for x=30, where a magnetic transition into a superparamagnetic state with the presence of dipolar interactions is observed. The ac susceptibility measurements indicate that this transition resembles that of three dimensional glassy systems. Sputtered samples with higher concentration of Fe present a similar but slower thermal evolution of magnetization. PLD samples with x≥50 show a Curie-Weiss-type transition above ∼200 K triggered by direct exchange interactions. As the temperature decreases, the system behaves like a ferromagnet and below ∼75 K, a transition into a cluster-glass state appears. As the composition decreases, these phenomena vanish

  16. Life near the Roche limit - Behavior of ejecta from satellites close to planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Burns, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the dynamics of nearby debris from impact craters was made to explain the distinctive features seen on Phobos, Deimis, and Amalthea. The planetary tides and satellite rotation were considered, and the usual pseudo-energy (Jacobi) integral was numerically calculated in the framework of a restricted body problem where satellites are modelled as triaxial ellipsoids rather than point masses. Iso-contours of this integral show that Deimos and Amalthea are entirely closed by Roche lobes, and the surfaces of their model ellipsoids lie nearly along equipotentials. Presently, the surface of Phobos overflows its Roche lobe, except for regions within a few km of the sub-Mars and anti-Mars points. The behavior of crater ejecta from the satellites of Mars were also examined by numerical integration of trajectories for particles leaving their surfaces in the equatorial plane.

  17. Nasally-Administered Oxytocin Has Limited Effects on Owner-Directed Attachment Behavior in Pet Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Thielke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the effects of intranasal oxytocin, a naturally occurring hormone, on the behavior of pet dogs during an attachment test. Each dog participated in two testing sessions. On one visit saline was administered nasally, and on another, oxytocin was administered nasally. For half of the dogs (n = 20, solutions were administered with a Mucosal Atomization Device (MAD and for half of the dogs (n = 20, solutions were administered using a nasal spray bottle. Condition order was counterbalanced and a double-blind methodology was employed. Following a 30-min wait period after administration of solutions, dog-owner pairs participated in the Secure Base Test, a short attachment test consisting of three 2-min phases: (1 Baseline- the owner was present, dogs were able to freely explore the testing room (2 Alone- dogs were left alone in the testing room (3 Return- owners re-entered the room and were reunited with their dog. In each phase the dog was evaluated for contact seeking, exploration, and avoidance behaviors. Although, oxytocin administration was expected to increase owner-directed proximity and contact seeking behavior, this effect was not observed. In fact, in the baseline phase, dogs spent significantly more time seeking the proximity of their owners when they received saline than when they received OT (p < 0.05. Sex differences were also assessed for the behavioral variables of interest in the Secure Base Test, and results indicated that OT did not affect dogs' behavior in the alone phase, but when saline was administered, females spent significantly more time in contact with the door than males in the alone phase (p < 0.05. Overall, the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on attachment related behavior appeared to be limited or inconsistent for this pet dog population.

  18. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Self-Efficacy for Limiting Sexual Risk Behavior and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Scoloveno, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy for sexual risk behaviors, and parental monitoring in a sample of 140 7th and 9th grade adolescents studying in an urban high school in the United States. Further, the study examined differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and parental monitoring by grade and gender. This study also investigated the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS peer education program, Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP), on improving adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine effects of the peer education program (TAP) on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among the variables. Independent t-tests were used to compare adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and parental monitoring scores by grade and gender. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention HIV/AIDS knowledge. The results showed that HIV/AIDS knowledge improved significantly in both 7th and 9th grade students after the intervention. HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with self-efficacy; however it was not associated with parental monitoring. There were no significant differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-efficacy by gender. However, there was a significant difference in parental monitoring by gender. Pediatric nurses are well-positioned to develop and implement evidence-based programs for adolescents. It is essential that pediatric nurses, in conjunction with other professionals and parent groups, take the initiative in implementing peer education programs in schools and community centers to promote healthy behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Face Validity of a Food Behavior Checklist for Limited-resource Filipinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Tauyan, Socorro

    2015-10-01

    Diet-related chronic health conditions are prevalent in the Filipino American community; however, there is a lack of rigorously validated nutrition education evaluation tools in Tagalog for use in this population. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the face validity of a Tagalog-language food behavior checklist (FBC). A multi-step method was used, involving translation of questionnaire text from English to Tagalog by a team of professionals, creation of accompanying color photographs, cognitive testing with the target population, final review by the team of professionals, and assessment of readability. Subjects for cognitive testing were men (n=6) and women (n=14) 18 years or older in Hawai'i who received or were eligible to receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, self-identified as Filipino, and preferred Tagalog rather than English. Participants were recruited from churches, the Filipino Center, and other community sites. Cognitive interviews revealed several issues with text and photographs, such as preferences for specific terms, and images that did not adequately illustrate the text. Image changes were made to reflect items most commonly consumed. The team of professionals agreed with participant suggestions. Assessment of readability revealed a reading level appropriate for a low-literacy population of grade 5.9. The multi-step process, which allowed members of the target audience to reveal the appropriateness of the questionnaire, yielded a Tagalog-language FBC found to have adequate face validity. After further evaluation of validity and reliability, this tool may be used to evaluate behavior change resulting from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) nutrition education programs.

  20. Nasally-Administered Oxytocin Has Limited Effects on Owner-Directed Attachment Behavior in Pet Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielke, Lauren E; Rosenlicht, Giovanna; Saturn, Sarina R; Udell, Monique A R

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the effects of intranasal oxytocin, a naturally occurring hormone, on the behavior of pet dogs during an attachment test. Each dog participated in two testing sessions. On one visit saline was administered nasally, and on another, oxytocin was administered nasally. For half of the dogs ( n = 20), solutions were administered with a Mucosal Atomization Device (MAD) and for half of the dogs ( n = 20), solutions were administered using a nasal spray bottle. Condition order was counterbalanced and a double-blind methodology was employed. Following a 30-min wait period after administration of solutions, dog-owner pairs participated in the Secure Base Test, a short attachment test consisting of three 2-min phases: (1) Baseline- the owner was present, dogs were able to freely explore the testing room (2) Alone- dogs were left alone in the testing room (3) Return- owners re-entered the room and were reunited with their dog. In each phase the dog was evaluated for contact seeking, exploration, and avoidance behaviors. Although, oxytocin administration was expected to increase owner-directed proximity and contact seeking behavior, this effect was not observed. In fact, in the baseline phase, dogs spent significantly more time seeking the proximity of their owners when they received saline than when they received OT ( p females spent significantly more time in contact with the door than males in the alone phase ( p oxytocin on attachment related behavior appeared to be limited or inconsistent for this pet dog population.

  1. The low-energy limiting behavior of the pseudofermion dynamical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmelo, J.M.P.; Martelo, L.M.; Penc, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we show that the general finite-energy spectral-function expressions provided by the pseudofermion dynamical theory for the one-dimensional Hubbard model lead to the expected low-energy Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid correlation function expressions. Moreover, we use the former general expressions to derive correlation-function asymptotic expansions in space and time which go beyond those obtained by conformal-field theory and bosonization: we derive explicit expressions for the pre-factors of all terms of such expansions and find that they have an universal form, as the corresponding critical exponents. Our results refer to all finite values of the on-site repulsion U and to a chain of length L very large and with periodic boundary conditions for the above model, but are of general nature for many integrable interacting models. The studies of this paper clarify the relation of the low-energy Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid behavior to the scattering mechanisms which control the spectral properties at all energy scales and provide a broader understanding of the unusual properties of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures, organic conductors, and optical lattices of ultracold fermionic atoms. Furthermore, our results reveal the microscopic mechanisms which are behind the similarities and differences of the low-energy and finite-energy spectral properties of the model metallic phase

  2. Hazards and maximum permissible doses of radiation for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1977-11-01

    Maximum permissible dose levels are primarely based on risks for genetic damage and cancer. The reason for this is the observation that such late effects of radiation seem to arise even after doses that are to low to give rise to acute effects. In contrast to the tumour incidence found in irradiated human populations no genetic effects of radiation have been observed in man. This does not mean that genetic effects have not been induced but that it has been impossible to find an increase or to discern them among all the congenital defects, that can not be ascribed to the irradiation. As a consequence, the radiological risk estimation has been concentrated on the hazard of malignant diseases. Tumour risks are generally expressed as excess rates of incidence and mortality per million persons per rem. These figures are, however, not obtained from direct epidemiological observations but have been calculated from such data under the assumption of a linear relationship between effect and radiation dose. This formal extrapolation of observed data involves an uncertainty which, of course, is proportionately greater for the calculated effects in the millirem range. However, although the calculated tumour risks can not be said to be founded on direct scientific evidence, there are scientific reasons to believe that the figures derived from the formal extrapolations constitute an upper limit of possible ri02050

  3. Are You Your Friends’ Friend? Poor Perception of Friendship Ties Limits the Ability to Promote Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Radaelli, Laura; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Persuasion is at the core of norm creation, emergence of collective action, and solutions to ‘tragedy of the commons’ problems. In this paper, we show that the directionality of friendship ties affect the extent to which individuals can influence the behavior of each other. Moreover, we find that people are typically poor at perceiving the directionality of their friendship ties and that this can significantly limit their ability to engage in cooperative arrangements. This could lead to failures in establishing compatible norms, acting together, finding compromise solutions, and persuading others to act. We then suggest strategies to overcome this limitation by using two topological characteristics of the perceived friendship network. The findings of this paper have significant consequences for designing interventions that seek to harness social influence for collective action. PMID:27002530

  4. Are You Your Friends' Friend? Poor Perception of Friendship Ties Limits the Ability to Promote Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Radaelli, Laura; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Persuasion is at the core of norm creation, emergence of collective action, and solutions to 'tragedy of the commons' problems. In this paper, we show that the directionality of friendship ties affect the extent to which individuals can influence the behavior of each other. Moreover, we find that people are typically poor at perceiving the directionality of their friendship ties and that this can significantly limit their ability to engage in cooperative arrangements. This could lead to failures in establishing compatible norms, acting together, finding compromise solutions, and persuading others to act. We then suggest strategies to overcome this limitation by using two topological characteristics of the perceived friendship network. The findings of this paper have significant consequences for designing interventions that seek to harness social influence for collective action.

  5. Human T Lymphocytes Are Permissive for Dengue Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Guilherme F; Wowk, Pryscilla F; Cataneo, Allan H D; Dos Santos, Paula F; Delgobo, Murilo; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Lo Sarzi, Maria; Thomazelli, Ana Paula F S; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander R; Antonelli, Lis R V; Báfica, André; Mansur, Daniel S; Dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Bordignon, Juliano

    2018-05-15

    Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause either a self-limiting flu-like disease or a threatening hemorrhage that may evolve to shock and death. A variety of cell types, such as dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells, can be infected by DV. However, despite the role of T lymphocytes in the control of DV replication, there remains a paucity of information on possible DV-T cell interactions during the disease course. In the present study, we have demonstrated that primary human naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells are permissive for DV infection. Importantly, both T cell subtypes support viral replication and secrete viable virus particles. DV infection triggers the activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, but preactivation of T cells reduces the susceptibility of T cells to DV infection. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity-inducing protein granzyme A is highly secreted by human CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells after exposure to DV in vitro Additionally, using annexin V and polycaspase assays, we have demonstrated that T lymphocytes, in contrast to monocytes, are resistant to DV-induced apoptosis. Strikingly, both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were found to be infected with DV in acutely infected dengue patients. Together, these results show that T cells are permissive for DV infection in vitro and in vivo , suggesting that this cell population may be a viral reservoir during the acute phase of the disease. IMPORTANCE Infection by dengue virus (DV) causes a flu-like disease that can evolve to severe hemorrhaging and death. T lymphocytes are important cells that regulate antibody secretion by B cells and trigger the death of infected cells. However, little is known about the direct interaction between DV and T lymphocytes. Here, we show that T lymphocytes from healthy donors are susceptible to infection by DV, leading to cell activation. Additionally, T cells seem to be resistant to DV-induced apoptosis, suggesting a potential role as a viral reservoir in humans. Finally, we show

  6. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Pagano, P; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F; Buzulutskov, A F; Gruwé, M; De Lentdecker, G; Mörmann, D; Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strip micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur à trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8. In multiple structures, where the gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our c...

  7. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.; Hoch, M.; Pagano, P.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Biagi, S.; Buzulutskov, A.; Gruwe, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Moermann, D.; Sharma, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strips, micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur a trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8 . In multiple structures, where the gain is shared between two devices in cascade, the maximum overall gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our conclusion is that only multiple devices can guarantee a sufficient margin of reliability for operation in harsh LHC running conditions

  8. Multitasking vs. multiplexing: Toward a normative account of limitations in the simultaneous execution of control-demanding behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S. F.; Schwemmer, M.; Gershman, S. J.; Cohen, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Why is it that behaviors that rely on control, so striking in their diversity and flexibility, are also subject to such striking limitations? Typically, people cannot engage in more than a few — and usually only a single — control-demanding task at a time. This limitation was a defining element in the earliest conceptualizations of controlled processing, it remains one of the most widely accepted axioms of cognitive psychology, and is even the basis for some laws (e.g., against the use of mobile devices while driving). Remarkably, however, the source of this limitation is still not understood. Here, we examine one potential source of this limitation, in terms of a tradeoff between the flexibility and efficiency of representation (“multiplexing”) and the simultaneous engagement of different processing pathways (“multitasking”). We show that even a modest amount of multiplexing rapidly introduces cross-talk among processing pathways, thereby constraining the number that can be productively engaged at once. We propose that, given the large number of advantages of efficient coding, the human brain has favored this over the capacity for multitasking of control-demanding processes. PMID:24481850

  9. Multitasking versus multiplexing: Toward a normative account of limitations in the simultaneous execution of control-demanding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S F; Schwemmer, M; Gershman, S J; Cohen, J D

    2014-03-01

    Why is it that behaviors that rely on control, so striking in their diversity and flexibility, are also subject to such striking limitations? Typically, people cannot engage in more than a few-and usually only a single-control-demanding task at a time. This limitation was a defining element in the earliest conceptualizations of controlled processing; it remains one of the most widely accepted axioms of cognitive psychology, and is even the basis for some laws (e.g., against the use of mobile devices while driving). Remarkably, however, the source of this limitation is still not understood. Here, we examine one potential source of this limitation, in terms of a trade-off between the flexibility and efficiency of representation ("multiplexing") and the simultaneous engagement of different processing pathways ("multitasking"). We show that even a modest amount of multiplexing rapidly introduces cross-talk among processing pathways, thereby constraining the number that can be productively engaged at once. We propose that, given the large number of advantages of efficient coding, the human brain has favored this over the capacity for multitasking of control-demanding processes.

  10. Is the publication of exit poll results morally permissible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    This article is about exit polls. It addresses the question of whether or not it is morally permissible to publish exit poll results. The conclusion of the article is that an affirmative answer should be given to this question. In section 2, the master argument in favor of the moral permissibility...... of the publication of exit poll results is introduced. This is a strong argument. It is, however, argued that it might be the case that the conclusion of this argument should be rejected if there are other, and weightier, arguments against the idea that the publication of exit poll results is morally permissible....... In section 3, the strongest arguments against the moral permissibility of the publication of exit poll results are outlined and discussed. The conclusion of this section is that all these arguments fail in their intended purpose. The conclusion of the article is therefore justified....

  11. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  12. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  14. Contrasting amino acid profiles among permissive and non-permissive hosts of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, putative causal agent of Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. In this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (AA in four permissive host plants of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and three non-permissive Rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. The AA profiles of Diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. A total of 38 unique AAs were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and D. citri samples, with phloem sap of young shoots containing more AAs and at higher concentrations than their mature counterparts. All AAs detected in phloem sap of non-permissive plants were also present in CLas -permissive hosts plus additional AAs in the latter class of plants. However, the relative composition of 18 commonly shared AAs varied between CLas -permissive hosts and non-permissive plants. Multivariate analysis with a partial least square discriminant methodology revealed a total of 12 AAs as major factors affecting CLas host status, of which seven were positively related to CLas tolerance/resistance and five positively associated with CLas susceptibility. Most of the AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility were predominantly of the glutamate family, notably stressed-induced AAs such as arginine, GABA and proline. In contrast, AAs positively correlated with CLas tolerance/resistance were mainly of the serine family. Further analysis revealed that whereas the relative proportions of AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility did not vary with host developmental stages, those associated with CLas tolerance/resistance increased with flush shoot maturity. Significantly, the proline-to-glycine ratio was determined to be an important discriminating factor for CLas permissivity with higher values characteristic of CLas -permissive hosts. This ratio could be exploited as a biomarker in HLB-resistance breeding programs.

  15. A Rational Threshold Signature Model and Protocol Based on Different Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel model and protocol used in some specific scenarios, in which the participants of multiple groups with different permissions can finish the signature together. We apply the secret sharing scheme based on difference equation to the private key distribution phase and secret reconstruction phrase of our threshold signature scheme. In addition, our scheme can achieve the signature success because of the punishment strategy of the repeated rational secret sharing. Besides, the bit commitment and verification method used to detect players’ cheating behavior acts as a contributing factor to prevent the internal fraud. Using bit commitments, verifiable parameters, and time sequences, this paper constructs a dynamic game model, which has the features of threshold signature management with different permissions, cheat proof, and forward security.

  16. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account for diet diversity, agroclimatic and phenological parameters in different regions of the country

  17. Correlation of parenting style and pediatric behavior guidance strategies in the dental setting: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of parenting style on the choice of proper behavior guidance strategies in pedodontics. Seventy-two children aged between 4 and 6 years (mean 5.12 years) with carious primary mandibular molars were selected. The Primary Caregivers' Practices Report (PCPR) was used to quantify authoritarian, permissive and authoritative aspects of the caregivers' parenting style. After inferior alveolar nerve block, carious lesions were removed and the teeth were restored using amalgam. The children's behavior during operation was assessed according to the sound, eye, and motor (SEM) scale. Communicative guidance, advance behavior guidance, parental separation, and deferred treatment were used for behavior management. The dominant authoritative score was observed in 50% of parents, permissive in 37.5%, and authoritarian in 12.5%. The mean SEM score in children belonging to authoritative parents was significantly lower than in children of permissive and of authoritarian parents (pparenting style. Advanced behavior guidance (protective stabilization) was applied in 16.7% of cases in the authoritative category and in 100% in the permissive and authoritarian categories. The use of restrictive devices (7.4%) and sedation (3.7%) was limited to the permissive category. Parental separation (40.7%) and deferred treatment (3.7%) were performed only in the permissive category. This study provides preliminary evidence that a child's reaction to restorative dental procedures is influenced by the nature of the caregiver's parenting style.

  18. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  19. Verification of Snapshotable Trees using Access Permissions and Typestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehnert, Hannes; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We use access permissions and typestate to specify and ver- ify a Java library that implements snapshotable search trees, as well as some client code. We formalize our approach in the Plural tool, a sound modular typestate checking tool. We describe the challenges to verify- ing snapshotable tree...

  20. 50 CFR 216.252 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.252 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant to...

  1. 50 CFR 216.213 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.213 Permissible...

  2. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  3. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommentuijn T; Kalf DF; Polder MD; Posthumus R; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1997-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) derived for a series of pesticides are presented in this report. These MPCs and NCs are used by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to set Environmental Quality Objectives. For some of the

  4. 26 CFR 1.422-5 - Permissible provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the incentive stock option are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture and not transferable...) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-5 Permissible provisions. (a) General rule. An option that otherwise qualifies as an incentive stock option does not fail to be an incentive stock option merely...

  5. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W heat-engine efficiencies), allows a simple and quick estimate of the impact that friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W heat engines), the COP percentage decrease due to friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid.

  6. Thermal Stress Limit Rafting Migration of Seahorses: Prediction Based on Physiological and Behavioral Responses to Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G.; Li, C.; Lin, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fish species escape from harmful environment by migration. Seahorses, with upright posture and low mobility, could migrate from unfavorable environment by rafting with their prehensile tail. The present study was designed to examine the tolerance of lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus to thermal stress and evaluate the effects of temperature on seahorse migration. The results figured that seahorses' tolerance to thermal stress was time dependent. Acute thermal stress (30°C) increased breathing rate and HSP genes expression significantly, but didn't affect seahorse feeding behavior. Chronic thermal treatment lead to persistent high expression of HSP genes, higher breathing rate, and decreasing feeding, and final higher mortality, suggesting that seahorse cannot adapt to thermal stress by acclimation. No significant negative effects were found in seahorse reproduction in response to chronic thermal stress. Given that seahorses make much slower migration by rafting on sea surface compared to other fishes, we suggest that thermal stress might limit seahorse migration range. and the influence might be magnified by global warming in future.

  7. On the Behavior of ECN/RED Gateways Under a Large Number of TCP Flows: Limit Theorems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinnakornsrisuphap, Peerapol; Makowski, Armand M

    2005-01-01

    .... As the number of competing flows becomes large, the asymptotic queue behavior at the gateway can be described by a simple recursion and the throughput behavior of individual TCP flows becomes asymptotically independent...

  8. Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai

  9. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, MEM; Christophides; Linenberg, Inbar

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii . We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clar...

  10. Account of low temperature hardening in calculation of permissible stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, N.V.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.; Gorodyskij, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is a calculation scheme of permissible stresses with the account of temperature hardening for steels and alloys, the dependences of strength, plasticity and rupture work of which on cooling temperature do not have threshold changes in a wide range of low temperatures (from 300 to 4.2 K). Application of the suggested scheme is considered on the example of 12Kh18N10T austenitic chromium-nickel steel

  11. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Android Apps and Permissions: Security and Privacy Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Boksasp, Trond; Utnes, Eivind

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the permissions requested by Android applications, and the possibility of identifying suspicious applications based only on information presented to the user before an application is downloaded. During the course of this project, a large data set consisting of applications published on Google Play and three different third-party Android application markets was collected over a two-month period. These applications are analysed using manual pattern recognition and k-mea...

  13. Parental permissiveness, control, and affect and drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Martínez, Úrsula; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry; Mendes, Fernando; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Parents play an important role in determining the risk of children's drug use. The aim of this study was to analyse how certain family-related variables (permissiveness toward drug use, and parental control and affect) were linked to the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, based on young people's self-report of such variables. The sample was composed of 1,428 school children (51.8% males) aged between 11 and 19 from Mallorca (Spain). We found that the young people who perceived their parents as permissive and those who perceived less maternal control and higher levels of both paternal and maternal affect were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. Sex differences were found within this pattern. Variables of maternal affect and control were not influential among males, whereas the general pattern was maintained among females. This study highlights the importance of perceived permissiveness and the need of considering parent's and children's gender when providing control and affect, as fathers will influence male children whereas mothers will influence female children.

  14. Correlation Between Occurrence and Deterioration of Respiratory Diseases and Air Pollution Within the Legally Permissible Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnjar, Kristina; Pintarić, Sanja; Mornar Jelavić, Marko; Nesek, Višnja; Ostojić, Jelena; Pleština, Sanja; Šikić, Aljoša; Pintarić, Hrvoje

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the unknown effect of air pollutants on the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory diseases in the area with a humid continental climate. This retrospective study included 5868 patients with respiratory symptomatology (upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), pneumonia, acute bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma) admitted to emergency department (ED). The number of patients, values of meteorological parameters (mean daily values of air temperature pressure and relative humidity) and concentrations of air pollution particles (≤10 μm (PM10), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were collected during a two-year ( July 2008 - June 2010) period. There were 1839 (31.3%), 1712 (29.2%), 1313 (22.4%), 614 (10.5%) and 390 (6.6%) patients with pneumonia, COPD, URTI, acute bronchitis and asthma, respectively. The mean daily concentrations of NO2 (25.9 (1.7-89.7) μg/m3), O3 (47.1 (4.7-135.4) μg/m3) and PM10 particles (25.7 (4.6-146.6) μg/m3) were below the legally defined thresholds. Among other results, the occurrence of respiratory diseases showed positive Spearman's correlation with the values of air humidity (days 0-3, r=0.15 to 0.19), PM10(days 0-3, r=0.10 to 0.13) and NO2 concentrations (day 0, r=0.11), and negative correlation with the values of air temperature (days 0-3, r=-0.36 to -0.34), pressure (day 0, r=-0.10) and O3 concentrations (days 0-3, r=-0.21 to -0.22) (prespiratory diseases showed correlation with weather conditions and air pollutants despite the legally permitted values in the region with a humid continental climate.

  15. Recommendation concerning maximum permissible radioactivity in animal feeds in case of a nuclear accident or other type of radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The SSK in its advice to the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety recommends to abstain from determining maximum permissible values to be applied in such cases of emergency. If, however, official limits are to be given, the following should be considered: (1) Distinction has to be made between animal feeds not subject to restrictive application with regard to time, animal species, or food chain (meat, milk, eggs), and those animal feeds whose application is subject to restrictions defined. (2) Maximum permissible activity data for animal feeds for restricted use should be ten times the value determined for non-restricted feeds. As to consultations within the EC on supplemtary tables to EC Directive No. 3954/87, the SSK presented its proposals in tables, using transfer factors from the literature concerning assessment of maximum permissible chronic intake of Cs-137, I-131, Sr-90, Pu-239, Am-241 by productive livestock (bovine, goats, sheep, swine, poultry). (HP) [de

  16. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  17. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  18. Procedures for permission of installation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoriaki

    1980-01-01

    The locations of atomic power stations are first selected by electric power enterprises in consultation with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry or under the guidance of authorities concerned. The surveys of the climate, topography, water and plants in the planned sites and the influences of nuclear power generation to the surrounding areas are made by the enterprisers under the administrative guidance of the MITI. Secondly, the basic project shall be submitted to and decided by the Power Resource Development Council headed by the Prime Minister (Article 10, the Power Resource Development Law). The Council shall, if necessary, call for the attendance of the governors of prefectures concerned and hear their opinions (Article 11, the Law). As the third and most complicated phase, various procedures include; (a) permission of the changes of electrical facilities under the Electricity Enterprises Act; (b) authorization of the installation of reactors under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law; (c) permission or authorization under other regulations including the Agricultural Land Act, etc.; (d) additional procedures related to the indemnification to fishery and so forth. Finally the reactors are to be operated after receiving the certificates of the Minister of ITI on the inspections of construction works, nuclear fuel materials used for the reactors and welding processes of reactor containment vessels, boilers, turbines, etc. (Okada, K.)

  19. The Limitations of Behavior-Genetic Analyses: Comment on McGue, Elkins, Walden, and Iacono (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article takes issue with the behavior-genetic analysis of parenting style presented by M. McGue, I. Elkins, B. Walden, and W. G. Iacono. The author argues that the attribution of their findings to inherited genetic effects was without basis because McGue et al. never indicated how those genetic effects manifested themselves. Instead, McGue et…

  20. Low Self-Esteem during Adolescence Predicts Poor Health, Criminal Behavior, and Limited Economic Prospects during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Robins, Richard W.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2006-01-01

    Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term…

  1. Mogelijkheden en beperkingen van de cognitieve gedragstherapie bij kinderen. / Posibilities and limitations of cognitive behavior therapy with children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the current status of cognitive behavior therapy with children (CBTC). It is maintained that this movement has been innovative mainly in terms of the development of new therapeutic interventions, whereas theoretical and assessment issues have been neglected and will require more serious

  2. Assessing Parenting Behaviors in Euro-Canadian and East Asian Immigrant Mothers: Limitations to Observations of Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kathy; Penner, Kailee; Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The use of parenting measures that are developed for use with Western families without testing their validity among families from non-Western cultural backgrounds may not be appropriate. Similar parenting behaviors may affect child outcomes in different ways across different cultures. This study examined the cross-cultural validity of an…

  3. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  4. Digital Education to Limit Salt in the Home (DELISH) Program Improves Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen Jane; Nowson, Caryl Anne

    2018-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of a Web-based salt reduction program on children's salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KABs), self-efficacy, and intake of dietary salt. Pretest and posttest. An online survey determined KABs and self-efficacy and a 24-hour urine collection revealed salt intake. Victoria, Australia. Child-parent dyads (n = 102) recruited from 5 government schools. A 5-week behavior-based education program delivered via weekly online interactive education sessions. Change in KABs, self-efficacy, and daily salt intake. Changes in outcomes were assessed using McNemar test, paired t test, and Cohen's δ (CD). A total of 83 children participated (mean age, 9.2 years [SD, 0.8 years]; 59% girls); 35% to 76% of children viewed weekly education session. Children with complete survey data (n = 75) had improved scores for salt-related knowledge (+3.6 ± 0.4 points; P < .001; CD: 1.16), behaviors (+1.3 ± 0.1 points; P < .001; CD: 1.08), and self-efficacy (+0.9 ± 0.2 points; P < .001; CD: 0.64), but not attitude. Children with valid urine collections (n = 51) showed no change in salt intake. Participation resulted in improvement of salt related knowledge, self-efficacy and behavior. Further research is required to confirm these results using a more robust study design which includes a control group. In addition, the long term impact on children's salt intakes of comparable education programs needs to be assessed. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values for spontaneously fissioning radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Snyder, W.S.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation hazards involved in handling certain of the transuranic nuclides that exhibit spontaneous fission as a mode of decay were reaccessed using recent advances in dosimetry and metabolic modeling. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) values in air and water for occupational exposure (168 hr/week) were calculated for 244 Pu, 246 Cm, 248 Cm, 250 Cf, 252 Cf, 254 Cf, /sup 254m/Es, 255 Es, 254 Fm, and 256 Fm. The half-lives, branching ratios, and principal modes of decay of the parent-daughter members down to a member that makes a negligible contribution to the dose are given, and all daughters that make a significant contribution to the dose to body organs following inhalation or ingestion are included in the calculations. Dose commitments for body organs are also given

  6. AC and DC electrical behavior of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite near percolation threshold: Equivalent circuits and percolation limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sahraei, Abolfazl; Ayati, Moosa; Baniassadi, Majid; Rodrigue, Denis; Baghani, Mostafa; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    This study attempts to comprehensively investigate the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the AC and DC electrical conductivity of epoxy nanocomposites. The samples (0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt. % MWCNT) were produced using a combination of ultrason and shear mixing methods. DC measurements were performed by continuous measurement of the current-voltage response and the results were analyzed via a numerical percolation approach, while for the AC behavior, the frequency response was studied by analyzing phase difference and impedance in the 10 Hz to 0.2 MHz frequency range. The results showed that the dielectric parameters, including relative permittivity, impedance phase, and magnitude, present completely different behaviors for the frequency range and MWCNT weight fractions studied. To better understand the nanocomposites electrical behavior, equivalent electric circuits were also built for both DC and AC modes. The DC equivalent networks were developed based on the current-voltage curves, while the AC equivalent circuits were proposed by using an optimization problem according to the impedance magnitude and phase at different frequencies. The obtained equivalent electrical circuits were found to be highly useful tools to understand the physical mechanisms involved in MWCNT filled polymer nanocomposites.

  7. Observation of Wigner crystal phase and ripplon-limited mobility behavior in monolayer CVD MoS2 with grain boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyun-Hong; Zhong, Yuan-Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucial in condensed matter physics and is present on the surface of liquid helium and at the interface of semiconductors. Monolayer MoS2 of 2D materials also contains 2DEG in an atomic layer as a field effect transistor (FET) ultrathin channel. In this study, we synthesized double triangular MoS2 through a chemical vapor deposition method to obtain grain boundaries for forming a ripple structure in the FET channel. When the temperature was higher than approximately 175 K, the temperature dependence of the electron mobility μ was consistent with those in previous experiments and theoretical predictions. When the temperature was lower than approximately 175 K, the mobility behavior decreased with the temperature; this finding was also consistent with that of the previous experiments. We are the first research group to explain the decreasing mobility behavior by using the Wigner crystal phase and to discover the temperature independence of ripplon-limited mobility behavior at lower temperatures. Although these mobility behaviors have been studied on the surface of liquid helium through theories and experiments, they have not been previously analyzed in 2D materials and semiconductors. We are the first research group to report the similar temperature-dependent mobility behavior of the surface of liquid helium and the monolayer MoS2.

  8. Observation of Wigner crystal phase and ripplon-limited mobility behavior in monolayer CVD MoS2 with grain boundary

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jyun-Hong

    2018-03-12

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucial in condensed matter physics and is present on the surface of liquid helium and at the interface of semiconductors. Monolayer MoS2 of 2D materials also contains 2DEG in an atomic layer as field effect transistor (FET) ultrathin channel. In this study, we synthesized double triangular MoS2 through a chemical vapor deposition method to obtain grain boundaries for forming a ripple structure in FET channel. When the temperature was higher than approximately 175 K, the temperature dependence of the electron mobility μ was consistent with those in previous experiments and theoretical predictions. When the temperature was lower than approximately 175 K, the mobility behavior decreased with the temperature; this finding was also consistent with that of the previous experiments. We are the first research group to explain the decreasing mobility behavior by using the Wigner crystal phase and to discover the temperature independence of ripplon-limited mobility behavior at lower temperatures. Although these mobility behaviors have been studied on the surface of liquid helium through theories and experiments, they have not previously analyzed in 2D materials and semiconductors. We are the first research group to report the similar temperature-dependent mobility behavior of the surface of liquid helium and the monolayer MoS2.

  9. Current limiting behavior in three-phase transformer-type SFCLs using an iron core according to variety of fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sun; Jung, Byung-Ik; Ha, Kyoung-Hun; Choi, Soo-Geun; Park, Hyoung-Min; Choi, Hyo-Sang

    To apply the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to the power system, the reliability of the fault-current-limiting operation must be ensured in diverse fault conditions. The SFCL must also be linked to the operation of the high-speed recloser in the power system. In this study, a three-phase transformer-type SFCL, which has a neutral line to improve the simultaneous quench characteristics of superconducting elements, was manufactured to analyze the fault-current-limiting characteristic according to the single, double, and triple line-to-ground faults. The transformer-type SFCL, wherein three-phase windings are connected to one iron core, reduced the burden on the superconducting element as the superconducting element on the sound phase was also quenched in the case of the single line-to-ground fault. In the case of double or triple line-to-ground faults, the flux from the faulted phase winding was interlinked with other faulted or sound phase windings, and the fault-current-limiting rate decreased because the windings of three phases were inductively connected by one iron core.

  10. Stacking Faults and Mechanical Behavior beyond the Elastic Limit of an Imidazole-Based Metal Organic Framework: ZIF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinay I; Tan, Jin-Chong; Waghmare, Umesh V; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2013-10-17

    We determine the nonlinear mechanical behavior of a prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) along two modes of mechanical failure in response to tensile and shear forces using first-principles simulations. Our generalized stacking fault energy surface reveals an intrinsic stacking fault of surprisingly low energy comparable to that in copper, though the energy barrier associated with its formation is much higher. The lack of vibrational spectroscopic evidence for such faults in experiments can be explained with the structural instability of the barrier state to form a denser and disordered state of ZIF-8 seen in our analysis, that is, large shear leads to its amorphization rather than formation of faults.

  11. Religiosity and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness: A Response to the Reiss-Heltsley and Broderick Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Howard J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    When religiosity among college students was measured by Faulkner and DeJong's 5-D Scale of Religiosity" and the Reiss scale was used to measure permissiveness, the expected stronger relationship between religiosity and permissiveness in groups with traditions of low sexual permissiveness than in groups with traditions of high sexual…

  12. Between reason and coercion: ethically permissible influence in health care and health policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S

    2012-12-01

    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats-or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the broad middle terrain-and this terrain is in desperate need of conceptual refining and ethical analysis in light of recent interest in using principles from behavioral science to influence health decisions and behaviors. This paper aims to address the neglected space between rational persuasion and coercion in bioethics. First, I argue for conceptual revisions that include removing the "manipulation" label and relabeling this space "nonargumentative influence," with two subtypes: "reason-bypassing" and "reason-countering." Second, I argue that bioethicists have made the mistake of relying heavily on the conceptual categories themselves for normative work and instead should assess the ethical permissibility of a particular instance of influence by asking several key ethical questions, which I elucidate, that relate to (1) the impact of the form of influence on autonomy and (2) the relationship between the influencer and the influenced. Finally, I apply my analysis to two examples of nonargumentative influence in health care and health policy: (1) governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trying to influence the public to be healthier using nonargumentative measures such as vivid images on cigarette packages to make more salient the negative effects of smoking, and (2) a physician framing a surgery in terms of survival rates instead of mortality rates to influence her patient to consent to

  13. Access to a Loaded Gun Without Adult Permission and School-Based Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simckes, Maayan S; Simonetti, Joseph A; Moreno, Megan A; Rivara, Frederick P; Oudekerk, Barbara A; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race. Of 10,704 participants, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.6%) reported gun access. Compared with nonbullied students, those who reported traditional bullying (PR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4), cyberbullying (PR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-4.9), and both (PR = 5.9; 95% CI: 4.6-7.7) were more likely to also report gun access. Adolescents who experience bullying, particularly those who report both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, are more likely to report access to a loaded gun without adult permission. These findings highlight the importance of developing interventions focused on these modifiable risk factors for preventing self-directed or interpersonal violence among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body.

  15. Maximum permissible dietary contamination after the accidental release of radioactive materials from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    After the accident to No. 1 pile at Windscale on October 10, 1957 (Atomic Energy Office, 1957), the Atomic Energy Authority asked the Medical Research Council for advice on the maximum intake of certain radioactive isotopes that should be regarded as permissible, under emergency conditions, for members of the general population living in, or deriving food from, an area contaminated owing to an accident to a reactor. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, together with its Subcommittees on Internal and External Radiations, has considered this problem, and concludes that the intake of radioactive materials by ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident. Intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances. In the following report, therefore, the Committee proposes maximum permissible levels of dietary contamination for the relevant isotopes in the emergency conditions envisaged. In proposing these levels, the Protection Committee has used the fullest information available on the radiation doses that would be delivered to different body tissues and at different ages by the isotopes concerned, and on the ways in which these materials would enter the body

  16. Driving simulator validation of driver behavior with limited safe vantage points for data collection in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bham, Ghulam H; Leu, Ming C; Vallati, Manoj; Mathur, Durga R

    2014-06-01

    This study is aimed at validating a driving simulator (DS) for the study of driver behavior in work zones. A validation study requires field data collection. For studies conducted in highway work zones, the availability of safe vantage points for data collection at critical locations can be a significant challenge. A validation framework is therefore proposed in this paper, demonstrated using a fixed-based DS that addresses the issue by using a global positioning system (GPS). The validation of the DS was conducted using objective and subjective evaluations. The objective validation was divided into qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The DS was validated by comparing the results of simulation with the field data, which were collected using a GPS along the highway and video recordings at specific locations in a work zone. The constructed work zone scenario in the DS was subjectively evaluated with 46 participants. The objective evaluation established the absolute and relative validity of the DS. The mean speeds from the DS data showed excellent agreement with the field data. The subjective evaluation indicated realistic driving experience by the participants. The use of GPS showed that continuous data collected along the highway can overcome the challenges of unavailability of safe vantage points especially at critical locations. Further, a validated DS can be used for examining driver behavior in complex situations by replicating realistic scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in adolescent premarital sexual permissiveness in three Asian cities: effects of gender-role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Niu, Hongfeng; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this article investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents' premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). In a collaborative survey conducted in 2006-2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15-24 years were recruited in the three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, with 6,204, 6,023, and 4,327 respondents from each city, respectively. All the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on PSP for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes toward premarital sex than did females, with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents' gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and PSP was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender-role attitudes were

  18. An upper limit for slow-earthquake zones: self-oscillatory behavior through the Hopf bifurcation mechanism from a spring-block model under lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Rodríguez, Valentina; Campos-Cantón, Eric; Barboza-Gudiño, Rafael; Femat, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    The complex oscillatory behavior of a spring-block model is analyzed via the Hopf bifurcation mechanism. The mathematical spring-block model includes Dieterich-Ruina's friction law and Stribeck's effect. The existence of self-sustained oscillations in the transition zone - where slow earthquakes are generated within the frictionally unstable region - is determined. An upper limit for this region is proposed as a function of seismic parameters and frictional coefficients which are concerned with presence of fluids in the system. The importance of the characteristic length scale L, the implications of fluids, and the effects of external perturbations in the complex dynamic oscillatory behavior, as well as in the stationary solution, are take into consideration.

  19. Contribution and limits of geochemical calculation codes to evaluate the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, B.; Crovisier, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical models have been intensively developed by researchers since more than twenty five years in order to be able to better understand and/or predict the long term stability/instability of water-rock systems. These geochemical codes were ail built first on a thermodynamic approach deriving from the application of Mass Action Law. The resulting first generation of models allowed to detect or predict the possible mass transfers (thermodynamic models) between aqueous and mineral phases including irreversible dissolutions of primary minerals and/or precipitation near equilibrium of secondary mineral phases. The recent development of models based on combined thermodynamics and kinetics opens the field of Lime dependent reactions prediction. This is crucial if one thinks to combine geochemical and hydrological studies in the so-called coupled models for transport and reaction calculations. All these models are progressively applied to the prediction of long term behavior of mineral phases, and more specifically glasses. In order to succeed in chat specific extension of the models, but also the data bases, there is a great need for additional new data from experimental approaches and from natural analogues. The modelling approach appears than also very useful in order to interpret the results of experimental data and to relate them to long term data extracted from natural analogues. Specific functions for modelling solid solution phases mat' also be used for describing the products of glasses alterations. (authors)

  20. Long-Time Behavior and Critical Limit of Subcritical SQG Equations in Scale-Invariant Sobolev Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coti Zelati, Michele

    2018-02-01

    We consider the subcritical SQG equation in its natural scale-invariant Sobolev space and prove the existence of a global attractor of optimal regularity. The proof is based on a new energy estimate in Sobolev spaces to bootstrap the regularity to the optimal level, derived by means of nonlinear lower bounds on the fractional Laplacian. This estimate appears to be new in the literature and allows a sharp use of the subcritical nature of the L^∞ bounds for this problem. As a by-product, we obtain attractors for weak solutions as well. Moreover, we study the critical limit of the attractors and prove their stability and upper semicontinuity with respect to the strength of the diffusion.

  1. Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting behavior of alkali metal complexes of p-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, M.; Vinitha, G.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Anandan, P.; Ravi, G.

    2015-10-01

    Optical nonlinearity of metal complexes of p-nitrophenolate (M=Li, Na and K) in ethanol is studied by using a continuous wave (cw) diode pumped Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW). The predominant mechanism of observed nonlinearity is thermal in origin. The nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the samples were found to be in the order of 10-8 cm2/W and 10-3 cm/W respectively. Magnitude of third-order optical parameters varies according to the choice of alkali metal chosen for metal complex formation of p-nitrophenolate. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility was found to be in the order of 10-6 esu. The observed saturable absorption and the self-defocusing effect were used to demonstrate the optical limiting action at 532 nm by using the same cw laser beam.

  2. Considerations on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made in the information lecture to give a quantitative analysis of the somatic radiation risk and to illustrate a concept to fix dose limiting values. Of primary importance is the limiting values. Of primary importance is the limiting value of the radiation exposure to the whole population. By consequential application of the risk concept, the following points are considered: 1) Definition of the risk for radiation late damages (cancer, leukemia); 2) relationship between radiation dose and thus caused radiation risk; 3) radiation risk and the dose limiting values at the time; 4) criteria for the maximum acceptable radiation risk; 5) limiting value which can be expected at the time. (HP/LH) [de

  3. Recombinant pestivirus E2 glycoproteins prevent viral attachment to permissive and non permissive cells with different efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfor, A S; Wakeley, P R; Drew, T W; Paton, D J

    2014-08-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen, which like other pestiviruses has similar molecular biological features to hepaciviruses, including human Hepatitis C virus. The pestivirus E2 glycoproteins are the major target for virus-neutralising antibodies, as well as playing a role in receptor binding and host range restriction. In this study, recombinant E2 glycoproteins (rE2) derived from three different pestivirus species were examined for their inhibitory effects on pestivirus infectivity in cell culture. Histidine-tagged rE2 glycoproteins of BVDV type 2 strain 178003, BVDV type 1 strain Oregon C24V and CSFV strain Alfort 187 were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells and purified under native conditions. The ability of rE2 glycoprotein to inhibit the infection of permissive cells by both homologous and heterologous virus was compared, revealing that the inhibitory effects of rE2 glycoproteins correlated with the predicted similarity of the E2 structures in the recombinant protein and the test virus. This result suggests that the sequence and structure of E2 are likely to be involved in the host specificity of pestiviruses at their point of uptake into cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lutzomyia migonei is a permissive vector competent for Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Volfova, Vera; Myskova, Jitka; Filho, Sinval Pinto Brandão; Volf, Petr

    2016-03-17

    Leishmania infantum is the most widespread etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the world, with significant mortality rates in human cases. In Latin America, this parasite is primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis, but the role of Lutzomyia migonei as a potential vector for this protozoan has been discussed. Laboratory and field investigations have contributed to this hypothesis; however, proof of the vector competence of L. migonei has not yet been provided. In this study, we evaluate for the first time the susceptibility of L. migonei to L. infantum. Females of laboratory-reared L. migonei were fed through a chick-skin membrane on rabbit blood containing L. infantum promastigotes, dissected at 1, 5 and 8 days post-infection (PI) and checked microscopically for the presence, intensity and localisation of Leishmania infections. In addition, morphometric analysis of L. infantum promastigotes was performed. High infection rates of both L. infantum strains tested were observed in L. migonei, with colonisation of the stomodeal valve already on day 5 PI. At the late-stage infection, most L. migonei females had their cardia and stomodeal valve colonised by high numbers of parasites, and no significant differences were found compared to the development in L. longipalpis. Metacyclic forms were found in all parasite-vector combinations since day 5 PI. We propose that Lutzomyia migonei belongs to sand fly species permissive to various Leishmania spp. Here we demonstrate that L. migonei is highly susceptible to the development of L. infantum. This, together with its known anthropophily, abundance in VL foci and natural infection by L. infantum, constitute important evidence that L. migonei is another vector of this parasite in Latin America.

  5. Influence of limit-feeding and time of day of feed availability to growing calves on growth performance and feeding behavior in cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Islas, A; Swanson, K C

    2017-11-01

    Objective swere to determine the effects of limit-feeding and time of feed access in cold weather on growth performance and feeding behavior of growing calves fed a corn silage-based diet. Sixty-six steers (BW = 317 ± 5.3 kg) and 30 heifers (BW = 239 ± 7.6 kg) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment: 1) ad libitum feed intake (AL), 2) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the daytime (0601-1759 h; LF-D), 3) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the nighttime (1800-0559 h; LF-N), and 4) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis, split 1/2 in the daytime and 1/2 in the nighttime (LF-S). Feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored over 84 d using the Insentec feeding system. Average daily gain, DMI, and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.002) in the AL group compared with others. Dry matter intake was not different ( = 0.17) when comparing the LF-D with the LF-N groups. Average daily gain and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.05) when comparing the LF-N group to the LF-D group, and were not different ( ≥ 0.51) when comparing the LF-S group with the mean of the LF-D and LF-N groups. Number of visits and meals per d was greater ( ≤ 0.001) in the LF-N than the LF-D group. Feed intake per visit was not different ( = 0.55) when comparing the AL group and others, and tended to be greater ( = 0.06) in the LF-D than the LF-N group. Feed intake per meal was greater ( Feed intake per minute (eating rate) was not influenced by treatment. In conclusion, limit-feeding at 80% of ad libitum intake decreased ADG and G:F. Limit-feeding in the nighttime as compared to limit-feeding in the daytime improves growth performance and increases feeding activity (number of visits and meals per d) which could be because of increased heat production to help maintain body temperature and thus reduce maintenance energy requirements.

  6. Large-Time Behavior of Solutions to Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck Equations: From Evanescent Collisions to Diffusive Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Maxime; Rodrigues, L. Miguel

    2018-03-01

    The present contribution investigates the dynamics generated by the two-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equation for charged particles in a steady inhomogeneous background of opposite charges. We provide global in time estimates that are uniform with respect to initial data taken in a bounded set of a weighted L^2 space, and where dependencies on the mean-free path τ and the Debye length δ are made explicit. In our analysis the mean free path covers the full range of possible values: from the regime of evanescent collisions τ → ∞ to the strongly collisional regime τ → 0. As a counterpart, the largeness of the Debye length, that enforces a weakly nonlinear regime, is used to close our nonlinear estimates. Accordingly we pay a special attention to relax as much as possible the τ -dependent constraint on δ ensuring exponential decay with explicit τ -dependent rates towards the stationary solution. In the strongly collisional limit τ → 0, we also examine all possible asymptotic regimes selected by a choice of observation time scale. Here also, our emphasis is on strong convergence, uniformity with respect to time and to initial data in bounded sets of a L^2 space. Our proofs rely on a detailed study of the nonlinear elliptic equation defining stationary solutions and a careful tracking and optimization of parameter dependencies of hypocoercive/hypoelliptic estimates.

  7. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  8. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascierto, Maria Libera; Bedognetti, Davide; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Rossano, Fabio; Ascierto, Paolo A; Stroncek, David F; Restifo, Nicholas P; Wang, Ena; Szalay, Aladar A; Marincola, Francesco M; Worschech, Andrea; Yu, Zhiya; Adams, Sharon; Reinboth, Jennifer; Chen, Nanhai G; Pos, Zoltan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Di Pasquale, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection

  9. Permissive flexibility in successful lifelong weight management: A qualitative study among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, Anu; Mäkelä, Johanna; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior). The informants reported certain routines that supported their weight management: regular eating, sufficient meal sizes, eating in response to hunger, healthy and vegetable-rich diet along with moderate feasting and flexible eating restriction. Flexibility in routines allowed freedom in their eating behavior. In addition, informants regarded themselves as physically active, and they enjoyed regular exercise. Regular weighing was generally considered unnecessary. Normal weight was regarded as a valuable and worthwhile issue, and most of the informants worked to keep their weight stable. Although the perceived workload varied among informants, the weight management strategies were similar. It was crucial to be conscious of the balance between eating and energy consumption. Further, flexibility characterized their behavior and was the basis of successful weight management. Women were more aware of weight control practices and knowledge than men, but otherwise, women and men reported similar weight management methods and attitudes. In conclusion, the interviewees who have maintained the normal weight had created a personal weight-management support environment where weight management was a lifestyle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans (lpg2- but not lipophosphoglycan (lpg1- for survival in permissive sand fly vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Svárovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly species able to support the survival of the protozoan parasite Leishmania have been classified as permissive or specific, based upon their ability to support a wide or limited range of strains and/or species. Studies of a limited number of fly/parasite species combinations have implicated parasite surface molecules in this process and here we provide further evidence in support of this proposal. We investigated the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycans (PGs in sand fly survival, using Leishmania major mutants deficient in LPG (lpg1(-, and the phosphoglycan (PG-deficient mutant lpg2(-. The sand fly species used were the permissive species Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. argentipes, and the specific vector P. duboscqi, a species resistant to L. infantum development.The lpg2(- mutants did not survive well in any of the three sand fly species, suggesting that phosphoglycans and/or other LPG2-dependent molecules are required for parasite development. In vitro, all three L. major lines were equally resistant to proteolytic activity of bovine trypsin, suggesting that sand fly-specific hydrolytic proteases or other factors are the reason for the early lpg2(- parasite killing. The lpg1(- mutants developed late-stage infections in two permissive species, P. perniciosus and P. argentipes, where their infection rates and intensities of infections were comparable to the wild type (WT parasites. In contrast, in P. duboscqi the lpg1(- mutants developed significantly worse than the WT parasites.In combination with previous studies, the data establish clearly that LPG is not required for Leishmania survival in permissive species P. perniciosus and P. argentipes but plays an important role in the specific vector P. duboscqi. With regard to PGs other than LPG, the data prove the importance of LPG2-related molecules for survival of L. major in the three sand fly species tested.

  11. Testing of the permissible inventories in radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmaier, W.

    1988-01-01

    The inventories of radionuclides in waste packages which are to be stored in repositories are determined in the Waste Acceptance Requirements of the repository and in the Act on Transport of Dangerous Goods. In this report limiting values of relevant radionuclides are given in such a way that it is possible to use them in a standardized manner. The limiting values apply to single radionuclides, for handling mixtures of nuclides it is necessary to use the sum formula. The minimized number of waste packages which must be produced from a given quantity of raw waste and an inventory of radionuclides keeping all parameters can be calculated with the help of the shown calculating sheet. (orig.) [de

  12. Using spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy in substance dependence treatment: therapists' and clients' perceptions of the presumed benefits and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Lietz, Cynthia A

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that has been modified to incorporate clients' spiritual beliefs and practices has been used to treat a variety of problems. This study examines the utility of this modality with the treatment of alcohol dependence and other forms of substance abuse. Toward this end, six focus groups (three therapist groups and three client groups) were conducted to identify the presumed benefits and limitations of using spiritually modified CBT in substance dependence treatment. In terms of benefits, spiritually modified CBT was perceived to enhance outcomes through operationalizing horizontal and vertical sources of social support, divine coping resources, and spiritual motivation. Potential challenges include the risk of therapists inadvertently imposing their own beliefs during the modification process and the possibility of offending clients when conflicts in belief systems emerge, particularly in group setting. The article concludes by providing suggestions for incorporating spiritually modified CBT into treatment and develops a number of illustrative examples of spiritually modified CBT self-statements.

  13. 17 CFR 230.433 - Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... writing prospectus used at the same time as a communication in a business combination transaction subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions to permissible post... Prospectuses § 230.433 Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses. (a) Scope of section...

  14. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON....6 Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. Any contractor or...

  15. 47 CFR 74.790 - Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible service of digital TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.790 Permissible service of digital TV translator and LPTV stations. (a) Digital TV translator stations provide a means whereby the...

  16. Follow My Recommendations: A Personalized Privacy Assistant for Mobile App Permissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Liu, Bin; Schaub, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Modern smartphone platforms have millions of apps, many of which request permissions to access private data and resources, like user accounts or location. While these smartphone platforms provide varying degrees of control over these permissions, the sheer number of decisions that users are expec...

  17. Axiomatizations of Banzhaf Permisson Values for Games with a Hierarchical Permission Structure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In games with a permission structure it is assumed that players in a cooperative transferable utility game are hierarchically ordered in the sense that there are players that need permission from other players before they are allowed to cooperate. We provide axiomatic characterizations of Banzhaf

  18. Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…

  19. 36 CFR 223.12 - Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... destroy trees without advertisement. 223.12 Section 223.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... § 223.12 Permission to cut, damage, or destroy trees without advertisement. Permission may be granted to cut, damage, or destroy trees, portions of trees, or other forest products on National Forest System...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contact financial institutions. 416.1321 Section 416.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you when...

  1. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  2. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  3. Evaluating within-population variability in behavior and demography for the adaptive potential of a dispersal-limited species to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David J.; Miller Hesed, Kyle; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pathways exist for species to respond to changing climates. However, responses of dispersal-limited species will be more strongly tied to ability to adapt within existing populations as rates of environmental change will likely exceed movement rates. Here, we assess adaptive capacity in Plethodon cinereus, a dispersal-limited woodland salamander. We quantify plasticity in behavior and variation in demography to observed variation in environmental variables over a 5-year period. We found strong evidence that temperature and rainfall influence P. cinereus surface presence, indicating changes in climate are likely to affect seasonal activity patterns. We also found that warmer summer temperatures reduced individual growth rates into the autumn, which is likely to have negative demographic consequences. Reduced growth rates may delay reproductive maturity and lead to reductions in size-specific fecundity, potentially reducing population-level persistence. To better understand within-population variability in responses, we examined differences between two common color morphs. Previous evidence suggests that the color polymorphism may be linked to physiological differences in heat and moisture tolerance. We found only moderate support for morph-specific differences for the relationship between individual growth and temperature. Measuring environmental sensitivity to climatic variability is the first step in predicting species' responses to climate change. Our results suggest phenological shifts and changes in growth rates are likely responses under scenarios where further warming occurs, and we discuss possible adaptive strategies for resulting selective pressures.

  4. Usability of Security Management:Defining the Permissions of Guests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Stajano, Frank

    Within the scenario of a Smart Home, we discuss the issues involved in allowing limited interaction with the environment for unidentified principals, or guests. The challenges include identifying and authenticating guests on one hand and delegating authorization to them on the other. While the technical mechanisms for doing so in generic distributed systems have been around for decades, existing solutions are in general not applicable to the smart home because they are too complex to manage. We focus on providing both security and usability; we therefore seek simple and easy to understand approaches that can be used by a normal computer-illiterate home owner, not just by a trained system administrator. This position paper describes ongoing research and does not claim to have all the answers.

  5. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  6. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  7. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  8. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  9. A new model for deteriorating items with inflation under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflation is an important factor influencing traditional economic order quality models. Marketing strategy depends on inflation due to public demand and availability of the materials. This paper presents an optimal inventory policy for deteriorating items using exponential demand rate under permissible delay in payments. Mathematical model has been derived under two cases: case I: cycle time is greater than or equal to permissible delay period, case II: cycle time is less than permissible delay period by considering holding cost as a function of time. Numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are given to reflect the numerical results. Mathematica software is used for finding optimal solutions.

  10. Investigating on the fermentation behavior of six lactic acid bacteria strains in barley malt wort reveals limitation in key amino acids and buffer capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning, Sorelle Dongmo; Fischer, Susann; Becker, Thomas

    2018-08-01

    Understanding lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation behavior in malt wort is a milestone towards flavor improvement of lactic acid fermented malt beverages. Therefore, this study aims to outline deficiencies that may exist in malt wort fermentation. First, based on six LAB strains, cell viability and vitality were evaluated. Second, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, pH value and buffering capacity (BC) were monitored. Finally, the implication of key amino acids, fructose and wort BC on LAB growth was determined. Short growth phase coupled with prompt cell death and a decrease in metabolic activity was observed. Low wort BC caused rapid pH drop with lactic acid accumulation, which conversely increased the BC leading to less pH change at late-stage fermentation. Lactic acid content (≤3.9 g/L) was higher than the reported inhibitory concentration (1.8 g/L). Furthermore, sugars were still available but fructose and key amino acids lysine, arginine and glutamic acid were considerably exhausted (≤98%). Wort supplementations improved cell growth and viability leading to conclude that key amino acid depletion coupled with low BC limits LAB growth in malt wort. Then, a further increase in organic acid reduces LAB viability. This knowledge opens doors for LAB fermentation process optimization in malt wort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2016-01-01

    Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.

  12. Exploring Permission-Induced Risk in Android Applications for Malicious Application Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xing; Feng, Dawei; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Android has been a major target of malicious applications (malapps). How to detect and keep the malapps out of the app markets is an ongoing challenge. One of the central design points of Android security mechanism is permission control

  13. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for antifouling substances. Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Vlaardingen P van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report presents maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations that have been derived for various antifouling substances used as substitutes for TBT. Included here are Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanide, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB.

  14. State-of-the-art literature review on permissive/protected left-turn control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In spring 2010, the Illinois Department of Transportation initiated an areawide implementation to integrate the : flashing yellow arrow as the display for the left-turn permissive interval at more than 100 intersections operating : with protected/per...

  15. Assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is radio-ecological assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides in sea waters ensuring the radiological protection of the human population, as well as marine biota. (author)

  16. Drug evaluation and the permissive principle: continuities and contradictions between standards and practices in antidepressant regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Davis, Courtney

    2009-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are not permitted on to the market unless they are granted regulatory approval. The regulatory process is, therefore, crucial in whether or not a drug is widely prescribed. Regulatory agencies have developed standards of performance that pharmaceuticals are supposed to meet before entering the market. Regulation of technologies is often discussed by reference to the precautionary principle. In contrast, this paper develops the concept of the 'permissive principle' as a way of understanding the departure of regulators' practices from standards of drug efficacy to which regulatory agencies themselves subscribe. By taking a case study of antidepressant regulation in the UK and the USA, the mechanisms of permissive regulatory practices are examined. An STS methodology of both spatial (international) and temporal comparisons of regulatory practices with regulatory standards is employed to identify the nature and extent of the permissive regulation. It is found that the permissive principle was adopted by drug regulators in the UK and the USA, but more so by the former than the latter. Evidently, permissive regulation, which favours the commercial interests of the drug manufacturer, but is contrary to the interests of patients, may penetrate to the heart of regulatory science. On the other hand, permissive regulation of specific drugs should not be regarded as an inevitable result of marketing strategies and concomitant networks deployed by powerful pharmaceutical companies, because the extent of permissive regulation may vary according to the intra-institutional normative commitments of regulators to uphold their technical standards against the commercial interests of the manufacturer. Likely sociological factors that can account for such permissive regulatory practices are 'corporate bias', secrecy and excessive regulatory trust in the pharmaceutical industry in the UK, political expediency and ideological capture in the USA, combined in both countries

  17. Procedures for permission under atomic energy laws in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of proper locations by the enterprisers responsible for projects is usually accompanied in recent years by the active location policy of the state. The application for the permission of locations and projects shall be filed to one or more ministries of the province where the facilities are to be installed. The papers describing the projects, especially safety reports and summaries shall be attached to the applications. The applications shall be published on a bulletin of the government office or daily newspapers, and every person has access to the applications, the safety reports and the summaries for two months. When objections are lodged within the period, closed hearings are held to examine the protests with attendance of the objector, the enterpriser of the project and the government office which has joined the decision. Following the phase of public participation and after the confirmation of facts highly important to the decision, fact examination is carried out with cooperation of specialists by the government office authorized for permission. As a special feature of the procedures under Atomgesetz, the government office is not necessarily obliged to give permission considering the safety policy, even when the pre-requisites of permission are all fulfilled. In other respects, permission may be offered for each partial installation of the facilities and various stages of operation by particular administrative measures (partial permission). The experiences of past 20 years indicate the virtual defects of the laws applied, and the amendment is urgently required. (Okada, K.)

  18. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  19. Breakout Session: Fight for Your Right to Copy: How One Library Acquired the Copyright Permissions Service and Reduced Students’ Costs. Presented by Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator, University of Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Strittmatter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily Riha, Copyright Permissions Coordinator at the University of Minnesota, presented at the 2017 Kraemer Copyright Conference her experience when the process of securing copyright permissions moved from Printing Services to the University Libraries.

  20. Respostas comportamentais de vacas holandesas, com acesso à sombra constante ou limitada Behavior responses of holstein dairy cows with constant or limited access to shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Damasceno

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no município de Piracicaba, São Paulo, nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 1993, com o objetivo de avaliar respostas comportamentais de vacas holandesas, com acesso à sombra constante ou limitada. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado. Foram utilizadas 24 vacas da raça holandesa, em diferentes estágios de lactação e níveis de produção, mantidas em dois currais tipo "free stall", com ou sem coberturas com lonas plásticas nas extremidades sudeste-noroeste da área coberta. Os parâmetros comportamentais estudados foram: tempos despendidos e freqüências nas atividades de alimentação, ruminação, ócio e procura pelo bebedouro. A proteção da área de descanso dos animais não influenciou as variáveis estudadas. Os tempos despendidos diariamente nas atividades de alimentação, ruminação e ócio foram 3,4, 7,0 e 9,0 horas, respectivamente. As maiores freqüências de alimentação ocorreram antes e depois das ordenhas. A ruminação ocorreu principalmente no período noturno; o ócio foi mais freqüente no período de maior radiação solar. Os animais permaneceram mais tempo na área coberta (13,4 vs 2,5 h/dia. As maiores freqüências de procura pelo bebedouro ocorreram, principalmente, nas horas mais quentes do dia e nos momentos próximos às ordenhas.The experiment was carried out at Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, from January to February 1993, with the objective of evaluating the behavior responses of Holstein cows, with constant or limited access to shade. The experimental design used was completely randomized. Twenty four dairy cows were used, at different lactation stages and production levels, kept in two free stall barns, with or without protection against solar radiation in south-east and north-west edge. The behavior parameters studied were: alimentation, rumination, rest time and frequency and water ingestion frequency. The protection of the free stall barn didn

  1. Suggested Safeguards and Limitations for Effective and Permissible Parenting Coordination (Facilitation or Case Management) in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Madelene (Leentjie) de Jong

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Children's Act 38 of 2005 greater emphasis was placed on the importance of both parents' involvement in their children's day-to-day lives. An unintended negative consequence of an otherwise laudable shift in social policy which supported a shared parental involvement was that the courts became the forum for co-parents to dispute a lot of day-to-day issues in respect of their children. To alleviate the negative effects of high-conflict co-parenting cases on our court sys...

  2. Deformation behavior and load limits of asphaltic concrete under the conditions of cores in embankment dams; Deformationsverhalten und Belastungsgrenzen des Asphaltbetons unter den Bedingungen von Staudammkerndichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U.

    1998-12-31

    Based on the analysis of existing dams with asphaltic diaphragm and investigations in the three-phase-system of asphaltic concrete a recipe for the composition of asphaltic cores is recommended. For the construction, rest and operating period of an embankment dam the load and the reaction of the asphaltic concrete cores as well as the appearing stress and deformations are described. Extensive material testings have been performed and at 41 asphaltic concrete specimens triaxial stress controlled pressure and creeping tests have been carried out. The evaluation of the triaxial tests led to proportions of the main stress and deformation limits as criteria of breaking. Under application of the standard equation for nonlinear viscoelastic element-laws a rheonom element formulation was developed from the experiment data and transformed into its differential form. With this approach the stress and deformation behavior of watertight asphaltic diaphragm can be precalculated for a period up to 10 years. The applicability of this approach, which can be also used within FE-calculations as well, is illustrated in four examples. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach der Analyse bestehender Staudaemme mit Asphaltbetonkerndichtung und Untersuchungen zum Dreiphasensystem Asphaltbeton wird eine Rezepturempfehlung fuer den Asphaltkerndichtungsbau aufgestellt. Fuer die Bau-, Ruhe- und Betriebsphase eines Staudammes werden die Beanspruchungen und Reaktionen der Asphaltbetonkerndichtung sowie die auftretenden Spannungen und Verformungen beschrieben. Nach umfangreichen Materialpruefungen sind an 41 Asphaltbetonpruefkoerpern triaxiale spannungsgesteuerte Druck-Kriechversuche durchgefuehrt worden. Die Auswertung der Triaxialversuche ergab ein Grenzhauptspannungsverhaeltnis und Deformationsgrenzen als Bruchkriterien. Unter Verwendung der Standarformulierung fuer nichtlineare viskoelastische Stoffgesetze wurde aus den Versuchsdaten ein rheonomer Stoffansatz entwickelt und in seine differentielle Form

  3. The link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-03-05

    Utilizing a multi-method design, the present study examined the association between maternal sleep, assessed via actigraphy and self-reports, and permissive parenting (e.g. lax, inconsistent discipline) during adolescence, as well as the extent to which this association differed by mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The sample was comprised of 234 mothers (M age = 41.76 years, SD = 6.25; 67% European-American, 31% African-American, 2% other race/ethnicities) and 237 adolescents (113 boys, 124 girls; M age = 15.80 years, SD = 0.80; 66% European-American, 34% African-American). Mothers' sleep duration (actual sleep minutes) and quality (sleep efficiency, latency, long wake episodes) were assessed using actigraphy. Mothers also reported on their sleep problems and adolescents reported on mothers' permissive parenting behaviours. Results revealed that actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and shorter sleep latency were associated with lower levels of permissive parenting. Further, mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderated the association between actigraphy-based sleep quality (i.e. sleep efficiency, long wake episodes) and permissive parenting. Specifically, a negative association between sleep efficiency and permissive parenting was evident only for African-American mothers. In addition, a positive association between more frequent night wakings and permissive parenting was evident only for mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. The findings highlight the benefits of longer and higher-quality sleep for reducing the risk of permissive parenting, especially among ethnic minority mothers and mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. A single-blinded randomised clinical trial of permissive underfeeding in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Anwar Elias; Kabir, Syed Irfan; Mcnaught, Clare; Gatt, Marcel; MacFie, John

    2014-12-01

    The importance of adequate nutritional support is well established, but characterising what 'adequate nutrition' represents remains contentious. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the concept of 'permissive underfeeding' where patients are intentionally prescribed less nutrition than their calculated requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of permissive underfeeding on septic and nutrition related morbidity in patients requiring short term parenteral nutrition (PN). This was a single-blinded randomised clinical trial of 50 consecutive patients requiring parenteral nutritional support. Patients were randomized to receive either normocaloric or hypocaloric feeding (respectively 100% vs. 60% of estimated requirements). The primary end point was septic complications. Secondary end points included the metabolic, physiological and clinical outcomes to the two feeding protocols. Permissive underfeeding was associated with fewer septic complications (3 vs. 12 patients; p = 0.003), and a lower incidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (9 vs. 16 patients; p = 0.017). Permissively underfed patients had fewer feed related complications (2 vs. 9 patients; p = 0.016). Permissive underfeeding in patients requiring short term PN appears to be safe and may results in reduced septic and feed-related complications. NCT01154179 TRIAL REGISTRY: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01154179. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal risk factors in fetal alcohol syndrome: provocative and permissive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L; Hannigan, J H

    1995-01-01

    We present an hypothesis integrating epidemiological, clinical case, and basic biomedical research to explain why only relatively few women who drink alcohol during pregnancy give birth to children with alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), in particular, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). We argue that specific sociobehavioral risk factors, e.g., low socioeconomic status, are permissive for FAS in that they provide the context for increased vulnerability. We illustrate how these permissive factors are related to biological factors, e.g., decreased antioxidant status, which in conjunction with alcohol, provoke FAS/ARBDs in vulnerable fetuses. We propose an integrative heuristic model hypothesizing that these permissive and provocative factors increase the likelihood of FAS/ARBDs because they potentiate two related mechanisms of alcohol-induced teratogenesis, specifically, maternal/fetal hypoxia and free radical formation.

  6. WifiLeaks: Underestimated Privacy Implications of the ACCESS_WIFI_STATE Android Permission

    OpenAIRE

    Achara , Jagdish Prasad; Cunche , Mathieu; Roca , Vincent; Francillon , Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    A short version has been accepted for publication in: 7th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WISEC'14) Oxford, United Kingdom, July 23rd -- 25th 2014; On Android, users can choose to install an application, or not, based on the permissions it requests. These permissions are later enforced on the application by the system, e.g., when accessing sensitive user data. In this work, we focus on the access to Wi-Fi related information, which is protected by the A...

  7. Permissiveness toward divorce : The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  8. Permissiveness toward divorce: The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  9. The study on the adaptation for regulation - the permission of a radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Il; Choi, Won Seok; Jung, Yong Moon [Gallup Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-15

    The restriction -the permission of a radioisotope keeps satisfaction with almost parts for example, awareness, observance and so on. Moreover two concepts are considered fully -too strict about certain specific control rules and needed more discriminated application standards to each organization related to KINS, it's preserved and controlled properly even if the penalties are downsized.

  10. Student Learning with Permissive and Restrictive Cell Phone Policies: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Based on Finn and Ledbetter's (2013; 2014) work regarding classroom technology policies, this experimental study examined the implementation of a permissive and a restrictive cellular phone policy and the effect of these policies on students' cognitive and affective learning in two sections of a public speaking course. College students (N = 31)…

  11. 34 CFR 222.194 - Are “in-kind” contributions permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Third party in-kind contributions mean property or services that benefit this grant program and... indirect costs, the provisions of 34 CFR 80.24 govern the allowability and valuation of in-kind contributions, except that it is permissible for a third party to contribute real property to a grantee for a...

  12. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate unlisted...

  13. 12 CFR 714.2 - What are the permissible leasing arrangements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the permissible leasing arrangements? 714.2 Section 714.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... leasing. In direct leasing, you purchase personal property from a vendor, becoming the owner of the...

  14. 30 CFR 75.504 - Permissibility of new, replacement, used, reconditioned, additional, and rebuilt electric face...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.504 Permissibility of new, replacement... new, replacement, used, reconditioned, and additional electric face equipment used in any mine..., unless in the opinion of the Secretary, such equipment or necessary replacement parts are not available...

  15. 49 CFR 350.319 - What are permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activity Funds? 350.319 Section 350.319 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... permissible uses of High Priority Activity Funds? (a) The FMCSA may generally use these funds to support, enrich, or evaluate State CMV safety programs and to accomplish the five objectives listed below: (1...

  16. Guidance document on the derivation of maximum permissible risk levels for human intake of soil contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds

  17. Android Application Install-time Permission Validation and Run-time Malicious Pattern Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    The open source structure of Android applications introduces security vulnerabilities that can be readily exploited by third-party applications. We address certain vulnerabilities at both installation and runtime using machine learning. Effective classification techniques with neural networks can be used to verify the application categories on installation. We devise a novel application category verification methodology that involves machine learning the application permissions...

  18. AN OPTIMAL REPLENISHMENT POLICY FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH RAMP TYPE DEMAND UNDER PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  19. A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cash flow oriented EOQ model under permissible delay in payments. RP Tripathi, SS Misra, HS Shukla. Abstract. This study presents an inventory model to determine an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and timedependent demand rate with delay in payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and ...

  20. 77 FR 17367 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written authorization, to share client information... services to the broker's clients. Although the proposed rule was prepared in response to a request from a...

  1. 75 FR 66050 - Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    .... USCBP-2010-0038] RIN 1651-AA80 Permissible Sharing of Client Records by Customs Brokers AGENCIES... the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) pertaining to the obligations of customs brokers to keep clients' information confidential. The proposed amendment would allow brokers, upon the client's consent in a written...

  2. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a free-use area without permit in cases of emergency, but the person taking such material shall promptly notify...

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(w)-1 - Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contribution arrangements. 1.414(w)-1 Section 1.414(w)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(w)-1 Permissible withdrawals from eligible automatic contribution arrangements. (a) Overview. Section 414(w) provides rules under which certain employees are permitted to elect to make a...

  4. Maximum Permissible Risk Levels for Human Intake of Soil Contaminants: Fourth Series of Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Apeldoorn ME van; Engelen JGM van; Schielen PCJI; Wouters MFA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the human-toxicological risk assessment work done in 1996 and 1997 at RIVM's Centre for Substances and Risk Assessment within the scope of the RIVM project on soil intervention values for soil clean-up. The method used for derivation of the Maximum Permissible Risk, as

  5. Permissive tolerance of the patent ductus arteriosus may increase the risk of Chronic Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaempf JW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph W Kaempf,1 Robert Huston,2 YingXing Wu,1 Andrew J Kaempf,1 Lian Wang,1 Gary Grunkemeier,1 Rebecca Mischel,2 Howard Cohen,3 Bret Freitag41Providence St Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR, 2Randall Children’s Hospital at Legacy Emanuel, Portland, OR, 3Salem Hospital, Salem, OR, 4Legacy Salmon Creek Hospital, Vancouver, WA, USAPurpose: Because early closure therapies of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA have not been shown to confer benefit to premature infants, the authors’ four neonatal intensive care units adopted a less aggressive PDA management protocol.Study design: A before–after investigation in infants with PDAs born 501–1500 g. Era 1 (January 2005 to December 2007 featured traditional management with indomethacin and/or surgical ligation used early to close PDAs; Era 2 (January 2008 to June 2009 featured fluid restriction and watchful waiting for PDA closure, limiting indomethacin or surgical ligation to only those infants with large PDAs needing significant respiratory support.Results: Era 2 infants (n = 129, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks received less and later indomethacin and less Day 1–28 total fluids as compared to Era 1 infants (n = 240, mean ± standard deviation 27 ± 2 weeks. The Chronic Lung Disease (CLD rate was higher in Era 2 (48% versus 34%, P < 0.01 as was the combined outcome of Death after Day 7 or CLD (57% versus 42%, P < 0.01. Multiple regression analysis showed Era 2 birth was a predictor of CLD. However, Poisson regression analysis determined the predictors of all seven major Vermont Oxford Network morbidities were earlier gestational age, lower birth weight, and male gender, not the era of birth. Significantly more infants were discharged home with PDAs in Era 2.Conclusion: Permissive tolerance of PDAs may increase the risk of CLD and Death after Day 7 or CLD but is not associated with significant changes in other Vermont Oxford Network morbidities.Keywords: premature infant

  6. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  7. Development of TiC and TiN coated molybdenum limiter system and initial results of the thermal testing in neutral beam heated JFT-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Sengoku, Seio; Maeno, Masaki; Yamamoto, Shin; Seki, Masahiro; Kazawa, Minoru

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes the limiter drive system for TiC and TiN coated molybdenum limiters and the thermal testing results of the TiC coated limiter in the JFT-2 tokamak using neutral beam injection (0.7 MW). To investigate the influence of TiC coated limiter on plasma behavior and adhesion property under tokamak plasma, a full scale limiter test has been performed in the JFT-2. Reproducible plasma was obtained after the plasma conditioning. Maximum heat flux to the limiter, measured by IR camera, was 1.5 -- 6.5 kW/cm 2 in 25 msec. Cracking, exfoliation and melting on TiC coated limiter were not observed, except for a number of arc tracks. Finally, the permissible heat fluxes of TiC coated molybdenum first wall are discussed. (author)

  8. Affective and behavioral responses to robot-initiated social touch : Towards understanding the opportunities and limitations of physical contact in human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, C.J.A.M.; Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2017-01-01

    Social touch forms an important aspect of the human non-verbal communication repertoire, but is often overlooked in human–robot interaction. In this study, we investigated whether robot-initiated touches can induce physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses similar to those reported for

  9. An Educational Intervention for Police and Firefighters for Elders at Risk: Limits of Education Alone as a Strategy for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, N. J.; Mistretta, M.; Wegner, J.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6…

  10. Affective and Behavioral Responses to Robot-Initiated Social Touch : Toward Understanding the Opportunities and Limitations of Physical Contact in Human–Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian J. A. M.; Toet, Alexander; van Erp, Jan B. F.

    2017-01-01

    Social touch forms an important aspect of the human non-verbal communication repertoire, but is often overlooked in human-robot interaction. In this study, we investigated whether robot-initiated touches can induce physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses similar to those reported for

  11. Limits on Achievable Dimensional and Photon Efficiencies with Intensity-Modulation and Photon-Counting Due to Non-Ideal Photon-Counter Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

  12. Contribution and limits of geochemical calculation codes to evaluate the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses; Apports et limites des modeles geochimiques pour l'evaluation du comportement a long terme des verres de confinement des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, B; Crovisier, J L [Universite Louis Pasteur, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface, CNRS ULP, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-07-01

    Geochemical models have been intensively developed by researchers since more than twenty five years in order to be able to better understand and/or predict the long term stability/instability of water-rock systems. These geochemical codes were ail built first on a thermodynamic approach deriving from the application of Mass Action Law. The resulting first generation of models allowed to detect or predict the possible mass transfers (thermodynamic models) between aqueous and mineral phases including irreversible dissolutions of primary minerals and/or precipitation near equilibrium of secondary mineral phases. The recent development of models based on combined thermodynamics and kinetics opens the field of Lime dependent reactions prediction. This is crucial if one thinks to combine geochemical and hydrological studies in the so-called coupled models for transport and reaction calculations. All these models are progressively applied to the prediction of long term behavior of mineral phases, and more specifically glasses. In order to succeed in chat specific extension of the models, but also the data bases, there is a great need for additional new data from experimental approaches and from natural analogues. The modelling approach appears than also very useful in order to interpret the results of experimental data and to relate them to long term data extracted from natural analogues. Specific functions for modelling solid solution phases mat' also be used for describing the products of glasses alterations. (authors)

  13. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-06-05

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook.

  14. Maximum permissible body burdens and maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in air and in water for occupational exposure. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 69

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The present Handbook and its predecessors stem from the Second International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm in 1928. At that time, under the auspices of the Congress, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was organized to deal initially with problems of X-ray protection and later with radioactivity protection. At that time 'permissible' doses of X-rays were estimated primarily in terms of exposures which produced erythema, the amount of exposure which would produce a defined reddening of the skin. Obviously a critical problem in establishing criteria for radiation protection was one of developing useful standards and techniques of physical measurement. For this reason two of the organizations in this country with a major concern for X-ray protection, the American Roentgen Ray Society and the Radiology Society of North America, suggested that the National Bureau of Standards assume responsibility for organizing representative experts to deal with the problem. Accordingly, early in 1929, an Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was organized to develop recommendations on the protection problem within the United States and to formulate United States points of view for presentation to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The organization of the U.S. Advisory Committee included experts from both the medical and physical science fields. The recommendations of this Handbook take into consideration the NCRP statement entitled 'Maximum Permissible Radiation Exposures to Man', published as an addendum to Handbook 59 on April 15, 1958. As noted above this study was carried out jointly by the ICRP and the NCRP, and the complete report is more extensive than the material contained in this Handbook

  15. Determination of permissible exposure doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Ministry of Transportation defines on radioactive doses in the controlled area that exterior radioactive dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week; concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations otherwise specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week and that densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities provided in a table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in a list attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible densities for the employees, calculation of doses by interior exposure and permissible densities outside the inspected surrounding area are stipulated in detail with attached lists. (Okada, K.)

  16. Architectural and Behavioral Systems Design Methodology and Analysis for Optimal Habitation in a Volume-Limited Spacecraft for Long Duration Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert; Whitmire, Alexandra; Smitherman, David; Howe, Scott

    2016-01-01

    As our human spaceflight missions change as we reach towards Mars, the risk of an adverse behavioral outcome increases, and requirements for crew health, safety, and performance, and the internal architecture, will need to change to accommodate unprecedented mission demands. Evidence shows that architectural arrangement and habitability elements impact behavior. Net habitable volume is the volume available to the crew after accounting for elements that decrease the functional volume of the spacecraft. Determination of minimum acceptable net habitable volume and associated architectural design elements, as mission duration and environment varies, is key to enabling, maintaining, andor enhancing human performance and psychological and behavioral health. Current NASA efforts to derive minimum acceptable net habitable volumes and study the interaction of covariates and stressors, such as sensory stimulation, communication, autonomy, and privacy, and application to internal architecture design layouts, attributes, and use of advanced accommodations will be presented. Furthermore, implications of crew adaptation to available volume as they transfer from Earth accommodations, to deep space travel, to planetary surface habitats, and return, will be discussed.

  17. On the Asymptotic Behavior of a Log Gas in the Bulk Scaling Limit in the Presence of a Varying External Potential I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Thomas; Deift, Percy; Its, Alexander; Krasovsky, Igor

    2015-08-01

    We study the determinant , of the integrable Fredholm operator K s acting on the interval (-1, 1) with kernel . This determinant arises in the analysis of a log-gas of interacting particles in the bulk-scaling limit, at inverse temperature , in the presence of an external potential supported on an interval of length . We evaluate, in particular, the double scaling limit of as and , in the region , for any fixed . This problem was first considered by Dyson (Chen Ning Yang: A Great Physicist of the Twentieth Century. International Press, Cambridge, pp. 131-146, 1995).

  18. In Vitro Measles Virus Infection of Human Lymphocyte Subsets Demonstrates High Susceptibility and Permissiveness of both Naive and Memory B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, Brigitta M; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; de Vries, Rory D; Langeveld, Simone A G; Brem, Maarten D; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Katsikis, Peter D; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Zelm, Menno C; de Swart, Rik L

    2018-04-15

    Measles is characterized by a transient immune suppression, leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Measles virus (MV) infection of immune cells is mediated by the cellular receptor CD150, expressed by subsets of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and thymocytes. Previous studies showed that human and nonhuman primate memory T cells express higher levels of CD150 than naive cells and are more susceptible to MV infection. However, limited information is available about the CD150 expression and relative susceptibility to MV infection of B-cell subsets. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets from human peripheral blood or tonsils to in vitro MV infection. Our study demonstrates that naive and memory B cells express CD150, but at lower frequencies than memory T cells. Nevertheless, both naive and memory B cells proved to be highly permissive to MV infection. Furthermore, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of various functionally distinct T and B cells, such as helper T (T H ) cell subsets and IgG- and IgA-positive memory B cells, in peripheral blood and tonsils. We demonstrated that T H 1T H 17 cells and plasma and germinal center B cells were the subsets most susceptible and permissive to MV infection. Our study suggests that both naive and memory B cells, along with several other antigen-experienced lymphocytes, are important target cells of MV infection. Depletion of these cells potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression. IMPORTANCE Measles is associated with immune suppression and is often complicated by bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, or gastroenteritis. Measles virus infects antigen-presenting cells and T and B cells, and depletion of these cells may contribute to lymphopenia and immune suppression. Measles has been associated with follicular exhaustion in lymphoid tissues in humans and nonhuman primates, emphasizing the

  19. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ava E; Yucel, Gozde; Small, Stephen; Desplan, Claude

    2007-03-30

    The long-germ mode of embryogenesis, in which segments arise simultaneously along the anteriorposterior axis, has evolved several times in different lineages of the holometabolous, or fully metamorphosing, insects. Drosophila's long-germ fate map is established largely by the activity of the dipteran-specific Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient, which operates both instructively and permissively to accomplish anterior patterning. By contrast, all nondipteran long-germ insects must achieve anterior patterning independently of bcd. We show that bcd's permissive function is mimicked in the wasp by a maternal repression system in which anterior localization of the wasp ortholog of giant represses anterior expression of the trunk gap genes so that head and thorax can properly form.

  20. Mycobacteria exploit nitric oxide-induced transformation of macrophages into permissive giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharun, Kourosh; Senges, Julia; Seidl, Maximilian; Lösslein, Anne; Kolter, Julia; Lohrmann, Florens; Fliegauf, Manfred; Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Vavra, Martina; Schachtrup, Kristina; Illert, Anna L; Gilleron, Martine; Kirschning, Carsten J; Triantafyllopoulou, Antigoni; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    Immunity to mycobacteria involves the formation of granulomas, characterized by a unique macrophage (MΦ) species, so-called multinucleated giant cells (MGC). It remains unresolved whether MGC are beneficial to the host, that is, by prevention of bacterial spread, or whether they promote mycobacterial persistence. Here, we show that the prototypical antimycobacterial molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by MGC in excessive amounts, is a double-edged sword. Next to its antibacterial capacity, NO propagates the transformation of MΦ into MGC, which are relatively permissive for mycobacterial persistence. The mechanism underlying MGC formation involves NO-induced DNA damage and impairment of p53 function. Moreover, MGC have an unsurpassed potential to engulf mycobacteria-infected apoptotic cells, which adds a further burden to their antimycobacterial capacity. Accordingly, mycobacteria take paradoxical advantage of antimicrobial cellular efforts by driving effector MΦ into a permissive MGC state. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Permissiveness to Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Infection in Primary Rodent Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with dengue virus presents a broad clinical spectrum, which can range from asymptomatic cases to severe cases that are characterised by haemorrhagic syndrome and/or shock. The reason for such variability remains unknown. This work evaluated the in vitro permissiveness of mouse, rat, hamster and guinea pig macrophages to infection by dengue virus 2 (DENV2. The results established that macrophages derived from the BALB/c mouse strain showed higher permissiveness to DENV2 infection than macrophages from other rodent species, although all rodent species studied had the C820T mutation in the oligoadenylate synthetase 1b gene, indicating no relationship to the different in vitro susceptibilities of mouse cells at this locus. Other molecular mechanisms related to flavivirus susceptibility remain to be explored.

  2. A Static Android Malware Detection Based on Actual Used Permissions Combination and API Calls

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Wang; Junfeng Wang; Xiaolan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Android operating system has been recognized by most application developers because of its good open-source and compatibility, which enriches the categories of applications greatly. However, it has become the target of malware attackers due to the lack of strict security supervision mechanisms, which leads to the rapid growth of malware, thus bringing serious safety hazards to users. Therefore, it is critical to detect Android malware effectively. Generally, the permissions declared in the An...

  3. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  4. Permissive cytomegalovirus infection of primary villous term and first trimester trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, D G; Kilani, R; Nykiforuk, C; Preiksaitis, J; Guilbert, L J

    1998-06-01

    Forty percent of women with primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections during pregnancy infect their fetuses with complications for the baby varying from mild to severe. How CMV crosses the syncytiotrophoblast, the barrier between maternal blood and fetal tissue in the villous placenta, is unknown. Virus may cross by infection of maternal cells that pass through physical breaches in the syncytiotrophoblast or by direct infection of the syncytiotrophoblast, with subsequent transmission to underlying fetal placental cells. In this study, we show that pure (>99.99%), long-term and healthy (>3 weeks) cultures of syncytiotrophoblasts are permissively infected with CMV. Greater than 99% of infectious progeny virus remained cell associated throughout culture periods up to 3 weeks. Infection of term trophoblasts required a higher virus inoculum, was less efficient, and progressed more slowly than parallel infections of placental and human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Three laboratory strains (AD169, Towne, and Davis) and a clinical isolate from a congenitally infected infant all permissively infected trophoblasts, although infection efficiencies varied. The infection of first trimester syncytiotrophoblasts with strain AD169 occurred at higher frequency and progressed more rapidly than infection of term cells but less efficiently and rapidly than infection of fibroblasts. These results show that villous syncytiotrophoblasts can be permissively infected by CMV but that the infection requires high virus titers and proceeds slowly and that progeny virus remains predominantly cell associated.

  5. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CUTS PERMISSIBLE BRAKING MODES ON THE GRAVITY HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr BOBROVSKYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of cuts braking modes on the gravity humps. The objective of this paper is developing the methods for assessment of braking modes of cuts under conditions of fuzziness of their rolling properties, as well as selecting the permissible starting speed range of cuts from retardant positions. As a criterion for assessing the modes of target control of cut rolling speed, it was proposed to use an average gap size on a classification track at the established norms of probable exceeding of permissible speed of cars collision and their stop in retarders. As a criterion for evaluating the modes of interval control of cuts rolling speed, using the risk of their non-separation on the switches was proposed. Using the simulation modeling and mathematical statistics, the configuration of the range of permissible speed of cuts coming out from retardant positions has been set. The conducted researches allow simplifying the choice of cut braking modes in systems of automatic control of cut rolling speed.

  6. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  7. Permissive hypercapnia for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, P G; Davies, M W

    2001-01-01

    Experimental animal data and uncontrolled, observational studies in human infants have suggested that hyperventilation and hypocapnia may be associated with increased pulmonary and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Protective ventilatory strategies allowing higher levels of arterial CO2 (permissive hypercapnia) are now widely used in adult critical care. The aggressive pursuit of normocapnia in ventilated newborn infants may contribute to the already present burden of lung disease. However, the safe or ideal range for PCO2 in this vulnerable population has not been established. To assess whether, in mechanically ventilated neonates, a strategy of permissive hypercapnia improves short and long term outcomes (esp. mortality, duration of respiratory support, incidence of chronic lung disease and neurodevelopmental outcome). Standard strategies of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Searches were made of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Current Contents. Searches were also made of previous reviews including cross-referencing, abstracts, and conference and symposia proceedings published in Pediatric Research. All randomised controlled trials in which a strategy of permissive hypercapnia was compared with conventional strategies aimed at achieving normocapnia (or lower levels of hypercapnia) in newborn infants who are mechanically ventilated were eligible. Standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Trials identified by the search strategy were independently reviewed by each author and assessed for eligibility and trial quality. Data were extracted separately. Differences were compared and resolved. Additional information was requested from trial authors. Only published data were available for review. Results are expressed as relative risk and risk difference for dichotomous outcomes, and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Two trials involving 269 newborn infants were included. Meta-analysis of

  8. Determination of permissible doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation. In the controlled area exterior radiation dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week by the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week. The densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities stipulated in the table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in the table attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible concentrations are defined in detail for the employees and outside the inspected surrounding area. Calculation of exposure dose in the case of interior exposure is particularly provided for. (Okada, K.)

  9. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor...

  10. 11 CFR 114.15 - Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible use of corporate and labor organization funds for certain electioneering communications. 114.15 Section 114.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.15 Permissible use of corporate...

  11. Food safety behaviors observed in celebrity chefs across a variety of programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2017-03-01

    Consumers obtain information about foodborne illness prevention from many sources, including television media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a variety of cooking shows with celebrity chefs to understand their modeling of food safety behaviors. Cooking shows (100 episodes) were watched from 24 celebrity chefs preparing meat dishes. A tabulation of food safety behaviors was made for each show using a checklist. Proper modeling of food safety behaviors was limited, with many incidences of errors. For example, although all chefs washed their hands at the beginning of cooking at least one dish, 88% did not wash (or were not shown washing) their hands after handling uncooked meat. This was compounded with many chefs who added food with their hands (79%) or ate while cooking (50%). Other poor behaviors included not using a thermometer (75%), using the same cutting board to prepare ready-to-eat items and uncooked meat (25%), and other hygiene issues such as touching hair (21%) or licking fingers (21%). This study suggests that there is a need for improvement in demonstrated and communicated food safety behaviors among professional chefs. It also suggests that public health professionals must work to mitigate the impact of poorly modeled behaviors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-07-01

    Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m(-2) in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6%; odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23-1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (-14.4% vs -26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (-14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs -4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least wealthy adolescents. Healthy PA-related behavior

  13. Genetic activation, inactivation and deletion reveal a limited and nuanced role for somatostatin-containing basal forebrain neurons in behavioral state control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaclet, Christelle; De Luca, Roberto; Venner, Anne; Malyshevskaya, Olga; Lazarus, Michael; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M

    2018-05-07

    Recent studies have identified an especially important role for basal forebrain GABAergic (BF VGAT ) neurons in the regulation of behavioral waking and fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. However, BF VGAT neurons comprise several neurochemically and anatomically distinct sub-populations, including parvalbumin- and somatostatin-containing BF VGAT neurons (BF Parv and BF SOM ), and it was recently reported that optogenetic activation of BF SOM neurons increases the probability of a wakefulness to non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep transition when stimulated during the animal's rest period. This finding was unexpected given that most BF SOM neurons are not NREM sleep active and that central administration of the synthetic SOM analog, octreotide, suppresses NREM sleep or increases REM sleep. Here we employed a combination of genetically-driven chemogenetic and optogenetic activation, chemogenetic inhibition and ablation approaches to further explore the in vivo role of BF SOM neurons in arousal control. Our findings indicate that acute activation or inhibition of BF SOM neurons is neither wakefulness- nor NREM sleep-promoting, is without significant effect on the EEG, and that chronic loss of these neurons is without effect on total 24h sleep amounts, although a small but significant increase in waking was observed in the lesioned mice during the early active period. Our in vitro cell recordings further reveal electrophysiological heterogeneity in BF SOM neurons, specifically suggesting at least two distinct sub-populations. Taken together our data support the more nuanced view that BF SOM are electrically heterogeneous and are not NREM sleep- or wake-promoting per se , but may exert, in particular during the early active period, a modest inhibitory influence on arousal circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cellular basal forebrain (BF) is a highly complex area of the brain that is implicated in a wide-range of higher-level neurobiological processes

  14. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  15. MAK and BAT values list 2013. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2013. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2013 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  16. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2015. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  17. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  18. Challenges to obtaining parental permission for child participation in a school-based waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention intervention in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A

    2014-09-30

    Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before

  19. Peripheral Blood CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells Are Highly Permissive to HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Annie; Monteiro, Patricia; Chomont, Nicolas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Said, Elias A.; Fonseca, Simone; Wacleche, Vanessa; El-Far, Mohamed; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2009-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the identity of primary CD4+ T cell subsets selectively targeted by HIV-1 in vivo. In this study, we established a link between HIV permissiveness, phenotype/homing potential, and lineage commitment in primary CD4+ T cells. CCR4+CCR6+, CCR4+CCR6−, CXCR3+CCR6+, and CXCR3+CCR6− T cells expressed cytokines and transcription factors specific for Th17, Th2, Th1Th17, and Th1 lineages, respectively. CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ T cells expressed the HIV coreceptors CCR5 a...

  20. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  1. Nonlinear absorption, optical limiting behavior and structural study of a new chalcone derivative-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new third order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one (4DPMS) belonging to chalcone family has been crystallized in acetone solution. The 4DPMS crystals are characterized by CHNS analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectral and thermal techniques. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4DPMS crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The linear optical absorption spectrum revealed that the 4DPMS crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. Thermogravimetric data shows absence of phase transition before melting point and from differential scanning calorimetry analysis the melting point of the crystal is found to be 106 °C. Third order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment on 4DPMS was carried out using open aperture Z-scan technique with Nd: YAG laser operating at 532 nm. It was found that the calculated values of excited state absorption cross section for 4DPMS molecules is much greater than the ground state absorption cross section. A decrease in effective nonlinear absorption coefficient was observed with increase in the input irradiance of laser. The observed optical limiting property in 4DPMS is attributed to reverse saturable absorption.

  2. Permissive hypotension in the extremely low birthweight infant with signs of good perfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, E M

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Many practitioners routinely treat infants whose mean arterial blood pressure in mm Hg is less than their gestational age in weeks (GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of utilising a combined approach of clinical signs, metabolic acidosis and absolute blood pressure (BP) values when deciding to treat hypotension in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infant. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all live born ELBW infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit over a 4-year period. Patients were grouped as either normotensive (BP never less than GA), hypotensive and not treated (BPpermissive hypotension) and hypotensive treated (BPpermissive hypotension had similar outcomes. Mean blood pressure in the permissive group increased from 26 mm Hg at 6 h to 31 mm Hg at 24 h. In a logistic regression model, treated hypotension is independently associated with mortality, odds ratio 8.0 (95% CI 2.3 to 28, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure spontaneously improves in ELBW infants during the first 24 h. Infants hypotensive on GA criteria but with clinical evidence of good perfusion had as good an outcome as normotensive patients. Treated low blood pressure was associated with adverse outcome.

  3. Imperfect Reworking Process Consideration in Integrated Inventory Model under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Lo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an improved inventory model to help the enterprises to advance their profit increasing and cost reduction in a single vendor single-buyer environment with general demand curve, adjustable production rate, and imperfect reworking process under permissible delay in payments. For advancing practical use in a real world, we are concerned with the following strategy determining, which includes the buyer's optimal selling price, order quantity, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer. An algorithm and numerical analysis are used to illustrate the solution procedure.

  4. Free Radical Oxidation in Rat Myocardium after Maximum Permissible Hepatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, P A; Khramykh, T P; Barskaya, L O

    2016-03-01

    Free radical oxidation in rat myocardial homogenate was studied by chemiluminescent assay during the early terms after maximum permissible liver resection. During this period, activation of free radical oxidation was biphasic. The critical terms characterized by dramatic intensification of free radical oxidation in the myocardium are the first hour and the first day after surgery. The period from 3 to 12 h after surgery, in which the indices of chemiluminescence decrease, can be tentatively termed as the period of "putative wellbeing". Normalization of the free radical oxidation processes in the myocardium occurred by day 7 after surgery.

  5. Determination of the longest permissible distance between expansion compensators in gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huening, R [Fachhochschule Muenster, Burgsteinfurt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Versorgungstechnik

    1977-01-01

    In order to effectively protect long-distance gas pipelines against mountain damage in the areas in which underground mining is done, expansion compensators must be built in at certain distances. The tests to determine the slippage resistance and the highest permissible distance of expanders Lsub(max) in a transmission line NW 600 having a plastic insulation are described in this work. In addition, a way of calculating the Lsub(max) value from the existing data for pipes of varying diameter and different insulating material is shown.

  6. Studies on the establishment of maximum permissible exposure dose for reference Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.C.; Kim, C.B.; Chung, K.H.; Kim, S.L.; Kim, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to establish the Reference Korean and maximum permissible exposure dose of Reference Korean, for the first year a total of 9,758 males and 7,019 females were surveyed for the height, weight, a body surface area, and a total of 879 individuals of 180 households located in different 30 localities were analyzed for food consumption and a total of radioactive substances (β-ray) contained in food per capita per day. In this report the external and internal exposure dose were also estimated on the basis of data mostly published in other country as well as in Korea in part

  7. Influence of the composition of radionuclide mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, K.; Schuricht, V.

    1975-08-01

    By dividing radionuclides according to their formation mechanisms it is possible to assess the influence of separate partial mixtures on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the total mixture without knowing exactly their contribution to the total activity. Calculations showed that the MPC of a total mixture of unsoluble radionuclides, which may occur in all fields of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, depends on the gastrointestinal tract as the critical organ and on the composition of the fission product mixture. The influence of fractionation on the MPC can be reglected in such a case, whereas in case of soluble radionuclides this is not possible

  8. Two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliraman Naresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items is considered with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment. Shortage is not allowed and deterioration rate is constant. In the model, one warehouse is rented and the other is owned. The rented warehouse is provided with better facility for the stock than the owned warehouse, but is charged more. The objective of this model is to find the best replenishment policies for minimizing the total appropriate inventory cost. A numerical illustration and sensitivity analysis is provided.

  9. Prototype Centralized Managing Permissions System Based on the Election Multibiometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Nikolaevich Ruchay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to develop a prototype system of centralized managing permissions based on the election multibiometric authentication. The novelty of this work is to develop the principles of distinction and multi-factor authentication, because at the moment there is no such development. Depending on various conditions and factors, including the availability of electronic means and convenience, resistance to attacks and exploits, disease or injury of users the biometric authentication can be selected on the basis of any such biometrics as rhythm password, voice, dynamic signatures and graphics recognition.

  10. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  11. Permissive effect of dexamethasone on the increase of proenkephalin mRNA induced by depolarization of chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Schwartz, J.P.; Costa, E.

    1986-01-01

    In cultured bovine chromaffin cells, changes in the dynamic state of enkephalin stores elicited experimentally were studied by measuring cellular proenkephalin mRNA, as well as enkephalin precursors and authentic enkephalin content of cells and culture media. In parallel, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine cell content were also determined. Low concentrations (0.5-100 pM) of dexamethasone increased the cell contents of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin-containing peptides. High concentrations of the hormone(1 μM) were required to increase the cell contents of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamines. Depolarization of the cells with 10 μM veratridine resulted in a depletion of enkephalin and catecholamine stores after 24 hr. The enkephalin, but not the catecholamine, content was restored by 48 hr. An increase in proenkephalin mRNA content might account for the recovery; this increase was curtailed by tetrodotoxin and enhanced by 10 pM dexamethasone. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA content was not significantly modified by depolarization, even in the presence of 1 μM dexamethasone. Aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, or estradiol (1 μM) failed to change proenkephalin mRNA. Hence, dexamethasone appears to exert a specific permissive action on the stimulation of the proenkephalin gene elicited by depolarization. Though the catecholamines and enkephalins are localized in the same chromaffin granules and are coreleased by depolarization, the genes coding for the processes that are rate limiting in the production of these neuromodulators can be differentially regulated

  12. Nonlinear Model of Vibrating Screen to Determine Permissible Spring Deterioration for Proper Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Springs of vibrating screens are prone to fatigue induced failure because they operate in a heavy duty environment, with abrasive dust and under heavy cyclic loads. If a spring breaks, the stiffness at supporting positions changes, and therefore the amplitude of motion and the static and dynamic angular inclination of deck motion also change. This change in the amplitude and in the inclination of motion produces a reduction in separation efficiency. Available models are useful to determine motion under nominal operating conditions when angular displacement is not significant. However in practice there is significant angular motion during startup, during shutdown, or under off-design operating conditions. In this article, a two-dimensional three-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model that considers significant angular motion and damping is developed. The proposed model allows the prediction of vibrating screen behavior when there is a reduction in spring stiffness. Making use of this model for an actual vibrating screen in operation in industry has permitted determining a limit for spring’s failure before separation efficiency is affected. This information is of practical value for operation and maintenance staff helping to determine whether or not it is necessary to change springs, and hence optimizing stoppage time.

  13. Primary Human Placental Trophoblasts are Permissive for Zika Virus (ZIKV) Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kjersti M; Lahon, Anismrita; Suter, Melissa A; Arya, Ravi P; Seferovic, Maxim D; Vogt, Megan B; Hu, Min; Stossi, Fabio; Mancini, Michael A; Harris, R Alan; Kahr, Maike; Eppes, Catherine; Rac, Martha; Belfort, Michael A; Park, Chun Shik; Lacorazza, Daniel; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca

    2017-01-27

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although ZIKV has been predominately associated with a mild or asymptomatic dengue-like disease, its appearance in the Americas has been accompanied by a multi-fold increase in reported incidence of fetal microcephaly and brain malformations. The source and mode of vertical transmission from mother to fetus is presumptively transplacental, although a causal link explaining the interval delay between maternal symptoms and observed fetal malformations following infection has been missing. In this study, we show that primary human placental trophoblasts from non-exposed donors (n = 20) can be infected by primary passage ZIKV-FLR isolate, and uniquely allowed for ZIKV viral RNA replication when compared to dengue virus (DENV). Consistent with their being permissive for ZIKV infection, primary trophoblasts expressed multiple putative ZIKV cell entry receptors, and cellular function and differentiation were preserved. These findings suggest that ZIKV-FLR strain can replicate in human placental trophoblasts without host cell destruction, thereby serving as a likely permissive reservoir and portal of fetal transmission with risk of latent microcephaly and malformations.

  14. Immortalized sheep microglial cells are permissive to a diverse range of ruminant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Swanson, Beryl; Orozco, Edith; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-12-01

    Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Sublines A and H of previously isolated, immortalized, and characterized (CD14-positive) ovine microglial cells were used. Bovine turbinate cells and goat synovial membrane cells were used for comparison. Cytopathic changes were used to confirm infection of individual wells, which were then counted and used to calculate the 50% tissue culture infectious dose. Uninoculated cells served as negative controls and confirmed that the cells were not previously infected with these viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inoculation of the two microglial cell sublines with laboratory and field isolates of BVDV, BoHV-1, and BRSV resulted in viral infection in a manner similar to bovine turbinate cells. Immortalized microglia cells are also permissive to SRLV, similar to goat synovial membrane cells. These immortalized sheep microglial cells provide a new tool for the study of ruminant viruses in ruminant microglial cell line.

  15. A guide for the calculation of the maximum permissible costs for shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzlose, H.

    1981-01-01

    Among other things, this paper has the aim to define the scope which is reasonable for shelter costs as well as to inform about their real amount. Various assumptions have been made and examples have been given which seldom coincide with the specific facts. Thus, the possibility of how to find solutions which are precisely appropriate for persons is shown in a formula. The less the income, life expectancy and the number of persons to be considered the less are the maximum permissible costs for shelters. Under certain conditions the permissible costs are lower than the real costs. Thus, taking those assumptions into account, the shelter is not profitable any more. This case, for example, really applies to a couple, 57 years old, without children, with an income of 40,000 DM/year who intend to build an interior shelter. For a family with children who are under age, however, it is always profitable to build an interior basic shelter. (orig.) [de

  16. 78 FR 52915 - Notice of Proposals to Engage In or To Acquire Companies Engaged in Permissible Nonbanking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank holding companies. Unless otherwise noted..., Vice President) 2200 North Pearl Street, Dallas, Texas 75201-2272: 1. Rio Financial Services, Inc...

  17. Pulmonary infection by Yersinia pestis rapidly establishes a permissive environment for microbial proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul A; Jin, Jianping; Goldman, William E

    2012-02-21

    Disease progression of primary pneumonic plague is biphasic, consisting of a preinflammatory and a proinflammatory phase. During the long preinflammatory phase, bacteria replicate to high levels, seemingly uninhibited by normal pulmonary defenses. In a coinfection model of pneumonic plague, it appears that Yersinia pestis quickly creates a localized, dominant anti-inflammatory state that allows for the survival and rapid growth of both itself and normally avirulent organisms. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the relatively recent progenitor of Y. pestis, shows no similar trans-complementation effect, which is unprecedented among other respiratory pathogens. We demonstrate that the effectors secreted by the Ysc type III secretion system are necessary but not sufficient to mediate this apparent immunosuppression. Even an unbiased negative selection screen using a vast pool of Y. pestis mutants revealed no selection against any known virulence genes, demonstrating the transformation of the lung from a highly restrictive to a generally permissive environment during the preinflammatory phase of pneumonic plague.

  18. An EPQ model under cash discount and permissible delay in payments derived without derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the case where the retailer’s unit selling price and the purchasing price per unit are not necessarily equal within the economic production quantity (EPQ framework under cash discount and permissible delay in payments. We establish the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal inventory cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This paper provides an algebraic approach to determine the optimal cycle time, optimal order quantity and optimal payment time. This approach provides one theorem to efficiently determine the optimal solution. Some previously published results of other researchers are deduced as special cases. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the result and the managerial insights are also obtained.

  19. Analysis of Customary Institutions’ Position and Roles in Business Permission Bureaucracy: Case of Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddi Wibowo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uneven investment activities distribution in Bali result in economic disparity which causes not only social tension but also endanger cultural heritage. Preservation of Balinese culture could be threatened if economic and business activities are not managed properly and in line with efforts to preserve the culture of Bali in the long term. This study aims to assess the empirical and normative sociological legal jurisdiction over existing regulations related to economic and business activities in the Province of Bali which can be considered a potential threat to the preservation of Balinese culture and tradition. Based on the problem mapping that is the result of the empirical and normative juridical study, we are able to do the analysis of regulatory and institutional rearrangement of business and investment permission bureaucracy in the Bali province by considering the preservation of cultural and traditional law enforcement in Bali.

  20. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharaksa, Anjalee; Asrani, Anil C; Gebhard, Kristin H; Fasching, Claudine E; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Janoff, Edward N; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2008-07-17

    Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells) were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Deltaenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+) by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  1. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacaman Rodrigo A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. Results To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Δenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+ by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Conclusion Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  2. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Gorman

    Full Text Available To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace.A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post. Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time, health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile, and work- (performance; job satisfaction related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests.Pre-move, on average (mean [SD] the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday, followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday. The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday, likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday. There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes.This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  3. Retailer’s replenishment policies under conditions of permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yung-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Goyal (1985 is frequently cited when the inventory systems under conditions of permissible delay in payments are discussed. Goyal implicitly assumed that: 1. The unit selling price and the unit purchasing price are equal; 2. At the end of the credit period, the account is settled. The retailer starts paying for higher interest charges on the items in stock and returns money of the remaining balance immediately when the items are sold. But these assumptions are debatable in real-life situations. The main purpose of this paper is to modify Goyal’s model to allow the unit selling price and the unit purchasing price not necessarily be equal to reflect the real-life situations. Furthermore, this paper will adopt different payment rule. We assume that the retailer uses sales revenue during the permissible credit period to make payment to the supplier at the end of the credit period. If it is not enough to pay off the purchasing cost of all items, the retailer will pay off the remaining balance by taking loan from the bank. So, the retailer starts paying for the interest charges on the amount of loan from the bank after the account is settled. Then the retailer will return money to the bank at the end of the inventory cycle. Under these conditions, we model the retailer’s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer’s optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Four cases are developed to efficiently determine the optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity. Numerical examples are given to illustrate these cases. Comparing with Goyal’s model, we also find that the optimal cycle times in this paper are not longer than those of Goyal’s model.

  4. Does an 'activity-permissive' workplace change office workers' sitting and activity time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Ashe, Maureen C; Dunstan, David W; Hanson, Heather M; Madden, Ken; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; McKay, Heather A; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    To describe changes in workplace physical activity, and health-, and work-related outcomes, in workers who transitioned from a conventional to an 'activity-permissive' workplace. A natural pre-post experiment conducted in Vancouver, Canada in 2011. A convenience sample of office-based workers (n=24, 75% women, mean [SD] age = 34.5 [8.1] years) were examined four months following relocation from a conventional workplace (pre) to a newly-constructed, purpose-built, movement-oriented physical environment (post). Workplace activity- (activPAL3-derived stepping, standing, and sitting time), health- (body composition and fasting cardio-metabolic blood profile), and work- (performance; job satisfaction) related outcomes were measured pre- and post-move and compared using paired t-tests. Pre-move, on average (mean [SD]) the majority of the day was spent sitting (364 [43.0] mins/8-hr workday), followed by standing (78.2 [32.1] mins/8-hr workday) and stepping (37.7 [15.6] mins/8-hr workday). The transition to the 'activity-permissive' workplace resulted in a significant increase in standing time (+18.5, 95% CI: 1.8, 35.2 mins/8-hr workday), likely driven by reduced sitting time (-19.7, 95% CI: -42.1, 2.8 mins/8-hr workday) rather than increased stepping time (+1.2, 95% CI: -6.2, 8.5 mins/8-hr workday). There were no statistically significant differences observed in health- or work-related outcomes. This novel, opportunistic study demonstrated that the broader workplace physical environment can beneficially impact on standing time in office workers. The long-term health and work-related benefits, and the influence of individual, organizational, and social factors on this change, requires further evaluation.

  5. The historical development of radiation protection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    The present internationally largely corresponding radiation protection limits are based on recommendations given by the ICRP in 1965. In order to better understand the underlying concepts, a historical sketch of the development is presented including actual discussions of trends to be excepted. Although exposure of healthy individuals by man-made sources up to these maximum levels is legally permissible, it should be emphasized again and again that any unavoidable exposure must be justified by the need for its associated cause. (author)

  6. Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Likeliness of Sexual Behaviors of Black Lower-Socioeconomic Father-Present vs. Father-Absent Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…

  7. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  8. Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents' Views On HIV Research Participation and Parental Permission: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B

    2017-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections. Data were analyzed thematically; mixed methods analyses examined whether concerns about parental permission differed by whether teenagers were out to their parents. Most adolescents, especially those who were not out to their parents, would be unwilling to participate in an HIV study if parental permission were required. Perceived benefits of participation included overcoming barriers to HIV testing and contributing to the health of sexual and gender minority youth. Few risks of participation were identified. Adolescents suggested steps that researchers could take to facilitate informed decision making about research participation and ensure minors' safety in the absence of parental permission; these included incorporating multimedia presentations into the consent process and explaining researchers' motivations for conducting the study. Respondents believed that the benefits of HIV surveillance research outweighed the risks. Requiring parental permission may exclude many sexual and gender minority teenagers from taking part in HIV research, especially if they are not out. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. Permissive hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants (≤1000 gm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, Jeong Hee; Sung, Se In; Jung, Ji Mi; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-07-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the safety of permissive hypotension management in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Medical records of all inborn ELBWIs admitted to Samsung Medical Center from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Of a total of 261 ELBWIs, 47 (18%) required treatment for hypotension (group T), 110 (42%) remained normotensive (group N), and 104 (40%) experienced more than one episode of hypotension without treatment (group P) during the first 72 hours of life. Treatment of hypotension included inotropic support and/or fluid loading. Birth weight and Apgar scores were significantly lower in the T group than the other two groups. In the N group, the rate of pathologically confirmed maternal chorioamnionitis was significantly higher than other two groups, and the rate was higher in the P group than the T group. After adjusting for covariate factors, no significant differences in mortality and major morbidities were found between the N and P groups. However, the mortality rate and the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (≥stage 3) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (≥moderate) were significantly higher in the T group than the other two groups. Long term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not significantly different between the N and P groups. Close observation of hypotensive ELBWIs who showed good clinical perfusion signs without intervention allowed to avoid unnecessary medications and resulted in good neurological outcomes.

  10. Is it morally permissible for hospital nurses to access prisoner-patients' criminal histories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, information about a person's criminal history is accessible with a name and date of birth. Ruth Crampton has studied nurses' care for prisoner-patients in hospital settings and found care to be perfunctory and reactive. This article examines whether it is morally permissible for nurses in hospital settings to access information about prisoner-patients' criminal histories. Nurses may argue for a right to such information based on the right to personal safety at work or the obligation to provide prisoner-patients with the care that they deserve. These two arguments are considered and rejected. It is further argued that accessing information about a prisoner-patient's criminal history violates nurses' duty to care. Care, understood through Sarah Ruddick's account as work and relationship, requires nurses to be open and unbiased in order to do their part in forming a caring relationship with patients. Knowledge of a prisoner-patient's criminal history inhibits the formation of this relationship and thus violates nurses' duty to care.

  11. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio; Rodamilans, Bernardo

    2017-11-08

    The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements. Our in vitro cleavage analyses of potyvirid P1 proteases showed that the N-terminal domain is relevant for host factor interaction and suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved. In the absence of plant factors, the N-terminal end of Plum pox virus P1 antagonizes protease self-processing. We performed extended deletion mutagenesis analysis to define the N-terminal antagonistic domain of P1. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic domain led to a gain-of-function phenotype, strongly increasing local infection in a non-permissive host. Altogether, our results shed new insights into the adaptation and evolution of potyvirids. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Novel approach to parental permission and child assent for research: improving comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lonergan, Theresa A; Forster-Harwood, Jeri E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this research was to test a multimedia permission/assent (P/A) process. The overall hypothesis was that children and their parents exposed to a multimedia P/A process would have better comprehension compared with those exposed to a text-based process. Traditional and multimedia P/A processes were created by using an innovative learning-objective approach. A total of 194 parent-child dyads (children aged 11-14 years) were enrolled: 24 dyads in a prestudy testing P/A components for preference and effect on comprehension and 170 dyads in a randomized trial of a multimedia or paper P/A process for a hypothetical study. Participants were predominantly white and were from a metropolitan area served by a tertiary care pediatric hospital and outpatient facility. Comprehension of 8 essential elements of the P/A process was assessed. The majority of prestudy subjects preferred the video version of the dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry description over the animated and paper versions combined (41 of 48 [85%]; P better overall comprehension compared with the paper P/A process (P = .0009), and there were highly significant differences in understanding of study procedures (P = .0002) and risks (P multimedia group had significantly better overall comprehension (P = .03). Multimedia approaches to the research P/A process may improve overall understanding of research participation for children and parents. Improved understanding of study-specific research components (rather than research rights) may improve overall comprehension.

  13. Experimental verification of the imposing principle for maximum permissible levels of multicolor laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashin V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study presents the results of experimental research to verify the principle overlay for maximum permissible levels (MPL of multicolor laser radiation single exposure on eyes. This principle of the independence of the effects of radiation with each wavelength (the imposing principle, was founded and generalized to a wide range of exposure conditions. Experimental verification of this approach in relation to the impact of laser radiation on tissue fundus of an eye, as shows the analysis of the literature was not carried out. Material and methods. Was used in the experimental laser generating radiation with wavelengths: Л1 =0,532 microns, A2=0,556to 0,562 microns and A3=0,619to 0,621 urn. Experiments were carried out on eyes of rabbits with evenly pigmented eye bottom. Results. At comparison of results of processing of the experimental data with the calculated data it is shown that these levels are close by their parameters. Conclusions. For the first time in the Russian Federation had been performed experimental studies on the validity of multi-colored laser radiation on the organ of vision. In view of the objective coincidence of the experimental data with the calculated data, we can conclude that the mathematical formulas work.

  14. Inventory model with two rates of production for deteriorating items with permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajanta; Samanta, G. P.

    2011-08-01

    Goyal (1985) ['Economic Order Quantity Under Conditions of Permissible Delay in Payments', Journal of Operational research Society, 36, 35-38] assumed that unit selling price and unit purchasing price are equal. But in real-life the scenario is different. The purpose of this article is to reflect the real life problem by allowing unit selling price and purchasing price to be unequal. Our model is a continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items in which two different rates of production are available. The results are illustrated with the help of a numerical example. We discuss the sensitivity of the solution together with the changes of the values of the parameters associated with the model. Our model may be applicable in many manufacturing planning situations where management practices for deterioration are stringent; e.g. the two-production rate will be more profitable than the one-production rate in the manufacture of cold, asthma and allergy medicine. Our proposed model might be applicable to develop a prototype advance planning system for those manufacturers to integrate the management science techniques into commercial planning.

  15. Permission-based Leadership and Change Management in Hong Kong's Nongovernment Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Michael

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the management of transformational change by chief executives in nongovernment organisations (NGOs in Hong Kong. The study takes an exploratory approach with interviews of 18 chief executives from a cross section of Hong Kong's NGOs. The findings indicate that organisational transformation is driven by increasing competition within the NGO sector and from commercial firms, by a demand for greater transparency and by internal forces. These factors are countered by structural inertia. Leadership of the organisational transformation of an NGO is permission-based; agreement from the various stakeholders must be gained to execute a successful transformation. The chief executive should have a humanistic style and be visionary, ethical and participative. Constant communication and involvement facilitate this process. Through this approach, followers will have a greater commitment to the organisational transformation. Organisational change is a combination of planned and emergent processes. The chief executive should relax control and foster a nurturing environment for transformation. This research suggests a leadership style, behavioural approach and model for managing change that will provide chief executives and senior leaders with useful considerations and insights.

  16. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. , Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.).

  17. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of [ 3 H]-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells

  19. Biological bases of the maximum permissible exposure levels of the UK laser standard BS 4803: 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinlay, A.F.; Harlen, F.

    1983-10-01

    The use of lasers has increased greatly over the past 15 years or so, to the extent that they are now used routinely in many occupational and public situations. There has been an increasing awareness of the potential hazards presented by lasers and substantial efforts have been made to formulate safety standards. In the UK the relevant Safety Standard is the British Standards Institution Standard BS 4803. This Standard was originally published in 1972 and a revision has recently been published (BS 4803: 1983). The revised standard has been developed using the American National Standards Institute Standard, ANSI Z136.1 (1973 onwards), as a model. In other countries, national standards have been similarly formulated, resulting in a large measure of international agreement through participation in the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The bases of laser safety standards are biophysical data on threshold injury effects, particularly on the retina, and the development of theoretical models of damage mechanisms. This report deals in some detail with the mechanisms of injury from over exposure to optical radiations, in particular with the dependency of the type and degree of damage on wavelength, image size and pulse duration. The maximum permissible exposure levels recommended in BS 4803: 1983 are compared with published data for damage thresholds and the adequacy of the standard is discussed. (author)

  20. The Effects of Divorced Mothers' Dating Behaviors and Sexual Attitudes on the Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Their Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of effects of mothers' dating behaviors on adolescents' sexuality using reports from a sample of adolescents and their divorced mothers. Suggests mothers' dating behaviors directly influenced sexual behavior of males and indirectly influenced sexuality of females. Mothers' sexual permissiveness influenced daughters' sexual…

  1. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  2. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  3. Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs: determination of permissible levels; Contamination radioactive des denrees alimentaires: determination des niveaux admissibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay- aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In a latent air-soil contamination situation, the population would receive 80 per cent of its contamination through foodstuffs. The supervision of this food poses many problems: sampling, radionuclide dosages, etc. It is also necessary to estimate the maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs, once the maximum exposure limit for the human body has been fixed. The passage of this level to the maximum concentrations is not simple since a) each radionuclide has its own particular effect on the body; b) their concentrations vary from one foodstuff to another, and c) the average amounts of foodstuffs vary from one population to another. Two methods are given here for estimating the maximum permissible concentrations in foodstuffs, together with the first diets likely to become critical when several of them are to be considered simultaneously. The results depend on the way in which the present situation can change to become critical. This evolutionary path can only be estimated approximately. Two methods are therefore given for studying the sensitivity of the results. As an example, a numerical application of these methods using data actually available is given. The data used is naturally incomplete and this will always be true. This application test indicates however two fields in which an improvement is absolutely necessary. 1 - The obtention of multiple observations (simultaneous dosage of at least 2 radionuclides in the same foodstuff, and simultaneous dosage of at least two foodstuffs for the same radionuclide); this assumes a combined effort by the various organisms; 2 - The reaching of an agreement on the dosage methods used by the various organisms since the results actually available are not comparable. (authors) [French] Dans une situation de contamination air-sol latente, la contamination des populations se ferait a 80 pour cent par l'alimentation. Surveiller cette alimentation pose des problemes complexes: echantillonnage, dosage des

  4. Left-turn phase: permissive, protected, or both? A quasi-experimental design in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Cynthia; Ewing, Reid

    2015-03-01

    The practice of left-turn phasing selection (permissive, protected-only, or both) varies from one locality to another. The literature evidence on this issue is equally mixed and insufficient. In this study, we evaluate the safety impacts of changing left-turn signal phasing from permissive to protected/permissive or protected-only at 68 intersections in New York City using a rigorous quasi-experimental design accompanied with regression modeling. Changes in police reported crashes including total crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, left-turn crashes, pedestrian crashes and bicyclist crashes were compared between before period and after period for the treatment group and comparison group by means of negative binomial regression using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) technique. Confounding factors such as the built environment characteristics that were not controlled in comparison group selection are accounted for by this approach. The results show that the change of permissive left-turn signal phasing to protected/permissive or protected-only signal phasing does not result in a significant reduction in intersection crashes. Though the protected-only signal phasing does reduce the left-turn crashes and pedestrian crashes, this reduction was offset by a possible increase in over-taking crashes. These results suggest that left-turn phasing should not be treated as a universal solution that is always better than the permissive control for left-turn vehicles. The selection and implementation of left-turn signal phasing needs to be done carefully, considering potential trade-offs between safety and delay, and many other factors such as geometry, traffic flows and operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    of PhD. thesis named "Leishmania attachment in permissive vectors and the role of sand fly midgut proteins in parasite-vector interaction", Anna Dostálová, 2011 This thesis focuses on the development of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania in their insect vectors, sand flies. It sums up results of three projects I was involved in during my PhD studies. Main emphasis was put on permissive sand fly species that support development of various species of Leishmania. Using a novel method of...

  6. In vitro permissiveness of bovine neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages to Leishmania donovani of Ethiopian isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasew, Geremew; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Abera, Adugna; Zewude, Aboma; Chanyalew, Menberework; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Ritter, Uwe; van Zandbergen, Ger; Laskay, Tamás; Tafess, Ketema

    2016-04-18

    Epidemiological studies in Ethiopia have documented that the risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is higher among people living with domestic animals. The recent report on isolation of Leishmania donovani complex DNA and the detected high prevalence of anti-leishmanial antibodies in the blood of domestic animals further strengthen the potential role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. In mammalian hosts polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and macrophages are the key immune cells influencing susceptibility or control of Leishmania infection. Thus to substantiate the possible role of cattle in VL transmission we investigate the permissiveness of bovine PMN and monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) for Leishmania (L.) donovani infection. Whole blood was collected from pure Zebu (Boss indicus) and their cross with Holstein Friesian cattle. L. donovani (MHOM/ET/67/HU3) wild and episomal green fluorescent protein (eGFP) labelled stationary stage promastigotes were co-incubated with whole blood and MDM to determine infection of these cells. Engulfment of promastigotes by the cells and their transformation to amastigote forms in MDM was studied with direct microscopy. Microscopy and flow cytometry were used to measure the infection rate while PCR-RLFP was used to confirm the infecting parasite. L. donovani infected bovine whole blood PMN in the presence of plasma factors and all cellular elements. Morphological examinations of stained cytospin smears revealed that PMN engulfed promastigotes. Similarly, we were able to show that bovine MDM can be infected by L. donovani, which transformed to amastigote forms in the cells. The in vitro infection of bovine PMN and MDM by L. donovani further strengthens the possibility that cattle might serve as source of L. donovani infection for humans.

  7. Wild Anopheles funestus mosquito genotypes are permissive for infection with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannong Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites undergo complex developmental transitions within the mosquito vector. A commonly used laboratory model for studies of mosquito-malaria interaction is the rodent parasite, P. berghei. Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa but has received less attention than the sympatric species, Anopheles gambiae. The imminent completion of the A. funestus genome sequence will provide currently lacking molecular tools to describe malaria parasite interactions in this mosquito, but previous reports suggested that A. funestus is not permissive for P. berghei development.An A. funestus population was generated in the laboratory by capturing female wild mosquitoes in Mali, allowing them to oviposit, and rearing the eggs to adults. These F1 progeny of wild mosquitoes were allowed to feed on mice infected with a fluorescent P. berghei strain. Fluorescence microscopy was used to track parasite development inside the mosquito, salivary gland sporozoites were tested for infectivity to mice, and parasite development in A. funestus was compared to A. gambiae.P. berghei oocysts were detectable on A. funestus midguts by 7 days post-infection. By 18-20 days post-infection, sporozoites had invaded the median and distal lateral lobes of the salivary glands, and hemocoel sporozoites were observed in the hemolymph. Mosquitoes were capable of infecting mice via bite, demonstrating that A. funestus supports the complete life cycle of P. berghei. In a random sample of wild mosquito genotypes, A. funestus prevalence of infection and the characteristics of parasite development were similar to that observed in A. gambiae-P. berghei infections.The data presented in this study establish an experimental laboratory model for Plasmodium infection of A. funestus, an important vector of human malaria. Studying A. funestus-Plasmodium interactions is now feasible in a laboratory setting. This information lays the groundwork for exploitation of the

  8. Proteasome-independent degradation of HIV-1 in naturally non-permissive human placental trophoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barré-Sinoussi Françoise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. Results Here we analysed viral entry in wild type BeWo (CCR5+, CXCR4+ and BeWo-CD4+ (CD4+, CCR5+, CXCR4+ cells. We report that HIV-1 internalisation is not restricted in either cell line. Levels of internalised p24 antigen between VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes and R5 or X4 virions were comparable. We next analysed the fate of internalised virions; X4 and R5 HIV-1 virions were less stable over time in BeWo cells than VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes. We then investigated the role of the proteasome in restricting cell-free HIV-1 infection in BeWo cells using proteasome inhibitors. We observed an increase in the levels of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 infection in proteasome-inhibitor treated cells, but the infection by R5-Env or X4-Env pseudotyped virions remains restricted. Conclusion Collectively these results suggest that cell-free HIV-1 infection encounters a surface block leading to a non-productive entry route, which either actively targets incoming virions for non-proteasomal degradation, and impedes their release into the cytoplasm, or causes the inactivation of mechanisms essential for viral replication.

  9. 31 CFR 346.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 346.5 Section 346.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... deducted in any one year be in equal amounts. While it is permissible for an eligible married couple to...

  10. Media exposure and the sexual attitudes and behaviors of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, J S; Buerkel-rothfuss, N L

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between popular media consumption and sexual attitudes and behavior for 475 college students, while controlling for commonly related social-psychological variables. Results indicate that females consume more sexually suggestive media (TV soap operas and pop music) than males. General media consumption was not a powerful predictor of permissiveness. Regression analyses revealed that Music Television consumption was the only media variable significantly associated with permissiveness for females. Self-esteem was positively associated with permissive attitudes and behavior for both males and females. Soap opera consumption was significantly associated with permissive behavior for males but not for females. Sexual permissiveness for females was more significantly related to religiosity but less significantly related to self-esteem than for males. No important extraneous variable influences were found. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences, the normative context hypothesis, social scripts, the double standard, the sexual revolution, and the cultivation hypothesis.

  11. 76 FR 46808 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... that the Board has determined by Order to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank...: 1. Westpac Banking Corporation, Sydney, Australia; to indirectly acquire 100 percent of the voting... advisory and private placement services, pursuant to sections 225.28(b)(6) and (b)(7)(iii) of Regulation Y...

  12. 34 CFR 97.408 - Requirements for permission by parents or guardians and for assent by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permission is not a reasonable requirement to protect the subjects (for example, neglected or abused children... for assent by children. 97.408 Section 97.408 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research...

  13. 76 FR 6136 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...: 1. Hana Financial Group Inc., Seoul, Korea; to acquire a controlling interest in Korea Exchange Bank, Seoul, Korea, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of KEB Financial Corp., New York, New York... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To...

  14. 5 CFR 890.1016 - Aggravating and mitigating factors used to determine the length of permissive debarments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the debarment, or similar acts, had an adverse impact on the physical or mental health or well-being... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Permissive Debarments § 890...

  15. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  16. Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…

  17. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...

  18. 12 CFR 347.115 - Permissible activities for a foreign branch of an insured state nonmember bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political subdivisions, to the extent permissible under the law of the issuing foreign country; and (ii) An... under the law of the issuing foreign country, if supported by the taxing authority, guarantee, or full... securities eligible to meet local reserve or similar requirements; and (iii) Shares of automated electronic...

  19. 75 FR 71130 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To..., Virginia 23261-4528: 1. Royal Bank of Canada, Montreal, Canada; to acquire BlueBay Asset Management plc..., and thereby engage in financial and investment advisory activities, pursuant to section 225.28(b)(6...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7216-2T - Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... return preparer has prepared or processed. The Internal Revenue Service may issue guidance, by... auditing services. A quality or peer review may be conducted only by attorneys, certified public... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permissible disclosures or uses without consent...

  1. Criteria for permission of radiosterilized products to application in medicine; Zasady dopuszczania wyrobow sterylizowanych radiacyjnie do stosowania w medycynie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmatowicz, T [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The criteria being used in Poland for permission of radiosterilized medical materials to commercial application result from regulations being in force. The international regulations are also taken into account. The all criteria and procedure needed for any product become accepted for radiosterilization and commercial medical use have been presented and discussed. 1 tab.

  2. Trends and countertrends in sexual permissiveness: Three decades of attitude change in the Netherlands 1965-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from 8 surveys on attitude change in the Netherlands, I tried to clarify trends in sexual permissiveness since the 1960s. In explaining these changes, time-period effects proved most important, whereas cohort replacement appeared to be of minor significance. Hence, changing

  3. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  4. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  5. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  6. Establishment of a Novel Permissive Cell Line for the Propagation of Hepatitis C Virus by Expression of MicroRNA miR122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambara, Hiroto; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Shiokawa, Mai; Ono, Chikako; Ohara, Yuri; Kamitani, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    The robust cell culture systems for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are limited to those using cell culture-adapted clones (HCV in cell culture [HCVcc]) and cells derived from the human hepatoma cell line Huh7. However, accumulating data suggest that host factors, including innate immunity and gene polymorphisms, contribute to the variation in host response to HCV infection. Therefore, the existing in vitro systems for HCV propagation are not sufficient to elucidate the life cycle of HCV. A liver-specific microRNA, miR122, has been shown to participate in the efficient replication of HCV. In this study, we examined the possibility of establishing a new permissive cell line for HCV propagation by the expression of miR122. A high level of miR122 was expressed by a lentiviral vector placed into human liver cell lines at a level comparable to the endogenous level in Huh7 cells. Among the cell lines that we examined, Hep3B cells stably expressing miR122 (Hep3B/miR122) exhibited a significant enhancement of HCVcc propagation. Surprisingly, the levels of production of infectious particles in Hep3B/miR122 cells upon infection with HCVcc were comparable to those in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, a line of “cured” cells, established by elimination of HCV RNA from the Hep3B/miR122 replicon cells, exhibited an enhanced expression of miR122 and a continuous increase of infectious titers of HCVcc in every passage. The establishment of the new permissive cell line for HCVcc will have significant implications not only for basic HCV research but also for the development of new therapeutics. PMID:22114337

  7. 12 CFR 211.4 - Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches of member banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, nonpayment of taxes, rentals, customs duties, or costs of transport, and loss or... reported); (4) Real estate loans. Take liens or other encumbrances on foreign real estate in connection with its extensions of credit, whether or not of first priority and whether or not the real estate has...

  8. Parental influences on weight-related health behaviors in western and eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J

    2017-03-01

    Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of lung protective mechanical ventilation associated with permissive respiratory acidosis on regional extra-pulmonary blood flow in experimental ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Rudolf; Kreyer, Stefan; Putensen, Christian

    2017-10-27

    Lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure has been shown to affect cardiac output in patients with ARDS. However, little is known about the impact of lung protective mechanical ventilation on regional perfusion, especially when associated with moderate permissive respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure and moderate respiratory acidosis results in an increased cardiac output but unequal distribution of blood flow to the different organs of pigs with oleic-acid induced ARDS. Twelve pigs were enrolled, 3 died during instrumentation and induction of lung injury. Thus, 9 animals received pressure controlled mechanical ventilation with a PEEP of 5 cmH 2 O and limited peak inspiratory pressure (17 ± 4 cmH 2 O) versus increased peak inspiratory pressure (23 ± 6 cmH 2 O) in a crossover-randomized design and were analyzed. The sequence of limited versus increased peak inspiratory pressure was randomized using sealed envelopes. Systemic and regional hemodynamics were determined by double indicator dilution technique and colored microspheres, respectively. The paired student t-test and the Wilcoxon test were used to compare normally and not normally distributed data, respectively. Mechanical ventilation with limited inspiratory pressure resulted in moderate hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis (PaCO 2 71 ± 12 vs. 46 ± 9 mmHg, and pH 7.27 ± 0.05 vs. 7.38 ± 0.04, p respiratory acidosis was associated with an increase in cardiac output. However, the better systemic blood flow was not uniformly directed to the different organs. This observation may be of clinical interest in patients, e.g. with cardiac, renal and cerebral pathologies.

  10. Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadeta Dessie

    Full Text Available While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13-18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from "not at all" to "always." Summated composite score ranging from 0-36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication.Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents' reproductive health (RH knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure.Curtailing the adolescents' underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents.

  11. The mothering of conduct problem and normal children in Spain and the USA: authoritarian and permissive asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Robert G; Cerezo, M Angeles

    2005-11-01

    Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother's indiscriminate use of aversive reactions to her child, whereas the permissive form entailed indiscriminate positive reactions. Results showed the American mothers to generate more permissive asynchrony, whereas the Spanish mothers were inclined in the authoritarian direction. Only authoritarian asynchrony differentiated the clinical versus nonclinical dyads in each country. Discussion was centered on the greater salience of aversive as opposed to positive maternal attention, and cultural differences between countries that might have accounted for the different parenting styles.

  12. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  13. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.).

  15. [Substantiation of maximum permissible water level of the flotation reagent EFK-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinskiĭ, V V

    1991-12-01

    Threshold concentrations of the flotation reagent EFK-1 in the water of reservoirs at 0.8 mg/l and 10.0 mg/l for organoleptic and total sanitary indices, respectively, were reported. Dl50 was 7469 mg/kg. The MAC of 0.8 mg/l for EFK-1 in the water of reservoirs (the limiting sign is organoleptic) was proposed.

  16. Permissive attitude toward suicide and future intent in individuals with and without depression: results from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Many previous studies have revealed that individuals with depression have higher thought of suicide, although not always exhibiting intent. We investigated the associated factors with respect to intent for suicide in the future. A total of 1584 adults were selected through a nationwide multistage probability sampling, randomly one person per household, and through face-to-face interviews (response rate was 63.4%) using the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The group with depression (n = 152) revealed a significantly higher level of future suicide intent (t = 4.65, p attitude (t = 4.32, p attitude (adjusted odds ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-6.89) was the only factor significantly associated with future suicide intent, whereas age; sex; education years; monthly income; financial, job, and family stress; physical illness; lifetime suicide attempt; and depression showed no statistical significance. The group with depression showed significantly higher levels of future suicide intent than did the group without depression in those who had a higher permissive attitude (t = 4.18, p attitudes (t = 1.98, p = 0.067). Permissive attitude toward suicide was associated with intent for suicide in the future in individuals with depression. Permissive attitude could be evaluated and corrected to prevent suicide.

  17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  18. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  19. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  20. Information Processing and Limited Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Mackowiak; Mirko Wiederholt

    2012-01-01

    Decision-makers often face limited liability and thus know that their loss will be bounded. We study how limited liability affects the behavior of an agent who chooses how much information to acquire and process in order to take a good decision. We find that an agent facing limited liability processes less information than an agent with unlimited liability. The informational gap between the two agents is larger in bad times than in good times and when information is more costly to process.

  1. The orange spotted cockroach (Blaptica dubia, Serville 1839) is a permissive experimental host for Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Bridget E.; Mahdi, Osama; Huntley, Jason F.; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Horzempa, Joseph; Fisher, Nathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes severe disease in a wide range of host animals, including humans. Well-developed murine models of F. tularensis pathogenesis are available, but they do not meet the needs of all investigators. However, researchers are increasingly turning to insect host systems as a cost-effective alternative that allows greater increased experimental throughput without the regulatory requirements associated with the use of mammals in biomedical research. Unfortunately, the utility of previously-described insect hosts is limited because of temperature restriction, short lifespans, and concerns about the immunological status of insects mass-produced for other purposes. Here, we present a novel host species, the orange spotted (OS) cockroach (Blaptica dubia), that overcomes these limitations and is readily infected by F. tularensis. Intrahemocoel inoculation was accomplished using standard laboratory equipment and lethality was directly proportional to the number of bacteria injected. Progression of infection differed in insects housed at low and high temperatures and F. tularensis mutants lacking key virulence components were attenuated in OS cockroaches. Finally, antibiotics were delivered to infected OS cockroaches by systemic injection and controlled feeding; in the latter case, protection correlated with oral bioavailability in mammals. Collectively, these results demonstrate that this new host system provides investigators with a new tool capable of interrogating F. tularensis virulence and immune evasion in situations where mammalian models are not available or appropriate, such as undirected screens of large mutant libraries. PMID:29578544

  2. The Cost-Effectiveness of Lowering Permissible Noise Levels Around U.S. Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshen Jiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft noise increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and mental illness. The allowable limit for sound in the vicinity of an airport is 65 decibels (dB averaged over a 24-h ‘day and night’ period (DNL in the United States. We evaluate the trade-off between the cost and the health benefits of changing the regulatory DNL level from 65 dB to 55 dB using a Markov model. The study used LaGuardia Airport (LGA as a case study. In compliance with 55 dB allowable limit of aircraft noise, sound insulation would be required for residential homes within the 55 dB to 65 dB DNL. A Markov model was built to assess the cost-effectiveness of installing sound insulation. One-way sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulation were conducted to test uncertainty of the model. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of installing sound insulation for residents exposed to airplane noise from LGA was $11,163/QALY gained (95% credible interval: cost-saving and life-saving to $93,054/QALY gained. Changing the regulatory standard for noise exposure around airports from 65 dB to 55 dB comes at a very good value.

  3. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff; Weitere europaeische Initiativen und Regelungen im Strahlenschutz. Trinkwasserrichtlinie, maximal zulaessige Kontaminationswerte in Nahrungs- und Futtermitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundigl, Stefan [Europaeische Kommission, Generaldirektion Energie, Luxemburg (Luxembourg). Abt. D3 - Strahlenschutz, EUFO 4150

    2013-07-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  4. A silencing suppressor protein (NSs) of a tospovirus enhances baculovirus replication in permissive and semipermissive insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; Bartasson, Lorrainy; de Castro, Maria Elita Batista; Corrêa, José Raimundo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Resende, Renato Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The nonstructural protein (NSs) of the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been identified as an RNAi suppressor in plant cells. A recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) designated vAcNSs, containing the NSs gene under the control of the viral polyhedrin (polh) gene promoter, was constructed and the effects of NSs in permissive, semipermissive and nonpermissive insect cells to vAcNSs infection were evaluated. vAcNSs produced more budded virus when compared to wild type in semipermissive cells. Co-infection of vAcNSs with wild type baculoviruses clearly enhanced polyhedra production in all host cells. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that NSs accumulated in abundance in the cytoplasm of permissive and semipermissive cells. In contrast, high amounts of NSs were detected in the nuclei of nonpermissive cells. Co-infection of vAcNSs with a recombinant AcMNPV containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene, significantly increased EGFP expression in semipermissive cells and in Anticarsia gemmatalis-hemocytes. Absence of small RNA molecules of egfp transcripts in this cell line and in a permissive cell line indicates the suppression of gene silencing activity. On the other hand, vAcNSs was not able to suppress RNAi in a nonpermissive cell line. Our data showed that NSs protein of TSWV facilitates baculovirus replication in different lepidopteran cell lines, and these results indicate that NSs could play a similar role during TSWV-infection in its thrips vector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood-pressure-independent wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in experimental uraemia: evidence for a permissive action of PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Törnig, J; Flechtenmacher, C; Nabokov, A; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    1995-11-01

    Abnormalities in cardiovascular structures, e.g. LV hypertrophy and thickening of vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins) are hallmarks of renal failure. They are in part independent of elevated blood pressure. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to affect cardiac function and has also been identified as a permissive factor in the genesis of cardiac fibrosis. The present study in rats with experimental renal failure was designed to examine whether PTH was permissive for wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles as well. Male SD rats were sham operated or subtotally nephrectomized and maintained for 2 weeks. Subgroups of subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX). Saline or rat 1, 34 PTH was administered by osmotic minipump. Eucalcaemia was maintained in PTX animals by a high-calcium diet (3%). Serum calcium was not statistically different between the groups. After perfusion fixation, intramyocardial arterioles were assessed using stereological techniques (wall thickness; wall/lumen ratio; minimal lumen diameter; length density). In random samples of the left ventricle, wall thickness of arterioles was 2.2 +/- 0.25 microns in sham-op controls and 2.76 +/- 0.41 in SNX (n = at least 8 animals per group). SNX-PTX animals+solvent did not differ significantly from sham-op controls (2.08 +/- 0.42 microns), while SNX-PTX animals+PTH had values not significantly different from SNX (2.59 +/- 0.54 microns). Differences in wall thickness were not paralleled by differences in systolic blood pressure (sham-op 110 +/- 13.3 mmHg; SNX 138 +/- 8.4 mmHg, SNX-PTX+solvent 142 +/- 5.2 mmHg; SNX-PTX+PTH 148 +/- 5.7 mmHg). PTH treated animals showed signs of marked vascular smooth-muscle cell and endothelial-cell activation. The data suggest that wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in short-term experimental uraemia is dependent upon the presence of PTH (permissive effect).

  6. The C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 is a permissive signal for gonad development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee, Pauline A; Cole, Tim; Schultz, Jessica; Hoang, Hieu D; Vibbert, Jack; Han, Sung Min; Miller, Michael A

    2017-06-15

    VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated proteins (VAPs) contain an N-terminal major sperm protein domain (MSPd) that is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VAPs have an intracellular housekeeping function, as well as an extracellular signaling function mediated by the secreted MSPd. Here we show that the C. elegans VAP homolog VPR-1 is essential for gonad development. vpr-1 null mutants are maternal effect sterile due to arrested gonadogenesis following embryo hatching. Somatic gonadal precursor cells and germ cells fail to proliferate fully and complete their respective differentiation programs. Maternal or zygotic vpr-1 expression is sufficient to induce gonadogenesis and fertility. Genetic mosaic and cell type-specific expression studies indicate that vpr-1 activity is important in the nervous system, germ line and intestine. VPR-1 acts in parallel to Notch signaling, a key regulator of germline stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Neuronal vpr-1 expression is sufficient for gonadogenesis induction during a limited time period shortly after hatching. These results support the model that the secreted VPR-1 MSPd acts at least in part on gonadal sheath cell precursors in L1 to early L2 stage hermaphrodites to permit gonadogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Wedge gate valves selecting essentials in pipeline systems designing based on permissible operation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirnichnaya, M. M.; Kulsharipov, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    Wedge gate valves are widely used at the fuel and energy complex enterprises. The pipeline valves manufacturers indicate the safe operation resource according to the current regulatory and technical documentation. In this case, the resource value of the valve body strength calculation results is taken into consideration as the main structural part. However, it was determined that the wedge gate valves fail before the assigned resource due to the occurrence of conditions under which the wedge breaks in the hooks and, accordingly, the sealing integrity is not ensured. In this regard, it became necessary to assess the conditions under which the resource should be assigned not only to the valve body, but also to take into account the wedge durability. For this purpose, wedge resource calculations were made using the example of ZKL2 250-25 and ZKL2 300-25 valves using the ABAQUS software package FE-SAFE module under the technological parameters influence on the basis of their stressstrain state calculation results. Operating conditions, under which the wedge resource value is lower than the one set by the manufacturer, were determined. A technique for limiting the operating parameters for ensuring the wedge durability during the wedge gate valve assigned resource is proposed.

  8. Development of a dynamic operation permission system to support operations in an anomalous situation of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Nishio, Takuya; Ohi, Tadashi; Ito, Koji

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a proto-type dynamic operation permission system to avoid commission errors of operators. The system lies between CRT-based operation panels and plant control systems and checks an operation by operators if it follows typical operation procedure described in operation manuals and it has suitable effects on plant condition. The applicability of the proto-type system is demonstrated through the application to the recovery operations of a steam generator tube rupture accident of a three-loop pressurized water reactor plant

  9. UGT74AN1, a Permissive Glycosyltransferase from Asclepias curassavica for the Regiospecific Steroid 3-O-Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Xue-Lin; Li, Xiao-San; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2018-02-02

    A permissive steroid glycosyltransferase (UGT74AN1) from Asclepias curassavica exhibited robust capabilities for the regiospecific C3 glycosylation of cardiotonic steroids and C 21 steroid precursors, and unprecedented promiscuity toward 53 structurally diverse natural and unnatural compounds to form O-, N-, and S-glycosides, along with the catalytic reversibility for a one-pot transglycosylation reaction. These findings highlight UGT74AN1 as the first regiospecific catalyst for cardiotonic steroid C3 glycosylation and exhibit significant potential for glycosylation of diverse bioactive molecules in drug discovery.

  10. Permissive Attitude toward LGBT in Jakarta: Study of Differences in the Level of Permissiveness among individuals born in 1950-1970’s and 1980-2000’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiowati Endang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT movement is strongly resisted in Indonesia. This is not only that Indonesian people are still religious, but also the traditional norms and values are still very strong in daily life. Based on the Pew Research Centre in 2014, the homosexuality level of acceptance in Indonesia is only about 3%, while the rejection is 93%. LGBT has been started since the 1960s, but it became strength since the private television in early 1990s promoted the effeminate characters to be the top celebrities paid hundreds of millions of rupiah. People who born in the 1950s to 1970s that consume only one TV station will have different respond to LGBT with people who born in the 1980s to 2000s with some TV stations. Purpose: to look for the differences in the level of permissiveness toward homosexuality between those two groups of people. Method: using a mix method of qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative methods interviewed 6 informants. The quantitative will be a survey of 100 respondents. Result: The level of permissiveness on LGBT of the younger group is higher than the older group. According to acceptance factor both group mostly reject LGBT. But according to properness, the older group tend to say disturbing and disgusting, while for the younger group assume not disturbing.

  11. Proposal for derivation of limit values for skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1985-04-01

    From the primary limit value for the skin dose secondary limit values are derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. In analogy to the secondary limit value for the maximum permissible body burden in case of incorporation, limit values for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' are calculated with the help of dose factors for application in case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. Considering that the skin is exposed to contamination but temporarily, in analogy to the annual limit on intake in case of incorporation a 'limit value of skin contamination' is derived for immediately removable contaminations and for one day of exposure, whereas with respect to non-removable contamination and taking into account the renewal of the skin, a limit value of annual skin contamination is defined for non-removable skin contaminations. An investigation level for skin contamination is assumed as a threshold above which defined measures must be taken. Regarding these measures not more than three times appropriate washing is recommended with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The respective limit values are indicated for some radionuclides selected as examples (C-14, Co-60, Sr-90, Y-90, I-131, Cs-137, Ce-141, Pu-239). (orig./HP) [de

  12. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  13. Long-term reduction in infrared autofluorescence caused by infrared light below the maximum permissible exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Benjamin D; Williams, David R; Fischer, William S; Rossi, Ethan A; Hunter, Jennifer J

    2014-05-20

    Many retinal imaging instruments use infrared wavelengths to reduce the risk of light damage. However, we have discovered that exposure to infrared illumination causes a long-lasting reduction in infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). We have characterized the dependence of this effect on radiant exposure and investigated its origin. A scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to obtain IRAF images from two macaques before and after exposure to 790-nm light (15-450 J/cm(2)). Exposures were performed with either raster-scanning or uniform illumination. Infrared autofluorescence images also were obtained in two humans exposed to 790-nm light in a separate study. Humans were assessed with direct ophthalmoscopy, Goldmann visual fields, multifocal ERG, and photopic microperimetry to determine whether these measures revealed any effects in the exposed locations. A significant decrease in IRAF after exposure to infrared light was seen in both monkeys and humans. In monkeys, the magnitude of this reduction increased with retinal radiant exposure. Partial recovery was seen at 1 month, with full recovery within 21 months. Consistent with a photochemical origin, IRAF decreases caused by either raster-scanning or uniform illumination were not significantly different. We were unable to detect any effect of the light exposure with any measure other than IRAF imaging. We cannot exclude the possibility that changes could be detected with more sensitive tests or longer follow-up. This long-lasting effect of infrared illumination in both humans and monkeys occurs at exposure levels four to five times below current safety limits. The photochemical basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Permission for the disposal of substances. Recommendation of the Radiation Protection Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Nineteen Eighties the German Radiation Protection Commission (SSK) has issued a number of recommendations for the release of weakly radioactive substances from the requirement of official approval for use. These have been summarised in a general guide [SSK 98]. The recommendations are based on the de minimis concept of the IAEA [IAEA 88] which allows an upper total dose limit for the general population of several 10 μSv per year from all substances exempt from official approval. As a means of modelling the disposal of exempt substances the general guide uses a model based on a study by Poschner and Schaller [POS 95]. The exemption values given in the general guide also take account of age groups and the dose coefficients given in the basic radiation protection standards of the EU [EU 96]. In the meantime the framework conditions have changed, due in part to new waste management regulations and in part to improvements in disposal technology. The changes in waste management law have resulted in particular from the Ordinance on the Environmentally Friendly Landfilling of Household Wastes (AbfAblV) of 20 February 2001, BGBl 2001, 305 and from the Ordinance on Landfills and Long-Term Storage Facilities (DepV) of 24 July 2002, BGBl 2002, 2807, in which the regulations of the Technical Code on Household Waste (TASi) [TASi 93] have been detailed and made binding. This has led to certain requirements being placed on existing as well as new landfills and storage facilities and related work processes, which in turn has impacted on dose calculation formulas (in particular soil sealing, covering, pretreatment of wastes). The consequences of the new requirements were investigated in a research project conducted by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) [THI 04]. For these reasons the Radiation Protection Commission has been commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) to work out a recommendation for

  15. Tolerance limits of X-ray image intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stargardt, A.; Juran, R.; Brandt, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of the tolerance limits of X-ray image density accepted by the radiologist shows that for different kinds of examinations, deviations of more than 50% from optimal density lead to images which cannot be used diagnostically. Within this range diagnostic accuracy shows a distinct maximum and diminishes to the limits by 20%. These figures are related to differences in the intensifying factor of screens, sensitivity of films, sensitometric parameters of film processing as well as the doses employed with automatic exposure control devices, measured in clinical conditions. Maximum permissible tolerance limits of the whole imaging system and of its constituents are discussed using the Gaussian law of error addition. (author)

  16. Initial stage of transformation of permissive cells by simian virus 40: development of resistance to productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, E C; Sauer, G

    1971-07-01

    A quantitative assay has been used to determine the conditions leading to acquisition of resistance of permissive cells to lytic infection. The number of cell colonies surviving infection depends on the occurrence of several cell divisions after infection. High yields of resistant colonies were obtained when infected, confluent cultures were released from contact inhibition 10 to 14 hr after infection. Infection of actively growing cells produced similar results, but halting further division by seeding these growing cells on confluent monolayers prevented the development of colonies. Colony formation was a direct function of multiplicities lower than 5. An inverse killing response was observed with higher multiplicities, yet colonies were produced at a multiplicity of infection as high as 50. Brief exposure of input simian virus 40 to ultraviolet light stimulated colony formation. Irradiation of the virus for longer periods of time led to reduction of colony formation at a rate slower than the rate of inactivation of viral infectivity. It was concluded that resistance is induced by simian virus 40 and that this alteration represents one of the earliest detectable characteristics of the transformation of permissive cells.

  17. On permission of waste-burying business in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Answer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As to this case written in the title which was inquired on July 19, 1994, from the prime minister, and changed partly on November 21, 1994, the Nuclear Safety Commission answered to the prime minister as follows after the prudent deliberation. As for the application of the criteria for permission, the technical capability is adequate, and the results of the examination of safety by the expert committee for examining nuclear fuel safety is adequate. It was judged that the safety after the permission of this waste-burying business can be secured. The expert committee reported on the policy of the investigation and deliberation, and the contents of the investigation and deliberation, such as the basic location conditions, namely, site, weather, ground, hydraulics, earthquakes and social environment, the radioactive wastes to be buried, the method of determining radioactivity concentration, the expected time of changing the measures to be taken for security, the safety design for the waste-burying facility related to radiation control, environment safety, earthquakes, fires and explosion, the loss of electric power and the standards and criteria to be conformed, and the assessment of dose equivalent in normal state, after finishing the period of control and safety evaluation, and the course of the investigation and deliberation. (K.I.)

  18. Maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere in a milk producing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, P M

    1963-01-01

    A method is given for calculating, for design purposes, the maximum permissible continuous release rates of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 to atmosphere with respect to milk contamination. In the absence of authoritative advice from the Medical Research Council, provisional working levels for the concentration of phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 in milk are derived, and details are given of the agricultural assumptions involved in the calculation of the relationship between the amount of the nuclide deposited on grassland and that to be found in milk. The agricultural and meteorological conditions assumed are applicable as an annual average to England and Wales. The results (in mc/day) for phosphorus-32 and sulphur-35 for a number of stack heights and distances are shown graphically; typical values, quoted in a table, include 20 mc/day of phosphorus-32 and 30 mc/day of sulfur-35 as the maximum permissible continuous release rates with respect to ground level releases at a distance of 200 metres from pastureland.

  19. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE in Restricted Habitats: A New Algorithm and an Evaluation for Sea Otters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Max Tarjan

    Full Text Available Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or "PHRE" that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore. Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts.

  20. Development of Hydrogel with Anti-Inflammatory Properties Permissive for the Growth of Human Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sánchez-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin wound repair requires the development of different kinds of biomaterials that must be capable of restoring the damaged tissue. Type I collagen and chitosan have been widely used to develop scaffolds for skin engineering because of their cell-related signaling properties such as proliferation, migration, and survival. Collagen is the major component of the skin extracellular matrix (ECM, while chitosan mimics the structure of the native polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans in the ECM. Chitosan and its derivatives are also widely used as drug delivery vehicles since they are biodegradable and noncytotoxic. Regulation of the inflammatory response is crucial for wound healing and tissue regeneration processes; and, consequently, the development of biomaterials such as hydrogels with anti-inflammatory properties is very important and permissive for the growth of cells. In the last years, it has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells have clinical importance in the treatment of different pathologies, for example, skin injuries. In this paper, we describe the anti-inflammatory activity of collagen type 1/chitosan/dexamethasone hydrogel, which is permissive for the culture of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC. Our results show that hADMSC cultured in the hydrogel are viable, proliferate, and secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 but not the inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α.

  1. Role of permissive hypotension, hypertonic resuscitation and the global increased permeability syndrome in patients with severe hemorrhage: adjuncts to damage control resuscitation to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Juan C; Kaplan, Lewis J; Balogh, Zsolt J; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are closely related to fluid resuscitation. IAH causes major deterioration of the cardiac function by affecting preload, contractility and afterload. The aim of this review is to discuss the different interactions between IAH, ACS and resuscitation, and to explore a new hypothesis with regard to damage control resuscitation, permissive hypotension and global increased permeability syndrome. Review of the relevant literature via PubMed search. The recognition of the association between the development of ACS and resuscitation urged the need for new approach in traumatic shock management. Over a decade after wide spread application of damage control surgery damage control resuscitation was developed. DCR differs from previous resuscitation approaches by attempting an earlier and more aggressive correction of coagulopathy, as well as metabolic derangements like acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the 'deadly triad' or the 'bloody vicious cycle'. Permissive hypotension involves keeping the blood pressure low enough to avoid exacerbating uncontrolled haemorrhage while maintaining perfusion to vital end organs. The potential detrimental mechanisms of early, aggressive crystalloid resuscitation have been described. Limitation of fluid intake by using colloids, hypertonic saline (HTS) or hyperoncotic albumin solutions have been associated with favourable effects. HTS allows not only for rapid restoration of circulating intravascular volume with less administered fluid, but also attenuates post-injury oedema at the microcirculatory level and may improve microvascular perfusion. Capillary leak represents the maladaptive, often excessive, and undesirable loss of fluid and electrolytes with or without protein into the interstitium that generates oedema. The global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS) has been articulated in patients with persistent systemic inflammation failing

  2. Proposed derivation of skin contamination and skin decontamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    From the primary dose limits for the skin, secondary dose limits were derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. Analogous to the secondary dose limit for the maximum permissible body burden in the case of incorporation, dose limits for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' were calculated, with the help of dose factors, for application in the case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. For conditions in which the skin is exposed to temporary contamination, a limit of skin contamination was derived for immediately removable contamination and for one day of exposure. For non-removable contamination a dose limit of annual skin contamination was defined, taking into account the renewal of the skin. An investigation level for skin contamination was assumed, as a threshold, above which certain measures must be taken; these to include appropriate washing not more than three times, with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The dose limits are indicated for selected radionuclides. (author)

  3. Self Esteem and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Roger B.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine; (1) if adolescent self esteem is related to premarital sexual attitudes and intercourse behavior; (2) if religious affiliation and church attendance affect the relationship between adolescent self esteem and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Approximately 2400 adolescents residing in California, New Mexico, and Utah comprised the sample. Adolescents who attended church services more often reported less sexually permissive attitudes and behavior...

  4. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.

  5. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  6. Familia, Permisividad y Juicio Moral en Estudiantes de Enseñanza Media de la Provincia de Concepción Family, Permissivity, and Moral Judgement of High School Students of Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Mathiesen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la moralidad de estudiantes de enseñanza media de la Provincia de Concepción, Chile, medida por la aceptación de conductas morales cuestionables y el nivel de desarrollo del juicio moral. Se presentan relaciones entre moralidad y características del joven y su familia. Para ello, se aplicó una encuesta de carácter social a una muestra representativa de 546 estudiantes. Los resultados muestran una baja permisividad moral, más alta en sexualidad y más baja en moralidad personal y legal. Menos de la mitad de los jóvenes emitieron juicios morales válidos. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre permisividad moral y juicio moral. Hubo diferencias significativas de moralidad según sexo y religión. Se detectaron relaciones inversas entre permisividad y funcionamiento familiar, y directas, entre rendimiento escolar y juicio moral.This study describes morality in high school students of the Province of Concepción, Chile. The morality was measured through acceptance of questionable moral behaviors and moral judgment development. Relationships between morality and the characteristics of youths an their families are also presented. A social survey was applied to a representative sample of 546 high school students. The results show low moral permissiveness, higher regarding sexuality and lower in personal and legal morality. Less than half of the subjects submitted valid moral judgments. No significant correlations were found between moral permissiveness and moral judgment development. Significant differences of morality were found according to sex and religion. Inverse relationships were found between permissivity and family functioning. Also, direct relationships were found between academic achievement and moral judgment.

  7. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  8. A preliminary randomized controlled trial of a behavioral exercise intervention for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Marcus, Bess H; Desaulniers, Julie; Fokas, Kathryn; Brown, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Previous exercise intervention studies for smoking cessation have been challenged by a number of methodological limitations that confound the potential efficacy of aerobic exercise for smoking cessation. The preliminary efficacy of a behavioral exercise intervention that incorporated features designed to address prior limitations was tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Sixty-one smokers (65.6% female, mean age = 47.3 years, smoked a mean of 19.7 cigarettes/day) were randomized to receive either a 12-week exercise intervention or a 12-week health education contact control. Participants in both conditions received an 8-week telephone-delivered, standard smoking cessation protocol (with the transdermal nicotine patch). Follow-ups were conducted at the end of treatment (EOT), 6- and 12-month timepoints. There were no differences between conditions with respect to the number of weekly exercise or health education sessions attended (9.3±2.8 vs. 9.3±3.0, respectively). While not statistically significant, participants in the exercise condition demonstrated higher verified abstinence rates (EOT: 40% vs. 22.6%, odds ratio [OR] = 2.28; 6- and 12-month follow-ups: 26.7% vs. 12.9%, OR = 2.46). Irrespective of treatment condition, higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous exercise were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms during the intervention. The results of this small RCT point toward the benefit of a behavioral exercise intervention designed to address previous methodological limitations for smoking cessation. Given the potential public health impact of the demonstrated efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, the continued development and optimization of exercise interventions for smokers through larger RCTs merits pursuit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Estimation and justification of permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabrodskij, V.N.; Bondar', Yu.I.; Sadchikov, V.I.; Kalinin, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    The permissible levels of Sr 90 in firewood and timber produced on the radioactively contaminated territory are calculated and justified. They are proposed to be used on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. (authors)

  10. Partnerships – Limited partnerships and limited liability limited partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Johan J.

    2000-01-01

    Consideration of the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000 which introduced a new corporate entity, carrying the designations “partnership” and “limited” which allow members to limit their liability whilst organising themselves internally as a partnership. Article by Professor Johan Henning (Director of the Centre for Corporate Law and Practice, IALS and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced ...

  11. Supply chain model with price- and trade credit-sensitive demand under two-level permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B. C.; Maiti, T.

    2013-05-01

    This article develops a single-manufacturer and single-retailer supply chain model under two-level permissible delay in payments when the manufacturer follows a lot-for-lot policy in response to the retailer's demand. The manufacturer offers a trade credit period to the retailer with the contract that the retailer must share a fraction of the profit earned during the trade credit period. On the other hand, the retailer provides his customer a partial trade credit which is less than that of the manufacturer. The demand at the retailer is assumed to be dependent on the selling price and the trade credit period offered to the customers. The average net profit of the supply chain is derived and an algorithm for finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the coordination policy of the supply chain and examine the sensitivity of key model-parameters.

  12. Positional cloning identifies zebrafish one-eyed pinhead as a permissive EGF-related ligand required during gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Talbot, W S; Schier, A F

    1998-01-23

    The zebrafish one-eyed pinhead (oep) mutation disrupts embryonic development, resulting in cyclopia and defects in endoderm, prechordal plate, and ventral neuroectoderm formation. We report the molecular isolation of oep using a positional cloning approach. The oep gene encodes a novel EGF-related protein with similarity to the EGF-CFC proteins cripto, cryptic, and FRL-1. Wild-type oep protein contains a functional signal sequence and is membrane-associated. Following ubiquitous maternal and zygotic expression, highest levels of oep mRNA are found in the gastrula margin and in axial structures and forebrain. Widespread misexpression of both membrane-attached and secreted forms of oep rescues prechordal plate and forebrain development in mutant embryos but does not lead to the ectopic induction of these cell types in wild-type fish. These results establish an essential but permissive role for an EGF-related ligand during vertebrate gastrulation.

  13. Determining permissible PT parameters in normal operating conditions for reactor pressure vessel of units 1-4 of NPP Kozloduy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batischev, M.; Yurukov, V.; Simovski, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the analysis is to verify the determined from the Main Designer P-T curves and to provide that permissible T values can be decreased even in case a lot of very conservative assumptions are taken into account. Detailed temperature and stress distributions are obtained using different 3D Finite Element Models. Then, assuming linear elastic behaviour and using these distributions onto models including cracks K I values are determined. From the K I values taking into account material characteristics and actual and prognostic neutron fluence of the most sensitive areas of the RPV, P-T curves are determined. Residual stresses in welds are also taken into account. Analysis has been performed independently following two different methodologies - one prescribed by Russian norms (PNAEh-G-7-002-86) and another, developed by the IAEA - 'Guidelines on PTS analysis for WWER NPP'. The obtained results using two methodologies are compared and the more severe are determined

  14. Permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works of Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Commission to the Prime Minister concerning the permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works, Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., was presented. The technical capability of NFI and the safety of the business alteration were confirmed. The items of the safety examination concerning the alteration, made by the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety of NSC, are as follows: the aseismic design and fire prevention measures of the No.2 processing building and the No.3 waste storage building to be newly installed; criticality control concerning the No.2 processing building; the release control of gaseous and liquid wastes; the management of solid wastes; radiation control; the exposure dose of general public. (J.P.N.)

  15. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  16. On permission of reprocessing project change at the Reprocessing Works of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (Reply)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission replied as follows to the Prime Minister on July 14, 1997 on permission of reprocessing project change at the Reprocessing Works of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. inquired on Dec. 26, 1996. Contents of the inquiry consisted of change of refinery facility and its related instruments, integration of low level wasted liquid treating instrument and change of low level solid waste treating instrument, integration of high level wasted liquid storing building and high level wasted liquid glassification building, installation of used fuel transporting container maintenance instrument and its relating instruments, and so forth. As a result of careful discussion at the Commission for these items, they were admitted to be valid on her technical ability and her safety. (G.K.)

  17. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  18. test of permissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    strydom, craig

    2013-05-27

    Full Text Available 4.2.4 Apache Ant 1.8 or later (Java build tool) __________________________________________ 38 4.2.5 Relational Database: (PostgreSQL or Oracle). _____________________________________ 38 4.2.6 Servlet Engine: (Apache Tomcat 5.5 or 6, Jetty, Caucho... ________________________________________________________ 47 4.4.3 DSpace over HTTPS _________________________________________________________ 47 4.4.4 The Handle Server ___________________________________________________________ 51 4.4.5 Google and HTML sitemaps...

  19. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  20. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  1. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  2. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  3. Limits on fundamental limits to computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Igor L

    2014-08-14

    An indispensable part of our personal and working lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Steady improvements in computer hardware have been supported by periodic doubling of transistor densities in integrated circuits over the past fifty years. Such Moore scaling now requires ever-increasing efforts, stimulating research in alternative hardware and stirring controversy. To help evaluate emerging technologies and increase our understanding of integrated-circuit scaling, here I review fundamental limits to computation in the areas of manufacturing, energy, physical space, design and verification effort, and algorithms. To outline what is achievable in principle and in practice, I recapitulate how some limits were circumvented, and compare loose and tight limits. Engineering difficulties encountered by emerging technologies may indicate yet unknown limits.

  4. What is the appropriate upper limit for added sugars consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Sievenpiper, John L; Lê, Kim-Anne; White, John S; Clemens, Roger; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2017-01-01

    Dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes have occurred worldwide over the past 30 years. Some investigators have suggested that these increases may be due, in part, to increased added sugars consumption. Several scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Council on Nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015, and the American Heart Association, have recommended significant restrictions on upper limits of sugars consumption. In this review, the scientific evidence related to sugars consumption and its putative link to various chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome is examined. While it appears prudent to avoid excessive calories from sugars, the scientific basis for restrictive guidelines is far from settled. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. ST product characteristics and relationships with perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Elizabeth T; Darius, Ellen F; Walsh, Margaret M; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2017-12-01

    Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools. ST users were asked about their experiences and perceptions related to product characteristics. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a general inductive approach. Participants associated flavored ST with appealing non-tobacco products, such as chewing gum and alcohol. Availability of different varieties and flavors stimulated interest and curiosity in sampling or switching between ST products. Time-limited promotional flavors and packaging also enhanced product appeal. Adolescent ST users preferred certain brands based on perceived brand features and perceived nicotine content, associating higher-strength brands as better suited for experienced ST users. Brand preferences frequently reflected perceived ST brand popularity within peer groups. Based on these observations, potential ST regulation and health education campaigns to address misconceptions about ST characteristics could influence adolescents' ST-related perceptions and reduce ST use among this vulnerable population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Tsukimura, Brian; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2017-07-01

    A major focus of current ecological research is to understand how global change makes species vulnerable to extirpation. To date, mechanistic ecophysiological analyses of global change vulnerability have focused primarily on the direct effects of changing abiotic conditions on whole-organism physiological traits, such as metabolic rate, locomotor performance, cardiac function, and critical thermal limits. However, species do not live in isolation within their physical environments, and direct effects of climate change are likely to be compounded by indirect effects that result from altered interactions with other species, such as competitors and predators. The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017 Symposium "Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences" was designed to synthesize multiple approaches to investigating the indirect effects of global change by bringing together researchers that study the indirect effects of global change from multiple perspectives across habitat, type of anthropogenic change, and level of biological organization. Our goal in bringing together researchers from different backgrounds was to foster cross-disciplinary insights into the mechanistic bases and higher-order ecological consequences of indirect effects of global change, and to promote collaboration among fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. Ninety-nine parent–child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. C...

  8. Enterovirus D-68 Infection, Prophylaxis, and Vaccination in a Novel Permissive Animal Model, the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira C Patel

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in detection of Enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68 among patients with severe respiratory infections worldwide. EV-D68 is now recognized as a re-emerging pathogen; however, due to lack of a permissive animal model for EV-D68, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and immune response against EV-D68 has been hampered. Recently, it was shown that EV-D68 has a strong affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acids (SAs and we have shown previously that α2,6-linked SAs are abundantly present in the respiratory tract of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus. Thus, we hypothesized that cotton rats could be a potential model for EV-D68 infection. Here, we evaluated the ability of two recently isolated EV-D68 strains (VANBT/1 and MO/14/49, along with the historical prototype Fermon strain (ATCC, to infect cotton rats. We found that cotton rats are permissive to EV-D68 infection without virus adaptation. The different strains of EV-D68 showed variable infection profiles and the ability to produce neutralizing antibody (NA upon intranasal infection or intramuscular immunization. Infection with the VANBT/1 resulted in significant induction of pulmonary cytokine gene expression and lung pathology. Intramuscular immunization with live VANBT/1 or MO/14/49 induced strong homologous antibody responses, but a moderate heterologous NA response. We showed that passive prophylactic administration of serum with high content of NA against VANBT/1 resulted in an efficient antiviral therapy. VANBT/1-immunized animals showed complete protection from VANBT/1 challenge, but induced strong pulmonary Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses and enhanced lung pathology, indicating the generation of exacerbated immune response by immunization. In conclusion, our data illustrate that the cotton rat is a powerful animal model that provides an experimental platform to investigate pathogenesis, immune response, anti-viral therapies and vaccines

  9. Family Influences on Dropout Behavior in One California High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated how family processes influence high school student dropout behavior. Used a sample of 114 dropouts from 1 California high school, 48 of whom were matched to similarly profiled continuing students. Identified factors that explain students' dropout decisions: permissive parenting, negative parental reactions to grades, excessive…

  10. The Influence of Parenting toward Religious Behavior and Study Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulisna Yulisna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the results of research concerning empirical description of the parenting and its influences on religious behavior and students’ study results in the subject of PAI (Pendidikan Agama Islam/Islamic Education. The research method used is qualitative and quantitative methods. The population of the research is all students and their parents in the fifth grade of elementary school in one group of Pulau Kijang, in Reteh Subdistrict, Indragiri Hilir, Riau. The sampling used the technique of cluster sampling for 80 students and 80 parents. The results of the research show that the parenting determines the height and low of students’ religious behavior and PAI study results. Students who have high and average religious behavior are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students having low religious behavior are those who are educated by authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings. Meanwhile, students who have the high study results are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students whose study results are average are educated by the authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings. 

  11. Improving Oversight and Coordination of Department of Defense Programs That Address Problematic Behaviors Among Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Consider ways to leverage existing DoD data to continue to explore connections among problematic behaviors. Prevention strategies Review the effects that...Hepner, Targeting Alcohol Misuse: A Promising Strategy for Reducing Military Sexual Assaults? Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation , RR-538-OSD, 2014...and linking permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public

  12. ICRP-recommendations on dose limits for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Dose limits proposed by the ICRP have been incorporated in most national and international standards and their respect has caused a distribution of doses with a average not exceeding 1/10 of the maximum permissible dose. This distribution corresponds to a risk which is well within the risks in 'safe industries'. There are at present some inconsistancies in the current system of recommended limits, for example having the same limit of 5 rem for the whole-body and also for some organs. Hopefully, this incosistancy will be removed in the next recommendation of the ICRP. But the whole-body limit of 5 rem in a year has been safe and there is little ground to reduce this limit on the basis of comparisons with 'safe industries'. (orig./HP) [de

  13. A joint inventory policy under permissible delay in payment and stochastic demand (Case study: Pharmacy Department of Pariaman Hospital)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonrinaldi, Primadi, M. Yugo; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Inventory cannot be avoided by organizations. One of them is a hospital which has a functional unit to manage the drugs and other medical supplies such as disposable and laboratory material. The unit is called Pharmacy Department which is responsible to do all of pharmacy services in the hospital. The current problem in Pharmacy Department is that the level of drugs and medical supplies inventory is too high. Inventory is needed to keep the service level to customers but at the same time it increases the cost of holding the items, so there should be a policy to keep the inventory on an optimal condition. To solve such problem, this paper proposes an inventory policy in Pharmacy Department of Pariaman Hospital. The inventory policy is determined by using Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model under condition of permissible delay in payment for multiple products considering safety stock to anticipate stochastic demand. This policy is developed based on the actual condition of the system studied where suppliers provided a certain period to Pharmacy Department to complete the payment of the order. Based on implementation using software Lingo 13.0, total inventory cost of proposed policy of IDR 137,334,815.34 is 37.4% lower than the total inventory cost of current policy of IDR 219,511,519.45. Therefore, the proposed inventory policy is applicable to the system to minimize the total inventory cost.

  14. TFH cells accumulate in mucosal tissues of humanized-DRAG mice and are highly permissive to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef; Majji, Sai; Peachman, Kristina; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jiae; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Wijayalath, Wathsala; Merbah, Melanie; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Casares, Sofia; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) in germinal centers are required for maturation of B-cells. While the role of TFH-cells has been studied in blood and lymph nodes of HIV-1 infected individuals, its role in the mucosal tissues has not been investigated. We show that the gut and female reproductive tract (FRT) of humanized DRAG mice have a high level of human lymphocytes and a high frequency of TFH (CXCR5+PD-1++) and precursor-TFH (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. The majority of TFH-cells expressed CCR5 and CXCR3 and are the most permissive to HIV-1 infection. A single low-dose intravaginal HIV-1 challenge of humanized DRAG mice results in 100% infectivity with accumulation of TFH-cells mainly in the Peyer’s patches and FRT. The novel finding of TFH-cells in the FRT may contribute to the high susceptibility of DRAG mice to HIV-1 infection. This mouse model thus provides new opportunities to study TFH-cells and to evaluate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:26034905

  15. Transcriptional Reprogramming during Effector-to-Memory Transition Renders CD4+ T Cells Permissive for Latent HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Deng, Kai; Gao, Hongbo; Xing, Sifei; Capoferri, Adam A; Durand, Christine M; Rabi, S Alireza; Laird, Gregory M; Kim, Michelle; Hosmane, Nina N; Yang, Hung-Chih; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph B; Li, Linghua; Cai, Weiping; Ke, Ruian; Flavell, Richard A; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2017-10-17

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4 + T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Studies of HIV-1 latency have focused on regulation of viral gene expression in cells in which latent infection is established. However, it remains unclear how infection initially becomes latent. Here we described a unique set of properties of CD4 + T cells undergoing effector-to-memory transition including temporary upregulation of CCR5 expression and rapid downregulation of cellular gene transcription. These cells allowed completion of steps in the HIV-1 life cycle through integration but suppressed HIV-1 gene transcription, thus allowing the establishment of latency. CD4 + T cells in this stage were substantially more permissive for HIV-1 latent infection than other CD4 + T cells. Establishment of latent HIV-1 infection in CD4 + T could be inhibited by viral-specific CD8 + T cells, a result with implications for elimination of latent HIV-1 infection by T cell-based vaccines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Molecular detection of Leishmania infection in sand flies in border line of Iran-Turkmenistan: restricted and permissive vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, H; Oshaghi, M A; Abai, M R; Rassi, Y; Akhavan, A A; Sheikh, Z; Mohtarami, F; Saidi, Z; Mirzajani, H; Anjomruz, M

    2013-10-01

    A molecular study was carried out to incriminate sand fly vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in rural areas of Sarakhs district, Khorassane-Razavi Province, northeastern Iran, in 2011. Sand flies of Sergentomyia with three species and Phlebotomus with six species respectively comprised 73.3% and 26.7% of the specimens. Phlebotomus papatasi was the most common Phlebotomine species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Leishmania infection was found at least in 17 (22%) specimens including Ph. papatasi (n=9 pool samples), Phlebotomus caucasicus (n=6), Phlebotomus alexandri (n=1), and Sergentomyia sintoni (n=1). The parasites were found comprised Leishmania major (n=5), Leishmania turanica (n=10), and Leishmania gerbilli (n=4). Infection of Ph. papatasi with both L. major and L. turanica supporting the new suggestion indicating that it is not restricted only with L. major. Circulation of L. major by Ph. alexandri, and both L. gerbilli and L. turanica by Ph. caucasicus, in addition to previous data indicating the ability of Ph. alexandri to circulate Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani, and Ph. caucasicus to circulate L. major, suggests that these two species can be permissive vectors. The results suggest that Ph. papatasi and Ph. alexandri are the primary and secondary vectors of CL where circulating L. major between human and reservoirs, whereas Ph. caucasicus is circulating L. turanica and L. gerbilli between the rodents in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Promoting participatory behavior on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Corcoles, M.

    2012-01-01

    Are two types of safety behaviors: On the one hand, the fulfillment of the essential procedures for safe operation, and secondly, those voluntary behaviors that contribute equally to enhance plant safety. During the last three decades, the focus on strict compliance has limited any behavior beyond what is required by the regulations.

  19. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Gepshtein, Sergei

    2015-09-01

    The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation") and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period"). We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation.

  20. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Snider

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation" and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period". We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation.

  1. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  2. Testing the limits of the 'joint account' model of genetic information: a legal thought experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles; Herring, Jonathan; Boyd, Magnus

    2015-05-01

    We examine the likely reception in the courtroom of the 'joint account' model of genetic confidentiality. We conclude that the model, as modified by Gilbar and others, is workable and reflects, better than more conventional legal approaches, both the biological and psychological realities and the obligations owed under Articles 8 and 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Investigation on the behavioral difference in third order nonlinearity and optical limiting of Mn0.55Cu0.45Fe2O4 nanoparticles annealed at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, S.; Manikandan, N.; Vinitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Mn0.55Cu0.45Fe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were annealed at different temperatures (500 °C to 1250 °C). All annealed samples were characterized for their structural, magnetic, linear and non-linear optical properties. XRD results confirm single phase cubic spinel structure only for samples annealed at 800 °C and 1250 °C. The average crystallite sizes of the samples are in the range of 11-37 nm. HR-SEM image of the sample annealed at 800 °C exposed spherical morphology. The quantitative analysis of EDX results is close to the expected values. Bandgaps were evaluated from UV-DRS. The FTIR spectrum showing the essential peaks around 452.1 and 567.2 cm-1 prove the formation of spinel nanoparticles. In PL spectrum, a broad emission peak is attained in visible region at 485 nm. The saturation magnetization (M s), coercivity (H c) and remanence magnetization (M r) are obtained from the hysteresis curve. Nonlinear absorption coefficients (10-4 cm W-1), nonlinear indices of refraction (10-8 cm2 W-1) and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities (10-6 esu) are determined using Z-scan experiment. CW laser beam is utilized to study the optical limiting characteristics and the results prove these materials to be a potential candidate for device applications like optical switches and power limiters.

  4. Robust test limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the

  5. Applying lessons from behavioral economics to increase flu vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Stevens, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal influenza imposes an enormous burden on society every year, yet many people refuse to obtain flu shots due to misconceptions of the flu vaccine. We argue that recent research in psychology and behavioral economics may provide the answers to why people hold mistaken beliefs about flu shots, how we can correct these misconceptions, and what policy-makers can do to increase flu vaccination rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  7. Differential local tissue permissiveness influences the final fate of GPR17-expressing oligodendrocyte precursors in two distinct models of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Giusy T; Marangon, Davide; Negri, Camilla; Menichetti, Gianluca; Fumagalli, Marta; Gelosa, Paolo; Dimou, Leda; Furlan, Roberto; Lecca, Davide; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2018-05-01

    Promoting remyelination is recognized as a novel strategy to foster repair in neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In this respect, the receptor GPR17, recently emerged as a new target for remyelination, is expressed by early oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and after a certain differentiation stage it has to be downregulated to allow progression to mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Here, we took advantage of the first inducible GPR17 reporter mouse line (GPR17-iCreER T2 xCAG-eGFP mice) allowing to follow the final fate of GPR17 + cells by tamoxifen-induced GFP-labeling to unveil the destiny of these cells in two demyelination models: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by marked immune cell activation and inflammation, and cuprizone induced demyelination, where myelin dysfunction is achieved by a toxic insult. In both models, demyelination induced a strong increase of fluorescent GFP + cells at damaged areas. However, only in the cuprizone model reacting GFP + cells terminally differentiated to mature oligodendrocytes, thus contributing to remyelination. In EAE, GFP + cells were blocked at immature stages and never became myelinating oligodendrocytes. We suggest these strikingly distinct fates be due to different permissiveness of the local CNS environment. Based on previously reported GPR17 activation by emergency signals (e.g., Stromal Derived Factor-1), we propose that a marked inflammatory milieu, such as that reproduced in EAE, induces GPR17 overactivation resulting in impaired downregulation, untimely and prolonged permanence in OPCs, leading, in turn, to differentiation blockade. Combined treatments with remyelinating agents and anti-inflammatory drugs may represent new potential adequate strategies to halt neurodegeneration and foster recovery. © 2018 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Integration of three echelon supply chain (supplier-manufacturer-distributor-drop shipper) with permissible delay in payment and penalty contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. F.; Suparno

    2018-04-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) has to be considered in the company in order to improve the sustainability and competitiveness. SCM executed to integrating any companies on the supply chain in a way of coordinating the flow of goods, information, and financial. Permissible delay in payment is one of the coordination ways with allowing the costumers delay the payments to a vendor in some certain periods without any interest charges. In the supply chain system, drop-shipping player already familiar in this era. In drop-shipping internet retailing, the supplier will hold supplies and also carry out physical distribution service on behalf of drop-shipper. Drop-shipper will just focus on selling, on the other hand, their supplier will be responsible for the physical process. Generally, drop-shipper have information of the customer demands better than the distributor. But, it is also unrare when the drop-shipper send the estimation of demands which bigger than their own estimation in order to maximize their own interest, so they hope supplies of the distributor will always enough to accommodate their demands. Contributions in this research will be focused on integration of three echelons supply chain, which are the supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and drop-shipper. With considering delay in payment on first and second echelons, and also the contract penalty on third echelon. The problem on this research will be modeled in some kind of cases which can represent the problem of real supply chain system. Sensitivity analysis will be done on certain significant variables toward the changes of total supply chain cost. Coordination with delay in payment success to integrate supply chain. Contract penalty plan success to maintain the profit of distributor and drop-shipper.

  9. Profiling of glycan receptors for minute virus of mice in permissive cell lines towards understanding the mechanism of cell recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Halder

    Full Text Available The recognition of sialic acids by two strains of minute virus of mice (MVM, MVMp (prototype and MVMi (immunosuppressive, is an essential requirement for successful infection. To understand the potential for recognition of different modifications of sialic acid by MVM, three types of capsids, virus-like particles, wild type empty (no DNA capsids, and DNA packaged virions, were screened on a sialylated glycan microarray (SGM. Both viruses demonstrated a preference for binding to 9-O-methylated sialic acid derivatives, while MVMp showed additional binding to 9-O-acetylated and 9-O-lactoylated sialic acid derivatives, indicating recognition differences. The glycans recognized contained a type-2 Galβ1-4GlcNAc motif (Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc or 3'SIA-LN and were biantennary complex-type N-glycans with the exception of one. To correlate the recognition of the 3'SIA-LN glycan motif as well as the biantennary structures to their natural expression in cell lines permissive for MVMp, MVMi, or both strains, the N- and O-glycans, and polar glycolipids present in three cell lines used for in vitro studies, A9 fibroblasts, EL4 T lymphocytes, and the SV40 transformed NB324K cells, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The cells showed an abundance of the sialylated glycan motifs recognized by the viruses in the SGM and previous glycan microarrays supporting their role in cellular recognition by MVM. Significantly, the NB324K showed fucosylation at the non-reducing end of their biantennary glycans, suggesting that recognition of these cells is possibly mediated by the Lewis X motif as in 3'SIA-Le(X identified in a previous glycan microarray screen.

  10. Increase the Government Purchase Card Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    tone, providing guidance for proper behavior , removing temptations for unethical behavior , and providing discipline when appropriate. (GAO, 2001, pp...limit would result in greater mission readiness in addition to cost savings in the acquisition process. The more autonomy allowed to the operational...with the 187 commands they oversee. 99% of cardholders, AOs, and APCs just want to do their jobs and do them well. The most difficult thing with

  11. Neural Anatomy of Primary Visual Cortex Limits Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Johanna; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense processing power of the human brain, working memory storage is severely limited, and the neuroanatomical basis of these limitations has remained elusive. Here, we show that the stable storage limits of visual working memory for over 9 s are bound by the precise gray matter volume of primary visual cortex (V1), defined by fMRI retinotopic mapping. Individuals with a bigger V1 tended to have greater visual working memory storage. This relationship was present independently for both surface size and thickness of V1 but absent in V2, V3 and for non-visual working memory measures. Additional whole-brain analyses confirmed the specificity of the relationship to V1. Our findings indicate that the size of primary visual cortex plays a critical role in limiting what we can hold in mind, acting like a gatekeeper in constraining the richness of working mental function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. New ICRP recommendations on occupational limits for radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ICRP has recommended in 1959 for the first time a maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for the occupational exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters. Since this time more realistic dosimetric models for radon daughters have been developed. Taking into account epidemiological and new dosimetric findings the ICRP has adopted in March this year new recommendations on occupational limits for inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short-lived daughters. This report will be published this year as ICRP Publication 32 (ICRP 1981). The recommended limits for radon daughters were derived from the basic dose and risk limits as they were proposed by ICRP in its new basic recommendations (ICRP Publ. 26, 1977). In the following this basic system of dose limitation is shortly outlined before the special recommendations for radon daughters are described

  13. Exploration of pH-dependent behavior of the anion receptor pocket of subdomain IIA of HSA: determination of effective pocket charge using the Debye-Hückel limiting law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolel, Priyanka; Datta, Shubhashis; Mahapatra, Niharendu; Halder, Mintu

    2014-01-09

    Protein-ligand electrostatic interaction can be looked upon as ion receptor-ligand interaction, and the binding cavity of protein can be either an anion or cation receptor depending on the charge of the guest. Here we focus on the exploration of pH-modulated binding of a number of anionic ligands, specific to the subdomain IIA cavity of HSA, such as carmoisine, tartrazine, cochineal red, and warfarin. The logarithm of the binding constant is found to vary linearly with the square-root of ionic strength, indicating applicability of the Debye-Hückel limiting law to protein-ligand electrostatic binding equilibrium, and concludes that the subdomain IIA cavity is an anion receptor. The present approach is very unique that one can calculate the effective charge of the protein-based anion receptor pocket, and the calculated charge has been found to vary between +1 and +3 depending on the pH and ligand itself. The study also indicates that in such cases of specific ligand binding the pocket charge rather than the overall or surface charge of the macromolecule seems to have a paramount role in determining the strength of interaction. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the Debye-Hückel interionic interaction model can be successfully applied to understand the protein-based receptor-ligand electrostatic interaction in general.

  14. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  15. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  16. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for phthalates (dibutylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthlate), with emphasis on endocrine disruptive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Posthumus R; Vlaardingen P van; Crommentuijn T; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    This report presents maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Phthalates are often mentioned as suspected endocrine disrupters. Data with endpoints related to the endocrine or

  17. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of...

  18. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  19. The influence of the family on premarital sexual attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A; Camburn, D

    1987-08-01

    This research has expanded our understanding of the determinants of adolescent sexuality in several directions. We have used a study of mothers and children to construct and estimate a model of the intergenerational transmission of sexual attitudes and behavior. With data collected from both mothers and children, we were able to proceed further than most past research and to consider both the attitudes and behaviors of mothers as reported by the mothers themselves. These data permitted an investigation of the determinants of maternal attitudes concerning adolescent sexuality as well as an examination of the influences of the attitudes and experiences of mothers on the attitudes, perceptions, and behavior of children. Obviously, limiting the study to white families prevents generalization of our findings to other subgroups of the population. The findings demonstrate the importance and relevance of parental and adolescent attitudes in understanding adolescent sexuality. Premarital sexuality is a salient issue to both young people and their parents. There are, however, very important and substantial differences in the attitudes of parents and children. On average, the attitudes of young people today are much less restrictive than those of their parents, reflecting either life cycle differences or the impact of social change. The intergenerational difference is recognized by young people themselves and probably affects the ability of parents to assist their maturing children in adjusting to and dealing with their sexuality--a difficulty likely to be reflected in the relative lack of success sexually active young people have in preventing pregnancy. Our findings also add to the research literature in demonstrating that although children, on average, have more permissive attitudes than their parents, the attitudes of individual parents tend to be reflected in the attitudes of individual children. Children whose mothers have less restrictive attitudes have, on average

  20. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  1. Reactor limit control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbel, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)

  2. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  3. Performance limitations at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, E.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse stability of coasting beams in the planned ISABELLE storage rings was studied. The beam--beam tune shift limitation at 0.005 can be avoided, and a computer simulation seems to show 0.005 is a pessimistic limit. For beams of reasonable smoothness on the edge, the actual limit should be somewhat higher. Some coupling effects due to the beam--beam interaction are also examined

  4. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Limit analysis via creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroco, E.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author) [pt

  6. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  7. Casimir effect: The classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, J.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the high temperature (or classical) limit of the Casimir effect. A useful quantity which arises naturally in our discussion is the 'relative Casimir energy', which we define for a configuration of disjoint conducting boundaries of arbitrary shapes, as the difference of Casimir energies between the given configuration and a configuration with the same boundaries infinitely far apart. Using path integration techniques, we show that the relative Casimir energy vanishes exponentially fast in temperature. This is consistent with a simple physical argument based on Kirchhoff's law. As a result the 'relative Casimir entropy', which we define in an obviously analogous manner, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the boundaries. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary, in the classical limit, is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations in temperature from the behavior just described. These logarithmic deviations seem to arise due to our difficulty to separate the Casimir energy (and the other thermodynamical quantities) from the 'electromagnetic' self-energy of each of the connected components of the boundary in a well defined manner. Our approach to the Casimir effect is not to impose sharp boundary conditions on the fluctuating field, but rather take into consideration its interaction with the plasma of 'charge carriers' in the boundary, with the plasma frequency playing the role of a physical UV cutoff. This also allows us to analyze deviations from a perfect conductor behavior

  8. Computer modelling of superconductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A.; Cardwell, D.A.; Storey, R.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Hancox, J. [Rolls Royce, Applied Science Division, Derby (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out on the use of superconductors for fault current limiting applications. A number of computer programs are being developed to predict the behavior of different `resistive` fault current limiter designs under a variety of fault conditions. The programs achieve solution by iterative methods based around real measured data rather than theoretical models in order to achieve accuracy at high current densities. (orig.) 5 refs.

  9. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Are Highly Permissive for Varicella-Zoster Virus Lytic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaoka, Tomohiko; Schwartz, Cindi L; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Venkatesan, Arun; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2018-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000- to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-PFU ratio in vitro than herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectious in vivo by airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV in vivo ; in neurons, the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Using neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell-free wild-type (WT) VZV, we demonstrated that neurons are nearly 100 times more permissive for WT VZV infection than very-early-passage human embryonic lung cells or MRC-5 diploid human fibroblasts, the cells used for vaccine production or virus isolation. The peak titers achieved after infection were ∼10-fold higher in human neurons than in MRC-5 cells, and the viral genome copy number-to-PFU ratio for VZV in human neurons was 500, compared with 50,000 for MRC-5 cells. Thus, VZV may not necessarily have a higher particle-to-PFU ratio than other herpesviruses; instead, the cells previously used to propagate virus in vitro may have been suboptimal. Furthermore, based on electron microscopy, neurons infected with VZV produced fewer defective or incomplete viral particles than MRC-5 cells. Our data suggest that neurons derived from hESC may have advantages compared to other cells for studies of VZV pathogenesis, for obtaining stocks of virus with high titers, and for isolating VZV from clinical specimens. IMPORTANCE Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles. Cell-free VZV has been difficult to obtain, both for in vitro studies and for vaccine production. While numerous cells lines have been tested for their ability to produce high titers of VZV, the number of total virus particles relative to the number of viral particles that can form plaques in culture has been reported to be extremely high relative to that in other viruses. We show that VZV grows to much higher titers in human

  10. Reporting unethical research behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, N S; Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Liu, H

    1999-10-01

    Scientists, as professionals, have a responsibility to self-regulate. However, whistleblowing is rare. We investigated scientists' infrequent disclosure of unethical behavior by studying their responses to scenarios describing unethical research acts and compared their responses to those of research administrators. A cross-sectional survey was administered to National Science Foundation-funded principal investigators and their institutions' representatives (IRs) to the Office of Research Integrity. Both scientists and IRs proposed to respond to nearly all research behaviors that they rated as unethical. Scientists more often proposed responses limited to the research team (58% vs. 25% of cases, p unethical behavior were not. Scientists appear to perceive that they uphold their responsibility to respond to unethical behavior by disclosures within the research team, whereas administrators propose to report to externally accountable individuals, raising the question of whether scientists' behavior constitutes professional self-regulation or cover up.

  11. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  12. Advanced limiters for ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous removal of heat and particles becomes a vital necessity in future steady-state fusion devices. The pump limiter seems to be an attractive concept to combine these two tasks. On ISX, various schemes of pump limiters are being explored with the final goal to furnish the ISX--C device with a pump limiter to handle heat removal and particle control in steady state. The emphasis of the present paper is on pump limiters based on ballistic particle collection. If this concept turns out to be successful in supplying sufficient pumping efficiency, it may be possible to design pump limiters without a leading edge. Analytical calculations of the particle collection efficiency are given for various limiter configurations. Pumping efficiencies of approximately 4--10%, depending on the specific configuration, seem to be feasible and should be sufficient for steady-state operation. Initial experimental results on pump limiter studies in ISX--B confirm the calculated collection efficiencies. By measuring the ion saturation current to the limiter blade and the pressure buildup simultaneously, we found a correlation between the incident particle flux and the pressure rise that agrees well with a simple model

  13. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  14. Mitigating greenhouse: Limited time, limited options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Most human-caused climate change comes from fossil fuel combustion emissions. To avoid the risk of serious climate change, very recent research suggests that emission reductions will need to be both large and rapidly implemented. We argue that technical solutions-improving energy efficiency, use of renewable and nuclear energy, and carbon capture and sequestration-can only be of minor importance, mainly given the limited time available to take effective climate action. Only curbing energy use, perhaps through 'social efficiency' gains, particularly in the high-energy consumption countries, can provide the rapid emissions reductions needed. The social efficiency approach requires a basic rethinking in how we can satisfy our human needs with low environmental impacts. Large cuts in emissions could then occur rapidly, but only if resistance to such changes can be overcome. Particularly in transport, there are also serious potential conflicts between the technical and the social efficiency approaches, requiring a choice to be made

  15. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  16. Moving toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.

    1983-06-01

    The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)

  17. Utility of Reference Change Values for Delta Check Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Park, Hae-Il; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2017-10-01

    To assess the utility of reference change values (RCVs) as delta check limits. A total of 1,650,518 paired results for 23 general chemistry test results from June 1, 2014, to October 31, 2016, were analyzed. The RCVs for each analyte were calculated from the analytical imprecision and within-subject biological variation. The percent differences between two consecutive results in one patient were categorized into one of four groups: outpatients, inpatients, emergency care, and general health care. For each, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values were computed and compared with their RCVs. The distributions were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Most of the estimated limits were larger than the corresponding RCVs and, furthermore, with notable differences across the groups. Patients in the emergency care group usually demonstrated larger delta percent values than those in the other groups. None of the distributions of the percent differences passed tests of normality when subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis. Comparison of estimated RCVs and real-world patient data revealed the pitfalls of applying RCVs in clinical laboratories. Laboratory managers should be aware of the limitations of RCVs and exercise caution when using them. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Child Temperament, Maternal Feeding Practices, and Parenting Styles and Their Influence on Obesogenic Behaviors in Hispanic Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innella, Nancy; McNaughton, Diane; Schoeny, Michael; Tangney, Christy; Breitenstein, Susan; Reed, Monique; Wilbur, Joellen

    2018-01-01

    Although obesogenic behaviors (physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and dietary intake) are known predictors of childhood weight status, little is known about mother and child behaviors contributing to obesogenic behaviors and obesity in Hispanic preschool children, whose obesity rate is higher than in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine relationships among child temperament, maternal behaviors (feeding practices and parenting style), child obesogenic behaviors, and child weight status in 100 Hispanic preschool children. Results showed that higher scores on the negative affectivity dimension of child temperament were associated with higher scores on the dimension of permissive parenting, and permissive parenting was associated with less time spent in sedentary behaviors ( B = -3.53, confidence interval [-7.52, -0.90]). Findings can guide school nurses in developing interventions that consider child temperament and parenting style to promote nonobesogenic behavior in Hispanic preschoolers.

  19. Diurnal Activity of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Highbush Blueberry and Behavioral Response to Irrigation and Application of Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Timmeren, Steven; Horejsi, Logan; Larson, Shadi; Spink, Katherine; Fanning, Philip; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-10-01

    Spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive vinegar fly that has become a primary direct pest of berry crops worldwide. We conducted 2 yr of behavioral studies in blueberry plantings to determine how fly activity varied throughout the day. Observations of diurnal activity of adult D. suzukii found the greatest activity in the morning hours between 0600 and 0800 hours, when the majority of flies were on the berries. Flies were also active in the evening mainly between 1800 and 2000 hours; however, this trend was more prominent in 2015, which had cooler and more humid evenings. Experiments examining the effect of irrigation on D. suzukii behavior showed that flies remained active during and after irrigation. The effect of insecticide treatments alone and in combination with irrigation revealed that treatment with spinosad had limited effects on the number of flies per bush, whereas spinetoram reduced the number flying and on the bushes in some cases. Zeta-cypermethrin caused longer and more consistent reduction in D. suzukii flying and on bushes. In all treatments, we observed surviving flies flying near and on treated bushes, indicating that these insecticides do not completely deter fly activity. Irrigation did not influence the effects of zeta-cypermethrin on fly behavior during daily observations up to 3 d after application. Our results highlight that the diurnal patterns of activity of D. suzukii on host plants are flexible and are relatively unaffected by irrigation or insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  1. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  2. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  3. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  4. MDMA enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysek, Cédric M; Schmid, Yasmin; Simmler, Linda D; Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Eisenegger, Christoph; Preller, Katrin H; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-11-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') releases serotonin and norepinephrine. MDMA is reported to produce empathogenic and prosocial feelings. It is unknown whether MDMA in fact alters empathic concern and prosocial behavior. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), dynamic Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. We also assessed effects of MDMA on plasma levels of hormones involved in social behavior using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, cross-over design in 32 healthy volunteers (16 women). MDMA enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy in the MET and increased prosocial behavior in the SVO test in men. MDMA did not alter cognitive empathy in the MET but impaired the identification of negative emotions, including fearful, angry and sad faces, in the FERT, particularly in women. MDMA increased plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin, which are markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic activity, and of oxytocin, which has been associated with prosocial behavior. In summary, MDMA sex-specifically altered the recognition of emotions, emotional empathy and prosociality. These effects likely enhance sociability when MDMA is used recreationally and may be useful when MDMA is administered in conjunction with psychotherapy in patients with social dysfunction or post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is always more effective to positively reinforce desired behaviors and to teach children alternative behaviors rather ... he is angry, but instead to express his feelings through words. It’s important for him to learn ...

  6. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment...

  7. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  8. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  9. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  10. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  11. Towards Improved Optical Limiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huffman, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... The first approach was to synthesize and study soluble thallium phthalocyanines. Thallium, due to its proximity to lead and indium on the periodic table, should exhibit favorable optical limiting properties...

  12. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  13. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  14. Limit lines for risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  15. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  16. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  18. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let S be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimen- sional split torus Gm,S on a smooth affine S-scheme X. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor Xλ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action. 'admits a limit at 0'. We show that Xλ is representable by a smooth ...

  19. Safety and design limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L. K.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Tsyganov, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues of NPP safety ensuring at the stage of fuel load design and operation by applying special limitations for a series of parameters, that is, design limits. Two following approaches are compared: the one used by west specialists for the PWR reactor and the Russian approach employed for the WWER reactor. The closeness of approaches is established, differences that are mainly peculiarities of terms are noted (Authors)

  20. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  1. Simplified method of checking the observance of maximum permissible activity of waste forms to be placed in the Konrad shaft for final waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Piefke, F.

    1986-10-01

    The requirements to be met by waste forms destined for final storage in the Konrad shaft among others define maximum permissible activity levels which have been determined from the various parts of the safety analyses. For waste forms with very low activity levels, it is suitable to compile all the very specific requirements in one checking list, and to perform the checking as simply as adequate. On the basis of the compilation of requirements defined for normal operation of the storage facility, hypothetical accidents, thermal loads affecting the host rock, and criticality safety, the maximum permissible activities are derived that are to be checked by the simplified control measures explained. The report explains the computer programs for the ANKONA code. (orig.) [de

  2. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  3. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L; Suarez, P; Alvarez, A

    2010-01-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  4. Permissive underfeeding versus target enteral feeding in adult critically ill patients (PermiT Trial: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabi Yaseen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional support is an essential part of the management of critically ill patients. However, optimal caloric intake has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to compare two strategies of enteral feeding: permissive underfeeding versus target feeding. Method/Design This is an international multi-center randomized controlled trial in critically ill medical- surgical adult patients. Using a centralized allocation, 862 patients will be randomized to permissive underfeeding or target feeding. Patients in the permissive group receive 50% (acceptable range is 40% to 60% of the calculated caloric requirement, while those in the targeted group receive 100% (acceptable range 70% to 100% of the calculated caloric requirement. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, 28-day, and 180-day mortality as well as health care-associated infections, organ failure, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The trial has 80% power to detect an 8% absolute reduction in 90-day mortality assuming a baseline risk of death of 25% at an alpha level of 0.05. Discussion Patient recruitment started in November 2009 and is currently active in five centers. The Data Monitoring Committee advised continuation of the trial after the first interim analysis. The study is expected to finish by November 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68144998

  5. Degradation behavior of limestone concrete under limited time sodium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Ramesh, S.S.; Parida, F.C.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate safety measures are taken during design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR). However, possibility of sodium leak from secondary heat transport circuits of FBR has not been completely ruled out. In the areas housing sodium pipelines such as Steam Generator Building (SGB), spilled liquid sodium not only reacts with air causing fire but also interacts with structural concrete resulting in its degradation. The structural concrete can be protected from sodium attack using sodium resistant sacrificial concrete layer or steel/refractory liners. Moreover, design and construction of sloping floor with sodium collection pit helps in minimizing the mass of sodium accumulated on the floor and exposure period. Sacrificial concrete layer on the structural concrete should meet key factors like economy, castability, easy removal of affected concrete in the event of a sodium fire and disposability of debris apart from its good resistance against hot burning sodium. Present study is directed towards testing of limestone concrete blocks (made out of 13% ordinary portland cement, 8% water, 48% coarse limestone and 31 % fine limestone aggregates)

  6. Ergodic behavior of Markov processes with applications to limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Kulik, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    The series is devoted to the publication of monographs and high-level textbooks in mathematics, mathematical methods and their applications. Apart from covering important areas of current interest, a major aim is to make topics of an interdisciplinary nature accessible to the non-specialist. The works in this series are addressed to advanced students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics. In addition, it can serve as a guide for lectures and seminars on a graduate level. The series de Gruyter Studies in Mathematics was founded ca. 30 years ago by the late Professor Heinz Bauer and Professor Peter Gabriel with the aim to establish a series of monographs and textbooks of high standard, written by scholars with an international reputation presenting current fields of research in pure and applied mathematics. While the editorial board of the Studies has changed with the years, the aspirations of the Studies are unchanged. In times of rapid growth of mathematical knowledge carefully written monogr...

  7. Conduction mechanism, impedance spectroscopic investigation and dielectric behavior of La0.5Ca0.5-xAgxMnO3 manganites with compositions below the concentration limit of silver solubility in perovskites (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, H; Smari, M; Cherif, B; Dhahri, E; Khirouni, K

    2015-06-14

    This study presents the electrical properties, complex impedance analysis and dielectrical behavior of La0.5Ca0.5-xAgxMnO3 manganites with compositions below the concentration limit of silver solubility in perovskites (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2). Transport measurements indicate that all the samples have a semiconductor-like behavior. The metal-semiconductor transition is not observed across the whole temperature range explored [80 K-700 K]. At a specific temperature, a saturation region was marked in the σ (T) curves. We obtained a maximum σdc value at ambient temperature with the introduction of 20% Ag content. Two hopping models were applied to study the conduction mechanism. We found that activation energy (Ea) related to ac-conductivity is lower than the Ea implicated in dc-conductivity. Complex impedance analysis confirms the contribution of grain boundary to conductivity and permits the attribution of grain boundary capacitance evolution to the temperature dependence of the barrier layer width. From the temperature dependence of the average normalized change (ANC), we deduce the temperature at which the available density of trapped charge states vanishes. Such a temperature is close to the temperature at which the saturation region appears in σ(T) curves. Moreover, complex impedance analysis (CIA) indicates the presence of electrical relaxation in materials. It is noteworthy that relaxation species such as defects may be responsible for electrical conduction. The dielectric behavior of La0.5Ca0.5-xAgxMnO3 manganites has a Debye-like relaxation with a sharp decrease in the real part of permittivity at a frequency where the imaginary part of permittivity (ε'') and tg δ plots versus frequency demonstrate a relaxation peak. The Debye-like relaxation is explained by Maxwell-Wagner (MW) polarization. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the Smit and Wijn theory.

  8. Force Limit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  9. Theory of limit cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yan-Qian; Lo, Chi Y

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades the theory of limit cycles, especially for quadratic differential systems, has progressed dramatically in China as well as in other countries. This monograph, updating the 1964 first edition, includes these recent developments, as revised by eight of the author's colleagues in their own areas of expertise. The first part of the book deals with limit cycles of general plane stationary systems, including their existence, nonexistence, stability, and uniqueness. The second section discusses the global topological structure of limit cycles and phase-portraits of quadratic systems. Finally, the last section collects important results that could not be included under the subject matter of the previous two sections or that have appeared in the literature very recently. The book as a whole serves as a reference for college seniors, graduate students, and researchers in mathematics and physics.

  10. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Hadron collider luminosity limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1992-01-01

    The three colliders operated to date have taught us a great deal about the behaviour of both bunched and debunched beams in storage rings. The main luminosity limitations are now well enough understood that most of them can be stronglu attenuated or eliminated by approriate design precautions. Experience with the beam-beam interaction in both the SPS and the Tevatron allow us to predict the performance of the new generation of colliders with some degree of confidence. One of the main challenges that the accelerator physicist faces is the problem of the dynamic aperture limitations due to the lower field quality expected, imposed by economic and other constraints.

  12. SLC kicker magnet limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Mattison, T.; Bowden, G.; Weaver, J.; Bulos, F.; Fiander, D.

    1991-01-01

    The SLC Damping Ring kicker magnets requires a fast magnetic field rise time of 58 nsec, a peak field of 800 gauss, a pulse amplitude stability of 0.01%, and a reasonable operational lifetime. The original kicker magnets designed by SLAC and at Fermi were not able to fulfill the SLC kicker requirements. Extensive studies were conducted to determine the limitation in the magnets, response of the ferrite in kicker magnet, and the modifications needed to improve the kicker magnet performance. The paper details the SLAC and Fermi kicker magnets limitation of performance

  13. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  14. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  15. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  16. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  17. The Copyright Agency Limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Caroline

    1993-01-01

    The evolution and functions of Australia's Copyright Agency Limited are described. The agency is a copyright collecting organization which collectively administers the rights of authors and publishers whose works are copied in education, and enters into blanket agreements with educational authorities outside the existing statutory license. Some…

  18. Occupational dose equivalent limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers methods of limiting individual radiation risks by recognizing the variation of risk with age at exposure, taking into account both somatic and genetic risks and proposes a simple formula for controlling individual cumulative exposure and hence risk. (Author)

  19. The Limits of Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    This discussion, presented at the Regent's Trustees' Conference, February 1973, reviews the limits of accountability in higher education. Managerial efficiency is suggested to assist in eliminating educational and financial waste. This, however, is the secondary concept emphasized. The primary emphasis indicates the legitimacy of the claims that a…

  20. The primatologist as a behavioral engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L

    2017-01-01

    The field of primate behavior management has had only limited success in preventing and treating abnormal behaviors, such as stereotypy and self-injury, in captive non-human primates (NHP). In contrast, applied behavior analysts have had great success in treating similar topographies of behavior in human clinical settings. By adapting and adopting the behavioral principles and methodologies commonly used by applied behavior analysts, primatologists may be able to develop more effective ways to analyze, reduce, and prevent these aberrant behaviors in NHP. This article reviews studies that have used behavior analytic techniques to successfully address problem behaviors in NHP. Additionally, relevant literature from the field of applied behavior analysis is reviewed to illustrate how adopting a theoretical framework that emphasizes the determination of the underlying operant functions of behavior could lead to new behavioral technologies and advance the field of captive primate management. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22500, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.