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Sample records for permanently influences central

  1. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

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    Shona L Kirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH, which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  2. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

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    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  3. Elastic Band Causing Exfoliation of the Upper Permanent Central Incisors

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    Monica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before.

  4. Management of avulsed permanent maxillary central incisors during endotracheal intubation

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    Ritesh R Kalaskar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion is serious injury that may encounter during endotracheal intubation and its management often presents a challenge. Replantation of the avulsed tooth can restore esthetic appearance and occlusal function shortly after the injury. The present article describes the management of air-dried maxillary permanent incisors that have been avulsed due to direct laryngoscopy during the induction of general anesthesia for tonsillectomy procedure. The replanted maxillary central incisors had maintained its function and esthetic for 1 year after replantation. Children in a mixed dentition phase are high-risk group children for traumatic dental injury during laryngoscopy; therefore, Anesthetic Departments should have local protocols to refer patients for dental treatment postoperatively in the event of trauma.

  5. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

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    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  6. The protein side of the central dogma: permanence and change.

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    Morange, Michel

    2006-01-01

    There are two facets to the central dogma proposed by Francis Crick in 1957. One concerns the relation between the sequence of nucleotides and the sequence of amino acids, the second is devoted to the relation between the sequence of amino acids and the native three-dimensional structure of proteins. 'Folding is simply a function of the order of the amino acids,' i.e. no information is required for the proper folding of a protein other than the information contained in its sequence. This protein side of the central dogma was elaborated in a scientific context in which the characteristics and functions of proteins, and the mechanisms of protein folding, were seen very differently. This context, which made the folding problem a simple one, supported the bold proposition of Francis Crick. The protein side of the central dogma was not challenged by the discovery of prions if one adopts the definition of information given by Francis Crick. It might have been challenged by the discovery that regulatory enzymes exist in different conformations, and the evidence for the existence of chaperones assisting protein folding. But it was not, and folding remains what it was for Francis Crick, 'simply a function of the order of amino acids'. But the meaning of 'function' has dramatically changed. It is no longer the result of simple physicochemical laws, but that of a long evolutionary process which has optimized protein folding. Molecular mechanistic explanations have to be allied with evolutionary explanations, in a way characteristic of present biology.

  7. Permanent Central Diabetes Insipidus as a Complication of S. pneumoniae Meningitis in the Pediatric Population.

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    Statz, Hannah; Hsu, Benson S

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare but recognized complication of meningitis. The occurrence of diabetes insidipus has been previously attributed to Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) in a handful of patients and only once within the pediatric subpopulation. We present the clinical course of a previously healthy 2-year, 8-month-old male child ultimately diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) secondary to S. pneumoniae meningitis. Permanent CDI following S. pneumoniae meningitis is unique to our case and has not been previously described. Following the case presentation, we describe the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CDI. The mechanism proposed for this clinical outcome is cerebral herniation for a sufficient duration and subsequent ischemia leading to the development of permanent CDI. Providers should be aware of CDI resulting from S. pneumoniae meningitis as prompt diagnosis and management may decrease the risk of permanent hypothalamo-pituitary axis damage. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  8. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor

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    Samir Zahedpasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth.

  9. Complications of central venous stenosis due to permanent central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis.

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    Rinat, Choni; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Becker-Cohen, Rachel; Feinstein, Sofia; Frishberg, Yaacov

    2014-11-01

    Central venous catheters are frequently used as access for hemodialysis (HD) in children. One of the known complications is central venous stenosis. Although this complication is not rare, it is often asymptomatic and therefore unacknowledged. Superior vena cava (SVC) stenosis is obviously suspected in the presence of upper body edema, but several other signs and symptoms are often unrecognized as being part of this syndrome. We describe four patients with various manifestations of central venous stenosis and SVC syndrome. These sometimes life- or organ-threatening conditions include obstructive sleep apnea, unresolving stridor, increased intracranial pressure, increased intraocular pressure, right-sided pleural effusion, protein-losing enteropathy and lymphadenopathy. The temporal relationship of these complications associated with the use of central venous catheters and documentation of venous stenosis, together with their resolution after alleviation of high venous pressure, points to a causal role. We suggest pathophysiological mechanisms for the formation of each of these complications. In patients with occlusion of the SVC, various unexpected clinical entities can be caused by high central venous pressure. As often the etiology is not obvious, a high index of suspicion is needed as in some cases prompt alleviation of the high pressure is mandatory.

  10. Revascularization of an impacted, immature dilacerated permanent maxillary central incisor associated with odontoma and a supernumerary tooth

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    Priya Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To intentionally replant an impacted immature permanent maxillary central incisor in the mixed dentition period followed by revascularization in order to achieve apical root closure. A 9-year-old boy presented with retained maxillary left primary incisors. Radiographic evaluation revealed the presence of a supernumerary tooth and an odontoma associated with an impacted permanent maxillary left central incisor, having root dilaceration. Treatment included surgical removal of mesiodens and odontoma. The impacted dilacerated permanent central incisor was removed and intentionally replanted, followed by revascularization of pulp. During the follow-up, root end closure with narrowing of canal space was observed, patient has been asymptomatic and the tooth remains vital. Revascularization of the immature reimplanted tooth showed continued root development and thickening of the lateral dentinal walls through deposition of new hard tissue and narrowing of the canal space.

  11. Nanocomposite permanent magnetic materials Nd-Fe-B type: The influence of nanocomposite on magnetic properties

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    Talijan Nadežda M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence on the magnetic properties of nanocristalline ribbons and powders has character of microstructure, between others – the grain size volume of hard and soft magnetic phases and their distribution. Magnetic properties of ribbons and powders depend mainly on their chemical composition and parameters of their heat treatment [1]. Technology of magnets from nanocristalline ribbon consists of the following process: preparing the Nd-Fe- B alloy, preparing the ribbon, powdering of the ribbon, heat treatment of the powder and finally preparing the magnets. Nanocomposite permanent magnet materials based on Nd-Fe- B alloy with Nd low content are a new type of permanent magnetic material. The microstructure of this nanocomposite permanent magnet is composed of a mixture of magnetically soft and hard phases which provide so called exchange coupling effect.

  12. Stream permanence influences crayfish occupancy and abundance in the Ozark Highlands, USA

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    Yarra, Allyson N.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Crayfish use of intermittent streams is especially important to understand in the face of global climate change. We examined the influence of stream permanence and local habitat on crayfish occupancy and species densities in the Ozark Highlands, USA. We sampled in June and July 2014 and 2015. We used a quantitative kick–seine method to sample crayfish presence and abundance at 20 stream sites with 32 surveys/site in the Upper White River drainage, and we measured associated local environmental variables each year. We modeled site occupancy and detection probabilities with the software PRESENCE, and we used multiple linear regressions to identify relationships between crayfish species densities and environmental variables. Occupancy of all crayfish species was related to stream permanence. Faxonius meeki was found exclusively in intermittent streams, whereas Faxonius neglectus and Faxonius luteushad higher occupancy and detection probability in permanent than in intermittent streams, and Faxonius williamsi was associated with intermittent streams. Estimates of detection probability ranged from 0.56 to 1, which is high relative to values found by other investigators. With the exception of F. williamsi, species densities were largely related to stream permanence rather than local habitat. Species densities did not differ by year, but total crayfish densities were significantly lower in 2015 than 2014. Increased precipitation and discharge in 2015 probably led to the lower crayfish densities observed during this year. Our study demonstrates that crayfish distribution and abundance is strongly influenced by stream permanence. Some species, including those of conservation concern (i.e., F. williamsi, F. meeki), appear dependent on intermittent streams, and conservation efforts should include consideration of intermittent streams as an important component of freshwater biodiversity.

  13. Research of influence of open-winding faults on properties of brushless permanent magnets motor

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    Bogusz, Piotr; Korkosz, Mariusz; Powrózek, Adam; Prokop, Jan; Wygonik, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents an analysis of influence of selected fault states on properties of brushless DC motor with permanent magnets. The subject of study was a BLDC motor designed by the authors for unmanned aerial vehicle hybrid drive. Four parallel branches per each phase were provided in the discussed 3-phase motor. After open-winding fault in single or few parallel branches, a further operation of the motor can be continued. Waveforms of currents, voltages and electromagnetic torque were determined in discussed fault states based on the developed mathematical and simulation models. Laboratory test results concerning an influence of open-windings faults in parallel branches on properties of BLDC motor were presented.

  14. Research of influence of open-winding faults on properties of brushless permanent magnets motor

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    Bogusz Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of influence of selected fault states on properties of brushless DC motor with permanent magnets. The subject of study was a BLDC motor designed by the authors for unmanned aerial vehicle hybrid drive. Four parallel branches per each phase were provided in the discussed 3-phase motor. After open-winding fault in single or few parallel branches, a further operation of the motor can be continued. Waveforms of currents, voltages and electromagnetic torque were determined in discussed fault states based on the developed mathematical and simulation models. Laboratory test results concerning an influence of open-windings faults in parallel branches on properties of BLDC motor were presented.

  15. Influence of the power supply parameters on the projectile energy in the permanent magnet electrodynamic accelerator

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    Waindok, Andrzej; Piekielny, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the research is to investigate, how the power supply parameters influence the kinetic energy of the movable element, called commonly a projectile or bullet. A calculation and measurement results of transient characteristics for an electrodynamic accelerator with permanent magnet support were presented in the paper. The calculations were made with using field-circuit model, which includes the parameters of the power supply, mass of the bullet and friction phenomenon. Characteristics of energy and muzzle velocity verso supply voltage (50 V to 350 V) and capacitance value (60 mF to 340.5 mF) were determined, as well. A measurement verification of selected points of calculation characteristics were carried out for investigated values of muzzle velocity. A good conformity between calculation and measurement results was obtained. Concluding, presented characteristics of the muzzle velocity and energy of the projectile vs. power supply parameters indicate, that accelerators could be used for fatigue testing of materials.

  16. Morphometric analysis of pulp size in maxillary permanent central incisors correlated with age: An indirect digital study.

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    Ravindra, S V; Mamatha, G P; Sunita, J D; Balappanavar, Aswini Y; Sardana, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Teeth are hardest part of the body and are least affected by the taphonomic process. They are considered as one of the reliable methods of identification of a person in forensic sciences. The aim of the following study is to establish morphometeric measurements by AutoCad 2009 (Autodesk, Inc) of permanent maxillary central incisors in different age groups of Udaipur population. Hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Udaipur. A study was carried out on 308 subjects of both genders with the age range of 9-68 years. Standardized intra-oral radiographs were made by paralleling technique and processed. The radiographs were scanned and the obtained images were standardized to the actual size of radiographic film. This was followed by measuring them using software AutoCad 2009. F-test, post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation test. For left maxillary central incisor, the total pulp area was found to be of 38.41 ± 12.88 mm and 14.32 ± 7.04 mm respectively. For right maxillary central incisor, the total pulp size was 38.39 ± 14.95 mm and 12.35 ± 5 mm respectively. Males (32.50, 32.87 mm(2)) had more pulp area when compared with females (28.82, 30.05 mm(2)). There was a decrease in total pulp area with increasing age which may be attributed to secondary dentin formation.

  17. Dispositifs permanents pour le suivi des forêts en Afrique Centrale : un état des lieux

    OpenAIRE

    Picard , Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    38 p.; Cette étude, réalisée dans le cadre d'une convention entre la Commission des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC) et le Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Argonomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), département Environnements et Sociétés, vise à faire un état des lieux en matière de dispositifs permanents de suivi de la dynamique forestière dans les forêts du bassin du Congo. Elle est la première étape d'une étude visant à définir un protocole de mise en place de dispositi...

  18. Retreatment of failed regenerative endodontic of orthodontically treated immature permanent maxillary central incisor: a case report

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    Musaed Fahad Al-Tammami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A revascularization procedure was shown to be the best alternative therapy for immature teeth with necrotic pulp and apical infection. A 12 year old female with a history of trauma to her upper central incisor and a sinus tract was referred for endodontic treatment. She was an active orthodontic patient and had undergone regenerative endodontic treatment for the past 2 years. Clinical examination revealed no response to sensibility, percussion, and palpation tests. The preoperative radiograph showed an open apex and apical rarefaction. The case was diagnosed as previously treated tooth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Regenerative endodontic retreatment was performed, and the case was followed for 3 years. Clinical, radiographic, and cone-beam computed tomography follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic tooth, with evidence of periapical healing and root maturation.

  19. Prevalence of dental developmental anomalies of permanent teeth in children and their influence on esthetics.

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    Fekonja, Anita

    2017-07-08

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental developmental anomalies in permanent teeth and their influence on esthetics. The records of 473 subjects, which comprised of orthopantomograms, clinical examination, and anamnestic data, were explored for dental developmental anomalies. Subjects with dental anomalies completed the modified questionnaire. Data on reasons for seeking the treatment as well as factors affecting the patients' satisfaction were collected. The data were processed using the Chi-square test. It was found that 79 subjects (16.7%) had at least 1 dental developmental anomaly. The most common anomalies were hypodontia (7.2%), followed by talon cusps (3.4%), and microdontia (2.5%). Hypodontia, microdontia, and talon cusps were found more prevalent in females than males, whereas hyperdontia and macrodontia were more common in males. The reason for dissatisfaction with their smile in most cases was due to missing teeth or spacing between anterior teeth (excess space 2.9 mm ± 1.1 mm), followed by crowding of anterior teeth (lack of space 3.1 mm ± 0.8mm), difficulty maintaining oral hygiene and midline asymmetry (1.8 mm ± 0.9 mm). All subjects were treated using a fixed orthodontic appliance and 30 (37.9%) of them had additional dental specialists included to achieve good esthetics and function. Overall, 92.4% of subjects were satisfied with their resulting appearance after treatment. Dental developmental anomalies are clinically evident abnormalities. They may be the cause of various dental problems and can influence esthetics and the development of orthodontic problems. This paper evaluates the distribution of dental developmental anomalies and their influence on esthetics and function. Careful observation and appropriate investigation are required to diagnose the condition and institute treatment. The therapeutic approach to some dental anomalies should be interdisciplinary. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High dose urokinase for restoration of patency of occluded permanent central venous catheters in hemodialysis patients.

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    Shavit, L; Lifschitz, M; Plaksin, J; Grenader, T; Slotki, I

    2010-10-01

    Catheter thrombosis is common and results in inadequate dialysis treatment and, frequently, in catheter loss. Since dialysis treatment runs on a strict schedule, occluded catheters need to be restored in a timely and cost effective manner. We present a new shortened protocol of urokinase infusion that allows hemodialysis to be performed within 90 minutes. To chronic hemodialysis patients, who developed complete catheter occlusion, urokinase was infused simultaneously through both lumens of the catheter (125,000 units to each lumen) over 90 minutes. Technical success was defined as restoring blood pump speed to at least 250 ml/min. We determined the average time from catheter placement to first clot event (primary patency PP), recurrent clot event after urokinase treatment (secondary patency SP), catheter salvage rate and cause for removal. 37 catheters developed total thrombosis and urokinase was used to restore patency one or more times (total 47 treatments). Catheter salvage rate was 97 %. The average time of PP was 152 ± 56 days (7 - 784 days). Nine patients (30%) developed recurrent occlusion and the average time of SP was 64 ± 34 days (2 - 364 days). One catheter was removed because of dysfunction due to thrombosis. Other catheters were removed due to infection, fistula maturation or fell out spontaneously. Hemodialysis was performed immediately after treatment with blood speed of 250 ml/min in all patients. Our protocol is highly effective, short, and allows to restore patency of totally occluded central venous catheters with minimal disruption of the dialysis session.

  1. Influence of End-Effects on Static Torque Performance of Misaligned Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Hansen, Hilary; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    Permanent magnet couplings are widely used in applications requiring torque to be transmitted through an air- gap. The aim of this study is to observe and explain the effect of radial and axial misalignment in a 12-pole, cylindrical permanent magnet coupling. Pull-out torque was measured for two...

  2. Influence of different rotor magnetic circuit structure on the performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor

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    Qiu Hongbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the performance difference of the permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with different rotor structure, two kinds of rotor magnetic circuit structure with surface-mounted radial excitation and tangential excitation are designed respectively. By comparing and analyzing the results, the difference of the motor performance was determined. Firstly, based on the finite element method (FEM, the motor electromagnetic field performance was studied, and the magnetic field distribution of the different magnetic circuit structure was obtained. The influence mechanism of the different magnetic circuit structure on the air gap flux density was obtained by using the Fourier theory. Secondly, the cogging torque, output torque and overload capacity of the PMSM with different rotor structure were studied. The effect mechanism of the different rotor structure on the motor output property difference was obtained. The motor prototype with two kinds of rotor structure was manufactured, and the experimental study was carried out. By comparing the experimental data and simulation data, the correctness of the research is verified. This paper lays a foundation for the research on the performance of the PMSM with different magnetic circuit structure.

  3. Influence of the power supply parameters on the projectile energy in the permanent magnet electrodynamic accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waindok Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to investigate, how the power supply parameters influence the kinetic energy of the movable element, called commonly a projectile or bullet. A calculation and measurement results of transient characteristics for an electrodynamic accelerator with permanent magnet support were presented in the paper. The calculations were made with using field-circuit model, which includes the parameters of the power supply, mass of the bullet and friction phenomenon. Characteristics of energy and muzzle velocity verso supply voltage (50 V to 350 V and capacitance value (60 mF to 340.5 mF were determined, as well. A measurement verification of selected points of calculation characteristics were carried out for investigated values of muzzle velocity. A good conformity between calculation and measurement results was obtained. Concluding, presented characteristics of the muzzle velocity and energy of the projectile vs. power supply parameters indicate, that accelerators could be used for fatigue testing of materials.

  4. Influence of water vapour and permanent gases on the atmospheric optical depths and transmittance

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    Badescu, V.

    1991-05-01

    The influence of the atmospheric state on the extinction of direct solar radiation has been studied by using a four layer atmospheric model. Simple analytical formulae are established for the spectral optical depths of permanent gases and water vapour. These formulae use the ground level values of air pressure, temperature and relative huniidity. An additional parameter, related to the vertical distribution of the hunmidity content, is used for a better estimation of the water vapour optical depth. Good agreement between theory and measurements is found. The paper shows the dependence of the atmospheric spectral transmittance on the above mentioned parameters. L'influence de l'état atmosphérique sur l'extinction de la radiation solaire directe a été étudiée à l'aide d'un modèle atmosphérique développé antérieurement par l'auteur. Des formules simples ont été établies pour l'épaisseur optique spectrale des gaz et de la vapeur d'eau. Ces formules utilisent les valeurs de la pression atmosphérique, de la température et de l'humidité relative, mesurées au niveau du sol. Un paramètre supplémentaire, lié à la distribution verticale du contenu d'humidité, est utilisé pour calculer l'épaisseur optique due à la vapeur d'eau. La théorie est en bon accord avec les résultats des mesures. Le travail montre la dépendance de la transmittance atmosphérique spectrale en fonction des paramètres spécifiés ci-dessus.

  5. Language ability in children with permanent hearing impairment: the influence of early management and family participation.

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    Watkin, Peter; McCann, Donna; Law, Catherine; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Stevenson, Jim; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin

    2007-09-01

    The goal was to examine the relationships between management after confirmation, family participation, and speech and language outcomes in the same group of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment. Speech, oral language, and nonverbal abilities, expressed as z scores and adjusted in a regression model, and Family Participation Rating Scale scores were assessed at a mean age of 7.9 years for 120 children with bilateral permanent childhood hearing impairment from a 1992-1997 United Kingdom birth cohort. Ages at institution of management and hearing aid fitting were obtained retrospectively from case notes. Compared with children managed later (> 9 months), those managed early (early did not have significantly higher scores for these outcomes. Family Participation Rating Scale scores showed significant positive correlations with language and speech intelligibility scores only for those with confirmation after 9 months and were highest for those with late confirmed, severe/profound, permanent childhood hearing impairment. Early management of permanent childhood hearing impairment results in improved language. Family participation is also an important factor in cases that are confirmed late, especially for children with severe or profound permanent childhood hearing impairment.

  6. Influence of arm movement on central tip location of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Bairbre; Amaral, Joao; Walsh, Sharon; Temple, Michael; Chait, Peter; Stephens, Derek

    2006-01-01

    PICCs are increasingly employed in children. Some of their risks relate to the location of the central tip. Despite care when placing lines, they sometimes move. To evaluate the influence of arm movement on the central tip location of PICCs placed in children. The central tip location of PICCs was studied in 85 children, with the arm placed in six positions. The variables of side, vein, site and arm position were examined to measure the direction and range of tip movement. The side, site or vein used did not influence the range of movement of the central tip. Change in position of the arm had a significant influence on the central tip location, moving it an average of 2.2 rib spaces, a maximum of 3.5 ribs. Elbow bending and adduction of the arm caused the central tip to move deeper into the chest, compared to when the arm was straight and abducted 90 . Arm position is the significant variable influencing PICC movement. Side, site and vein do not influence the range of movement significantly. Most PICCs descend deeper into the chest with arm adduction and elbow bending. (orig.)

  7. Demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Batu town, Central Ethiopia.

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    Haile, Anley; Fantahun, Mesganaw

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a high unsatisfied demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among women of age group 18-49 years in Batu town, East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six service delivery points from March to April 2009 on 398 women of age 18-49 years old. Thirteen (3%) were using long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and 89 (22.4%) wanted no more child in the future making the total demand of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods 24.4%. Older age group, multiparty, that the provider asked about reproductive intention, and the provider explained side effects of method selected were significantly associated with using LA and MPs (P demand and several socio demographic and family planning service quality related factors were associated with demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods indicating that multi-dimensional measures are needed to improve the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods.

  8. Influence of source batch Sk dispersion on dosimetry for prostate cancer treatment with permanent implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez-Cumplido, Eduardo; Perez-Calatayud, J; Casares-Magaz, O

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In clinical practice, specific air kerma strength (SK) value is used in treatment planning system (TPS) permanent brachytherapy implant calculations with (125)I and (103)Pd sources; in fact, commercial TPS provide only one SK input value for all implanted sources and the certified shipment...

  9. Career Development Influences of International Students Who Pursue Permanent Immigration to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy; Flynn, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This research focused on the career decision and planning needs of a unique group of migrants: international students who are completing their studies as temporary immigrants and who are embarking on the career journey of employment and permanent immigration. A semi-structured interview employing a Critical Incident Technique was used to assess…

  10. The influence of premature loss of temporary upper molars on permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Zetu, Irina Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Premature loss of primary molars due to dental caries and their complications has been associated with space loss and eruptive difficulties, especially when the loss occurs early. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary upper molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first and second upper permanent molar. The study group included 64 patients 6-9 years old with premature loss of primary molars and a control group of 48 patients with intact temporary teeth. It was evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first and second upper permanent molars and occlusal plane. The sofware used is Easy Dent 4 Viewer®.The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 20.0; SPSS, Chicago, III). It was observed that premature loss of upper second deciduous molars modifies greater the vertical axis of the permanent molars than the premature loss of first upper primary molar. First upper primary molar loss cause an acceleration eruption of first premolar, which will produce a distal inclintion of the both permanent molars. The use of space maintainers after premature loss of the second upper temporary molar is a last solution in preventing tridimensional lesions in the dental arch and occlusion.

  11. Influence of {gamma} and neutron irradiation on the magnetic properties of Nd Fe B, Alnico, and Mn Al type permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, S; Setnescu, R; Kappel, W; Alexandru, St [Institute of Research and Design for Electrical Engineering, ICPE - Electrostatica, Splaiul Unirii 313, Sect. 3, R-74204 Bucharest (Romania)

    1996-12-31

    The influence of {gamma} and neutron irradiation on the magnetic properties of Nd Fe B, Alnico and Mn Al type permanent magnets was studied. With the used neutron energies and fluences, no changes in remanent induction values for Nd Fe B type permanent magnets are shown. For Alnico type permanent magnets the remanent induction changes are due to reversible variation of the magnetization directions. Only in case of Mn Al type permanent magnets irreversible structural changes take place, which lead to irreversible losses of induction. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs. (author).

  12. Influence of γ and neutron irradiation on the magnetic properties of Nd Fe B, Alnico, and Mn Al type permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, S.; Setnescu, R.; Kappel, W.; Alexandru, St.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of γ and neutron irradiation on the magnetic properties of Nd Fe B, Alnico and Mn Al type permanent magnets was studied. With the used neutron energies and fluences, no changes in remanent induction values for Nd Fe B type permanent magnets are shown. For Alnico type permanent magnets the remanent induction changes are due to reversible variation of the magnetization directions. Only in case of Mn Al type permanent magnets irreversible structural changes take place, which lead to irreversible losses of induction. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs. (author)

  13. Numerical simulation of permanent magnet method: Influence of experimental conditions on accuracy of j{sub C}-distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, T., E-mail: takayama@yz.yamagata-u.ac.j [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kamitani, A.; Tanaka, A. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Influence of the magnet position on the determination of the distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) thin film has been investigated numerically. For this purpose, a numerical code has been developed for analyzing the shielding current density in a HTS sample. By using the code, the permanent magnet method is reproduced. The results of computations show that, even if the center of the permanent magnet is located near the film edge, the maximum repulsive force is roughly proportional to the critical current density. This means that the distribution of the critical current density in the HTS film can be estimated from the proportionality constants determined by using the relations between the maximum repulsive force and the critical current density.

  14. Influence of Temperature Upon Permanent Deformation Parameters of Asphalt Concrete Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hamad Albayati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of asphalt concrete pavement has affected by many factors, the temperature is the most important environmental one which has a large effect on the structural behavior of flexible pavement materials. The main cause of premature failure of pavement is the rutting, Due to the viscoelastic nature of the asphalt cement, rutting is more pronounced in hot climate areas because the viscosity of the asphalt binder which is inversely related to rutting is significantly reduced with the increase in temperature resulting in a more rut susceptible paving mixtures. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of temperatures variations on the permanent deformation parameters (permanent strain (p, intercept (a, slope (b, Alpha and Mu as well as resilient strain (r and resilient modulus (Mr. To achieve this objective, one aggregate gradation with 12.5mm nominal maximum size, two grades of asphalt cements (40-50 and 60-70 brought form Al- Daurah refinery, limestone dust filler has been used to prepare the asphalt concrete mixtures. 30 Marshall specimens were prepared to determine the optimum asphalt cement content. Thereafter, 30 cylindrical asphalt concrete specimens (102mm in diameter and 203 mm in height are prepared in optimum asphalt cement and optimum ±0.5 percent. The prepared specimens were used in uniaxial repeated load test to evaluate the permanent deformation parameters of asphalt concrete mixes under the following testing temperature (5, 15, 25, 40 and 60c. The test result analyses appeared that Mr is decrease 51 percent when temperature increased from 5 c to 25 c and then decrease 22 percent with further increase in temperature from 25 c to 60 c. Also, the Alpha value decreases by a factor of 1.25 and 1.13 when temperature increases from 5 c to 25 c and 25 c to 60 c, espectively. Finally, statistical models were developed to predict the Alpha and Mu parameters of permanent deformation.

  15. Influence of damping coefficient from permanent magnets on chatter formation during end milling of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, S A; Amin, A N

    2015-01-01

    In machining operations, chatter is undesirable due to its adverse effects on the product quality, operation cost, machining accuracy and machine tool life. It is also responsible for reducing output. Chatter is a self-excitation phenomenon occurring in machine tools, in which the cutting process tends to lower the damping capacity of the machine structural components ending in an unstable behavior of the system. Chatter arises due to resonance when the vibrations of the instability of chip formation and the natural vibration modes of the machine-system components coincide. This paper focuses on the influence of damping coefficient from permanent magnets on chip serration frequency as an approach of minimizing chatter in end milling of Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). The method consists of two ferrite permanent magnet bars (dimensions: 1' × 6' × 3'), mounted 5mm from the cutting tool using a specially designed fixture which provided a uniform magnetic field of 2500-2700 Gausses. A titanium alloy Ti6Al4V block was then end milled using uncoated WC-Co inserts. A sequence of 15 experimental runs was conducted based on a small Central Composite Design (CCD) model in Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The primary (independent) parameters were: cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. The data acquisition system comprised a vibration sensor (accelerometer) and a signal conditioning unit was used to measure the vibration data. The resultant vibrations were then analyzed using the DASYLab 5.6 software. Machining tests were conducted for two different conditions - with and without the application of magnets. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to measure the chip segmentations. The SEM analysis of chip serrations demonstrated that the chip serration frequency were more stable while cutting under the presence of permanent magnets due to lower intensity of chatter. (paper)

  16. Influence of damping coefficient from permanent magnets on chatter formation during end milling of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S. A.; Amin, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    In machining operations, chatter is undesirable due to its adverse effects on the product quality, operation cost, machining accuracy and machine tool life. It is also responsible for reducing output. Chatter is a self-excitation phenomenon occurring in machine tools, in which the cutting process tends to lower the damping capacity of the machine structural components ending in an unstable behavior of the system. Chatter arises due to resonance when the vibrations of the instability of chip formation and the natural vibration modes of the machine-system components coincide. This paper focuses on the influence of damping coefficient from permanent magnets on chip serration frequency as an approach of minimizing chatter in end milling of Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). The method consists of two ferrite permanent magnet bars (dimensions: 1" × 6" × 3"), mounted 5mm from the cutting tool using a specially designed fixture which provided a uniform magnetic field of 2500-2700 Gausses. A titanium alloy Ti6Al4V block was then end milled using uncoated WC-Co inserts. A sequence of 15 experimental runs was conducted based on a small Central Composite Design (CCD) model in Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The primary (independent) parameters were: cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. The data acquisition system comprised a vibration sensor (accelerometer) and a signal conditioning unit was used to measure the vibration data. The resultant vibrations were then analyzed using the DASYLab 5.6 software. Machining tests were conducted for two different conditions - with and without the application of magnets. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to measure the chip segmentations. The SEM analysis of chip serrations demonstrated that the chip serration frequency were more stable while cutting under the presence of permanent magnets due to lower intensity of chatter.

  17. Influence of repeated permanent coloring and bleaching on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair from alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Dom, Geert; Cappelle, Delphine; Maudens, Kristof E; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of alcohol, is used as a sensitive marker in hair to detect the retrospective consumption of alcohol. The proximal 0-3 cm hair segment is often used for analysis, providing information on alcohol consumption over the past 3 months. Using more distal segments would allow the detection of alcohol consumption over longer time periods, thereby addressing the chronicity of the consumption. In view of this, permanent coloring and bleaching were shown in vitro to alter EtG concentrations in hair, but no in vivo studies are available to prove or disprove this. To investigate the influence of repeated bleaching and permanent coloring on EtG concentrations in vivo and to assess the stability of EtG concentrations in distal compared to proximal hair segments. Hair samples from alcohol-dependent patients with uncolored/unbleached (N=4), permanent coloration (N=5) and bleached hair (N=5) were analyzed in two to six 3 cm long segments for EtG concentrations, and alcohol consumption and hair cosmetic treatments were assessed. We observed that hair bleaching and permanent coloring reduces EtG concentrations by 82±11% and 65±24%, respectively, with correlations between the number of cosmetic treatments and the decrease in EtG concentrations. EtG remained stable in untreated hair samples up to 18 cm. EtG is a sensitive marker to assess chronic alcohol consumption up to 18 months in alcohol-dependent patients with no cosmetic hair treatments. However, in alcohol-dependent patients who color or bleach their hair, care should be taken when interpreting EtG measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Communication dated 30 May 2014 received from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 30 May 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan, HE Mr Islam Karimov, on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia. The note verbale and its attachment are circulated herewith for information, as requested by the Permanent Mission

  19. Research on the influence of driving harmonic on electromagnetic field and temperature field of permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the drivers with different control methods are used in most of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM. A current outputted by a driver contains a large number of harmonics that will cause the PMSM torque ripple, winding heating and rotor temperature rise too large and so on. In this paper, in order to determine the influence of the current harmonics on the motor performance, different harmonic currents were injected into the motor armature. Firstly, in order to study the influence of the current harmonic on the motor magnetic field, a novel decoupling method of the motor magnetic field was proposed. On this basis, the difference of harmonic content in an air gap magnetic field was studied, and the influence of a harmonic current on the air gap flux density was obtained. Secondly, by comparing the fluctuation of the motor torque in the fundamental and different harmonic currents, the influence of harmonic on a motor torque ripple was determined. Then, the influence of different current harmonics on the eddy current loss of the motor was compared and analyzed, and the influence of the drive harmonic on the eddy current loss was obtained. Finally, by using a finite element method (FEM, the motor temperature distribution with different harmonics was obtained.

  20. The Question of Decalage Between Object Permanence and Person Permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Jackson, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    Presents a study of decalage between object permanence and person permanence. Decalage was influenced by environmental as well as stimulus factors with infants tested between 6- and 81/4-months/of-age. (BD)

  1. The effect of semi-permanent eddies on the distribution of mesozooplankton in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.

    Five locations in the central Bay of Bengal (BoB) along a longitudinal transect at 88E were sampled during the Fall Intermonsoon, 2002 for mesozooplankton biomass, abundance, groups and copepod species composition. Stations at 9N and 18N had...

  2. A rare case of dilated invaginated odontome with talon cusp in a permanent maxillary central incisor diagnosed by cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya, Ranganathan; Kumar, Rangarajan Sundaresan Mohan; Srinivasan, Ramasamy [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Priyadarshini Dental College and Hospital, Chennai (India)

    2013-09-15

    It has been a challenge to establish the accurate diagnosis of developmental tooth anomalies based on periapical radiographs. Recently, three-dimensional imaging by cone beam computed tomography has provided useful information to investigate the complex anatomy of and establish the proper management for tooth anomalies. The most severe variant of dens invaginatus, known as dilated odontome, is a rare occurrence, and the cone beam computed tomographic findings of this anomaly have never been reported for an erupted permanent maxillary central incisor. The occurrence of talon cusp occurring along with dens invaginatus is also unusual. The aim of this report was to show the importance of cone beam computed tomography in contributing to the accurate diagnosis and evaluation of the complex anatomy of this rare anomaly.

  3. A rare case of dilated invaginated odontome with talon cusp in a permanent maxillary central incisor diagnosed by cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaya, Ranganathan; Kumar, Rangarajan Sundaresan Mohan; Srinivasan, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    It has been a challenge to establish the accurate diagnosis of developmental tooth anomalies based on periapical radiographs. Recently, three-dimensional imaging by cone beam computed tomography has provided useful information to investigate the complex anatomy of and establish the proper management for tooth anomalies. The most severe variant of dens invaginatus, known as dilated odontome, is a rare occurrence, and the cone beam computed tomographic findings of this anomaly have never been reported for an erupted permanent maxillary central incisor. The occurrence of talon cusp occurring along with dens invaginatus is also unusual. The aim of this report was to show the importance of cone beam computed tomography in contributing to the accurate diagnosis and evaluation of the complex anatomy of this rare anomaly.

  4. [The influence of occlusal interferences on pulp vitality threshold in permanent dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejne, Arletta Julita

    2003-01-01

    Examination of pulp vitality is a valuable aid in diagnosis and treatment and thus has been in use for a long time. Numerous factors influencing the pain threshold have been found including occlusal interferences. The effect of EOI (Experimental Occlusal Interferences) has been described, while the effect of primary occlusal interference awaits further investigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of malocclusion (primary occlusal interference) on pulp vitality. At first, the pattern of bite forces in normal occlusion was established. For this purpose, 20 individuals were examined. The following results were found: (a) Bite forces on the right and left side are symmetrical; (b) Total bite forces are distributed as follows: (I) upper half arch: medial incisor 6.3%, lateral incisor 2.9%, canine 3.6%, first premolar 10.4%, second premolar 11.7%, first molar 29.4%, second molar 23.8%; (II) lower half arch: medial incisor 4.1%, lateral incisor 4%, canine 4.8%, first premolar 9%, second premolar 15.1%, first molar 27.3%, second molar 29.7% (Fig. 4). Next, 83 patients with unilateral malocclusion were subjected to clinical examination (orthodontic diagnosis) and measurement of bite forces (with T-Scan system). A computer program was used to establish bite forces (in %) for each tooth. 576 teeth were divided into 9 groups in accordance with the orthodontic diagnosis as follows: class II tendency (n = 126), cross-bite (n = 50), rotated (n = 30), scissors bite (n = 23), class III tendency (n = 19), class II (n = 16), open bite (n = 15), class III (n = 9), normal occlusion (n = 288). Each tooth in malocclusion was assigned a contralateral "control" tooth (Fig. 5). Bite forces acting on teeth in malocclusion were compared with control teeth using Student's t-test (Fig. 6). There is no difference between bite forces of teeth in normal occlusion and malocclusion on the opposite side of dental arches in the same patient, the only exceptions being open and

  5. Modeling Social Influence via Combined Centralized and Distributed Planning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, James; Guest, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Real world events are driven by a mixture of both centralized and distributed control of individual agents based on their situational context and internal make up. For example, some people have partial allegiances to multiple, contradictory authorities, as well as to their own goals and principles. This can create a cognitive dissonance that can be exploited by an appropriately directed psychological influence operation (PSYOP). An Autonomous Dynamic Planning and Execution (ADP&E) approach is proposed for modeling both the unperturbed context as well as its reaction to various PSYOP interventions. As an illustrative example, the unrest surrounding the Iranian elections in the summer of 2009 is described in terms applicable to an ADP&E modeling approach. Aspects of the ADP&E modeling process are discussed to illustrate its application and advantages for this example.

  6. Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM machine used for electric vehicles (EVs. Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of different rotor teeth shapes on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by the 2-D finite-element method (FEM. Then, the performance of FSPMs with different rotor teeth shapes are compared and evaluated comprehensively from the points of view of cogging torque, torque ripple, electromagnetic torque, flux linkage, back electromotive force (EMF, and so on. The results show that the presented rotor teeth shapes, especially the combination of stepped and notched teeth, can greatly reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple with only slight changes in the average electromagnetic torque.

  7. Transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of the PACAP38 influenced ischemic brain in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Motohide

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is considered to be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia is a most common cause of death after heart attack and cancer causing major negative social and economic consequences. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PACAP38 injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO along with corresponding SHAM control that used 0.9% saline injection. Methods Ischemic and non-ischemic brain tissues were sampled at 6 and 24 hours post-treatment. Following behavioral analyses to confirm whether the ischemia has occurred, we investigated the genome-wide changes in gene and protein expression using DNA microarray chip (4x44K, Agilent and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were also used to further examine the identified protein factor. Results Our results revealed numerous changes in the transcriptome of ischemic hemisphere (ipsilateral treated with PACAP38 compared to the saline-injected SHAM control hemisphere (contralateral. Previously known (such as the interleukin family and novel (Gabra6, Crtam genes were identified under PACAP influence. In parallel, 2-DGE analysis revealed a highly expressed protein spot in the ischemic hemisphere that was identified as dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DPYL2. The DPYL2, also known as Crmp2, is a marker for the axonal growth and nerve development. Interestingly, PACAP treatment slightly increased its abundance (by 2-DGE and immunostaining at 6 h but not at 24 h in the ischemic hemisphere, suggesting PACAP activates neuronal defense mechanism early on. Conclusions This study provides a detailed inventory of PACAP influenced gene expressions

  8. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  9. The influence of permanently submerged macrophytes on sediment mercury distribution, mobility and methylation potential in a brackish Norwegian fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Marianne; Schaanning, Morten Thorne; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Eek, Espen; Moy, Frithjof E; Lydersen, Espen

    2018-01-01

    Macrophytes are shown to affect the microbial activity in different aqueous environments, with an altering of the sediment cycling of mercury (Hg) as a potential effect. Here, we investigated how a meadow with permanently submerged macrophytes in a contaminated brackish fjord in southern Norway influenced the conditions for sulfate reducing microbial activity, the methyl-Hg (MeHg) production and the availability of MeHg. Historically discharged Hg from a chlor-alkali plant (60-80tons, 1947-1987) was evident through high Hg concentrations (491mgTot-Hgkg -1 , 268μgMeHgkg -1 ) in intermediate sediment depths (10-20cm) outside of the meadow, with reduced concentrations within the meadow. Natural recovery of the fjord was revealed by lower sediment surface concentrations (1.9-15.5mgTot-Hgkg -1 , 1.3-3.2μgMeHgkg -1 ). Within the meadow, vertical gradients of sediment hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) E h and pH suggested microbial sulfate reduction in 2-5cm depths, coinciding with peak values of relative MeHg levels (0.5% MeHg). We assume that MeHg production rates was stimulated by the supply and availability of organic carbon, microbial activity and a sulfide oxidizing agent (e.g. O 2 ) within the rhizosphere. Following this, % MeHg in sediment (0-5cm) within the meadow was approximately 10× higher compared to outside the meadow. Further, enhanced availability of MeHg within the meadow was demonstrated by significantly higher fluxes (p<0.01) from sediment to overlying water (0.1-0.6ngm -2 d -1 ) compared to sediment without macrophytes (0.02-0.2ngm -2 d -1 ). Considering the productivity and species richness typical for such habitats, submerged macrophyte meadows located within legacy Hg contaminated sediment sites may constitute important entry points for MeHg into food webs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of the inverter switching frequency on rotor losses in high-speed permanent magnet machines : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merdzan, M.; Paulides, J. J H; Borisavljevic, A.; Lomonova, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic content of the output voltage of pulse width modulated voltage source inverters (PWM VSI) is determined by the switching frequency. On the other hand, rotor losses in high-speed permanent magnet (PM) machines are caused, among other factors, by harmonics in stator currents. These harmonics

  11. Perceptions of nonsurgical permanent contraception among potential users, providers, and influencers in Wardha district and New Delhi, India: Exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengst, Jennifer C; Harrington, Elizabeth K; Bahulekar, Pramod; Shivkumar, Poonam; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Garg, B S

    2017-01-01

    New permanent contraceptive methods are in development, including nonsurgical permanent contraception (NSPC). In the present study, perceptions of NSPC in India among married women, married men, mothers-in-law, providers, and health advocates in Eastern Maharashtra (Wardha district) and New Delhi were examined. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 married women and 20 mothers-in-law; surveys with 150 married men; and focus group discussions with obstetrics/gynecology providers and advocates. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach, where emerging themes are analyzed during the data collection period. The majority of female respondents expressed support of permanent contraception and interest in NSPC, stating the importance of avoiding surgery and minimizing recovery time. They expressed concerns about safety and efficacy; many felt that a confirmation test would be necessary regardless of the failure rate. Most male respondents were supportive of female permanent contraception (PC) and preferred NSPC to a surgical method, as long as it was safe and effective. Providers were interested in NSPC yet had specific concerns about safety, efficacy, cost, uptake, and government pressure. They also had concerns that a nonsurgical approach could undermine the inherent seriousness of choosing PC. Advocates were interested in NSPC but had concerns about safety and potential misuse in the Indian context. Although perceptions of NSPC were varied, all study populations indicated interest in NSPC. Concerns about safety, efficacy, appropriate patient counseling, and ethics emerged from the present study and should be considered as NSPC methods continue to be developed.

  12. Permanent education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardien, S.; Kirsch, R.

    1998-01-01

    The permanent education of the IPN-Lyon inscribes itself completely in the priorities of the tri-annual plan of education of CNRS. These priorities contribute to evolution of research, evaluation of the professions, integration during the professional carriers of the personnel and form the frame for new management practice implementation

  13. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Baltic Sea: seasonal phenology and hydrographic influence on spatio-temporal distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, M.; Haslob, H.; Huwer, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    In the Western Baltic, the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was recorded for the first time in autumn 2006. An eastward propagation of the ctenophore into the central Baltic, and thus into important spawning grounds of major Baltic fish stocks, was observed in 2007. The focus of the present...... distribution was mostly confined to water layers below the permanent halocline and significantly influenced by ambient temperature. Our results indicate that there is no self-sustaining population of M. leidyi in the central Baltic Sea. Instead, the species is most likely re-introduced into the Bornholm Basin...... every year via lateral advection from source populations in the Western Baltic. These findings are important not only to further assess the potential impact of M. leidyi on the pelagic ecosystem of the central Baltic Sea, but also for a better understanding of the mechanisms of its invasion into other...

  14. Communication for Influence : Building ICTD Networks in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to help achieve universal affordable access to broadband information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure in a number of countries on the East and West coasts of Africa. It will do so by building regional ICT for development (ICTD) research and advocacy networks in Central, East and West ...

  15. Influence of Hydrated Lime on the Properties and Permanent Deformation of the Asphalt Concrete Layers in Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tameemi Ahmed F.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or asphalt concrete pavement is the paving system most widely adopted all over the world. It has been recognized that there are many different types of the factors affecting the performance and durability of asphalt concrete pavement, including the service conditions, such as: the variation of temperature from mild to extremes and the repeated excessive axle loading as well as the inadequate quality of the raw materials. All of these when combined together are going to accelerate the occurrence of distresses in flexible pavement such as permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. As the result, there has an urgent need to enhance the ability of asphalt concrete mixture to resist distresses happened in pavement. Use of additives is one of the techniques adopted to improve pavement properties. It has been found that hydrated lime might be one of the effective additives because it is widely available and relatively cheap compared to other modifiers like polymers. This paper presents an experimental study of the hydrated-lime modified asphalt concrete mixtures. Five different percentages of the hydrated lime additive were investigated, namely (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 percent. The hydrated lime additive was used as partial replacement of limestone filler by total weight of the aggregate. The designed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA concretes are for the application of three pavement courses, i.e. Surface, Leveling and Base. These mixtures are designed and tested following Marshall procedure and uniaxial repeated loading to evaluate permanent deformation at different temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C. The experimental results show that the addition of hydrated lime as a partial replacement of ordinary limestone mineral filler results a significant improvement on mechanical properties and the resistant to permanent deformation of the designed asphalt concrete mixtures.

  16. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  17. Central carbon metabolism influences cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Liu, S; Li, Y; Wang, H; Xiao, S; Li, C; Liu, B

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis that can produce cellulase including endo glucanase and glucosidase is an important industrial microbe for cellulose degradation. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of endo glucanase gene bglC and glucosidase gene bglH on the central metabolic flux in B. licheniformis. bglC and bglH were knocked out using homologous recombination method, respectively, and the corresponding knockout strains were obtained for 13 C metabolic flux analysis. A significant change was observed in metabolic fluxes after 13 C metabolic flux ratio analysis. In both of the knockout strains, the increased fluxes of the pentose phosphate pathway and malic enzyme reaction enabled an elevated supply of NADPH which provided enough reducing power for the in vivo synthesis reactions. The fluxes through tricarboxylic acid cycle and anaplerotic reactions increased fast in the two knockout strains, which meant more energy generated. The changed fluxes in central carbon metabolism provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis and possible targets for further strain engineering. Cellulase is very important in the field of agriculture and bioenergy because of its degrading effect on cellulosic biomass. This study presented the effect of central carbon metabolism on cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis. The study also provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis. The shifted metabolism provided a quantitative evaluation of the biosynthesis of cellulase and a priority ranked target list for further strain engineering. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  19. Influence of oculomotor nerve afferents on central endings of primary trigeminal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, E; Bortolami, R; Pettorossi, V E; Lucchi, M L; Callegari, E; Draicchio, F

    1987-12-01

    Painful fibers running in the third nerve and originating from the ophthalmic trigeminal area send their central projections at level of substantia gelatinosa of nucleus caudalis trigemini. The central endings of these fibers form axoaxonic synapses with trigeminal fibers entering the brain stem through the trigeminal root. The effect of electrical stimulation of the third nerve central stump on the central endings of trigeminal afferent fibers consists in an increased excitability, possibly resulting in a presynaptic inhibition. This inhibitory influence is due to both direct and indirect connections of the third nerve afferent fibers with the trigeminal ones.

  20. Sustaining Rural Afghanistan under Limited Central Government Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Groninger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Land and water access insecurity, land grabbing, and unstable common property status of critical local resources continue to drive conflicts, rural landlessness and environmental problems throughout many areas of Afghanistan where formal government is weak or entirely absent.  In contrast to traditional development strategies that favor infrastructure enhancement and backed by enforced national policies, we offer Afghan-specific strategies based on resource conservation and increased capacity of local resource management institutions that can function when and where central government cannot be relied upon to assume or maintain a supportive role. Resource conservation and building local capacity are key components of existing and proposed future efforts to increase stability. However, support for these efforts, whether government or community-based, has been limited in portions of rural Afghanistan , apparently due to low stakeholder confidence in retaining access to improved land, water and other critical resources when international forces withdraw. Powerful individuals and groups, operating outside local community structures, are increasingly impacting land use practices. We suggest a thorough assessment of the present and likely future social environment, including awareness of likely conflicts resulting from agricultural or natural resource improvements, before any tangible actions are taken.

  1. River runoff influences on the Central Mediterranean overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Ciliberti, S. A.; Coppini, G.

    2018-03-01

    The role of riverine freshwater inflow on the Central Mediterranean Overturning Circulation (CMOC) was studied using a high-resolution ocean model with a complete distribution of rivers in the Adriatic and Ionian catchment areas. The impact of river runoff on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea basins was assessed by a twin experiment, with and without runoff, from 1999 to 2012. This study tries to show the connection between the Adriatic as a marginal sea containing the downwelling branch of the anti-estuarine CMOC and the large runoff occurring there. It is found that the multiannual CMOC is a persistent anti-estuarine structure with secondary estuarine cells that strengthen in years of large realistic river runoff. The CMOC is demonstrated to be controlled by wind forcing at least as much as by buoyancy fluxes. It is found that river runoff affects the CMOC strength, enhancing the amplitude of the secondary estuarine cells and reducing the intensity of the dominant anti-estuarine cell. A large river runoff can produce a positive buoyancy flux without switching off the antiestuarine CMOC cell, but a particularly low heat flux and wind work with normal river runoff can reverse it. Overall by comparing experiments with, without and with unrealistically augmented runoff we demonstrate that rivers affect the CMOC strength but they can never represent its dominant forcing mechanism and the potential role of river runoff has to be considered jointly with wind work and heat flux, as they largely contribute to the energy budget of the basin. Looking at the downwelling branch of the CMOC in the Adriatic basin, rivers are demonstrated to locally reduce the volume of Adriatic dense water formed in the Southern Adriatic Sea as a result of increased water stratification. The spreading of the Adriatic dense water into the Ionian abyss is affected as well: dense waters overflowing the Otranto Strait are less dense in a realistic runoff regime, with respect to no runoff experiment, and

  2. Factors influencing caries incidence in permanent teeth in children/adolescents under and after anti-neoplastic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krasuska-Sławińska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To determine reasons for the increase in caries among children/adolescents treated for neoplasms. Material and methods : Health promoting behaviour, oral hygiene (PLI, gingiva (GI, dentition (DMFt/DMFs, number of teeth with white spot lesions (WSL, and enamel defects (ED were assessed in three groups of 60 patients each. The three groups were as follows: under chemotherapy (CH, after chemotherapy (PCH, and generally healthy (CG. Medical files supplied information on neoplasm type, chemotherapeutic type and dose, age at treatment start, chemotherapy duration, and complications. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman’s rho test. Results: The age at which chemotherapy was started/its duration was 5.9 ±4.0/1.3 ±0.5 years in PCH and 9.12 ±4.44/0.8 ±0.3 years in CH; PCH completed treatment 4.9 ±3.4 years ago. Chemotherapy most often included vincristine (VCR, etoposide (VP-16, adriamycin (ADM, cyclophosphamide (CTX, cisplatin (CDDP, and ifosphamide (IF. Mucositis occurrence was 28.33% in PCH and 45.00% in CH; vomiting occurrence was 43.33% and 50.00%, respectively. Nutrition and prophylaxis mistakes occurred more often in CH/PCH than in CG; PLI, GI, caries incidence and severity, and the number of teeth with WSL were higher. Correlation between caries incidence and chemotherapeutic type and dose, age at treatment start and treatment duration, mucositis, emesis, PLI, GI, ED, no fluoride prophylaxis, and nutritional mistakes was established. Ifosphamide and mucositis treatment played a major role in chemotherapy; after chemotherapy – ED and CTX, ADM, IF, and VP-16. Conclusions : Caries in permanent teeth in children/adolescents undergoing chemotherapy result from nutritional mistakes, poor prophylaxis, and indirectly from chemotherapy complications (first mucositis and emesis, and later developmental ED.

  3. Influence of source batch S{sub K} dispersion on dosimetry for prostate cancer treatment with permanent implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuñez-Cumplido, E., E-mail: ejnc-mccg@hotmail.com; Hernandez-Armas, J. [Medical Physics Department, University Hospital of the Canary Island, La Cuesta – Ofra, 38003 La Laguna (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J. [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University Hospital, Bulevar Sur, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Casares-Magaz, O. [Medical Physics Department, University Hospital of the Canary Island, La Cuesta – Ofra, 38003 La Laguna, Spain and Medical Physics Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: In clinical practice, specific air kerma strength (S{sub K}) value is used in treatment planning system (TPS) permanent brachytherapy implant calculations with {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources; in fact, commercial TPS provide only one S{sub K} input value for all implanted sources and the certified shipment average is typically used. However, the value for S{sub K} is dispersed: this dispersion is not only due to the manufacturing process and variation between different source batches but also due to the classification of sources into different classes according to their S{sub K} values. The purpose of this work is to examine the impact of S{sub K} dispersion on typical implant parameters that are used to evaluate the dose volume histogram (DVH) for both planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Methods: The authors have developed a new algorithm to compute dose distributions with different S{sub K} values for each source. Three different prostate volumes (20, 30, and 40 cm{sup 3}) were considered and two typical commercial sources of different radionuclides were used. Using a conventional TPS, clinically accepted calculations were made for {sup 125}I sources; for the palladium, typical implants were simulated. To assess the many different possible S{sub K} values for each source belonging to a class, the authors assigned an S{sub K} value to each source in a randomized process 1000 times for each source and volume. All the dose distributions generated for each set of simulations were assessed through the DVH distributions comparing with dose distributions obtained using a uniform S{sub K} value for all the implanted sources. The authors analyzed several dose coverage (V{sub 100} and D{sub 90}) and overdosage parameters for prostate and PTV and also the limiting and overdosage parameters for OARs, urethra and rectum. Results: The parameters analyzed followed a Gaussian distribution for the entire set of computed dosimetries. PTV and

  4. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  5. Study of the influence of zirconium and gallium on the magnetic properties and microstructures of praseodymium-based permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusco, Alexandre Giardini

    2006-01-01

    In this work was studied the influence of the addition of 0.5 at. % of zirconium and gallium on praseodymium-based HD sintered magnets obtained using a mixture of alloys. The alloys used in this study were: Pr 12.6 Fe 68.3 Co 11.6 B 6 Zr 0.5 Ga 1 , Pr 16 Fe 75.5 B 8 Zr 0.5 , Pr 13 Fe 80.5 B 6 Zr 0.5 . The investigation started by measuring the magnetic properties and observing the microstructure of the magnets. After that, the magnets were annealed at 1000 deg C for 2 hours followed by rapid cooling, in a total of 10 hours. This heat treatment was followed by 5 hours at the same temperature up to a total of 35 hours. Changes in the microstructure were compared to the change in the magnetic properties aiming at a proper understanding of the role of each added element in relation to the magnetically hard phase (phase Φ). It has been shown that gallium and zirconium act as grain refiners of the matrix phase Φ. Gallium acts in the grain and favoring of the shape stability and improvement of the magnetic properties. For the Pr 14.3 Fe 71.9 Co 5.8 B 7 Zr 0.5 Ga 0.5 sintered magnet the evolution of the magnetic properties after 15 hours heat treatment was: remanence from (1.25±0.02) T to (1.30±0.02) T, intrinsic coercivity from (1.11±0.02) T to (0.87±0.02) T, squareness factor from (0.68±0.02) to (0.82±0.02) and energy product from (285±5) kJ/m 3 to (317±5) kJ/m 3 . Zirconium has two effects on the sintered magnets. Firstly, avoiding random grain growth and enhancing anisotropy. However, by concentrating on the grain boundaries, yield reverse domains and is detrimental to the intrinsic coercivity. For the sintered Pr 14.5 Fe 78 B 7 Zr 0.5 magnet the evolution of the magnetic properties achieved after a heat treatment of 15 hours was: remanence from (1.19±0.02) T to (1.25±0.02) T, coercivity from (0.74±0.02) T to (0.94±0.02) T, squareness factor from (0.88±0.02) to (0,85±0.02) and energy product from (258±5) kJ/m 3 to (291±5) kJ/m 3 . For the Pr 16 Fe 75

  6. Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (˜36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Lange, Carina B.; Inostroza, Jorge; Muratli, Jesse; Salamanca, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, U, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and C and N stable isotope signatures (δ 13C and δ 15N) were determined in short sediments cores from the inner and outer shelf off Concepción, Chile (˜36°S). The objectives were to establish the effect of environmental conditions on trace metal distributions at two shelf sites, one affected by seasonal oxygenation and the other by permanent low oxygen conditions due to the presence of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We evaluate trace metals as proxies of past changes in primary productivity and the bottom water oxygen regime. Concentrations of pore water sulfides and NH4+ were also measured as indicators of the main diagenetic pathways at each site. Our results for the inner shelf (seasonal suboxia) suggest that the oxidative state of the sediments responds to seasonal pulses of organic matter and that seasonal oxygenation develops during high and low primary productivity in the water column. Here, positive fluxes (to the water column) estimated from pore water concentrations of several elements were observed (Ba, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn). The less reduced environment at this site produces authigenic enrichment of Cu associated with the formation of oxides in the oxic surface sediment layer, and the reduction of U within deeper sediment sections occur consistently with negative estimated pore water fluxes. In the outer shelf sediments (permanent suboxia, OMZ site), negative fluxes (to the sediment) were estimated for all elements, but these sediments showed authigenic enrichments only for Cd, Cu and U. The short oxygenation period during the winter season did not affect the accumulation of these metals on the shelf. The distribution of Cu, Cd and U have been preserved within the sediments and the authigenic accumulation rates estimated showed a decrease from the deep sections of the core to the surface sediments. This could be explained by a gradual decrease in the strength of the OMZ in the

  7. Islamic Influence on HIV Risk and Protection Among Central Asian Male Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stacey A; McCrimmon, Tara; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Sultangaliyeva, Alma; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    HIV incidence is increasing in Central Asia, where migrant workers experience risks for acquiring sexually transmitted HIV. As a social and structural factor that may influence perceptions and behavior, we examine how Islam shapes HIV risk and protection. Phenomenological qualitative interviews examine religion and contexts of HIV risk among 48 male Central Asian migrant workers residing in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Men described nonvaginal sex, alcohol use, premarital sex, and extramarital sex as forbidden or frowned upon. Religious networks were unlikely to discuss HIV risks, and some men viewed religious affiliation or practices as protective. Marital practices including neke (religious marriage), polygyny, and bride kidnapping may be linked to risk. Findings suggest adhering to Islamic ideals may be protective for some men, but for others, assumptions of protection may enhance risk. HIV prevention strategies among Central Asian migrants may be strengthened by attention to religious and cultural understandings of risk and protection.

  8. Numerical computation of central crack growth in an active particle of electrodes influenced by multiple factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuwei; Guo, Zhansheng

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical degradation, especially fractures in active particles in an electrode, is a major reason why the capacity of lithium-ion batteries fades. This paper proposes a model that couples Li-ion diffusion, stress evolution, and damage mechanics to simulate the growth of central cracks in cathode particles (LiMn2O4) by an extended finite element method by considering the influence of multiple factors. The simulation shows that particles are likely to crack at a high discharge rate, when the particle radius is large, or when the initial central crack is longer. It also shows that the maximum principal tensile stress decreases and cracking becomes more difficult when the influence of crack surface diffusion is considered. The fracturing process occurs according to the following stages: no crack growth, stable crack growth, and unstable crack growth. Changing the charge/discharge strategy before unstable crack growth sets in is beneficial to prevent further capacity fading during electrochemical cycling.

  9. [The influence of joining central venous catheter and pressure transducer with T-junctions on central venous pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuling; Yang, Wanjie; An, Youzhong; Teng, Hongyun; Zhang, Rumei; Wang, Yumei; Gao, Hailing; Hua, Ning; Song, Yan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the influence of the number of T-junctions between central venous catheter and pressure transducer on measurement of central venous pressure ( CVP ) in patients. A prospective controlled study was conducted. The patients with CVP monitoring in Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Fifth Center Hospital in Tianjin from February to October in 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into three groups according to the number of T-junction between central venous catheter and pressure transducer: without T-junction control group and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions groups. In each patient, corresponding CVP values with different number of T-junctions placed between the central venous catheter and pressure sensors were determined within a certain period, and a square-wave graphic was obtained and preserved on the monitor. The own frequency ( fn ) and the attenuation coefficient ( D ) of the system of pressure measurement were calculated after measurement of the shock wave following a square-wave to obtain the distance between two vibrations and the amplitude of the shock wave. The difference in CVP, fn and D were compared among the groups. A total of 20 cases were enrolled, and 150 groups of data were collected. (1) With the increase in the number of T-junction, CVP showed a tendency of gradual reduction. The CVP of the groups of control and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions was ( 7.00±1.60 ), ( 7.00±3.00 ), ( 5.00±2.00 ), and ( 4.00±1.00 ) mmHg ( 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa ), respectively. The CVP of 3 T-junctions group was significantly lower than that of the control group ( F = 9.333, P = 0.015 ). (2) With an increase in the number of T-junction, fn showed a tendency of gradual increase. The fn of groups control and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions was ( 12.30±0.79 ), ( 16.00±0.91 ), ( 18.10±1.75 ), ( 20.90±2.69 ) Hz, respectively. The fn of 1, 2, 3 T-junctions group was significantly higher than that of the control group ( F1 = 45.962, F2 = 45.414, F3 = 46.830, all P = 0

  10. Critical Internal Factors Influencing The Centralization Of Stock Procurement Processes In A South African Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza; Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was threefold: 1) to examine the internal factors influencing centralization of stock procurement processes, 2) to assess the relationship between demographic factors and staff understanding of Information Communication Technology (ICT) with performance improvement, and 3) to examine the relationship between prevention of corruption with management commitment. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 82 members of staff from procurement division in a ...

  11. Study of Magnetic Properties on the Corrosion Behavior and Influence of Temperature in Permanent Magnet (Nd-Fe-B) Used in PMSM

    OpenAIRE

    N. Yogal; C. Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets (PM) is increasing in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) to fulfill the requirements of high efficiency machines in modern industry. PMSM are widely used in industrial applications, wind power plants and the automotive industry. Since PMSM are used in different environmental conditions, the long-term effect of NdFeB-based magnets at high temperatures and their corrosion behavior have to be studied due to the irreversible loss of magn...

  12. Comparitive study of the influence of harmonic voltage distortion on the efficiency of induction machines versus line start permanent magnet machines

    OpenAIRE

    Debruyne, Colin; Derammelaere, Stijn; Desmet, Jan; Vandevelde, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    Induction machines have nearly reached their maximal efficiency. In order to further increase the efficiency the use of permanent magnets in combination with the robust design of the induction machine is being extensively researched. These so-called line start permanent magnet machines have an increased efficiency in sine wave conditions in respect to standard induction machines, however the efficiency of these machines is less researched under distorted voltage conditions. This paper compare...

  13. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not

  14. Modern permanent magnetic materials - preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodewald, W.

    1989-01-01

    First of all, the basic properties of the classical (steel, AlNiCo) permanent magnetic materials and the modern rare-earth (RE) permanent magnetic materials are compared. Since the properties of RE permanent magnets depend on the particular production process, the fundamentals of the main industrial processes (powder metallurgy, rapid-solidification technique) are described and the typical properties are explained. Furthermore the production processes in development such as mechanical alloying, melt spinning technique and extrusion upsetting are briefly outlined. For applying the permanent magnets, they have to be completely magnetized. The magnetization behaviour of the various RE permanent magnets is discussed by means of the internal demagnetization curve. Finally the various influences on the temperature stability of RE permanent magnets are compiled. (orig./MM) [de

  15. Cardiac biopotentials influence on central nervous system functioning: first steps in hypothesis verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondal'skaya Yu.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to verify the hypothesis on influence of cardiac biopotentials on central nervous system. Materials: 20 healthy individuals aged 18-26 years old have been participated in the investigations. Two groups composed of 10 patients each have been formed. Double increase in heart biopotentials by means of artificial impulse insertion between natural cardiac contractions has been modeled. Artificial impulses have been similar to unaffected ones, produced in a normal heart work. Additional impulses have been generated using external pacemaker and have been linked up with electrodes on the chest. They have been synchronized with the heart rhythm and located in-between R waves. The duration of those impulses has been fully matched to ventricular complex. Their amplitude has been adjusted individually depending on the height of R wave. Nervous system mobility has been used as the indicator reflecting the central nervous system functioning. Degree of mobility has been defined on the basis of tapping test results. The test has been repeated at specific intervals. Groups have been exposed to two adverse testing modes. Additional impulses have been conducted to the patients of group I within an hour over a period of the first and the third 15-minute intervals and to the patients of group II over a period of the second and the fourth 15-minute intervals. In the middle and in the end of each time interval tapping test has been carried out. After preliminary analysis two other modes of stimulation have been tested. The stimulation has been performed within the 40-minute course: over a period of the first 20-minute interval and vice versa. Results: Detailed evaluation has revealed that short-time increase of nervous processes has been checked in combination with decrease in their stability. Conclusion: The data obtained have shown that there is possible influence on central nervous system functioning. The article ends with prospects of further

  16. The permanent process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...

  17. Influence of central panoramic curve deviation of the mandibular image reconstruction in the implant CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Jeong; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an influence of the change of central panoramic curves on the image reconstruction in the dental implant CT. The author designed three experimental groups according to the location of central panoramic curve. In group A, central panoramic curve was determined as the curve connecting the center of roots from the first premolar to the first molar. In group B, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the lingual cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first premolar with the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. In group C, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. Twenty four reformatted CT images was acquired from four mandibles embedded in the resin block and twenty four contact radiographs of dog specimens were acquired. Each image was processed under Adobe Photoshop program analysed by MSPA (mandible/maxilla shape pattern analysis) variables such as MXVD, MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The mean of MXVD variable was 19.9, 20.2, and 20.0 in group A, B, and C, respectively, which were smaller than actual value 20.5. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 2. The mean of MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD variables in group A, B, and C was 11.9, 12.2, and 12.3; 9.3, 9.5, and 9.6; 10.0, 10.3,and 10.3; 9.2, 9.3, and 9.4 respectively which were equal to or greater than the actual value 11.8, 9.3, 10.0. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 3. The number of noneffective observations with difference over or under 1 mm with comparison to the actual value was 24 (20%), 58 (48.3%), and 52 (43.3%), respectively, in group A, B, and C. 4. In group A, the number of observations over 1mm and under 1 mm was 9 and 15, respectively, but in group B and C, the number of observations over 1

  18. Normally occurring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity: from central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, G

    1998-10-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology holds that "information" flows from the genes to the structure of the proteins that the genes bring about through the formula DNA-->RNA-->Protein. In this view, a set of master genes activates the DNA necessary to produce the appropriate proteins that the organism needs during development. In contrast to this view, probabilistic epigenesis holds that necessarily there are signals from the internal and external environment that activate DNA to produce the appropriate proteins. To support this view, a substantial body of evidence is reviewed showing that external environmental influences on gene activation are normally occurring events in a large variety of organisms, including humans. This demonstrates how genes and environments work together to produce functional organisms, thus extending the author's model of probabilistic epigenesis.

  19. Estimation of water storage changes in small endorheic lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (Northern Kazakhstan, Central Asia); the effect of climate change and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapiyev, Vadim; Sagintayev, Zhanay; Verhoef, Anne; Samarkhanov, Kanat; Jumassultanova, Saltanat

    2017-04-01

    Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. It has been observed in recent decades that water-limited steppe regions of Central Asia are among ecosystems found to exhibit enhanced responses to climate variability. In fact, the largest share of worldwide net loss of permanent water extent is geographically concentrated in the Central Asia and Middle East regions attributed to both climate variability/change and human activities impacts. We used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and high resolution Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia, for the period 2000-2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, hydrometeorological network observations as well as regional climate model projections we evaluate the impacts of past thirty years and future climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. The anthropogenic water consumption was estimated based on data collected at a local water supply company and regulation authorities. One the one hand historical in-situ observations and future climate projections do not show a significant change in precipitation in BNNP. On the other hand both observations and the model demonstrate steadily rising air temperatures in the area. It is concluded that the long-term decline in water levels for most of these lakes can be largely attributed to climate change (but only via changes in air temperature, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation) and not to direct anthropogenic influences such as increased water withdrawals. In addition, the two largest lakes, showing the highest historical water level decline, do not have sufficient water drainage basin area to sustain water levels under increased evaporation rates.

  20. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  1. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  2. The hydrochemistry of glacial Ebba River (Petunia Bay, Central Spitsbergen): Groundwater influence on surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Krzysztof; Marciniak, Marek; Szpikowski, Józef; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Wawrzyniak, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the investigation of surface water chemistry changes of the glacial Ebba River (Central Spitsbergen) during three melting seasons of 2008, 2009 and 2010. The twice daily water chemistry analyses allow recognition of the surface water chemistry differentiation. The surface water chemistry changes are related to the river discharge and changes in the influence of different water balance components during each melting season. One of the most important process that influence river water component concentration increase is groundwater inflow from active layer occurring on the valley area. The significance of this process is the most important at the end of the melting season when temperatures below 0 °C occur on glaciers (resulting in a slowdown of melting of ice and snow and a smaller recharge of the river by the water from the glaciers) while the flow of groundwater is still active, causing a relatively higher contribution of groundwater to the total river discharge. The findings presented in this paper show that groundwater contribution to the total polar river water balance is more important than previously thought and its recognition allow a better understanding of the hydrological processes occurring in a polar environment.

  3. Tail-Cuff Technique and Its Influence on Central Blood Pressure in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Elena; Aubdool, Aisah A; Thakore, Pratish; Baldissera, Lineu; Alawi, Khadija M; Keeble, Julie; Nandi, Manasi; Brain, Susan D

    2017-06-27

    Reliable measurement of blood pressure in conscious mice is essential in cardiovascular research. Telemetry, the "gold-standard" technique, is invasive and expensive and therefore tail-cuff, a noninvasive alternative, is widely used. However, tail-cuff requires handling and restraint during measurement, which may cause stress affecting blood pressure and undermining reliability of the results. C57Bl/6J mice were implanted with radio-telemetry probes to investigate the effects of the steps of the tail-cuff technique on central blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature. This included comparison of handling techniques, operator's sex, habituation, and influence of hypertension induced by angiotensin II. Direct comparison of measurements obtained by telemetry and tail-cuff were made in the same mouse. The results revealed significant increases in central blood pressure, heart rate, and core body temperature from baseline following handling interventions without significant difference among the different handling technique, habituation, or sex of the investigator. Restraint induced the largest and sustained increase in cardiovascular parameters and temperature. The tail-cuff readings significantly underestimated those from simultaneous telemetry recordings; however, "nonsimultaneous" telemetry, obtained in undisturbed mice, were similar to tail-cuff readings obtained in undisturbed mice on the same day. This study reveals that the tail-cuff technique underestimates the core blood pressure changes that occur simultaneously during the restraint and measurement phases. However, the measurements between the 2 techniques are similar when tail-cuff readings are compared with telemetry readings in the nondisturbed mice. The differences between the simultaneous recordings by the 2 techniques should be recognized by researchers. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Permanences GAG-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires.

  5. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime

  6. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)

  7. Marxism as permanent revolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not represent a historical shortcut under exceptional circumstances, but the course revolutions in the modern era would normally take. Marx and Engels traced back the pattern to the sixteenth century. It is ...

  8. Hydrochemical evaluation of the influences of mining activities on river water chemistry in central northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Badarch, Mendbayar; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities. The water quality problem arising from very high turbidity is one of the major environmental concerns and is caused by suspended particles (mainly, sediment and soil particles) from diverse erosion processes, including erosion of river banks along the meandering river system, erosion of soils owing to overgrazing by livestock, and erosion by human activities, such as mining and agriculture. In particular, after passing through the Zaamar gold mining area, due to the disturbance of sediments and soils by placer gold mining, the Tuul River water becomes very turbid (up to 742 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)). The Zaamar area is also the contamination source of the Tuul and Orkhon rivers by Al, Fe, and Mn, especially during the mining season. The hydrochemistry of the Khangal River is influenced by heavy metal (especially, Mn, Al, Cd, and As)-loaded mine drainage that originates from a huge tailing dam of the Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo mine, as evidenced by δ 34 S values of dissolved sulfate (0.2 to 3.8 ‰). These two contaminated rivers (Tuul and Khangal) merge into the Orkhon River that flows to the Selenge River near the boundary between Mongolia and Russia and then eventually flows into Lake Baikal. Because water quality problems due to mining can be critical

  9. Correlation and regression analysis of tools influencing on targets of monetary policy of Central Bank of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordyachkova O. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the correlation and regression analysis of the influence of the Central Bank tools of Russian monetary policy on its aims. Such analysis is the basic method of estimating monetary policy efficiency by means of quantity-related parameters. The results outlined by the authors prove the lack of efficiency of influencing tools: inflation, money supply and the exchange rate.

  10. Trace elements from the Central Pacific Mexican Shelf: Geochemical associations and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A. J.; Morales-Blake, A. R.; González-Chavarín, I.; Hernández-Becerril, D.; Alonso-Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez-Palacio, M. C.; Sánchez-González, A.; Magallanes-Ordóñez, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    Baselines for major and trace elements were determined from surface sediment samples from sites located along the Central Pacific Mexican Shelf (CPMS; 16.7-20.45° N). This study area is next to the biggest harbours in Mexico, for example touristic (Puerto Vallarta and Acapulco), touristic and industrial (Manzanillo), and industrial harbours (Lázaro Cárdenas). The industrial harbours have been expanding, transporting tonnes of materials to Asia and North and South America. Oceanographic campaigns were conducted to obtain sediment from depths ranging from 56 to 159 m. The grain size was predominately fine fraction (determined for the sediments. Arsenic is enriched in the CPMS; the Normalized Enrichment Factor average (NEFAV) for As is NEFAV = 8 ± 7. However the ratio between As and Cs indicates a natural origin in the most of the sites. Cadmium, Mo, and Ag were significantly correlated with Corg enhanced precipitation of sulfide-reactive metals. Moreover, an anthropogenic influence was detected for Hg (NEFAV = 4.3 ± 1.5) and Ag (NEFAV = 8.5 ± 2.6) in the shelf near the heavily industrialized harbour of Lázaro Cárdenas.

  11. Factors influencing non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Jepara, central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondags, Angelique; Himawan, Ari Budi; Metsemakers, Job Fm; Kristina, Tri Nur

    2014-07-01

    One of the most serious problems for tuberculosis (TB) control is non-adherence to TB treatment. We studied the factors influencing non-adherence to TB treatment in Indonesia to inform TB treatment adherence strategies. We con- ducted semi-structured interviews with non-adherent patients and key informants in Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia. Three major themes were found in reasons for non-adherence to TB treatment: 1) knowledge about TB, 2) knowledge about TB treatment and 3) choosing and changing a health care treatment facility. Respondents had an inadequate knowledge about TB and its treatment. Feeling healthy and having financial problems were the most common reasons for TB treatment non-adherence. Respondents sought treatment from many different health care providers, and often changed the treatment facility location. TB treatment adherence might improve by providing better education about the disease and its treatment to those undergoing treatment. Providing information about where to receive treatment and that treatment is free could also improve compliance.

  12. Tolerating the doubting Thomas: How centrality of religious beliefs versus practices influences prejudice against atheists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eHughes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented. Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual’s beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer, whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background. This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.

  13. Influence of Preadjusted Bracket Shape and Positioning Reference on Angulation of Upper Central Incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolski, Francielle; de O Accorsi, Mauricio A; Trevisi, Hugo J; Cuoghi, Osmar A; Moresca, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    To verify the influence of different bracket shapes and placement references according to Andrews and MBT systems on the expression of angulation in upper central incisors (UCI). Bracket positioning and mesiodistal dental movement simulations were performed and the angulations produced in the dental crown were evaluated, based on computed tomography scan images of 30 UCI and AutoCAD software analysis. Rectangular (Andrews) and rhomboid (MBT) brackets were placed according to the references recommended by Andrews and MBT systems - long axis of the clinical crown (LACC) and incisal edge (IE) respectively. Data showed that the use of LACC as reference for bracket positioning produced 5° and 4° UCI angulations in Andrews and MBT brackets respectively. The use of IE produced a 1.2° mean angulation in UCI for both brackets. When the LACC was used as reference for bracket positioning, the UCI crown angulation corresponded to the angulation built into the brackets, regardless of shape, while the use of IE resulted in natural crown angulation, regardless of bracket shape. This research contributes to guide the orthodontist in relation to the different treatment techniques based on the use of preadjusted brackets.

  14. Tolerating the "doubting Thomas": how centrality of religious beliefs vs. practices influences prejudice against atheists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B

    2015-01-01

    Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.

  15. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-02-01

    To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder . Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful.

  16. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  17. Influence of breast composition and interseed attenuation in dose calculations for post-implant assessment of permanent breast 103Pd seed implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsharpour, Hossein; Beaulieu, Luc; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The impact of tissue heterogeneity and interseed attenuation is studied in post-implant evaluation of five clinical permanent breast 103 Pd seed implants using the Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation method. Dose metrics for the target (PTV) as well as an organ at risk (skin) are used to visualize the differences between a TG43-like MC method and more accurate MC methods capable of considering the breast tissue heterogeneity as well as the interseed attenuation. PTV dose is reduced when using a breast tissue model instead of water in MC calculations while the dose to the skin is increased. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of varying the glandular/adipose proportion of the breast tissue on dose distributions. The dose to the PTV (skin) decreases (increases) with the increasing adipose proportion inside the breast. In a complete geometry and compared to a TG43-like situation, the average PTV D 90 reduction varies from 3.9% in a glandular breast to 35.5% when the breast consists entirely of adipose. The skin D 10 increases by 28.2% in an entirely adipose breast. The results of this work show the importance of an accurate and patient-dependent breast tissue model to be used in the dosimetry for this kind of low energy implant.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT, JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TOWARD ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR (A Study of the Permanent Lecturers at University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiske Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in this research is all of the permanent lecturers employed at University of Lambung Mangkurat (ULM. The respondents are taken from 4 academic ranks, which are represented by Asisten Ahli (Instructor, Lektor (Assistant Professor, Lektor Kepala (Associate Professor, and Guru Besar (Professor. One hundred and thirty samples were collected by using a proportional-stratified random sampling method. A Partial Least Square (PLS method was used to analyze the data. The results showed that lecturers with a positive perception of the organizational support available to them feel more satisfied with their job, which in turn encourages the creation of a high organizational commitment and results in the emergence of positive organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. These study’s results showed us the application of social exchange theory and organizational support theory in a higher educational institution. The findings of this study are considered to be important, as they provide additional empirical evidence regarding the importance of organizational support as a basis for improving the ULM lecturers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and OCB. The implications and further research are also discussed.

  19. Influence of spatial resolution on precipitation simulations for the central Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachte, Katja; Bendix, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The climate of South America is highly influenced by the north-south oriented Andes Mountains. Their complex structure causes modifications of large-scale atmospheric circulations resulting in various mesoscale phenomena as well as a high variability in the local conditions. Due to their height and length the terrain generates distinctly climate conditions between the western and the eastern slopes. While in the tropical regions along the western flanks the conditions are cold and arid, the eastern slopes are dominated by warm-moist and rainy air coming from the Amazon basin. Below 35° S the situation reverses with rather semiarid conditions in the eastern part and temperate rainy climate along southern Chile. Generally, global circulation models (GCMs) describe the state of the global climate and its changes, but are disabled to capture regional or even local features due to their coarse resolution. This is particularly true in heterogeneous regions such as the Andes Mountains, where local driving features, e. g. local circulation systems, highly varies on small scales and thus, lead to a high variability of rainfall distributions. An appropriate technique to overcome this problem and to gain regional and local scale rainfall information is the dynamical downscaling of the global data using a regional climate model (RCM). The poster presents results of the evaluation of the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over South America with special focus on the central Andes Mountains of Ecuador. A sensitivity study regarding the cumulus parametrization, microphysics, boundary layer processes and the radiation budget is conducted. With 17 simulations consisting of 16 parametrization scheme combinations and 1 default run a suitable model set-up for climate research in this region is supposed to be evaluated. The simulations were conducted in a two-way nested mode i) to examine the best physics scheme combination for the target and ii) to

  20. Introduction to permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning the application of permanent magnets are developed. The relevant magnet properties are discussed, with particular reference to Nd-Fe-B alloy. The author comes to the following conclusions; the air gap field B should be high, for high electrical efficiency; the magnet should face the air gap, for efficient use of the magnet material; the magnet material should therefore have a high remanence; and the new Nd-Fe-B magnet fits in nicely, having (potentially) the highest remanence ever reported in permanent magnets, combined with sufficient coercivity to sustain it

  1. Relation between kinetic of alcoholic fermentation and must nitrogen content. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on Vitis vinifera cv Muscadelle with permanent grass cover. Nature and concentration levels of some amino acids of musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Larchevêque

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment concerning the introduction of nitrogen fertilization on permanent grass cover was undertaken in 1995. This was done in order to determine both the role and the influence of nitrogen on the fermentability of must. Located in the Sainte-Foy La Grande area, the plot studied has a deep silty soil. The cultivar Muscadelle was grafted on the 3309 C rootstock. Four tests with several N-fertilizations were compared : 1 (no-tillage and 0 kg N/ha/year, 2 (permanent grass cover without N-fertilization, 3 (permanent grass cover and 30 kg N/ha/year and 4 (permanent grass cover and 60 kg N/ha/year. Nitrogen was added at springtime, on the total interrow area as weIl as on the narrow strip around the vines. The grass cover (with or without N-fertilization had a great effect on yield : it decreased the latter by about 38 percent compared to the no-tillage trial. Moreover, the total acidity values were lower for the musts in trials 2,3 and 4 than in the control 1. Inversely, the initial sugar values were greater in the grass cover trials. The duration of alcoholic fermentation was very different with the no-tillage test and the others : 17 days were necessary for the first, and 42 to 50 for the other musts. This parameter was quite cIosely correlated to the content of nitrogen composites in the must and more particularly to amino acids. The global amino acid contents of must and wine were higher in test 1 than in the others. It is noteworthy that numerous kinds of amino acids were present but it seems likely that some of them were very important by virtue of their nature or their concentration levels. Among the principal amino acids, proline represented at least 20 percent of the global amino acids content for musts 2 and 4, and 14 to 19 percent for musts 3 and 1. Arginine was present only in the must of the grass-cover trials. Proline, arginine, alanine, asparagine/glutamine and aspartic acid represented about 50 to 60 percent of the global amino

  2. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  3. Do different vertical positions of maxillary central incisors influence smile esthetics perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Erica Bretas Cabral; Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira; Machado, Andre Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and layperson, with respect to different maxillary central incisors vertical positions in full-face and close-up smile analyses. Frontal photographs of the smiles of two adult women were used. Images were altered to create a symmetrical image with the gingival margin levels of the maxillary canines matching the central incisors and a 1.0-mm central-to-lateral incisal step. Later, the images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. The images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 114 judges, 57 orthodontists and 57 laypersons, who were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were statistically analyzed by means of 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post-hoc test and the Student t test. The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins matched or were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins and; b) the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The worst smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins and; b) no step between the centrals and laterals or a 2.5-mm step. The vertical position of the maxillary central incisors significantly affected the perception of the smile esthetics, whereas slightly extruded central incisors were more esthetically preferred than intruded.

  4. Do different vertical positions of maxillary central incisors influence smile esthetics perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bretas Cabral Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and layperson, with respect to different maxillary central incisors vertical positions in full-face and close-up smile analyses. METHODS: Frontal photographs of the smiles of two adult women were used. Images were altered to create a symmetrical image with the gingival margin levels of the maxillary canines matching the central incisors and a 1.0-mm central-to-lateral incisal step. Later, the images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. The images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 114 judges, 57 orthodontists and 57 laypersons, who were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were statistically analyzed by means of 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post-hoc test and the Student t test. RESULTS: The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: a the central incisor gingival margins matched or were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins and; b the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The worst smiles showed two notable characteristics: a the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins and; b no step between the centrals and laterals or a 2.5-mm step. CONCLUSION: The vertical position of the maxillary central incisors significantly affected the perception of the smile esthetics, whereas slightly extruded central incisors were more esthetically preferred than intruded.

  5. Seismic influence in the Quaternary uplift of the Central Chile coastal margin, preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, D.; del Valle, F.; Marquardt, C.; Elgueta, S.

    2017-12-01

    In order to quantify the influence of NW striking potentially seismogenic normal faults over the longitudinal variation of the Central Chile Coastal margin uplift, we measured Quaternary marine terraces, which represent the tectonic uplift of the coastal margin. Movement in margin oblique normal faults occurs by co-seismic extension of major subduction earthquakes and has occurred in the Pichilemu fault, generating a 7.0 Mw earthquake after the 2010 8.8 Mw Maule earthquake.The coastal area between 32° and 34° S was selected due to the presence of a well-preserved sequence of 2 to 5 Quaternary marine terraces. In particular, the margin oblique normal NW-trending, SW-dipping Laguna Verde fault, south of Valparaiso (33° S) puts in contact contrasting morphologies: to the south, a flat coast with wide marine terraces is carved in both, Jurassic plutonic rocks and Neogene semi-consolidated marine sediments; to the north, a steeper scarp with narrower marine terraces, over 120 m above the corresponding ones in the southern coast, is carved in Jurassic plutonic rocks.We have collected over 6 months microseimic data, providing information on seismic activity and underground geometry of the Laguna Verde fault. We collected ca. 100 systematic measurements of fringes at the base of paleo coastal scarps through field mapping and a 5 m digital elevation model. These fringes mark the maximum sea level during the terrace's carving.The heights of these fringes range between 0 and 250 masl. We estimate a 0.7 mm/yr slip rate for the Laguna Verde fault based on the height difference between corresponding terraces north- and southward, with an average uplift rate of 0.3 mm/yr for the whole area.NW striking normal faults, besides representing a potential seismic threat to the near population on one of the most densely populated areas of Chile, heavily controls the spatial variation of the coastal margin uplift. In Laguna Verde, the uplift rate differs more than three times northward

  6. Influence of uncomplicated phacoemulsification on central macular thickness in diabetic patients: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of uncomplicated phacoemulsification on central macular thickness (CMT and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA in both diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR and diabetic patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR.Potential prospective observational studies were searched through PubMed and EMBASE. Standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence interval (CI for changes in CMT and BCVA were evaluated at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months. The pooled effect estimates were calculated in the use of a random-effects model.A total of 10 studies involving 190 eyes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 143 eyes of diabetic patients with NPDR were identified. CMT values demonstrated a statistically significant increase after uncomplicated phacoemulsification at 1 month (SMD, -0.814; 95%CI, -1.230 to -0.399, 3 months (SMD, -0.565; 95%CI, -0.927 to -0.202 and 6 months (SMD, -0.458; 95%CI, -0.739 to -0.177 in diabetic patients with NPDR. There was no statistical difference in CMT values at postoperative 1 month (SMD, -1.206; 95%CI, -2.433 to 0.021and no statistically significant increase in CMT values at postoperative3 months (SMD, -0.535; 95%CI, -1.252 to 0.182 and 6 months (SMD, -1.181; 95%CI, -2.625 to 0.263 in diabetic patients without DR.BCVA was significantly increased at postoperative 1 month (SMD, 1.149; 95%CI, 0.251 to 2.047; and SMD,1.349; 95%CI, 0.264 to 2.434, respectively and 6 months (SMD, 1.295; 95%CI, 0.494 to 2.096; and SMD, 2.146; 95%CI, 0.172 to 4.120, respectively in both diabetic patients without DR and diabetic patients with NPDR. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable and reliable.Uncomplicated phacoemulsification in diabetic patients with mild to moderate NPDR seemed to influence significantly the subclinical thickening of the macular zones at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months compared with diabetic patients without DR

  7. Influence of hydrography of Central Mexican Pacific in the spatial variation of inorganic nutrients during 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos-Ortiz, A.; Gaviño-Rodríguez, J. H.; Quijano-Scheggia, S.; Pelayo-Martinez, G.; Torres-Orozco, E.; Calva-Chavez, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexican Central Pacific (MCP) is considered an oligotrophic area that holds important populations of different species with ecological and economic importance like marine mammals, billfish and tunas. Hydrographic mechanisms are responsible to interplay with the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients to support primary productivity for these food webs. It is argued that seasonal upwelling of bottom waters rich in nutrients generates distributed in patches of high-productivity, which are also linked to topographic continental forcing. The goal of this study is determine the presence of water masses, depth of the mixed layer, temperature, salinity, patterns of geostrophic currents and their influence on the spatiotemporal variability of inorganic nutrients. For that pupose, three oceanographic cruises were conducted in January, May-June, and October of 2010 off the coast of the MCP. Each campaign consisted of 15 stations in five perpendicular transects with stations at 2, 50 and 100 nm offshore. At each station samples were taken to determine the concentration of NO3-+ NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO2 at 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 m depth. CTD casts were made up to 500m to obtain profiles of salinity, temperature, water masses, and identify geostrophic currents (direction and intensity). Identified water masses were: Pacific Tropical Surface Water (PTSW), Pacific Equatorial Surface Water (PESW), Equatorial Pacific Water (EPW), California Current Water (CCW), Subtropical Subsurface Water (STSsW), and Pacific Intermediate Water (PIT); these water masses were present in all three seasons being more clear the presence of CCW during autumn and PTSW in winter. The interaction between coastal topography, geostrophic circulation, and the depth of the mixed layer (55m oceanic part in January and 10m coastal area in October) were the factors that determined the location of areas of high concentration of nutrients. The distribution of nutrients was heterogeneous

  8. Influence of blood flow occlusion on the development of peripheral and central fatigue during small muscle mass handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxterman, R M; Craig, J C; Smith, J R; Wilcox, S L; Jia, C; Warren, S; Barstow, T J

    2015-09-01

    Critical power represents an important threshold for neuromuscular fatigue development and may, therefore, dictate intensities for which exercise tolerance is determined by the magnitude of fatigue accrued. Peripheral fatigue appears to be constant across O2 delivery conditions for large muscle mass exercise, but this consistency is equivocal for smaller muscle mass exercise. We sought to determine the influence of blood flow occlusion during handgrip exercise on neuromuscular fatigue development and to examine the relationship between neuromuscular fatigue development and W '. Blood flow occlusion influenced the development of both peripheral and central fatigue, thus providing further evidence that the magnitude of peripheral fatigue is not constant across O2 delivery conditions for small muscle mass exercise. W ' appears to be related to the magnitude of fatigue accrued during exercise, which may explain the reported consistency of intramuscular metabolic perturbations and work performed for severe-intensity exercise. The influence of the muscle metabolic milieu on peripheral and central fatigue is currently unclear. Moreover, the relationships between peripheral and central fatigue and the curvature constant (W ') have not been investigated. Six men (age: 25 ± 4 years, body mass: 82 ± 10 kg, height: 179 ± 4 cm) completed four constant power handgrip tests to exhaustion under conditions of control exercise (Con), blood flow occlusion exercise (Occ), Con with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Con + Occ), and Occ with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Occ + Occ). Neuromuscular fatigue measurements and W ' were obtained for each subject. Each trial resulted in significant peripheral and central fatigue. Significantly greater peripheral (79.7 ± 5.1% vs. 22.7 ± 6.0%) and central (42.6 ± 3.9% vs. 4.9 ± 2.0%) fatigue occurred for Occ than for Con. In addition, significantly greater peripheral (83.0 ± 4.2% vs. 69.0 ± 6.2%) and central

  9. Study on the influence of lipid peak to the results of MR spectroscopy in the central gland of prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanjun; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Jiang Xuexiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of lipid peak to MRS in central gland of prostate gland. Methods: Seventeen patients performed transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were enrolled in this study. Three groups were divided according to the pathological findings: glandular-BPH (GBPH) (7 cases), stromal-BPH (SBPH) (6 cases), and incidentally detected prostate carcinoma (IDPC) (4 cases). The voxel with lipid peak in the field of volume was counted. Compared with pathology, the following studies were performed: (1) The location of the voxels that more frequently presented lipid peak in the central gland. (2) Whether the appearance of the lipid peak would obscure the identification of the peaks of the endogenous metabolites. Results: The ratio of voxels with lipid peak in central gland was about 22.8% (834/3567). There were 1477 (397 voxels with lipid peak), 1434(396 voxels with lipid peak), and 656(41 voxels with lipid peak) voxels in CBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups, respectively. The percentage in GBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups was 23.6%, 27.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. The percentage of voxels with lipid peak at the edge of the central gland (79.6%, 68.6% and 72.4%, respectively) was higher than that in other regions. The lipid peak in most of the voxels didn't influence the identification of the citrate and choline peak (82.8%, 98.0%, and 96.4%, respectively). Conclusion: The lipid peak in the central gland may result from the lipid tissues near the gland, and most lipid peak had no influence on the identification of endogenous metabolites. (authors)

  10. Biogenic influence on the growth of ferromanganese micronodules in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    In a 20 cm core collected from the Central Indian Basin, with increasing depth, the abundance of ferromanganese micronodules decreases as their size increases, and the surface texture changes from rough to smooth. Biological debris, including...

  11. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  12. A Descriptive Study Assessing Quality of Life for Adults With a Permanent Ostomy and the Influence of Preoperative Stoma Site Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydick, Diane

    2016-05-01

    Diseases or anomalies of the genitourinary or gastrointestinal tract often require removal of organs and creation of an artificial opening (stoma) to allow for elimination of urine or stool. Preoperative stoma site marking can affect quality of life (QoL). A descriptive study was conducted to assess the relationship between QoL and preoperative stoma site marking in adults with a permanent ostomy. Using convenience sampling methods, 230 eligible participants attending a United Ostomy Association of America conference were invited to complete a survey of demographics regarding age, gender, time since surgeries, and ostomy type and the City of Hope National Medical Center Quality of Life Ostomy Questionnaire. The latter contains 2 sections of 30 and 43 items each that address life impact and quality of life, respectively. The researcher explained the study and provided a study packet to volunteers who were interested in participating. Volunteers were to complete the surveys over a 4-day period while at the conference; the investigator collected all study materials. Inclusion criteria stipulated study participants must be English writing/reading persons at least 18 years of age with a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy. All descriptive statistics (means, standard deviation, frequency, and percents) used to describe demographic and surgical history and quantitative data (logistic regression, cross-tabulation, Pearson product moment correlations, and analysis of covariance) used to determine relationships among factors were entered and analyzed using a computer software program. Of the 140 participants who met inclusion criteria and provided data, the majority (85, 60.7%) had their stoma site marked by a wound, ostomy, continence (WOC) nurse. WOC nurse marking was more likely in recent years, and WOC nurse marking was 1.03 times more likely for each year since stoma surgery (M = 13.44, SD = 13.48). Mean QoL was 7.56 (SD = 1.59, range 3.84-10.00) and was positively

  13. Superconducting permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.; Laquer, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of superconducting permanent magnets with fields trapped in shells or cylinders of Type II superconductors is an old one. Unfortunately, the low values of 0.5 to 1T for the first flux jump field, which is independent of the actual current density, have frustrated its implementation with classical Type II superconductors. The fact that the flux jump fields for high temperature superconductors should be an order of magnitude larger at liquid nitrogen temperatures allows us to reconsider these options. Analysis of the hysteresis patterns, based on the critical state model, shows that, if the dimensions are chosen so that the sample is penetrated at a field B/sub p/, which is equal to or just less than the first flux jump field, B/sub fj/, a temporarily applied field of 2B/sub fj/ will trap 0.5 B/sub fj/. Thus for a 90 K superconductor with a B/sub fj/ of 6T, a permanent field of 3 T should be trapped, with an energy product of 1.8 MJ/m/sup 3/ (225 MG . Oe). This is five times as large as for the best permanent magnet materials. The authors discuss means to verify the analysis and the limitations imposed by the low critical current densities in presently available high temperature superconductors

  14. The M/G/1 queue with permanent customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine an M/G/1 FCFS (first come, first served) queue with two types of customers: ordinary customers, who arrive according to a Poisson process, and permanent customers, who immediately return to the end of the queue after having received a service. The influence of the permanent

  15. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  16. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder in speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Vilela, Nadia; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of auditory information for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules, the assessment of (central) auditory processing contributes to both the diagnosis and targeting of speech therapy in children with speech sound disorders. To study phonological measures and (central) auditory processing of children with speech sound disorder. Clinical and experimental study, with 21 subjects with speech sound disorder aged between 7.0 and 9.11 years, divided into two groups according to their (central) auditory processing disorder. The assessment comprised tests of phonology, speech inconsistency, and metalinguistic abilities. The group with (central) auditory processing disorder demonstrated greater severity of speech sound disorder. The cutoff value obtained for the process density index was the one that best characterized the occurrence of phonological processes for children above 7 years of age. The comparison among the tests evaluated between the two groups showed differences in some phonological and metalinguistic abilities. Children with an index value above 0.54 demonstrated strong tendencies towards presenting a (central) auditory processing disorder, and this measure was effective to indicate the need for evaluation in children with speech sound disorder. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesiodistal Crown Dimensions of Permanent Teeth in Bangladeshi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hossain Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variation in tooth size is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Several studies have reported tooth size variation between and within different racial groups. In order to improve the quality of dental care available, there is a great need for data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of the individual teeth of Bangladeshi population. Objectives: To find nominative data on the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent teeth in Bangladeshi population and to compare the findings with those reported in other populations. Methods: This observational study was done from January, 2008 to June, 2010 in the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. A total of 244 Bangladeshi subjects (77 males and 167 females, aged 7 – 36 years (mean 18.3 years with no age limit who attended at the above mentioned place for treatment were included in the study. Main outcome measure was mesiodistal crown dimension of each tooth class of permanent dentition. Mesiodistal crown dimensions were measured from dental casts of the permanent teeth. Results: Males had significantly larger teeth than females for maxillary central incisors (p < 0.05 and for the mandibular second premolars (p < 0.001. In both sexes, the maxillary lateral incisors showed the greatest variability [coefficient of variation (CV 10.7%] and the maxillary canines the least (CV 6.9% in mesiodistal crown dimension. Mandibular canines displayed greater sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal crown size than in any other tooth classes. Comparisons of the mesiodistal crown dimensions between population groups showed that Bangladeshis have tooth sizes close to those of North Indians, Icelanders and Jordanians but larger than those of North American Whites. Conclusions: From this study, a standard for the mesiodistal crown dimensions of permanent dentition of Bangladeshi males and females are obtained. Key Words: Crown dimension; Mesio

  18. Social network influences on technology acceptance : A matter of tie strength, centrality and density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Kate, Stephan; Haverkamp, Sophie; Mahmood, Fariha; Feldberg, Frans

    2010-01-01

    This study examines social network influences on the individual technology acceptance. Since it is believed that individuals' trust, opinions and behavior are influenced by their network, an analysis of that network may help to provide some explanations on technology acceptance. However, since

  19. Influence of the Nazaré Canyon, central Portuguese margin, on late winter coccolithophore assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro, C.; Sá, C.; de Stigter, H.; Oliveira, A.; Cachão, M.; Cros, L.; Borges, C.; Quaresma, L.; Santos, A.I.; Fortuño, J.-M.; Rodrigez, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to characterize coccolithophore assemblages occurring in the context of an active submarine canyon. Coccolithophores from the upper-middle sections of the Nazaré Canyon (central Portuguese margin) – one of the largest canyons of the European continental margin –

  20. Depression Amplifies the Influence of Central Obesity on 10-Year Incidence of Diabetes: Findings from MIDUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera K Tsenkova

    Full Text Available Central obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes but many obese individuals never develop diabetes, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. Depression has emerged as a key risk factor for poor glycemic control, but to our knowledge, no previous work has investigated whether depression amplifies the effect of central obesity on glucoregulation.We used a national sample of adults without prevalent diabetes (MIDUS; N = 919 to test for synergy between central obesity and depression in the development of diabetes 10 years later. We found that depression amplified the association of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with incident diabetes adjusted for age, race, gender, education, physical activity, and sleep problems (p = 0.01 for test of interaction. The relative risk for incident diabetes per every 0.1 increment in WHR was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.31; 2.33 in those without depression and 3.78 in those with depression (95% CI: 2.14; 6.66.These results confirm the role of depression as a robust risk factor for the development of diabetes and for the first time, demonstrate a synergy between depression and central obesity. Identifying and addressing depression could prove to be an effective approach to preventing diabetes in at risk individuals. Ultimately, elucidating the interplay among risk factors from different domains will be key to understanding multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions aimed at reducing diabetes risk.

  1. Factors influencing organic-horizon carbon pools in mixed-species stands of central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Shawn Fraver; Ivan J. Fernandez; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Randy Kolka; Marie-Cecile Gruselle

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation of multiple abiotic and biotic factors with organic-horizon (O-horizon) carbon (C) content on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in central Maine, USA. O-horizon samples were collected and their associated depths were recorded from stands managed with a range of silvicultural and harvesting treatments (i.e...

  2. Chloroplast DNA variation of oaks in western Central Europe and genetic consequences of human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, A.O.; Ziegenhagen, B.; Dam, van B.C.; Csaikl, U.M.; Coart, E.; Degen, B.; Burg, K.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Petit, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Oak chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was studied in a grid-based inventory in western Central Europe, including Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the northern parts of Upper and Lower Austria. A total of 2155 trees representing 426 populations of Quercus robur

  3. Influence of Central Obesity Assessed by Conicity Index on Lung Age in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Usha; Jagadamba

    2017-04-01

    Central obesity is an emerging public health problem in young adults which compromises lung mechanics. Conicity Index (CI) is a simple anthropometric measure to assess central adiposity. The concept of lung age relates to a person's current lung function at which his/her lung function would be considered abnormal in relation to the present actual age. To determine the effect of central obesity by CI on lung age in young adults. A total of 319 young adults in the age group 18-25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. Written informed consent and Institutional Ethical Clearance (IEC) approval were obtained. Anthropometric parameters were measured and CI was calculated using the following formula: CI = Waist Circumference (WC) (m)/ [0.109 X√ {Bodyweight (kg)/ Height (m)}] where 0.109 is a constant. Spirometry was performed and all the lung volumes and capacities were obtained. There was a significant increase in mean values of CI in obese young adults compared to non obese (1.36±0.15 and 1.16±0.08, pobesity on lung age in young adults was compared using an independent t-test. Mean of lung age was significantly higher in centrally obese young adults compared to non obese 23.87±3.03 and 21.30±2.6, pobese young adults compared to non obese. Hence, lung age can be used as a potential psychological tool to show an individual with central obesity that there is premature aging of their lungs.

  4. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the permanent dent depth and energy absorption of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  5. Influence of MR imaging on the central body temperature and peripheral temperature in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Krimmel, K.; Dopmeier, D.; Seiderer, M.; Lissner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal effects of in vitro and in vivo MR imaging were studied at different field strengths (0.35 T, 1.5 T) and radio frequency power, using a modified fluoroptical technique. A fiber optic probe that measures with an accuracy of up to 0.1 0 C was inserted via esophageal and rectal tubes in 20 test subjects to measure central body temperature. In another ten subjects the temperature was measured subcutaneously and by an intravenous catheter system. No significant temperature change was measurable in the central parts of the body (rectum, esophagus) within the static magnetic field and during MR imaging. Subcutaneous and intravenous measurements of the superficial temperature of the arm led to the same conclusions. Theoretical calculations of the absorbed energy confirm these findings

  6. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, Pcontrol balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, Pcontrol rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, Pcontrols. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism using sensory feedback depends on the level of neuropathy and the history of diabetes.

  7. Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Available online 25 October 2013 The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn–W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the m...

  8. MODELING POLLINATION FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ALFALFA SEED YIELD IN NORTH-CENTRAL NEVADA

    OpenAIRE

    BREAZEALE, Don; FERNANDEZ, George; NARAYANAN, Rangesan

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of both environmental and management factors on alfalfa seed yield was investigated on North–Central Nevada farms. Multiple linear regression models using 2002-2003 data revealed that cumulative tripped fl owers increased seed yield in both years. Field location does not appear to make a difference in the observed variation in tripped fl ower production. The results suggest that seed yield can be increased by (a) by placing bee shelters closer and (b) cultural practice...

  9. New permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.

    2001-05-01

    Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).

  10. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-01-01

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm 2 Co 17 or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  11. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Toosizadeh

    Full Text Available Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing. DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2 and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2 with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01, which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02, which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05 and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05. Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation

  12. Anthropogenic influence on recent bathymetric change in west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2010-01-01

    Two multibeam sonar surveys of west-central San Francisco Bay, California, were conducted in 1997 and 2008. Bathymetric change analysis between the two surveys indicates a loss of 14.1 million cubic meters (-3.1 cm/yr-1) of sediment during this time period, representing an approximately three-fold acceleration of the rate that was observed from prior depth change analysis from 1947 to 1979 for all of Central Bay, using more spatially coarse National Ocean Service (NOS) soundings. The portions of the overlapping survey areas between 1997 and 2008 designated as aggregate mining lease sites lost sediment at five times the rate of the remainder of west-central San Francisco Bay. Despite covering only 28% of the analysis area, volume change within leasing areas accounted for 9.2 million cubic meters of sediment loss, while the rest of the area lost 4.9 million cubic meters of sediment. The uncertainty of this recent analysis is more tightly constrained due to more stringent controls on vertical and horizontal position via tightly coupled, inertially aided differential Global Positioning Systems (GPS) solutions for survey vessel trajectory that virtually eliminate inaccuracies from traditional tide modeling and vessel motion artifacts. Further, quantification of systematic depth measurement error can now be calculated through comparison of static surfaces (e.g., bedrock) between surveys using seafloor habitat maps based on acoustic backscatter measurements and ground-truthing with grab samples and underwater video. Sediment loss in the entire San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half-century,as estimated from a series of bathymetric change studies, is 240 million cubic meters, and most of this is believed to be coarse sediment (i.e., sand and gravel) from Central Bay and the San Francisco Bar, which is likely to limit the sand supply to adjacent, open-coast beaches. This hypothesis is supported by a calibrated numerical model in a related study that indicates

  13. Influence of national centralization of oesophagogastric cancer on management and clinical outcome from emergency upper gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markar, S R; Mackenzie, H; Wiggins, T; Askari, A; Karthikesalingam, A; Faiz, O; Griffin, S M; Birkmeyer, J D; Hanna, G B

    2018-01-01

    In England in 2001 oesophagogastric cancer surgery was centralized. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether centralization of oesophagogastric cancer to high-volume centres has had an effect on mortality from different emergency upper gastrointestinal conditions. The Hospital Episode Statistics database was used to identify patients admitted to hospitals in England (1997-2012). The influence of oesophagogastric high-volume cancer centre status (20 or more resections per year) on 30- and 90-day mortality from oesophageal perforation, paraoesophageal hernia and perforated peptic ulcer was analysed. Over the study interval, 3707, 12 441 and 56 822 patients with oesophageal perforation, paraoesophageal hernia and perforated peptic ulcer respectively were included. There was a passive centralization to high-volume cancer centres for oesophageal perforation (26·9 per cent increase), paraoesophageal hernia (19·5 per cent increase) and perforated peptic ulcer (23·0 per cent increase). Management of oesophageal perforation in high-volume centres was associated with a reduction in 30-day (HR 0·58, 95 per cent c.i. 0·45 to 0·74) and 90-day (HR 0·62, 0·49 to 0·77) mortality. High-volume cancer centre status did not affect mortality from paraoesophageal hernia or perforated peptic ulcer. Annual emergency admission volume thresholds at which mortality improved were observed for oesophageal perforation (5 patients) and paraoesophageal hernia (11). Following centralization, the proportion of patients managed in high-volume cancer centres that reached this volume threshold was 88·0 per cent for oesophageal perforation, but only 30·3 per cent for paraoesophageal hernia. Centralization of low incidence conditions such as oesophageal perforation to high-volume cancer centres provides a greater level of expertise and ultimately reduces mortality. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  15. The influence of central corneal thickness and age on intraocular pressure measured by pneumotonometry, non-contact tonometry, the Tono-Pen XL, and Goldmann applanation tonometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonnu, P-A; Ho, T; Newson, T; El Sheikh, A; Sharma, K; White, E; Bunce, C; Garway-Heath, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT) on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements made with the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), Tono-Pen XL, ocular blood flow tonograph (OBF), and Canon TX-10 non-contact tonometer (NCT).

  16. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  17. The influence of mechanical vibration on local and central balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Hossein; Mohler, Jane; Marlinski, Vladimir; Rashedi, Ehsan; Toosizadeh, Nima

    2018-04-11

    Fall prevention has an indispensable role in enhancing life expectancy and quality of life among older adults. The first step to prevent falls is to devise reliable methods to identify individuals at high fall risk. The purpose of the current study was to assess alterations in local postural muscle and central sensory balance control mechanisms due to low-frequency externally applied vibration among elders at high fall risk, in comparison with healthy controls, as a potential tool for assessing fall risk. Three groups of participants were recruited: healthy young (n = 10; age = 23 ± 2 years), healthy elders (n = 10; age = 73 ± 3 years), and elders at high fall risk (n = 10; age = 84 ± 9 years). Eyes-open and eyes-closed upright standing balance performance was measured with no vibration, 30 Hz, and 40 Hz vibration of Gastrocnemius muscles. When vibratory stimulation was applied, changes in local-control performance manifested significant differences among the groups (p fall risk participants when compared to healthy young and older adults, respectively. On the other hand, vibration-induced changes in the central-control performance were not significant between groups (p ≥ 0.19). Results suggest that local-control deficits are responsible for balance behavior alterations among elders at high fall risk and healthy individuals. This observation may be attributable to deterioration of short-latency reflexive loop in elders at high fall risk. On the other hand, we could not ascribe the balance alterations to problems related to central nervous system performance or long-latency responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Central Obesity and H. pylori Infection Influence Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in an Asian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The prevalence rates of Barrett's esophagus (BE in western countries are higher than Asian ones, but little is known about their difference among risk factors of BE. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of various risk factors including central obesity, body mass index (BMI, metabolic syndrome and H. pylori infection, with BE.A total of 161 subjects with BE were enrolled and compared to age- and gender-matched controls randomly sampled (1:4 from check-up center in same hospital. Central obesity was defined by waist circumference (female>80cm; male>90cm, metabolic syndrome by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Taiwan. Independent risk factors for BE were identified by multiple logistic regression analyses.The mean age for BE was 53.8±13.7 years and 75.8% was male. H. pylori infection status was detected by the rapid urease test with the prevalence of 28.4% and 44.4% in the BE patients and controls, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analyses showed the risk was associated with higher waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-3.60, metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.38-2.96 and negative H. pylori infection (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BE associated with higher waist circumference (adjusted OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.89-4.12 and negative H. pylori infection (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70.Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of BE whereas H. pylori infection with a lower risk in an ethnic Chinese population.

  19. Catheter Occlusion in Home Infusion: The Influence of Needleless Connector Design on Central Catheter Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann

    Thrombotic catheter occlusion is a common complication associated with central venous catheters (CVCs). A wide variety of needleless connectors that differ greatly in design and function are available for use with CVCs; however, there are a limited number of studies comparing the catheter occlusion rate associated with differently designed needleless connectors. This retrospective observational study compared occlusion rates associated with a split-septum neutral-displacement needleless connector versus those of a solid-surface neutral-reflux needleless connector in patients undergoing home infusion therapy. The neutral-reflux needleless connector was associated with a significant reduction in occlusion rate and thrombolytic use versus the neutral-displacement needleless connector.

  20. Vegetation, topography and daily weather influenced burn severity in central Idaho and western Montana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan S. Birch; Penelope Morgan; Crystal A. Kolden; John T. Abatzoglou; Gregory K. Dillon; Andrew T. Hudak; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Burn severity as inferred from satellite-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is useful for evaluating fire impacts on ecosystems but the environmental controls on burn severity across large forest fires are both poorly understood and likely to be different than those influencing fire extent. We related dNBR to environmental variables including vegetation,...

  1. Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, L. A.; Musolff, A.; Mulch, A.; Olago, D.; Odada, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and

  2. Influences of deglaciation on the river run-off in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Glazyrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers form a great deal of runoff of rivers in Central Asia. It is clear that amount of melted water directly depends on total area of glaciers in the river basins – their glaciation. It is well known that at present the area quickly reduces. The complete inventory of glaciers was performed in former Soviet Union in the middle of last century. Airphoto images were used as a basis for our calculations. The inventory was repeated later for several river basins using airphoto- and space images. Unfortunately only three inventories is performed in several river basins for the last half of XX century. Amount of water, coming to a river network from glaciers, can be divided into two parts. The first is usual annual melting. It exists under stationary glaciation condition. The second, being part of the first, is caused by reduction of the glaciation volume. It can be negative in some years when glaciers volume is increasing as a result of favorable meteorological conditions. In these cases the part of water containing in seasonal snow cover does not go to river network. Two components of the glacial feeding were calculated for six rivers located in various regions of Central Asia. It is shown that present day glaciers reduction does not lead to disastrous consequences for river run-off. It leads only to the changes of annual distribution in the run-off. The results should be considered as preliminary because of low accuracy of hydrometeorolological data and number of admissions during calculation.

  3. Environmental and spatial factors influencing the distribution of cladocerans in lakes across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of local environmental and spatial factors in explaining variation in the composition of cladoceran assemblages from surface sediments within a set of 50 lakes spanning a broad southwest to northeast transect across the central Canadian Arctic treeline region from Yellowknife (Northwest Territories to the northern boundary of the Thelon Game Sanctuary (Nunavut Territory. Within each lake, the cladoceran fauna was identified based on the subfossil exoskeletal remains preserved in recently deposited lake sediments. Physical and chemical limnological data were measured in August of 1996 and 1998. Spatial data were generated based on latitude and longitude using Principal Coordinates of Neighbors Matrices analysis (PCNM. The relationships between cladocerans and the measured environmental and spatial variables were examined using both unconstrained (Principal Components Analysis, PCA and constrained (Redundancy Analysis, RDA ordination techniques. Variance partitioning, based on partial RDAs, was used to identify the relative importance of significant environmental and spatial explanatory variables. Three environmental variables were identified as significantly influencing cladoceran community structure: surface water temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and total phosphorus (TP. Five PCNM-generated spatial variables were also significant in explaining cladoceran distributions. Variance partitioning attributed 14% of the variance in the distribution of Cladocera to spatial factors, an additional 10% to spatially-structured environmental variables, and 8% to environmental factors that were not spatially-structured. Within the central Canadian Arctic treeline region, spatial and other environmental processes had an important influence on the distribution of cladoceran communities. The strong influence of spatial factors was related to the large ecoclimatic gradient across treeline. The distribution patterns of cladocerans

  4. Whole-body hypothermia has central and peripheral influences on elbow flexor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Farrell; Kalmar, Jayne M; Pretorius, Thea; Gardiner, Phillip F; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2011-05-01

    The superimposed twitch technique was used to study the effect of whole-body hypothermia on maximal voluntary activation of elbow flexors. Seven subjects [26.4 ± 4 years old (mean ± SD)] were exposed to 60 min of either immersion in 8°C water (hypothermia) or sitting in 22°C air (control). Voluntary activation was assessed during brief (3 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and then during a 2 min fatiguing sustained MVC. Hypothermia (core temperature 34.8 ± 0.9°C) decreased maximal voluntary torque from 98.2 ± 1.0 to 82.8 ± 5.8% MVC (P < 0.001) and increased central conduction time from 7.9 ± 0.4 to 9.1 ± 0.7 ms (P < 0.05). Hypothermia also decreased maximal resting twitch amplitude from 17.6 ± 4.0 to 10.0 ± 1.7% MVC (P < 0.005) and increased the time-to-peak twitch tension from 55.4 ± 4.0 to 79.0 ± 11.7 ms (P < 0.001). During the 2 min contraction, hypothermia decreased initial torque (P < 0.01) but attenuated the subsequent rate of torque decline (control from 95.5 ± 4 to 29.4 ± 8% MVC; and hypothermia from 85.3 ± 8 to 37.3 ± 5% MVC; P < 0.01). Cortical superimposed twitches increased as fatigue developed but were always lower in the hypothermic conditions. Cortical superimposed twitches increased from a value of 0.4 ± 0.3% MVC prefatigue to 3.9 ± 1.4% MVC postfatigue (P < 0.001) in the hypothermic conditions and from 1.7 ± 0.9 to 5.5 ± 2.3% MVC in control conditions. Our results suggest that hypothermia decreases MVCs primarily via peripheral mechanisms and attenuates the rate of fatigue development by reducing central fatigue.

  5. The Object Permanence Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel E.

    1996-01-01

    Developmentalists have overlooked the problem of the real impermanence of things. Though the metaphor of impermanence is central to Piagetian and neo-nativist accounts of representation, the development of the understanding of impermanence is unstudied. This article proposes that the development of the concept of impermanence is distinct from the…

  6. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  7. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  8. Factors that influence spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions: a model centralized in the medical professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, María T; Polonia, Jorge; Gestal-Otero, Juan J; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2004-11-01

    The spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through the yellow card and made concrete by the knowledge and attitudes of doctors, has been rousing a great deal of bibliographical interest in recent years. However, there does not seem to be any actual revision in the theme on which the theoretical models that explain the process of decision in reporting are proposed. In this work an explanatory model of the factors that condition reporting is proposed and a revision of the literature on the subject has also been carried out. The proposed model is centralized in the medical professional and it considers the habit of reporting as the result of the doctor's formation and his interaction with the environment. The combination of knowledge-attitudes-practices and the theory of the satisfaction of needs seemed very adequate for ADR systematization. The results also indicate that, to improve the participation of health professionals in surveillance systems through spontaneous reporting, it might be necessary to design combined strategies that modify both intrinsic (knowledge, attitudes) and extrinsic (relationship between health professionals and their patients, the national health system and pharmaceutical companies) factors.

  9. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Joshi

    Full Text Available Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  10. Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-11-01

    The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn-W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of metals from the mine wastes into the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from Rio tailing has a pH around 3 and high metal concentrations. In Zêzere river, Fe and As are the most rapidly depleted downstream from AMD once As adsorbs, coprecipitate and form compounds with iron oxyhydroxides. The Zêzere river waters are oversaturated with respect to kaolinite and goethite and ferrihydrite can precipitate on stream with a near-neutral pH. At sites having low pH the dissolved Fe species in the water, mainly, occur as sulfate complexes due to a high SO4 concentration. Melanterite (Fe2+(SO4)·7(H2O)) and minor amounts of rozenite (Fe2+(SO4)·4(H2O)) and szomolnokite (Fe2+(SO4)·(H2O)) were observed on Rio tailing basement.

  11. The influence of landscape heterogeneity - ground beetles (coleoptera: carabidae) in fthiotida, central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anna Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Pitfall traps were used to sample Carabidae in agricultural land of the Spercheios valley, Fthiotida, Central Greece. Four pairs of cultivated fields were sampled. One field of each pair was located in a heterogeneous area and the other in a more homogeneous area. Heterogeneous areas were composed of small fields. They had high percentages of non-cropped habitats and a high diversity of land use types. Homogeneous areas were composed of larger fields. They had lower percentages of non-cropped habitats and a lower diversity of land use types. One pair of fields had been planted with cotton, one with maize, one with olives and one with wheat. Altogether 28 carabid species were recorded. This paper describes the study areas, the sampling methods used and presents the data collected during the study. Neither heterogeneous nor homogeneous areas had consistently higher abundance levels, activity density levels, species richness levels or diversity levels. However, significant differences were seen in some of the comparisons between heterogeneous and homogeneous areas.

  12. The combined influence of central and peripheral routes in the online persuasion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanJosé-Cabezudo, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Arranz, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Cillán, Jesús

    2009-06-01

    The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) is one of the most widely used psychological theories in academic literature to account for how advertising information is processed. The current work seeks to overturn one of the basic principles of the ELM and takes account of new variables in the model that help to explain the online persuasion process more clearly. Specifically, we posit that in a context of high-involvement exposure to advertising (e.g., Web pages), central and peripheral processing routes may act together. In a repeated-measures experimental design, 112 participants were exposed to two Web sites of a fictitious travel agency, differing only in their design--serious versus amusing. Findings evidence that a peripheral cue, such as how the Web pages are presented, does prove relevant when attempting to reflect the level of effectiveness. Moreover, if we take account of individuals' motivation when accessing the Internet, whether cognitive or affective, the motivation will impact their response to the Web site design. The work contributes to ELM literature and may help firms to pinpoint those areas and features of Internet advertising that prove most efficient.

  13. Influencing the central heating technologies installed in homes: The role of social capital in supply chain networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Faye; Shipworth, Michelle; Hitchings, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The likely installation of, and potential energy savings from, low carbon technologies in domestic buildings is not only dependent on those who fit them, but also the broader supply chains of which they are part. Despite this, the role of supply chain actors has been largely overlooked in strategies seeking to encourage the installation of more sustainable domestic heating technologies. With reference to central heating, this paper responds through an ethnographic analysis of how plumbers' merchants and sales representatives can influence the work of heating installers in the United Kingdom. It applies two dimensions of the concept of ‘social capital’: relational and structural. Relational social capital focuses on the trust, loyalty and reciprocity at play in relations, whilst structural social capital considers how the strength of tie can influence those to whom people turn for advice and support. Together, these ideas demonstrate how relationships amongst these groups can serve to influence product choice and facilitate information exchange. The paper concludes by discussing how these supply chains might be engaged with as a means of encouraging the installation of low carbon domestic technologies. - Highlights: •Ethnography is used to investigate the relationships in heating supply chains. •Social capital is seen to be an important part of these relationships. •These relationships could help in the promotion of low carbon technologies.

  14. Rainfall variability and its influence on surface flow regimes. Examples from the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, M. [Debre Zeit (Ethiopia); Sauerborn, P. [Seminar fuer Geographie und ihre Didaktik, Univ. zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The article shows results of an international and interdisciplinary project with the title 'Rainfall and its Erosivity in Ethiopia'. Rainfall variability affects the water resource management of Ethiopia. The influence of rainfall variability on flow regimes was investigated using five gauging stations with data availability from 1982-1997. It was confirmed that the variability in rainfall has a direct implication for surface runoff. Surface runoff declined at most of the gauging stations investigated. Therefore, effective water resource management is recommended for the study area. Future research should focus on watershed management which includes land-use and land cover. The question posed here is whether the variability in rainfall significantly affected surface flow in the study area. (orig.)

  15. Land Cover Influence on Wet Season Storm Runoff Generation and Hydrologic Flowpaths in Central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, A. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Barnard, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    While relationships between land use/land cover and hydrology are well studied and understood in temperate parts of the world, little research exists in the humid tropics, where hydrologic research is often decades behind. Specifically, quantitative information on how physical and biological differences across varying land covers influence runoff generation and hydrologic flowpaths in the humid tropics is scarce; frequently leading to poorly informed hydrologic modelling and water policy decision making. This research effort seeks to quantify how tropical land cover change may alter physical hydrologic processes in the economically important Panama Canal Watershed (Republic of Panama) by separating streamflow into its different runoff components using end member mixing analysis. The samples collected for this project come from small headwater catchments of four varying land covers (mature tropical forest, young secondary forest, active pasture, recently clear-cut tropical forest) within the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Agua Salud Project. During the past three years, samples have been collected at the four study catchments from streamflow and from a number of water sources within hillslope transects, and have been analyzed for stable water isotopes, major cations, and major anions. Major ion analysis of these samples has shown distinct geochemical differences for the potential runoff generating end members sampled (soil moisture/ preferential flow, groundwater, overland flow, throughfall, and precipitation). Based on this finding, an effort was made from May-August 2017 to intensively sample streamflow during wet season storm events, yielding a total of 5 events of varying intensity in each land cover/catchment, with sampling intensity ranging from sub-hourly to sub-daily. The focus of this poster presentation will be to present the result of hydrograph separation's done using end member mixing analysis from this May-August 2017 storm dataset. Expected

  16. METHANE EMISSION FROM PADDY FIELDS AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihasto Setyanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of methane (CH4 in the atmosphere is increasing at 1% per annum and rice fields are one of the sources that contribute to about 10-15% of the atmospheric CH4. One of the options to reduce greenhouse gas emission from rice fields is probably through water management. A field study was conducted to investigate the effects of water management practices on CH4 emission from rice field plots on a silty sand Aeric Tropaquept soil at Research Station for Agricultural Environment Preservation, Jakenan, Central Java, Indonesia, during the dry season of March to June 2002. Four water regimes tested were: (1 5 cm continuous flooding (CF, (2 0-1 cm continuous flooding (ST, (3 intermittent irrigation (IR where plots received continuously 5 cm of flooding with two times of draining at 15-20 and 25-30 days after transplanting (DAT, and (4 pulse irrigation (PI where plots were watered until 5 cm level and left to dry by itself until the water table reached 30 cm beneath soil surface then watered again. The total CH4 emissions of the four water treatments were 254, 185, 136 and 96 kg CH4 ha-1 for CF, ST, IR and PI, respectively. Methane emission increased during the early growing season, which coincided with the low redox potential of -100 to -150 mV in all treatments. Dry matter weight of straw and filled grain among the water treatments did not show significant differences. Likewise, total grain yield at 14% moisture content was not significantly different among treatments. However, this result should be carefully interpreted because the rice plants in all water treatments were infested by stem borer, which reduced the total grain yield of IR64 between 11% and 16%. This study suggests that intermittent and pulse irrigation practices will be important not only for water use efficiency, but also for CH4 emission reduction.

  17. ZOMG - II. Does the halo assembly history influence central galaxies and gas accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano

    2017-08-01

    The growth rate and the internal dynamics of galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes depend on their location within the cosmic web. Haloes that sit at the nodes grow in mass till the present time and are dominated by radial orbits. Conversely, haloes embedded in prominent filaments do not change much in size and are dominated by tangential orbits. Using zoom hydrodynamical simulations including star formation and feedback, we study how gas accretes on to these different classes of objects, which, for simplicity, we dub 'accreting' and 'stalled' haloes. We find that all haloes get a fresh supply of newly accreted gas in their inner regions, although this slowly decreases with time, in particular for the stalled haloes. The inflow of new gas is always higher than (but comparable with) that of recycled material. Overall, the cold-gas fraction increases (decreases) with time for the accreting (stalled) haloes. In all cases, a stellar disc and a bulge form at the centre of the simulated haloes. The total stellar mass is in excellent agreement with expectations based on the abundance-matching technique. Many properties of the central galaxies do not seem to correlate with the large-scale environment in which the haloes reside. However, there are two notable exceptions that characterize stalled haloes with respect to their accreting counterparts: (I) The galaxy disc contains much older stellar populations. (II) Its vertical scaleheight is larger by a factor of 2 or more. This thickening is likely due to the heating of the long-lived discs by mergers and close flybys.

  18. Nematode community structure along a central Chile margin transect influenced by the oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; King, Ian; Mendoza, Guillermo; Sellanes, Javier; De Ley, Paul; Levin, Lisa A.

    2013-08-01

    Nematodes are among the metazoans most tolerant of low-oxygen conditions and play major roles in seafloor ecosystem processes. Nematode communities were studied in sediments off Concepción, Central Chile, spanning the outer shelf within the OMZ (122 m) to the mid-lower continental slope (972 m) beneath the OMZ. The total density and biomass of nematodes (core depth 0-10 cm) ranged from 677 to 2006 ind. 10 cm-2, and 168.4 to 506.5 μg DW 10 cm-2, respectively. Among metazoan meiofaunal taxa, nematodes predominated at all sites both in terms of relative abundance (83.7-99.4%) and biomass (53.8-88.1%), followed by copepods, nauplii and polychaetes. Nematodes were represented by 33 genera distributed among 17 families, with densities greatest at low oxygen sites (122-364 m; ~2000 ind. 10 cm-2). Nematode generic and trophic diversity, and individual biomass were lowest, and Rank 1 dominance was highest, at the most oxygen-depleted site (122 m), despite the fact that the organic carbon content of the sediment was maximal at this depth. At the most oxygenated slope sites (827 and 972 m), all of Wieser's nematode feeding groups were represented. In contrast, at the lowest-oxygen site, only selective deposit (bacterial) feeders (1A) were present, indicating a reduction in trophic complexity. A large percentage of nematodes inhabited subsurface sediment layers (>1 cm). At deeper, more oxygenated sites (827 and 972 m), nematode individual biomass increased downcore, while within the OMZ, nematode biomass was low and remained relatively uniform through the sediment column. The concentration of nematodes in deeper sediment layers, the vertical distribution of the feeding groups, as well as the high nutritional quality of the deeper layers, suggest a differential resource partitioning of the food available, which may reduce interspecific competition.

  19. Uso de cateteres venosos totalmente implantados para nutrição parenteral: cuidados, tempo de permanência e ocorrência de complicações infecciosas Long-term central venous catheter for total parenteral nutrition: catheter care, permanence period, and incidence of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Del Lama de Unamuno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Cateteres venosos totalmente implantados são utilizados em pacientes com síndrome do intestino curto, para realizar o suporte nutricional parenteral, o qual mantém estes pacientes vivos, pois fornece-lhes nutrientes que são absorvidos pela via digestiva. No entanto, estes cateteres não são isentos de complicações. As infecções relacionadas aos cateteres venosos são as complicações mais temidas e sua incidência varia de 3% a 20%, aumentando em pacientes mais graves. O objetivo do presente estudo é descrever as complicações infecciosas em pacientes recebendo nutrição parenteral por meio de cateteres venosos totalmente implantados. Tais cateteres são utilizados pela Divisão de Nutrição Clínica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, para realizar o suporte nutricional parenteral em pacientes submetidos a ressecções extensas de intestino delgado. Foram avaliadas as complicações infecciosas ocorridas com 21 cateteres, implantados em 16 pacientes. O tempo de permanência dos cateteres foi de 768±664,3 dias (mediana 529 dias e a taxa de infecção foi de 0,029 infecções/paciente/ano, resultados que se comparam às taxas de infecção observadas em países desenvolvidos. Concluiu-se que os cuidados observados no manuseio destes cateteres foram de fundamental importância para diminuir a incidência de infecção nestes pacientes.Long-term venous catheters are used for the total parenteral nutrition infusion, which is essential for feeding short-bowel syndrome patients. However, complications are likely to occur. The incidence of catheter related infections ranges from 3 to 20% in hospitalized patients. The Divisão de Nutrição Clínica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil, has been providing nutrition support to short-bowel syndrome patients, using totally implantable venous catheters. This is a

  20. The GeoFlow experiment-spherical Rayleigh-Benard convection under the influence of an artificial central force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellert, M; Beltrame, P; Egbers, C

    2005-01-01

    Spherical Rayleigh-Benard convection under the influence of an artificial central force field produced by the so-called dielectrophoretic effect is studied as a simplified model of the flow in the outer earth core. The fluid motion there is most probably driving the earth's dynamo and the energy source for the earth's magnetic field. Studying convective flows in earth-like geometry could lead to a deeper understanding of the basics of these processes. This research is a preparatory study for the experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). A bifurcation-theoretical approach shows the existence of heteroclinic cycles between spherical modes (l, l + 1) for the non-rotating system. This behavior depends strong on the radius ratio of the spheres and will be hard to detect in the experiment. For slow rotations interactions of the azimuthal modes (m, m + 1) found in numerical simulations for supercritical states are supposed to be experimentally observable

  1. Influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on annual bluegill growth in small impoundments of central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Sundmark, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between environmental variables and the growth rates of fishes are important and rapidly expanding topics in fisheries ecology. We used an informationtheoretic approach to evaluate the influence of lake surface area and total phosphorus on the age-specific growth rates of Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) in 6 small impoundments in central Georgia. We used model averaging to create composite models and determine the relative importance of the variables within each model. Results indicated that surface area was the most important factor in the models predicting growth of Bluegills aged 1–4 years; total phosphorus was also an important predictor for the same age-classes. These results suggest that managers can use water quality and lake morphometry variables to create predictive models specific to their waterbody or region to help develop lake-specific management plans that select for and optimize local-level habitat factors for enhancing Bluegill growth.

  2. [Willingness and influencing factors related to "centralized slaughtering, fresh poultry listing and marketing" strategy among the household chefs in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W H; Ma, Y; Lu, J Y; Yan, H C; Zhou, J H; Liao, X L; Zeng, J H; Lin, W Q; Wu, D; Zhang, Z B; Yang, Z C; Chen, Z Q; Chen, J D; Li, T G

    2018-02-10

    Objective: To study the willingness and influence factors related to "centralized slaughtering, fresh poultry listing and marketing" strategy, among the household chefs, and provide reference for government to adjust and optimize the strategy on avian influenza prevention. Methods: According to the geographical characteristics and regional functions, 6 'monitoring stations' were selected from 12 residential districts of Guangzhou, respectively. Another 21 meat markets which selling live poultry, were selected in each station and 5 household chefs of each market were invited to attend a face to face interview. Basic information, personal cognitive, willingness and influencing factors to the policy were under study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used. Results: A total of 664 household chefs underwent the survey and results showed that the rate of support to the "centralized slaughtering, fresh poultry listing and marketing" strategy was 44.6% (296/664). Results from the multi-factor logistic regression showed that those household chefs who were males ( OR =1.618, 95% CI : 1.156-2.264, P =0.005), having received higher education ( OR =1.814, 95% CI : 1.296-2.539, P =0.001), or believing that the existence of live poultry stalls was related to the transmission of avian influenza ( OR =1.918, 95% CI : 1.341-2.743, P marketing" strategy. Conclusion: Detailed study on this subject and, setting up pilot project in some areas as well as prioritizing the education programs for household chefs seemed helpful to the implementation of the 'freezing-fresh poultry' policy.

  3. How Does Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Influence Glial Cells in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is widely used in the clinic, and while it has a direct effect on neuronal excitability, the beneficial effects experienced by patients are likely to include the indirect activation of other cell types. Research conducted over the past two decades has made it increasingly clear that a population of non-neuronal cells, collectively known as glia, respond to and facilitate neuronal signalling. Each glial cell type has the ability to respond to electrical activity directly or indirectly, making them likely cellular effectors of TMS. TMS has been shown to enhance adult neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation, but the effect on cell survival and differentiation is less certain. Furthermore there is limited information regarding the response of astrocytes and microglia to TMS, and a complete paucity of data relating to the response of oligodendrocyte-lineage cells to this treatment. However, due to the critical and yet multifaceted role of glial cells in the CNS, the influence that TMS has on glial cells is certainly an area that warrants careful examination.

  4. Human and veterinary pharmaceutical abundance and transport in a rural central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Melody J; Smith, Lora; Frey, Jeff

    2013-02-15

    Previous research has documented the ubiquity of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwater, though their persistence and transport is relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the abundance and transport of human and veterinary PPCPs in a rural, central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Research objectives also aimed to identify mechanisms controlling abundance and transport. PPCP concentrations and stream physicochemical characteristics were measured monthly over one year at multiple sites along a 60 km reach. Overall, human PPCPs were more abundant and measured at higher concentrations than veterinary pharmaceuticals. Veterinary pharmaceutical concentrations (lincomycin, sulfamethazine) were greatest in stream reaches adjacent to CAFOs. No distinct spatial variation was observed for human PPCPs. However, caffeine and paraxanthine had significant temporal variation with higher concentrations in winter. In contrast, DEET had higher concentrations in summer. Pharmaceutical load (μg/s) ranged fromcaffeine are transported farther than triclosan though had lower loss velocities (loss relative to abundance). Loss rate of PPCPs was an order of magnitude lower than nitrate-N loss rate. Human PPCPs were more abundant than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this rural watershed influenced by CAFOs. Further, concentrations had significant temporal and spatial variation highlighting differential sources and fates. Thus, mechanisms driving PPCP retention and transport need to be identified to aid management of these emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Nosal, M.; Muntifering, R.B.; Krupa, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O 3 concentrations and SO 2 and NO x exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O 3 ) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner

  6. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Nosal, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)]. E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Krupa, S.V. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO {sub x} ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O{sub 3} concentrations and SO{sub 2} and NO {sub x} exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O{sub 3}) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner.

  7. The influence of breastfeeding beliefs on the sexual behavior of the Tarok in north-central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia

    2013-12-01

    The paper investigated some of the beliefs around the breastfeeding norm of the postpartum abstinence and how these influence sexual behavior. It was based on a larger project which explored how gender relations affect reproductive processes and the reproductive health of Tarok women in north-central Nigeria. Research was conducted in four Tarok communities using qualitative instruments, namely in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Participants were female and male community members of 15 years and above. Sixteen IDIs (four per community) were conducted with women, religious and traditional leaders as well as senior health providers. Twenty-four FGD sessions (six per community) were held with different groups in the community and data were descriptively analyzed. Findings demonstrated customary double standards in sexual matters; the significance and influence of certain unfounded traditional beliefs around breastfeeding on sexual behavior and choices; as well as some of the changes that characterize sexual relationships among modern Tarok couples brought about by Christianity, Western education and modernity. Traditional breastfeeding norms and beliefs seek to overly control women's sexuality while giving precedence to the interest of the child and its father. The study calls for a change in attitude to meet the demands of the current reality in order to strengthen marital unions and guarantee healthy families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  9. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...

  10. The influence of partnership centrality on organizational perceptions of support: a case study of the AHLN structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Spencer; Smith, Cynthia; Simpson, Tammy; Minke, Sharlene Wolbeck

    2006-10-31

    Knowledge of the structure and character of inter-organizational relationships found among health promotion organizations is a prerequisite for the development of evidence-based network-level intervention activities. The Alberta Healthy Living Network (AHLN) mapped the inter-organizational structure of its members to examine the effects of the network environment on organizational-level perceptions. This exploratory analysis examines whether network structure, specifically partnership ties among AHLN members, influences organizational perceptions of support after controlling for organizational-level attributes. Organizational surveys were conducted with representatives from AHLN organizations as of February 2004 (n = 54). Organizational attribute and inter-organizational data on various network dimensions were collected. Organizations were classified into traditional and non-traditional categories. We examined the partnership network dimension. In- and out-degree centrality scores on partnership ties were calculated for each organization and tested against organizational perceptions of available financial support. Non-traditional organizations are more likely to view financial support as more readily available for their HEALTR programs and activities than traditional organizations (1.57, 95% CI: .34, 2.79). After controlling for organizational characteristics, organizations that have been frequently identified by other organizations as valuable partners in the AHLN network were found significantly more likely to perceive a higher sense of funding availability (In-degree partnership value) (.03, 95% CI: .01, .05). Organizational perceptions of a supportive environment are framed not only by organizational characteristics but also by an organization's position in an inter-organizational network. Network contexts can influence the way that organizations perceive their environment and potentially the actions that organizations may take in light of such perceptions. By

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  12. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  13. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  14. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2016 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  15. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2014 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  16. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2015 State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  17. REGIONAL CENTRALITIES, ACADEMIC CENTRALITIES: TERRITORIAL RECONFIGURATIONS IN BRAZIL AND THEIR INFLUENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHY IN BAHIA (1870-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Nunes de Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate the connections between regional and academic centralities. The investigations were focused on the changes in Brazilian national territory, contemplating its movements of configuration and reconfiguration. In the article was analyzed the period between 1870 to 1970, because it is known that it held major changes in Brazilian social life and in there definition of its spatial and regional situations. This historical review intents to demonstrate that the academic centrality of Geography in Brazil followed the shift of the political and economic centralities, which moved from the Northeast region to the Southeast region, especially to the state of São Paulo. The article also seeks to bring into light part of the history of Geography that was developed in Bahia and its contributions to the progress of Geography in Brazil considering that it is largely unknown to most of Brazilian geographers.

  18. Influence of riverine outputs on sandy beaches of Higuerote, central coast of Venezuela Influencia de aportes fluviales en playas arenosas de Higuerote, costa central de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of riverine outputs from the Tuy River on the coastal processes of near sandy beaches was assessed by measuring the physical and chemical characteristics of water and sediment samples at eight sites along the north central Venezuelan coast and from the rivers that flow through this región into the sea (Tuy, Capaya, Curiepe during two field surveys. In addition, the behavior of the Tuy River discharge plume was evaluated using remote sensors, and its effect on the population abundance and size structure of the clam Tivela mactroides was determined. Of the three rivers evaluated, the Tuy River had the highest impact on the coastal zone (789.15 ± 190.63 km² in terms of flow rate (246.39 m³ s-1, nutrients (659.61 ± 503.27 g s-1total nitrogen; 52 ± 53.09 g s-1 total phosphorus and sedimentary material (9320.84 ± 9728.15 g s-1. The variables measured (salinity, total nitrogen and phosphorus, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon showed a spatial gradient along the coast. Tivela mactroides had the highest biomass and density (9126.8 ± 1562 g m-2; 9222.22 ± 1976.72 ind m-2 at the sites farthest from the river mouths and smaller sizes (Para evaluar los aportes del río Tuy sobre los procesos costeros en playas arenosas cercanas, se examinó en dos campañas de muestreo, las características físicas y químicas a nivel de agua y sedimento en ocho estaciones ubicadas a lo largo de la costa centro norte de Venezuela, el cauce de los ríos que allí desembocan (Tuy, Capaya, Curiepe, además del comportamiento de la pluma del río Tuy mediante sensores remotos y su influencia sobre las poblaciones de la almeja Tivela mactroides en cuanto a abundancia y estructura de talla. El río Tuy tuvo mayor predominio sobre la zona costera (789,15 ± 190,63 km , presentó el mayor aporte líquido (246,39 m³ s-1, de nutrientes (659,61 ± 503,27 g s-1 nitrógeno total; 52 ± 53,09 g s-1fósforo total y material sedimentario (9320,84 ± 9728,15 g

  19. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Carr

    Full Text Available Water Productivity (WP of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably

  20. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  1. Unusual bilaterally fused teeth in permanent dentition of a 9 -year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of bilateral fusion of teeth in permanent dentition is an unusual and rare condition. It is a developmental anomaly characterized by the union of two separate tooth germs during formation. The case of a 9 year old boy with fusion of permanent maxillary central incisors with associated bilateral disto-palatal ...

  2. Tolerating the “doubting Thomas”: how centrality of religious beliefs vs. practices influences prejudice against atheists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1–2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups. PMID:26441728

  3. Opinions from teachers in the Fresno area of Central California regarding the influence of mobile technology on their students’ learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaridas, Fermín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant results of a study in which opinions of the teachers in the area of Fresno (Central California, USA about the effects of the integration of mobile devices into the teaching-learning process. Among other objectives, this study has tried to analyze the influence of mobile learning over three very important learning factors: affective-emotional (motivation, ethic-social (social skills and the cognitive one (cognitive skills. In order to carry out this study, a descriptive methodological approach was adopted, using the survey technique as the most adequate method to collect teachers´ opinions in a relatively fast and precise way. Obtained results show a widespread agreement among teachers about the pedagogical potential of mobile devices as a tool to improve learning quality. In general terms, conclusions suggest an improvement in the students’ interest on educational tasks, an increase during study activities, a better collaborative work, as well as an improvement of creativity and information acquisition.

  4. Farm and socio-economic characteristics of smallholder milk producers and their influence on technology adoption in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos Galdino Martínez; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    In order to identify the factors influencing adoption of technologies promoted by government to small-scale dairy farmers in the highlands of central Mexico, a field survey was conducted. A total of 115 farmers were grouped through cluster analysis (CA) and divided into three wealth status categories (high, medium and low) using wealth ranking. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the association of wealth status with technology adoption. Four groups of farms were differentiated in terms of farms' dimensions, farmers' education, sources of incomes, wealth status, management of herd, monetary support by government and technological availability. Statistical differences (p technologies identified, six of which focused on crop or forage production and 11 of which were related to animal husbandry. Relatives and other farmers played an important role in knowledge diffusion and technology adoption. Although wealth status had a significant association (p technology to farmers, usefulness and productive benefits of innovations together with farmers' knowledge of them, were important. It is concluded that the analysis of the information per group and wealth status was useful to identify suitable crop or forage related and animal husbandry technologies per group and wealth status of farmers. Therefore the characterizations of farmers could provide a useful starting point for the design and delivery of more appropriate and effective extension.

  5. Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Tony

    2014-05-01

    Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia. Tony Bernardi and Leah Moore Dryland Salinity Hazard Mitigation Program (DSHMP), University of Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA The diversity of salt expression in central NSW has defied classification because salt expression, mobilisation and transport is highly variable and is typically site specific. Hydrological models are extensively used to simulate possible outcomes for a range of land use changes to mitigate the mobilisation and transport of salt into the streams or across the land surface. The ability of these models to mimic reality can be variable thereby reducing the confidence in the models outputs and uptake of strategic management changes by the community. This study focuses on a 250 ha semi-arid sub-catchment of Little River catchment in central west NSW in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. We propose that an understanding the structure of the landforms and configuration of rock, regolith and soil materials at the study site influences fluid flow pathways in the landscape and can be related to observed variations in the chemical composition and salinity of surface and aquifer water. Preliminary geological mapping of the site identified the dominant rock type as a pink and grey dacite and in localised mid-slope areas, a coarsely crystalline biotite-phyric granodiorite. Samples were taken at regular intervals from natural exposures in eroded stream banks and in excavations made during the installation of neutron moisture meter tubes. In order to establish mineral weathering pathways, samples were taken from the relatively unweathered core to the outer weathered 'onion skins' of corestones on both substrates, and then up through the regolith profile, including the soil zone, to the land surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was conducted on the rock and soil/saprock samples. Electromagnetic induction (EMI

  6. The influence of upper-crust lithology on topographic development in the central Coast Ranges of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental geological tenet is that as landscapes evolve over graded to geologic time, geologic structures control patterns of topographic distribution in mountainous areas such that terrain underlain by competent rock will be higher than terrain underlain by incompetent rock. This paper shows that in active orogens where markedly weak and markedly strong rocks are juxtaposed along contacts that parallel regional structures, relatively high topography can form where strain is localized in the weak rock. Such a relationship is illustrated by the topography of the central Coast Ranges between the Pacific coastline and the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ), and along the length of the Gabilan Mesa (the "Gabilan Mesa segment" of the central Coast Ranges). Within the Gabilan Mesa segment, the granitic upper crust of the Salinian terrane is in contact with the accretionary-prism m??lange upper crust of the Nacimiento terrane along the inactive Nacimiento fault zone. A prominent topographic lineament is present along most of this lithologic boundary, approximately 50 to 65. km southwest of the SAFZ, with the higher topography formed in the m??lange on the southwest side of the Nacimiento fault. This paper investigates factors influencing the pattern of topographic development in the Gabilan Mesa segment of the central Coast Ranges by correlating shortening magnitude with the upper-crust compositions of the Salinian and Nacimiento terranes. The fluvial geomorphology of two valleys in the Gabilan Mesa, which is within the Salinian terrane, and alluvial geochronology based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, reveal that the magnitude of shortening accommodated by down-to-the-southwest tilting of the mesa since 400ka is less than 1 to 2m. Our results, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that at least 63% to 78% of late-Cenozoic, northeast-southwest directed, upper-crustal shortening across the Gabilan Mesa segment has been accommodated

  7. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  8. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavcova, Eva; Kysely, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The study examines simulation of atmospheric circulation, represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity), and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in regional climate models (RCMs) over Central Europe. We explore control simulations of five high-resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project driven by re-analysis (ERA-40) and the same global climate model (ECHAM5 GCM) plus of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The aims are to (1) identify errors in RCM-simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (2) identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices, and (3) compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. Although most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong flow days and of strong cyclonic vorticity. Some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow, mainly in summer. Except for HIRHAM, however, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. The influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs, as demonstrated in a set of RCA simulations with different driving data. The driving data control on circulation in RCA is particularly weak for the BCM GCM, in which case RCA substantially modifies (but does not improve) the circulation from the driving data in both winter and summer. Those RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation are HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM. Relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures were found in the observed data for Central Europe. The links differ by season and are usually stronger for

  9. Future weather types and their influence on mean and extreme climate indices for precipitation and temperature in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Riediger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, the spatial and temporal distributions of precipitation and temperature are determined by the occurrence of major weather types. In this paper, we examine climate indices (i.e. mean values or hot, cold, wet and dry days for different weather types in a recent (1971–2000 and future climate (2070–2099. The weather types are classified objectively for the control run and for the A1B scenario with an ensemble of eight global climate simulations (GCM to be compared with different reanalyses. To derive climate indices, the high-resolution, regionalized reference dataset HYRAS and an ensemble of nine regional climate simulations (RCM are used. Firstly, the reliability of simulated weather patterns and their climate indices are tested in the control period. The reanalyses circulation climatology can be reproduced well by the GCM ensemble mean. For temperature and precipitation, each climate index is characterized and evaluated in terms of defined weather patterns. The comparison of HYRAS and RCM data show reliable mean temperature values with differences between weather classes by +2$+2$ to -6$-6$ °C during winter (13 to 19 °C in summer. The analysis of observed and simulated precipitation reveal that mean winter precipitation is significantly influenced by the direction of air flow, while in summer, mesoscale atmospheric patterns of cyclonic rotation play a larger role. Secondly, the analysis of potential future changes simulated by the RCM ensemble were able to demonstrate that weather type changes, superior climate trends (such as mean warming and their interaction lead to major changes for precipitation and temperature in Central Europe. While temperature differences between cold and warm weather types are nearly stable over time, the ensemble temperature changes (with a range of +2$+2$ to +4$+4$ °C reinforce warm/hot conditions in the future winter and summer. Milder, wetter winters can be explained by an increased

  10. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plavcova, Eva [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Kysely, Jan [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    The study examines simulation of atmospheric circulation, represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity), and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in regional climate models (RCMs) over Central Europe. We explore control simulations of five high-resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project driven by re-analysis (ERA-40) and the same global climate model (ECHAM5 GCM) plus of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The aims are to (1) identify errors in RCM-simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (2) identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices, and (3) compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. Although most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong flow days and of strong cyclonic vorticity. Some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow, mainly in summer. Except for HIRHAM, however, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. The influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs, as demonstrated in a set of RCA simulations with different driving data. The driving data control on circulation in RCA is particularly weak for the BCM GCM, in which case RCA substantially modifies (but does not improve) the circulation from the driving data in both winter and summer. Those RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation are HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM. Relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures were found in the observed data for Central Europe. The links differ by season and are usually stronger for

  11. Connecting Temporary and Permanent Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...

  12. Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 μg/L, replacing the old standard of 50 μg/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  14. New perspectives about molecular arrangement of primary and permanent dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches Borges, Ana Flavia [Department of Dental Materials at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Andrade Bitar, Renata [Biomedical Engineering, Valley of Paraiba University (UNIVAP) (Brazil); Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia [Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bortollazo Correr, Americo [Department of Dental Materials at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Martin, Airton Abrahao [Biomedical Engineering Post Graduation, Valley of Paraiba University (UNIVAP) (Brazil); Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2007-12-30

    The dentin quality of primary and permanent teeth was inspected by Fourier transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman); scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and hardness test. Middle dentin of crowns were reached by carbide bur abrading providing a uniform smear layer. Phosphoric acid was applied in order to simulate the etching of total etching adhesive systems. The groups were (n = 10): G1 (primary dentin smear layer); G2 (35% phosphoric acid etched primary dentin); G3 (permanent dentin smear layer); G4 (35% phosphoric acid etched permanent dentin). FT-Raman results were subjected to cluster analysis. SEM/EDS were made in order to add the data obtained by FT-Raman. The hardness data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey test. FT-Raman showed differences among groups, either to organic or inorganic content. For the organic content, primary and permanent dentin became similar after the etching; conversely, the inorganic content showed differences for the two substrates. Hardness test showed no significant differences between primary and permanent dentin, before or after etching, but the etching decreased these values. The mineral content arrangement of primary dentin is different from permanent dentin, independently of the etching. The substrate type did no influence the hardness, but the etching decreased it.

  15. Novel ocean energy permanent magnet linear generator buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, K.; Agamloh, E.B.; Jouanne, A. von; Wallace, A.K.; Prudell, J.; Kimble, K.; Aills, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schacher, A. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3211 (United States); Chan, P.; Sweeny, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3211 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This paper describes the research, design, construction and prototype testing process of a novel ocean energy direct drive permanent magnet linear generator buoy. The buoy employs the vertical component of the motion of ocean waves to power a linear generator. The generator consists of a permanent magnet field system (mounted on the central translator shaft) and an armature, in which the power is generated (mounted on the buoy). The translator shaft is anchored to the sea floor, and the buoy/floater moves armature coils relative to the permanent magnet translator to induce voltages. The electrical and mechanical structures of the buoy generator are provided, along with performance characteristics, including voltage, current and developed power. (author)

  16. High performance permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.G.; Herbst, J.F.; Koon, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: Initial magnetization behavior of rapidly quenched neodymium-iron-boron magnets; Optimization of liquid dynamic compaction for Fe-Nd-B magnet alloys; Misch-metal and/or aluminum substitutions in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets; and NdFeB magnets with improved temperature characteristics

  17. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  18. The central noradrenergic system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-27

    Jul 27, 2006 ... recognition of a direct influence of the central noradrenergic system on peripheral ... influences on cerebral function and behavior it is impossible to imagine ... stimuli and to speed-up information processing.4. The influence of ...

  19. Effects of Selected Object Characteristics on Object Permanence Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Kathleen M.; Lingle, John H.

    A study was conducted to investigate the degree to which both object familiarity and motivational factors influence infants' search behavior in an object permanence test. Infants' search behavior for an unfamiliar test object was compared with search behavior for (a) an experientially familiar object that each infant had played with daily for a…

  20. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  1. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  2. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  3. Influence of the vertical position of maxillary central incisors on the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Andre Wilson; McComb, Ryan W; Moon, Won; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and laypeople with respect to different upper central incisor vertical positions in a frontal smile analysis. A frontal close-up smile photo of an adult Caucasian woman was selected. The patient had healthy upper anterior dentition and had no history of orthodontic treatment. Images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. All images were assessed in three different views: full smile, gingival close-up excluding incisal edges, and incisal close-up excluding gingival margins. Images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 120 judges: 60 orthodontists and 60 laypersons. Each rater was asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were then statistically analyzed. The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.5 mm; and the central incisor gingival margins matched the laterals, and both were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins. The least attractive smile was the one with no step between the centrals and laterals, and with the central incisor gingival margins 1.0 mm above the canine gingival margins. The results of this study indicate that slightly extruded upper central incisors are more esthetically preferred than intruded. The upper central incisors are the key determinant in evaluating smile esthetics, and thus, the assessment of their ideal vertical positioning is an aspect of paramount importance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  5. Experiences with permanent magnets at the Fermilab recycler ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, James T

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve higher luminosities in Run II a separate antiproton storage ring was built in the Main Injector tunnel. To reduce both construction and operations costs permanent magnets were used. This paper discusses the design criterion and specifications, including temperature dependence, longitudinal uniformity, and adjusting of the higher harmonics of the magnets. The design tolerances for a storage ring are more stringent than for a single pass beam line. The difference between the measured and ideal central field for each magnet was held to better than 0.1%. The temperature stability for all magnets was set to better than 0.01% per degree Celsius. Higher order harmonics relative to the central field were set to less than 0.01%. This was done for all 484 permanent magnet that were built.

  6. Design Considerations of Permanent Magnet Transverse Flux Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    electrical machines. This paper addresses two important design considerations for PMTFM—the influence of permanent magnet leakage flux, which plays an important role in the determination of machine output torque, and the leakage inductance. A new simple method to provide a quick estimation of the armature......Permanent magnet transverse flux machine (PMTFM) is well known for its high torque density and is interested in various direct-drive applications. Due to its complicated 3-D flux components, design and design optimization of a PMTFM is more difficult and time consuming than for radial flux...

  7. The cycloid Permanent Magnetic Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole; Jørgensen, Frank T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new permanent-magnet gear based on the cycloid gearing principle. which normally is characterized by an extreme torque density and a very high gearing ratio. An initial design of the proposed magnetic gear was designed, analyzed, and optimized with an analytical model...... regarding torque density. The results were promising as compared to other high-performance magnetic-gear designs. A test model was constructed to verify the analytical model....

  8. An evaluation of the accuracy of semi-permanent skin marks for breast cancer irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, H.; Dodwell, D.; Gray, J.C.; Holmes, M.

    2006-01-01

    A randomised trial was designed to investigate the accuracy of semi-permanent ink marks versus permanent tattoos for early stage breast cancer irradiation. No significant difference in random and systematic errors was identified between the two groups. On multivariate analysis no specific patient characteristic had a major influence on the systematic errors identified

  9. An evaluation of the accuracy of semi-permanent skin marks for breast cancer irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, H. [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Crescent Campus, Sheffield S10 2BP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.probst@shu.ac.uk; Dodwell, D. [Cookridge Hospital Leeds (United Kingdom); Gray, J.C. [University of Newcastle (United Kingdom); Holmes, M. [Leeds Metropolitan University (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    A randomised trial was designed to investigate the accuracy of semi-permanent ink marks versus permanent tattoos for early stage breast cancer irradiation. No significant difference in random and systematic errors was identified between the two groups. On multivariate analysis no specific patient characteristic had a major influence on the systematic errors identified.

  10. Sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Cheong Soo

    2013-12-01

    To analyze sonographic findings suggesting central lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis. A total of 124 patients (101 female and 23 male; mean age, 47.5 years; range, 21-74 years) underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration in central lymph nodes from January 2008 to July 2011. Sonographic features of size, shape, margin, thickening of the cortex, cortical echogenicity, presence of a hilum, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity of enlarged lymph nodes were analyzed before fine-needle aspiration and classified into 2 categories (probably benign and suspicious). Sonographic findings were correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis according to the associated thyroiditis. Fifty-one lymph nodes (39.5%) were malignant, and 73 (60.5%) were benign. On univariate analysis, size, shape, margin, cortical thickening, cortical echogenicity, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity were significantly different between the benign and metastatic nodes (P thyroiditis-positive patients and 0.971 (95% CI, 0.938-1.000) in negative patients. Eccentric cortical thickening and cortical hyperechogenicity were the sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting metastasis was superior in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-negative patients than in positive patients.

  11. Lawful Permanent Residents Fiscal Year 2011 Country

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...

  12. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  13. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic...

  14. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ocimar Manzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundwater chemistry and soil CO2 respiration were studied in forests on sandy soils, whereas drought sensitivity of poorly-drained valley soils was investigated in an artificial drainage experiment. Slightly changes in litter decomposition or water chemistry were observed as a consequence of artificial drainage. Riparian plots did experience higher litter decomposition rates than campina forest. In response to a permanent lowering of the groundwater level from 0.1 m to 0.3 m depth in the drainage plot, topsoil carbon and nitrogen contents decreased substantially. Soil CO2 respiration decreased from 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1 before drainage to 2.5±0.2 and 0.8±0.1 µmol m-2 s-1 eight and 11 months after drainage, respectively. Soil respiration in the control plot remained constant at 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1. The above suggests that more frequent droughts may affect topsoil carbon and nitrogen content and soil respiration rates in the riparian ecosystem, and may induce a transition to less diverse campinarana or short-statured campina forest that covers areas with strongly-leached sandy soil.

  15. The Permanent Magnet Operating Mechanism of Double Coil Parallel Driven at a High Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Xau-Lao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Operating mechanism is the main part of breaker,and the quality of breaker will directly influence the safe operation of power system. Because of the continuous improvement requirements of switch,in order to mak this actuator faster and more powerful closing,this paper proposes a double coil parallel driven permanent magnet actuator at a high speed. This paper expounds the working principle of single and double coil parallel driven permanent magnet actuator. It uses Ansoft building model and contrasts test results. In prance we designed and produced the single and double coil parallel driven permanent magnet actuator for experimental study. The simulation and experiment results show that double coil parallel driven permanent magnet actuator,compared with single coil parallel driven permanent magnet actuator,has a better and faster action performance. Thus,the double coil parallel driven permanent magnet actuator achieves a kind of optimization.

  16. A influência da perda bilateral do primeiro molar inferior permanente na morfologia dentofacial: um estudo cefalométrico The influence of bilateral lower first permanent molar loss on dentofacial morfology: a cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Normando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as alterações cefalométricas em pacientes com perda bilateral do primeiro molar inferior permanente. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas 68 telerradiografias laterais de pacientes de consultórios particulares. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos pareados quanto ao sexo e idade - 34 indivíduos sem perdas (grupo controle e 34 com perda bilateral do primeiro molar inferior permanente (grupo com perda. Foram excluídos da amostra pacientes que haviam perdido outros dentes que não o primeiro molar inferior, casos de agenesia e pacientes com menos de 16 anos de idade. Buscou-se avaliar somente indivíduos que tivessem relatado a perda há pelo menos 5 anos. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que a perda bilateral do primeiro molar inferior permanente leva ao suave fechamento do ângulo GnSN (P=0,05, um giro anti-horário do plano oclusal (P=0,0001, uma suave diminuição da altura facial anteroinferior (P=0,05, uma acentuada inclinação lingual (P=0,04 e retrusão dos incisivos inferiores (P=0,03. Por outro lado, a perda bilateral do primeiro molar inferior permanente não foi capaz de influenciar a relação maxilomandibular no sentido anteroposterior (P=0,21, a quantidade de mento (P=0,45, a inclinação dos incisivos superiores (P=0,12 e a posição anteroposterior dos incisivos superiores (P=0,46. CONCLUSÃO: a perda bilateral dos primeiros molares inferiores é capaz de produzir alterações marcantes no posicionamento dos incisivos inferiores e no plano oclusal, além de uma suave redução vertical da faceOBJECTIVE: To evaluate cephalometric changes in patients after bilateral loss of lower first permanent molar teeth. METHODS: Sixty-eight lateral radiographs of patients from private practices were analyzed. The sample was divided into two groups matched for age and gender: 34 individuals without loss (control group and 34 presenting with bilateral loss of lower first permanent molar teeth (loss group. Patients who had lost teeth other

  17. Permanent magnets including undulators and wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J

    2010-01-01

    After a few historic remarks on magnetic materials we introduce the basic definitions related to permanent magnets. The magnetic properties of the most common materials are reviewed and the production processes are described. Measurement techniques for the characterization of macroscopic and microscopic properties of permanent magnets are presented. Field simulation techniques for permanent magnet devices are discussed. Today, permanent magnets are used in many fields. This article concentrates on the applications of permanent magnets in accelerators starting from dipoles and quadrupoles on to wigglers and undulators.

  18. Aeolian and fluviolacustrine landforms and prehistoric human occupation on a tectonically influenced floodplain margin, the Méma, central Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Makaske; E. De Vries; J. A. Tainter; R. J. McIntosh

    2007-01-01

    The Méma is a semi-arid region in central Mali with a rich archaeological heritage indicating the former existence of large urban settlements. The archaeological data suggest millennia of occupation history of the Méma preceding relatively sudden abandonment by the 14th or 15th century AD. Population numbers have remained low since then and today...

  19. The influence of Government’s role and workforce’s competence towards the construction workforce performance in Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalawati; Labombang, Mastura

    2018-05-01

    The performance of construction workforce should be enhanced, as it is a form of success of Central Sulawesi government in optimizing its management of construction workforces. The quality of construction workforces is when the proliferation of competence meets the standard. This research aims to identify the relationship between the role of the government and workforce competence in the advancement of construction workforce performance. This research used the quantitative method with the descriptive-correlation approach. The population in this research includes contractors, field observers, and project owner that conduct construction works in Central Sulawesi. The data collection in this research is conducted by distributing questionnaires directly to 42 respondents. The data analysis is done with statistics with the support of SPSS software. The result of the study shows that the role factor of the government has a powerful effect of 0401 on the performance of local workforce, while the competence of the construction workforce is 0.264 to the labor performance. Based on the research result, it is suggested that the policymakers, particularly in Central Sulawesi, take advantage of the research result as a reference in supervising and enhancing the performance of construction workforce in Central Sulawesi.

  20. Aeolian and fluviolacustrine landforms and prehistoric human occupation on a tectonically influenced floodplain margin, the Méma, central Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Vries, de E.; Tainter, J.A.; McIntosh, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Méma is a semi-arid region in central Mali with a rich archaeological heritage indicating the former existence of large urban settlements. The archaeological data suggest millennia of occupation history of the Méma preceding relatively sudden abandonment by the 14th or 15th century AD.

  1. Historical Influences and a Modern Alternative for Leadership Models in Central Asia = Orta Asya'da Liderlik Modellerinde Tarihsel Etkiler ve Modern Alternatifler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael COX

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1991 demise of the Soviet Union that led to the emancipation of many Central Asian states, also led to a grab for power by a variety of leadership types. Although the characteristics of leadership types in the 1990s were diverse, few followed the pattern of Samuel Huntington's Third Wave of authoritarian transition, whereby authoritarian regimes were abandoned in favor of democratically elected and democratically oriented governments. Historically, Eurasia has had little experience with popular government. This is reflected in the general characteristics of leadership types in the post-Soviet era, which closely follow three regional historical influences - the early Islamic Emperors, the Mongolian Khans and the Russian Tsars (and later Soviet leaders. This article examines the historic influences on Eurasian leadership types and the impact of these types on the politics, societies and economies of these same states. It will be argued that at the current stage of political development, it would ultimately benefit the states of Central Asia to follow, at this time, the most successful Eurasian model to date, that of Kemal Atatürk and Turkey, rather than to push for a fully participatory democracy or sustain the post-Soviet personal dictatorships that have prospered throughout Central Asia.

  2. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in children of Central South China: Clinical features, treatment, influencing factors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Weixi; Yin, Jinghua; Lu, Qianjin; Yin, Fei; He, Fang; Peng, Jing

    2017-11-15

    We analyzed the clinical manifestations of children with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis in Central South China and the factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment. A retrospective study of children (0-14years old) with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Central South China was carried out from March 2014 to November 2016. Demographics, clinical features, treatment, outcome, and the factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment were reviewed. Fifty-one patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were enrolled (age from 4months to 14years old; median age, 8years; 30 females). Forty-five patients (88%) presented with psychiatric symptoms, 40 (78%) with dyskinesia and movement disorders, 39 (77%) with sleep disturbances, 34 (67%) with seizures, 30 (59%) with a decreased level of consciousness (Glasgow scoreanti-NMDAR encephalitis in Central South China. Patients with decreased consciousness, PICU stay and autonomic instability were more likely to have no or limited response to first-line immunotherapy and to require second-line or even more aggressive immunotherapy. Children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in China have a much lower incidence of tumors, lower mortality rates, and a lower proportion of lethal autonomic instability than adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  4. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA Pub Central

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PubMed Central (PMC) is a full-text, online archive of journal literature operated by the National Library of Medicine. The EPA is using PMC to permanently preserve...

  5. Permanent magnet-based MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David Mitchell

    1997-10-01

    The principal goal of this project is to design and build a low-cost, imaging quality permanent magnet, together with the requisite shim, gradient, and radiofrequency coils, and to integrate the magnet with an existing imaging station. There are commercial products presently available that are very similar to this imager, but information about these products is proprietary. We present here all of the details concerning the design and the manufacturing process for constructing the permanent magnet, and include suggestions for improvement. Specifically, the prototype has a mass of about 150 kilograms and is therefore portable. It's C-type geometry allows maximum access to the imaging region, which is an oblate sphere about 0.5 inches in diameter centered in a 4.7 inch air gap between two seven-inch diameter polefaces. It is hoped that this imaging magnet will serve as the prototype for a series of larger versions that will be clinically useful and affordable to physicians in developing nations. To this end, scientists in the United States and Mexico have begun to collaborate with the intention to create an MRI institute in Mexico that will train new students in this discipline, and fabricate improved imagers. The prototype resulting from this work will seed the creation of this institute, and is intended to entice students into the study of MRI by enabling hands-on interaction with an otherwise prohibitively expensive instrument.

  6. Permanent burying method for product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Goro; Sakata, Noboru; Hironaka, Yoshikazu; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Yurugi, Masahiro; Minami, Masayoshi; Yoshisaki, Masato.

    1995-01-01

    In a method of permanently burying an object by filling and solidifying a cement mortar in gaps between each of objects to be buried underground, cement mortar is filled into gaps, which comprises water at a unit amount determined as from 200 to 250kg/m 3 , a cement at low water/cement ratio (%) of from 70 to 400%, and contains fine powder having an average grain size of not greater than 100μm (not containing cement) of 50 to 800kg/m 3 , fine aggregates of 800 to 1200kg/m 3 , UERAN gum (a bio-gum powder produced by aerobic fermentation of alcaligenes-bacteria) of 20g/m 3 to 1.3kg/m 3 , a dispersing agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 , a swelling agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 . Then if the mortar blended with the UERAN gum is injected, any gaps can be filled tightly, no breeding is caused and since the amount of cement is small, it does not suffer from temperature cracking. Therefore, the state of filling is kept permanently, and environmental pollution caused by radioactive wastes can be prevented. (N.H.)

  7. Socioeconomic and familial characteristics influence caretakers' adherence to the periodic vitamin A capsule supplementation program in Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, Rosnani; Scherbaum, Veronika; Erhardt, Jürgen G; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah; Biesalski, Hans K

    2004-06-01

    The adherence of program participants to periodic vitamin A capsule (VAC) supplementation among children aged 1-5 years (n = 677) in Central Java, Indonesia was assessed. Fourteen villages from five sub-districts and one ward from one sub-district in Central Java were included in the study to represent rural and suburban areas. All questions about demographic factors, socioeconomic conditions, current dietary practice and healthcare-seeking attitudes for common childhood illnesses, previous breastfeeding experience, their knowledge about vitamin A and adherence to the VAC program after capsule distribution (two periods in 2000) were asked. Caretakers with limited knowledge about the health benefits of vitamin A, households with more than one preschool child, and households with older children (> 36 months) were associated with a decreased likelihood of regular participation in the program with odds ratios of 0.38, 0.55, and 0.26, respectively (p program regularly with an odds ratio of 2.02 (p program.

  8. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2011-05-19

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard

  9. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry

  10. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one of ...... abutments and did not necessarily result in an increased crown length. The distal implant papilla heightwas obviously shorter, althoughthe mesial papilla height was similar to thatof the healthy dentition.The papilla index score was tested to be a valid index for papilla fill....

  11. Sr isotope stratigraphy of some Rupelian carbonated laminites from the Limagne Basin: influence of seawater in the rift of the French Massif central?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briot, D.; Poidevin, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of biogenic and abiotic calcites Upper Rupelian sediments in the Limagne rift (French Massif Central) define a smooth and regular negative correlation with time interrupted by repetitive sharp peaks; the progressive drop in isotopic ratio can be explained by the geological evolution of the river basin through time. Negative peaks are explained by synsedimentary volcanism, repeated marine incursions, or leaching of ancient evaporites. Comparison with available paleontologic data does not favour the volcanic explanation, but rather the influence of Rupelian marine waters. (authors)

  12. Epiphytic lichen diversity in central European oak forests: Assessment of the effects of natural environmental factors and human influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, David; Peksa, Ondrej; Vesela, Jana

    2010-01-01

    We investigated lichen diversity in temperate oak forests using standardized protocols. Forty-eight sites were sampled in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The effects of natural environmental predictors and human influences on lichen diversity (lichen diversity value, species richness) were analysed by means of correlation tests. We found that lichen diversity responded differently to environmental predictors between two regions with different human impact. In the industrial region, air pollution was the strongest factor. In the agricultural to highly forested regions, lichen diversity was strongly influenced by forest age and forest fragmentation. We found that several natural factors can in some cases obscure the effect of human influences. Thus, factors of naturality gradient must be considered (both statistically and interpretively) when studying human impact on lichen diversity. - We detected the different responses of lichens to ecological predictors in polluted and unpolluted areas.

  13. Influence of the 5-HT3A Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Childhood Sexual Trauma on Central Serotonin Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuk-In Jang

    Full Text Available Gene-environment interactions are important for understanding alterations in human brain function. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP is known to reflect central serotonergic activity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor gene are associated with psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect between 5-HT3A receptor gene polymorphisms and childhood sexual trauma on the LDAEP as an electrophysiological marker in healthy subjects.A total of 206 healthy subjects were recruited and evaluated using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS. Peak-to-peak N1/P2 was measured at five stimulus intensities, and the LDAEP was calculated as the linear-regression slope. In addition, the rs1062613 SNPs of 5-HT3A (CC, CT, and TT were analyzed in healthy subjects.There was a significant interaction between scores on the CTQ-sexual abuse subscale and 5-HT3A genotype on the LDAEP. Subjects with the CC polymorphism had a significantly higher LDEAP than T carriers in the sexually abused group. In addition, CC genotype subjects in the sexually abused group showed a significantly higher LDAEP compared with CC genotype subjects in the non-sexually abused group.Our findings suggest that people with the CC polymorphism of the 5-HT3A gene have a greater risk of developing mental health problems if they have experienced childhood sexual abuse, possibly due to low central serotonin activity. Conversely, the T polymorphism may be protective against any central serotonergic changes following childhood sexual trauma.

  14. Site Amplification in the Central U.S.: Towards and understanding of factors influencing the site effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassminh, R.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have mapped site amplification using a Reverse Two Station (RTS) approach across much of the Central United States. We have found several unexpected results including a lack of amplification in Paleozoic basins such as the Illinois and Michigan basins. In general, we found that the amplification of high frequency regional waves is related to the topography. We also suggest that the HVSR spectra are primarily a function of the shallow velocity structure. The Central United States Seismic Observatory (CUSSO) is a vertical seismic array located adjacent to the central segment of the NMSZ. CUSSO data gives us the opportunity to understand the amplification of the ground motion at different depths within the uppermost crust. Simulating ground motions throughout the CUSSO borehole and examining the factors affecting the ground amplification, such as the velocity and thicknesses of the model layers and the source sizes, is an effective way to understand the role different factors playing in modifying the ground motion for both the local and regional seismic phases. We have used the spectral-element method (SEMs) with a 1D crustal velocity structure derived from logging data taken from CUSSO borehole. This model is comprised of near surface sediment layers and a Paleozoic basement. Utilizing the software package SPECFEM2D with virtual seismometers located on the surface and in the bottom of the different sediment layers, we have computed the true synthetic site amplification for frequencies between 0.01-3 Hz. For the local model, we have tested the sensitivity of the ground motion amplification to the source magnitude. For frequencies>0.6, the ground motions have been amplified with decreasing the magnitudes while for HZ2Hz.

  15. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, 7-8 (2012), s. 1681-1695 ISSN 0930-7575 R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 Grant - others:ENSEMBLES: EU-FP6(XE) 505539 Program:FP6 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Regional climate models * Global climate models * Atmospheric circulation * Surface air temperature * ENSEMBLES * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.231, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-011-1278-8#

  16. Influence of irrigation on the attack from some insects to sugarcane in the central zone of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Hernández Medina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was studied, in several experiments with different irrigation levels, by graveness and by aspersion,the incidence of Diatraea saccharalis (Fab., Elasmopalpus lignosellus . Zeller. and Saccharosydne saccharivora. Westwood. on sugarcane. Damage caused by borer increased in varieties Ja60-5, B72-74, C1051-73 and C266-70 with application irrigation by graveness and in the variety C 87-51 with irrigation by aspersion with machine of central pivot. Affectations of antillean grasshopper had similar answer to irrigation. However irrigation by furrows caused significant decrease in attack of ratoons smaller borer to the three evaluated varieties.

  17. Advance and permanent public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Oleon, C.

    1990-01-01

    The accident at CHERNOBYL highlighted one of the major problems facing the nuclear industry at present and during the years to come: the need to provide information. There are two aspects to this requirement: information at a time of crisis issued when an accident such as that at CHERNOBYL takes place, but which has to be based on a procedure set up before the crisis, and advance and permanent information which prepares the ground for information at a time of crisis. The requirement for information is of particular importance in France, given the preponderance of nuclear energy in the electricity generating industry. The procedure covers the principles which were forcefully asserted by the French public authorities during the CHERNOBYL crisis, the resources strengthened or established at that time, and finally, the introduction of a policy of wider-ranging communication which is based on the idea that one can never compromise with safety

  18. CHALLENGES OF PERMANENT TEACHER TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Valles-Ornelas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges for teachers and managers require to assume permanent formation as a tool for responding effectively and efficiently to them, different perspective to strengthen from the initial teacher education programs. The research was done in a primary school in the state of Chihuahua. The method used was research action, the question was: How can we encourage the lifelong learning and training of the staff of this school, with the purpose to assist them in these processes to improve the service that the school provides to students. The school group is the center of the process, the cooperative and collaborative work accompanied by educational leadership and persuasive provide better results, and all accompanied by the professional selfinvitation.

  19. SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INCOME OF KALIGESING GOAT FARMERS IN BOROBUDUR SUBDISTRICT, MAGELANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Setiadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of study to determine the income is obtained by Kaligesing goat farmer and to determine the effect of some factors on the income. Survey method was conducted in this study, 47 (forty seven farmers in Giripurno village, Borobudur subdistrict, Magelang regency through interview and observation. Secondary and primary data were obtained to answer the objective. Respondent characteristic, total revenue, total cost production, and total income were observed for 6 months observation. Descriptive analysis and one sample t-test was used to analyze the data. Path analysis with TETRAD IV was used to determine the model. Dairy goat farmer in the study area rear goat were 10 heads on average. Total revenue obtained was IDR 4,975,500, Total cost spent was IDR 1,865,200, and Total income was IDR 3,110,300. Milk price and quality of the milk have influenced the number of milk sold. The number of milk sold has influenced the income significantly. Milk price has influenced directly to the income while quality of milk has not directly influenced the income of farmer. Hence, improvement of quality of goat milk through diet manipulation is needed.

  20. Influence of catchment quality and altitude on the water and sediment composition of 68 small lakes in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Lotter, A.F.; Sturm, M.; Ammann, A.

    1998-01-01

    68 lakes (63 Swiss, 2 French and 3 Italian) located in an altitudinal range between 334 and 2339 m spanning a wide range of land-use have been investigated. The aim of the study was to discuss influences of geographic location, vegetation and land-use in the catchment area on the water

  1. The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

  2. Study of the influence of central nuclear power plants at Valdaliga (Civitavecchia) on the chemical composition of local rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargagli, A.; Morabito, R.; Basili, N.; Tidei, F.

    1989-05-01

    Data from a wet deposition sampling over the area collocated nearby Civitavecchia power plants are here presented and discussed. In order to establish the possible influence of the power plants emission on the chemical composition of the rain collected, the experimental data have been correlated with synoptic and local meteorological conditions. (author)

  3. Influences of riverine and upwelling waters on the coastal carbonate system off Central Chile and their ocean acidification implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Contreras, Paulina Y.; Pérez, Claudia A.; Sobarzo, Marcus; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Salisbury, Joe

    2016-06-01

    A combined data set, combining data from field campaigns and oceanographic cruises, was used to ascertain the influence of both river discharges and upwelling processes, covering spatial and temporal variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and aragonite saturation state. This work was conducted in one of the most productive river-influenced upwelling areas in the South Pacific coasts (36°S). Additionally, further work was also conducted to ascertain the contribution of different DIC sources, influencing the dynamics of DIC along the land-ocean range. Six sampling campaigns were conducted across seven stations at the Biobío River basin, covering approximately 200 km. Three research cruises were undertaken simultaneously, covering the adjacent continental shelf, including 12 sampling stations for hydrographic measurements. Additionally, six stations were also sampled for chemical analyses, covering summer, winter, and spring conditions over 2010 and 2011. Our results evidenced that seaward extent of the river plume was more evident during the winter field campaign, when highest riverine DIC fluxes were observed. The carbonate system along the river-ocean continuum was very heterogeneous varying over spatial and temporal scales. High DIC and pCO2 were observed in river areas with larger anthropogenic effects. CO2 supersaturation at the river plume was observed during all campaigns due to the influence of low pH river waters in winter/spring and high-pCO2 upwelling waters in summer. δ13CDIC evidenced that main DIC sources along the river and river plume corresponded to the respiration of terrestrial organic matter. We have linked this natural process to the carbonate saturation on the adjacent river-influenced coastal area, suggesting that Ωaragonite undersaturation in surface/subsurface waters is largely modulated by the influence of both river discharge and coastal upwelling events in this productive coastal area. Conditions of low Ωaragonite might impact

  4. Disc rotors with permanent magnets for brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Bailey, J. Milton

    1992-01-01

    A brushless dc permanent magnet motor drives an autonomous underwater vehe. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators axially spaced, each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil, and first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of permanent magnets embedded therein. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and a drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shafts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs of rotors mounted on opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.

  5. Intrusive luxation of 60 permanent incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

      Intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is an uncommon injury but it is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma because of the risk for damage to the periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone. Management of intrusive luxation in the permanent dentition is controversial....... The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulp survival and periodontal healing in intrusive luxated permanent teeth in relation to treatment alternatives, degree of intrusion and root development....

  6. Influence of visual control, conduction, and central integration on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P P; Jeandel, C; Perrin, C A; Béné, M C

    1997-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased balance abilities, resulting in an increased risk of fall. In order to appreciate the visual, somatosensory, and central signals involved in balance control, sophisticated methods of posturography assessment have been developed, using static and dynamic tests, eventually associated with electromyographic measurements. We applied such methods to a population of healthy older adults in order to appreciate the respective importance of each of these sensorial inputs in aging individuals. Posture control parameters were recorded on a force-measuring platform in 41 healthy young (age 28.5 +/- 5.9 years) and 50 older (age 69.8 +/- 5.9 years) adults, using a static test and two dynamic tests performed by all individuals first with eyes open, then with eyes closed. The distance covered by the center of foot pressure, sway area, and anteroposterior oscillations were significantly higher, with eyes open or closed, in older people than in young subjects. Significant differences were noted in dynamic tests with longer latency responses in the group of old people. Dynamic recordings in a sinusoidal test had a more regular pattern when performed eyes open in both groups and evidenced significantly greater instability in old people. These data suggest that vision remains important in maintaining postural control while conduction and central integration become less efficient with age.

  7. Structure and magnetic field of periodic permanent magnetic focusing system with open magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Long; Li Lezhong; Yang Dingyu; Zhu Xinghua; Li Yuanxun

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field along the central axis for an axially magnetized permanent magnetic ring was investigated by analytical and finite element methods. For open magnetic rings, both calculated and measured results show that the existence of the radial magnetic field creates a remarkable cosine distribution field along the central axis. A new structure of periodic permanent magnet focusing system with open magnetic rings is proposed. The structure provides a satisfactory magnetic field with a stable peak value of 120 mT for a traveling wave tube system. - Research highlights: → For open magnetic rings, both calculated and measured results show that the existence of the radial magnetic field creates a remarkable cosine distribution field along the central axis. → A new structure of periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing system with open magnetic rings is proposed. → The new PPM focusing system with open magnetic rings meets the requirements for TWT system.

  8. Influence of geological variations on lignite drying kinetics in superheated steam atmosphere for Belchatow deposit located in the central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciazko Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignite-fired coal power plants suffer from a significant heat loss due to the high moisture content in this energy carrier. Water removal from fuel is an indispensable treatment for improving the combustion process, which will foster the efficient utilization of lignite. Superheated steam fluidized bed drying is expected for this purpose in a power generation sector. Understanding drying kinetics of lignite will greatly reinforce design process of a dryer. Physical features as well as the drying behaviour may be divergent among the lignite originated from different depths and positions in a certain mine. To reveal and clarify the influence of the geological features, the drying characteristics of several grades of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland were investigated. The attempts to clarify the influence of the divergent properties of the investigated samples on the drying kinetics in superheated steam were presented in this paper.

  9. Factors influencing access to finance by SMEs in Mozambique: Case of SMEs in Maputo central business district

    OpenAIRE

    Osano, Hezron Mogaka; Languitone, Hilario

    2016-01-01

    SMEs play an important role in the economic development of Mozambique. Access to finance is important for the growth of SMEs. Thus, the purpose of the study was to establish the factors that influence access to finance by SMEs. The factors that were addressed included structure of financial sector, awareness of funding opportunities, collateral requirements, and small business support services. The target population was 2725 which comprised of 2075 staff of three Banks, namely BIM Bank, BCI B...

  10. Influence of Geomorphology on the Physiognomy of Colophospermum mopane and its Effect on Browsing in Central Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    TESHIROGI, Koki

    2010-01-01

    Colophospermum mopane is a characteristic tree species indigenous to Southern Africa, where it forms 'mopane vegetation.' Mopane plays an important role in livestock farming, and the physiognomy of mopane influences the availability of feed. This study clarified the relationship between the difference in mopane physiognomy and the browsing activity of goats with reference to geomorphology. The physiognomy of mopane corresponded to geomorphological characteristics of surface structures and soi...

  11. Micromagnetics of rare-earth efficient permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbacher, Johann; Kovacs, Alexander; Gusenbauer, Markus; Oezelt, Harald; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Schrefl, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The development of permanent magnets containing less or no rare-earth elements is linked to profound knowledge of the coercivity mechanism. Prerequisites for a promising permanent magnet material are a high spontaneous magnetization and a sufficiently high magnetic anisotropy. In addition to the intrinsic magnetic properties the microstructure of the magnet plays a significant role in establishing coercivity. The influence of the microstructure on coercivity, remanence, and energy density product can be understood by using micromagnetic simulations. With advances in computer hardware and numerical methods, hysteresis curves of magnets can be computed quickly so that the simulations can readily provide guidance for the development of permanent magnets. The potential of rare-earth reduced and rare-earth free permanent magnets is investigated using micromagnetic simulations. The results show excellent hard magnetic properties can be achieved in grain boundary engineered NdFeB, rare-earth magnets with a ThMn12 structure, Co-based nano-wires, and L10-FeNi provided that the magnet’s microstructure is optimized.

  12. Failure Diagnosis for Demagnetization in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ishikawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since a high degree of reliability is necessary for permanent magnet synchronous motors, the detection of a precursor for the demagnetization of permanent magnets is very important. This paper investigates the diagnosis of very slight PM demagnetization. The permanent magnet volume is altered so as to mimic the effect of demagnetization. This paper investigates the influence of demagnetization by using several methods: the 3D finite element analysis (FEA of the motor, the measurement of high-frequency impedance, and the measurement and FEA of the stator voltage and current under vector control. We have obtained the following results. The back-EMF is proportional to permanent magnet volume, and there is no difference in the demagnetization in the radial direction and in the axial direction. Even harmonics and subharmonics of flux density at the teeth tip could be useful for diagnosis if a search coil is installed there. The relatively low frequency resistance at the d-axis position is useful for diagnosis. Under vector control, the stator voltage is useful except in an intermediate torque range, and the intermediate torque is expressed by a simple equation.

  13. Factors that can influence feelings towards and interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingori, Caroline; Haile, Zelalem T; Ngatia, Peter; Nderitu, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Background In Kenya, HIV incidence and prevalence have declined. HIV rates are lower in rural areas than in urban areas. However, HIV infection is reported higher in men in rural areas (4.5%) compared to those in urban areas (3.7%). Objectives This study examined HIV knowledge, feelings, and interactions towards HIV-infected from 302 participants in rural Central Kenya. Methods Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyzed variables of interest. Results Most participants exhibited positive feelings in their interaction with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Association between HIV knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the proportion of participants with a correct response differed by gender, age, level of education, and marital status ( p risk populations from the general population is needed to reduce stigma.

  14. Abrupt change of the mid-summer climate in central east China by the influence of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qun Xu

    2001-01-01

    Following the great flooding of summer 1998, the mid-lower Yangtze Basin further suffered from another large flooding in summer 1999. Successive droughts through three recent summers (1997-1999) appeared in north China in addition, leading to an abnormal summer climate pattern of ''north drought with south flooding''. Such southward move of the summer monsoon rainy belt in east China started in the late 1970s-early 1980s. Its main cause may not be a purely natural climate change, but the acceleration of industrialization in east China could play a major role by emitting large volumes of SO 2 , especially from the rapidly growing rural factories of east China. The annual release of SO 2 in China exceeded 20Tg during 1992-1998, so dense sulfate aerosols covered the central east China which significantly reduced the sunlight. Although present estimates for the changes of clear sky global solar radiation may include some error, they show that the negative radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols in central east China by far exceeds the effect of greenhouse warming in summer. Hence the mid-summer monsoon rainy belt of east China has a trend moving southward in 21 recent years (1979-1999), showing the very sensitive characteristic of the summer monsoon system to the change in heat equilibrium of the land surface. The occurrence rate of summer climate pattern of ''north drought with south flooding'' in east China during 21 recent years is the largest since AD 950; such anomalous climate has brought large losses to China. The only possible way to reverse this southward trend of summer monsoon rainy belt is to significantly reduce air pollution by using more clean energy. Recently, the PRC has paid serious attention to this problem by adopting a series of countermeasures. (author)

  15. Erodibility of calcareous soils as influenced by land use and intrinsic soil properties in a semiarid region of central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Mokhtari, Javad; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Zeraatpisheh, Mojtaba

    2018-03-06

    The most important properties affecting the soil loss and runoff were investigated, and the effects of land use on the soil properties, together with the erodibility indices in a semiarid zone, central Iran, were evaluated. The locations of 100 positions were acquired by cLHS and 0-5-cm surface soil layer samples were used for laboratory analyses from the Borujen Region, Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari Province, central Iran. To measure in situ runoff and soil erodibility of three different land uses comprising dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland, a portable rainfall simulator was used. The results showed that the high variations (coefficient of variation, CV) were obtained for electrical conductivity (EC), mean weight diameter (MWD), soil organic carbon (SOC), and soil erodibility indices including runoff volume, soil loss, and sediment concentration (CV ~ 43.6-77.4%). Soil erodibility indices showed positive and significant correlations with bulk density and negative correlations with SOC, MWD, clay content, and soil shear strength in the area under investigation. The values of runoff in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 1.5, 28.9, and 58.7 cm 3 ; soil loss in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were observed 0.25, 2.96, and 76.8 g; and the amount of sediment concentration in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 0.01, 0.11, and 0.15 g cm -3 . It is suggested that further investigations should be carried out on soil erodibility and the potential of sediment yield in various land uses with varying topography and soil properties in semiarid regions of Iran facing the high risk of soil loss.

  16. Influence of sex and age on febrile responses to peripheral and central administration of pyrogens in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, J M; Ticknor, C B

    1979-10-01

    1. Intravenous injections of leucocytic pyrogen in doses of 15, 30 and 60 mul./kg caused febrile reactions in male rabbits that were related to age of the animal: rabbits under 2 yr of age developed fevers that were related to dose of pyrogen, while rabbits 2-3 yr old showed large febrile responses which were not dose-related.2. Female rabbits of comparable ages generally showed smaller febrile reactions to I.V. leucocytic pyrogen, and still older females (3-5 yr) developed fever only after the largest dose.3. Dose-related febrile responses to 2.5, 5 and 10 mul. leucocytic pyrogen given intracerebroventricularly (I.C.V.) were greater in male rabbits 1-3 yr old than in females of comparable age. Female rabbits 3-5 yr old showed dose-related fevers that were smaller than those of younger animals of both sexes.4. There were no major differences in response to 125, 250 and 500 ng PGE(2), given I.C.V., between male and female rabbits under 2 yr of age. Females 2-3 yr of age had greater responses to PGE(2) than males of comparable age whilst the oldest females showed smaller responses.5. It is concluded that the febrile response of the rabbit to peripheral and central leucocytic pyrogen varies with both age and sex. Differences in sensitivity of central fever controls to endogenous pyrogen in animals of different ages and sexes may account for the different responses to peripheral pyrogen.

  17. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-30

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  18. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K.; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A.; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  19. [Early deciduous tooth loss--the mature or immature eruption of their permanent successors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czecholinski, J A; Kahl, B; Schwarze, C W

    1994-04-01

    On the basis of 147 panoramic radiographs of 49 patients, this study investigated the influence of the premature loss of deciduous teeth on the formation of their permanent successors at the time of their eruption. Furthermore the study investigated the eruptive movement of the successor teeth at the time of eruption. In addition to detecting the accelerated emergence of still immature successor premolars, the study also determined that the extraction ot the deciduous molars before the age of eight years delayed the eruption of the permanent successors given the absence of an infected deciduous tooth with abscess formation. In relation to the eruptive movement of the permanent molars due to the premature loss of the second deciduous molar, the study ascertained a mesial movement of the first permanent molars and an accelerated eruption of the second permanent molars.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF THE ECONOMY AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES 1994-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the interdependence of the economy size and foreign direct investments (FDI in the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe. In the global capitalist economy, foreign direct investments (FDI represent one of the key determinants of economic growth. Among some transitional economies, in the last 20 years, FDI represented one of factors that increased the economic growth, and in other transitional economies, the influence of FDI was minor or even negligible. In the literature devoted to the influence of FDI on economies, the research about the determinants of geographical pattern of FDI distribution usually focuses on the factors that determine why some states manage to draw FDI in higher levels than some other states. Our research focused on the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, which were for the most part of the last 20 years net receivers of the FDI. Only a couple of these countries in the years of the current economic crisis have experienced FDI net outflow. Among the states studied, we have equally studied the EU members, as well as the non-EU members. We have tried to find similarities and differences between these two groups of states in order to determine the influence of EU membership on FDI per capita and how it correlates with the size of the state’s economy. We have also tried to answer the question of how much the GDP growth rate correlates to the FDI net inflow share in GDP for EU and non-EU members. The methodology is based on the statistical correlation between FDI in current US dollars and GDP per capita in current US dollars (World Bank data for each represented state, through the surveyed period from 1994 until 2013. The statistical correlation matrix (Pearson method determined whether any correlation between the average GDP growth rate (chain index and the average share of FDI in GDP per each state exists for each state surveyed.

  1. Influence of religious affiliation and education on HIV knowledge and HIV-related sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in rural central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; Gomes, Aurelio; Ferreira, Aldina

    2010-10-01

    The interactions between religious affiliation, education, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related sexual behaviors among African church youth are poorly understood. In this socio-demographic study, 522 unmarried youth 12-28 years old in rural central Mozambique were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Using binary logistic regression analysis, we used religious affiliation and education to measure influence on (1) HIV transmission and prevention knowledge and attitudes and (2) HIV-related sexual behaviors among youth. Religiously affiliated males were more likely than non-religious males to know when a condom should be used, respond correctly to HIV transmission questions and respond with less stigma to HIV-related scenarios. Increased levels of education among males corresponded significantly to increased knowledge of condom usage and HIV prevention strategies and less likelihood to respond with stigma. Only education levels influenced young female responses. Religious affiliation and education had minimal effects on sexual activity, condom usage, and multiple partnerships. African Independent Church/Zionist males were 1.6 times more likely to be sexually inexperienced than non-religious males but were also significantly less likely to use condoms (0.23, p=0.024). Non-religious youth were most likely to have visited sex workers and did not use condoms. These results suggest that religious affiliation, possibly as the result of educational opportunities afforded by religious-affiliated schools, is contributing to increased HIV transmission and prevention knowledge among youth in rural Central Mozambique but not influencing HIV-related sexual behavior. The need exists to strengthen the capacity of religious congregations to teach about HIV/AIDS and target non-religious youth with HIV transmission and prevention information.

  2. 3-D analysis of eddy current in permanent magnet of interior permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Fukanaga, Hiromu; Ito, Shokichi

    2002-01-01

    Interior permanent magnet motors are widely used in various fields. However, in high-speed operations, it is important to decrease the eddy current loss in the permanent magnet. In order to decrease the eddy current loss, we propose to divide the permanent magnet. In this paper, we clarified the effect of division of permanent magnet on the eddy current loss using the 3-D finite element method. (Author)

  3. [Change of character of intersystemic interactions in newborn rat pups under conditions of a decrease of central influences (urethane anesthesia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S V; Sizonov, V A; Dmitrieva, L E

    2014-01-01

    On newborn rat pups, for the first day after birth, there was studied the character of mutual influences between the slow-wave rhythmical components of the cardiac, respiratory, and motor activities reflecting interactions between the main functional systems of the developing organism. The study was carried out in norm and after pharmacological depression of the spontaneous periodical motor activity (SPMA) performed by narcotization of rat pups with urethane at low (0.5 g/kg, i/p) and maximal (1 g/kg, i/p) doses. Based on the complex of our obtained data, it is possible to conclude that after birth in rat pups the intersystemic interactions are realized mainly by the slow-wave oscillations of the near- and manyminute diapason. The correlational interactions mediated by rhythms of the decasecond diapason do not play essential role in integrative processes. Injection to the animals of urethane producing selective suppression of reaction of consciousness, but not affecting activating influences of reticular formation on cerebral cortex does not cause marked changes of autonomous parameters, but modulates structure and expression of spontaneous periodical motor activity. There occurs an essential decrease of mutual influences between motor and cardiovascular systems. In the case of preservation of motor activity bursts, a tendency for enhancement of correlational relations between the modulating rhythms of motor and somatomotor systems is observed. The cardiorespiratory interactions, more pronounced in intact rat pups in the near- and many-minute modulation diapason, under conditions of urethane, somewhat decrease, whereas the rhythmical components of the decasecond diapason--are weakly enhanced.

  4. Quality of life after permanent prostate implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterbery, V. Elayne; Frazier, Arthur; Dalmia, Praveen; Porter, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    procedure to a friend. Of the patients who had full time employment (38), 96% returned to work after the implant and the majority returned within 5 days. Sexual quality was high in this short follow up after seed implant. 89% of potent patients retained sexual function after implant. 3% noted some discomfort with ejaculation. 12% noticed some decrease in sexual desire. Interestingly, 14% experienced an increase in sexual desire. 79% reported an excellent overall quality of life. Conclusions: While survival is clearly a central goal of treatment for prostate cancer, the nature of this malignancy compels clinical attention to the qualitative content of the patients life after treatment. Permanent prostate implant has a high degree of patient tolerance and patient acceptance. Sexual quality and function are maintained in the majority of patients and they have minimal interruption in their social and economic function. The low morbidity and high quality of life associated with implantation make it a viable treatment option

  5. Corporate Policies with Permanent and Transitory Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. Decamps (Jean-Paul); S. Gryglewicz (Sebastian); E. Morellec (Erwan); S. Villeneuve (Stephane)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe model the financing, cash holdings, and hedging policies of a firm facing financing frictions and subject to permanent and transitory cash flow shocks. We show that permanent and transitory shocks generate distinct, sometimes opposite, effects on corporate policies and use the model

  6. OAS :: Authorities : Permanent Representatives to the OAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Bolivia José Luiz Machado Brazil José Luiz Machado e Costa Ambassador, Permanent Representative

  7. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  8. Guidelines for removing permanent makeup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Bettina Rümmelein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Permanent makeup (PMU is a frequently implemented cosmetic procedure performed by beauticians. From a technical point, PMU is considered a facial tattoo. Failed procedures or a change of mind can lead to the desire for removal. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of patients who came to the clinic with the desire to remove PMU between 2011 and 2015 was to explore the problems, side effects, and results in order to define treatment guidelines for other doctors. We evaluated 87 individual cases in total. In treatable cases, i.e. 52 out of the 87 cases, laser treatments were performed using a nanosecond Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG laser. It takes between 1-12 treatments to remove the PMU. In three cases, the colour of the PMU could not be removed by laser and remained after the treatment. In two cases, laser treatment had to be terminated due to colour changes towards the green-blue spectrum. Before PMU removal, laser test shots are urgently recommended as unforeseeable colour changes can cause severe aesthetically unpleasant results. Covered up PMU (skin colour is particularly susceptible to changes in colour. Heat-induced shrinking of the eye area can cause an ectropium. Surgical solutions also have to be taken into consideration. The use of proper eye protection with intraocular eye shields is mandatory. This article is an attempt to set up some guidelines for the treatment of PMU removal.

  9. Attitudes of the Citizens of the Central Part of Serbia towards the Influence of Immigrants on Local Culture and Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Vesković Anđelković

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing number of immigrants arriving to Serbia from various places ever since the end of the last century. It is primarily a forced displaced population from war affected territories in the 1990s who have still been living in Serbia even two decades after completion of the conflict and the relative normalization of relations. Furthermore, the number of asylum seekers and irregular migrants has also enormously increased. Since demographic forecasts and experiences of other former socialistic countries show that migration transition towards immigration is to be expected in the coming decades, especially with the formal EU membership, it seems there is a need for greater visibilisation of this phenomenon in order to be adequately prepared to face these challenges. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the geopolitical position of Serbia and lay down the long-term prospects regarding immigration as well as to shed light on the attitudes of Serbian citizens towards immigrants, especially when it comes to their influence on the local culture, customs and everyday life. The data presented and analysed were collected by field survey research carried out by the Institute for Sociological Research of the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade in 2013. Besides analysing attitudes of the local population concerning the influence of refugees, the authors also examine their opinion on the foreigners’ impact on culture and everyday life in local communities.

  10. The Influence of Prescribed Fire, Habitat, and Weather on Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae in West-Central Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Gilliam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Amblyomma americanum (L. is changing and reports of tick-borne disease transmitted by A. americanum are increasing in the USA. We used flagging to collect ticks, surveyed vegetation and collected weather data in 2015 and 2016. A. americanum dominated collections in both years (97%. Ticks did not differ among burn treatments; however, tick abundance differed between years among total, adult, and larval ticks. Habitat variables showed a weak negative correlation to total ticks in respect to: Shannon diversity index, percent bare ground, perennial cover, and coarse woody debris. Nymphal ticks showed a weak negative correlation to percent bare ground and fewer adults were collected in areas with more leaf litter and coarse woody debris. Conversely, we found larvae more often in areas with more total cover, biennials, vines, shrubs, and leaf litter, suggesting habitat is important for this life stage. We compared weather variables to tick presence and found, in 2015, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and sample period influenced tick collection and were life stage specific. In 2016, temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, and sample period influenced tick collection and were also life stage specific. These results indicate that spring burns in an oak woodland do not reduce ticks; other variables such as habitat and weather are more influential on tick abundance or presence at different life stages.

  11. The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

  12. Common genetic variants near the Brittle Cornea Syndrome locus ZNF469 influence the blinding disease risk factor central corneal thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Central corneal thickness (CCT, one of the most highly heritable human traits (h(2 typically>0.9, is important for the diagnosis of glaucoma and a potential risk factor for glaucoma susceptibility. We conducted genome-wide association studies in five cohorts from Australia and the United Kingdom (total N = 5058. Three cohorts were based on individually genotyped twin collections, with the remaining two cohorts genotyped on pooled samples from singletons with extreme trait values. The pooled sample findings were validated by individual genotyping the pooled samples together with additional samples also within extreme quantiles. We describe methods for efficient combined analysis of the results from these different study designs. We have identified and replicated quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 13 and 16 for association with CCT. The locus on chromosome 13 (nearest gene FOXO1 had an overall meta-analysis p-value for all the individually genotyped samples of 4.6x10(-10. The locus on chromosome 16 was associated with CCT with p = 8.95x10(-11. The nearest gene to the associated chromosome 16 SNPs was ZNF469, a locus recently implicated in Brittle Cornea Syndrome (BCS, a very rare disorder characterized by abnormal thin corneas. Our findings suggest that in addition to rare variants in ZNF469 underlying CCT variation in BCS patients, more common variants near this gene may contribute to CCT variation in the general population.

  13. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over Central Africa: influences of trade winds, subtropical high, ITCZ and vertical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Wang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), is used to simulate the transport of smoke aerosol over the Central Africa during February 2008. Smoke emission used in this study is specified from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS true color images, measured Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from space-borne MODIS (550 nm) and ground-based AERONET (500 nm), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) level 1 and 2 products. The simulated smoke transport is in good agreement with the validation data. Analyzing from three smoke events, smoke is constrained in a narrow belt between the Equator and 10°N near the surface, with the interplay of trade winds, subtropical high, and ITCZ. At the 700 hpa level, smoke expands farther meridionally. Topography blocks the smoke transport to the southeast of study area, because of high mountains located near the Great Rift Valley region. The simulation with injection height of 650 m is consistent with CALIOP measurements. The particular phenomenon, aerosol above cloud, is studied statistically from CALIOP observations. The total percentage of aerosol above cloud is about 5%.

  14. Direct Reuse of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets—Coating Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Stig; Holbøll, Joachim; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets can be reused directly as an alternative to traditional recycling methods, in which scrapped magnets are reprocessed into new magnets by undergoing many of the original energy-intensive and expensive production processes. Direct reuse entails using segmented magnet...... assemblies built by several small standard-sized magnets that can be reused directly in a number of different applications. A central part of the direct reuse strategy is to separate and demagnetize magnets by heating them to the Curie temperature. We investigated the validity of direct reuse as a rare earth...

  15. Economic viability, applications and limits of efficient permanent magnet motors - Summary and update; Wirtschaftlichkeit, Anwendungen und Grenzen von effizienten Permanent-Magnet-Motoren - Zusammenfassung und Update - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M. [Circle Motor AG, Guemligen (Switzerland); Biner, H.-P.; Evequoz, B. [Hochschule Westschweiz, Delemont (Switzerland); Salathe, D. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), takes a look at the economic viability, applications and limits of efficient permanent magnet motors. Permanent magnet motors are compared with standard IEC asynchronous motors. In a theoretical part of the report, it is discussed how the increasing size of the motor influences efficiency, weight, volume and power. The results of practical tests carried out on six motors are presented. Three standard motors with varying efficiency were compared with three permanent-magnet motors for the power range around 3 kW. Market-oriented considerations concerning permanent-magnet motors are discussed. Operational criteria for the choice of the type of motor to be used are also examined.

  16. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Colleen A.; Bratton, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. - Highlights: • Sunfish ingest microplastics and manufactured materials at significant levels. • Local urbanization influences microplastic ingestion. • Sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal

  17. Oceanic influence on extreme rainfall trends in the north central coast of Venezuela: present and future climate assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelys Guenni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme events are an important part of climate variability and their intensity and persistence are often modulated by large scale climatic patterns which might act as forcing drivers affecting their probability of occurrence. When the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA and the Equatorial Pacific (Ni\\~no 3 region sea surface temperature (SST anomalies are of opposite signs and the first one is positive while the second one is negative, the rainfall response is stronger in the northern coast of Venezuela as well as in the Pacific coast of Central America during the Nov-Feb period. The difference between these two SST anomaly time series (NTA-Ni\\~no3 is used in this analysis and it is called the Atlantic-Pacific Index or API. By fitting a dynamic generalized extreme value (GEV model to station based daily rainfall at different locations and to the Xie and Arkin dataset for the Vargas state, we found the API index to be an adequate index to explain the probabilistic nature of rainfall extremes in the northern Venezuelan coast for the months Nov-Feb. Dependence between the Atlantic-Pacific index and the probabilistic behavior of extreme rainfall was also explored for simulations from two global coupled General Circulation Models for the 20th century climate (20C3M experiment and the 21st century climate (SRES A2 experiment: the Echam5 model and the HadCM3 model. A significant dependence of extreme rainfall on the Atlantic-Pacific index is well described by the GEV dynamic model for the Echam5 20C3M experiment model outputs. When looking at future climates under the SRES A2 experiment, the dependence of extreme rainfall from the API index is still significant for the middle part of the 21st century (2046-2064, while this dependence fades off for the latest part of the century (2081-2099

  18. How coastal upwelling influences spatial patterns of size-structured diversity of copepods off central-southern Chile (summer 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Escribano, Ruben; Fuentes, Marcelo; Jorquera, Erika; Vergara, Odette

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the structure of the copepod community in the upper 200 m of the coastal upwelling region off central-southern Chile in late summer 2009. Vertically stratified zooplankton samples and hydrographic variables were obtained from 42 stations over the continental shelf and oceanic areas. The survey took place during active upwelling, reflected by a cold upwelling plume extending out to 150 km offshore. A total of 62 copepod species were found. Of these, Oithona similis and Paracalanusindicus accounted for ca. 60% of the whole community. Species richness ( R) and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H‧) were estimated, and the latter was additionally modified to incorporate the effect of copepod size on diversity ( H‧ s). Samples were analyzed for two depth strata (0-50, 50-200 m) and for day vs. night conditions. Significant effects of day vs. night and strata on R, H‧ and H‧ s indicated that diel vertical migration between these two layers was an important source of variation in the zooplankton community. H‧ s seemed to represent copepod diversity better than R and H‧ over the spatial scale. H‧ s was also closely linked to colder upwelled water and the depth of the oxygen minimum zone following a principal component analysis. A positive relationship was even detected between depth of the oxygen minimum zone and H‧ s when strata and day/night effects were excluded. Our findings suggested that the coastal upwelling process could be an important driver of copepod diversity in this region. Upwelling leads to changes in the depth of the oxygen minimum zone and these changes impact the community composition due to species-dependent tolerances to low oxygen water.

  19. High-Precision, Continuous GPS Data Reveals Seasonal Groundwater Influence on the Deformation of the Salmon Falls Landslide, a Slow-Moving, Rotational Feature in Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, I. H.; Crosby, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    The development of predictive tools for landslide initiation and deformation serve both the natural hazard and geomorphic communities. Founded on both field observations and physical laws, these tools require a mechanistic understanding of the connection between forcing and response. Water has a well-documented influence on slope stability, impacting both soil plasticity and pore water pressure. High precision, high frequency GPS measurements of deformation paired with similar frequency water table measurements enable new insight into the lag and sensitivity present in the coupled hillslope-groundwater system, especially in the rotational domain, which is underrepresented in current literature. Our study explores the influence of groundwater on a slow-moving, deep-seated, rotational slide in southern Idaho using daily, mm precision GPS positions and contemporaneous groundwater levels measurements in adjacent wells, lakes, and streams. Seven semi-permanent GPS stations are spatially distributed across the slide and record three-dimensional velocities up to 11 cm/yr, which compare well with historical measurements from the early 2000's. Water level loggers are located in a rough cross-section through the study area and documents rises in water level during spring 2017 and a subsequent 1.5m drop in the following summer. We hypothesize a correlation of groundwater levels and landslide velocity, which varies seasonally and spatially across the body of the slide. We will present whether deformation is spatially contemporaneous or initiate in one region and propagates down-feature. We will also discuss whether temporal lag exists between water level change and deformation and if hysteresis complicates correlation between forcing and response. Results will bolster the breadth of case-studies available for this landslide morphology and provide regional land managers with predictors for increased landslide activity and associated hazards, such as rockfall or landslide dam

  20. The effects of impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on permanent incisors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic features associated with impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth, to determine the relationship between their characteristics and their effects on permanent incisors, and to investigate the types of orthodontic treatment that patients received after the extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth. The clinical records and radiographs of 193 patients whose impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth were removed were retrospectively reviewed, and 241 impacted supernumerary teeth were examined. Cone-beam computed tomographic images and panoramic radiographs were examined to determine the number, location, sagittal position, orientation, and morphology of the supernumerary teeth. Their effects on permanent incisors and the orthodontic treatment received by patients after the extraction of the supernumeraries were also investigated. Supernumerary teeth were most frequently observed in the central incisor region, in the palatal position, in the inverted orientation, and were most commonly conical in shape. The most common complication was median diastema, followed by displacement and delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 odontomas showed delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Displacement of the incisors was more frequently observed in association with supernumerary teeth with tuberculate or supplemental shapes. Orthodontic traction was most frequently performed after the removal of odontomas. In 32 cases (13.3%), permanent incisors erupted after the orthodontic creation of sufficient space. Median diastema was most common complication. The delayed eruption of incisors was common in supernumerary teeth with a vertical orientation and an odontoma shape.

  1. The effects of impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on permanent incisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Cho, Bong Hae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic features associated with impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth, to determine the relationship between their characteristics and their effects on permanent incisors, and to investigate the types of orthodontic treatment that patients received after the extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth. The clinical records and radiographs of 193 patients whose impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth were removed were retrospectively reviewed, and 241 impacted supernumerary teeth were examined. Cone-beam computed tomographic images and panoramic radiographs were examined to determine the number, location, sagittal position, orientation, and morphology of the supernumerary teeth. Their effects on permanent incisors and the orthodontic treatment received by patients after the extraction of the supernumeraries were also investigated. Supernumerary teeth were most frequently observed in the central incisor region, in the palatal position, in the inverted orientation, and were most commonly conical in shape. The most common complication was median diastema, followed by displacement and delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 odontomas showed delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Displacement of the incisors was more frequently observed in association with supernumerary teeth with tuberculate or supplemental shapes. Orthodontic traction was most frequently performed after the removal of odontomas. In 32 cases (13.3%), permanent incisors erupted after the orthodontic creation of sufficient space. Median diastema was most common complication. The delayed eruption of incisors was common in supernumerary teeth with a vertical orientation and an odontoma shape

  2. Analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the dynamics of bovine Eimeria spp. from central-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Grzybek, Maciej; Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Studzińska, Maria; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Klockiewicz, Maciej

    2015-11-30

    Eimeria infections are common in cattle worldwide, however, little is known about the invasion dynamics of this unicellular parasite. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze intrinsic (host age) and extrinsic (herd size and management system) factors influencing the dynamics of Eimeria spp. found in calves from CE Poland. Fecal samples were collected from 356 calves from different types of management systems and from different herd sizes. Flotation and McMaster method were used for parasitological investigation. Oocysts were differentiated on the basis of morphological criteria. Eight Eimeria species were identified and mean species richness (MSR) was significantly affected by host age. The highest MSR was noted for middle age animals. There was an association between species, with a highly significant co-occurrence of Eimeria bovis with Eimeria zuernii. The presence of E. bovis significantly increased the percentage of individuals carrying E. zuernii. The presence of E. bovis significantly increased the percentage of individuals carrying Eimeria canadensis. The overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. reached 52.8% and was significantly affected by the age of cows, with the highest prevalence in animals between 5-10 months old. The most prevalent species were E. bovis (37.4%), E. zuernii (19.9%) and E. canadensis (12.1%). The prevalence of E. bovis was affected by host age (the highest prevalence in age class 2 animals) and management type (the highest prevalence in individuals raised in groups). The prevalence of E. zuernii was affected by age (the lowest prevalence was noted in the oldest individuals) and herd size (individuals infected were present only in the middle and large size herds), whereas the prevalence of E. canadensis was affected by all three factors. Overall, mean OPG of the combined Eimeria spp. was 458.84 (37.93) and differed significantly between age classes. Mean OPGs were generally low for young and mature animals but high for middle age

  3. Image fusion techniques in permanent seed implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Polo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years major software and hardware developments in brachytherapy treatment planning, intraoperative navigation and dose delivery have been made. Image-guided brachytherapy has emerged as the ultimate conformal radiation therapy, allowing precise dose deposition on small volumes under direct image visualization. In thisprocess imaging plays a central role and novel imaging techniques are being developed (PET, MRI-MRS and power Doppler US imaging are among them, creating a new paradigm (dose-guided brachytherapy, where imaging is used to map the exact coordinates of the tumour cells, and to guide applicator insertion to the correct position. Each of these modalities has limitations providing all of the physical and geometric information required for the brachytherapy workflow.Therefore, image fusion can be used as a solution in order to take full advantage of the information from each modality in treatment planning, intraoperative navigation, dose delivery, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation.Image fusion, understood as the visualization of any morphological volume (i.e. US, CT, MRI together with an additional second morpholo gical volume (i.e. CT, MRI or functional dataset (functional MRI, SPECT, PET, is a well known method for treatment planning, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation. The term image fusion is used when multiple patient image datasets are registered and overlaid or merged to provide additional information. Fused images may be created from multiple images from the same imaging modality taken at different moments (multi-temporalapproach, or by combining information from multiple modalities. Quality means that the fused images should provide additional information to the brachythe rapy process (diagnosis and staging, treatment planning, intraoperative imaging, treatment delivery and follow-up that cannot be obtained in other ways. In this review I will focus on the role of

  4. Post-Panafrican late Proterozoic basins in the Central Anti-Atlas (Morocco): their influence on the Variscan contractional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimerà, Joan; Arboleya, María. Luisa

    2010-05-01

    Located South of the High Atlas, in Morocco, The Anti-Atlas is a 700 km-long chain trending NE-SW. In the Central Anti-Atlas region, between Warzazat and Taznakht, the Proterozoic Pan-African basement (X1 to X2-3) crops out in isolated areas (boutonnières), where it is overlaid by late to post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic and Palaeozoic rocks. Late to post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic rocks (X3) have been classically divided into three units (X3i, X3m and X3s) which include volcanic rocks — mainly rhyolites— and continental siliciclastic rocks, the older units intruded by late granites (Choubert, 1952 and Choubert et al., 1970). Rocks belonging to the upper unit of post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic rocks (X3s) were deposited in basins bounded by faults with a dominant dip-slip normal motion; as a result, this unit have a variable thickness, being locally absent in the uplifted blocks. Uppermost Proterozoic (Adoudounian) and Palaeozoic rocks deposited unconformable on the older rocks in the Anti-Atlas. The Central Anti-Atlas was slightly deformed during the Variscan orogeny by folds and high-angle thrusts. Two areas are selected to study the post Pan-African to Variscan evolution of the area: the Tiwiyyine basin and the Anti-Atlas Major Fault. Tiwiyyine basin This basin is delimited by kilometric-scale normal faults. Three of them can be observed in the field: two striking NE-SW (NW and SE boundaries) and one striking NW-SE (SW boundary), while the NE boundary is covered by Cenozoic rocks. The basin fill reaches 725 m and has been divided into three units: 1. X3s1: Coarse conglomerates with basal breccias. 2. X3s2: Laminated dolomites at the base, red pelites and conglomerates. 3. X3s3: Conglomerates with interbedded andesites. Unit X3s2 passes laterally to the SW to unit X3s1. The thickness of the basin fill diminishes to the SE. This is specially visible at the basal X3s1 unit. At both sides of the two NE-SW-striking faults, only the upper X3s3 unit is

  5. Corrosion behaviour of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummert, K.; El-Aziz, A.M.; Barkleit, G.; Schultz, L.; Rodewald, W.

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic alloys as well as of single phases of these alloys have been investigated in sulphuric acid at room temperature and humid air at 150 C using mass loss and electrochemical techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy were used to study the surface topography. The electrostatic surface potential was examined by scanning probe microscopy using tapping mode. A correlation between the electrostatic surface potential and the corrosion rate of these alloys was found. The higher the value of the electrostatic surface potential of the intergranular phases the higher is the corrosion sensitivity. The strength of the corrosion attack on the phases of sintered permanent magnetic alloys is as follows: Ferromagnetic phase < B-rich phase < Nd-rich phase. The differences in the chemical composition as well as in the preparation of these magnetic alloys have distinct influence on the corrosion resistance of the magnetic Nd-Fe-B alloys. (orig.)

  6. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  7. The Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (mjo) on Extreme Rainfall Over the Central and Southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, H.; Jones, C.; Carvalho, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme rainfall is important for the Andean region because of the large contribution of these events to the seasonal totals and consequent impacts on water resources for agriculture, water consumption, industry and hydropower generation, as well as the occurrence of floods and landslides. Over Central and Southern Peruvian Andes (CSPA), rainfall exceeding the 90th percentile contributed between 44 to 100% to the total Nov-Mar 1979-2010 rainfall. Additionally, precipitation from a large majority of stations in the CSPA exhibits statistically significant spectral peaks on intraseasonal time-scales (20 to 70 days). The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most important intraseasonal mode of atmospheric circulation and moist convection in the tropics and the occurrence of extreme weather events worldwide. Mechanisms explaining the relationships between the MJO and precipitation in the Peruvian Andes have not been properly described yet. The present study examines the relationships between the activity and phases of the MJO and the occurrence of extreme rainfall over the CSPA. We found that the frequency of extreme rainfall events increase in the CSPA when the MJO is active. MJO phases 5, 6 and 7 contribute to the overall occurrence of extreme rainfall events over the CSPA. However, how the MJO phases modulate extreme rainfall depends on the location of the stations. For instance, extreme precipitation (above the 90th percentile) in stations in the Amazon basin are slightly more sensitive to phases 2, 3 and 4; the frequency of extremes in stations in the Pacific basin increases in phases 5, 6 and 7 whereas phase 2, 3 and 7 modulates extreme precipitation in stations in the Titicaca basin. Greater variability among stations is observed when using the 95th and 99th percentiles to identify extremes. Among the main mechanisms that explain the increase in extreme rainfall events in the Peruvian Andes is the intensification of the easterly moisture flux anomalies, which

  8. Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Sá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene contributes to the production of a substantial mass fraction of the particulate matter (PM over tropical forests. Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX produced in the gas phase by the oxidation of isoprene under HO2-dominant conditions are subsequently taken up by particles, thereby leading to production of secondary organic PM. The present study investigates possible perturbations to this pathway by urban pollution. The measurement site in central Amazonia was located 4 to 6 h downwind of Manaus, Brazil. Measurements took place from February through March 2014 of the wet season, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Mass spectra of organic PM collected with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were analyzed by positive-matrix factorization. One resolved statistical factor (IEPOX-SOA factor was associated with PM production by the IEPOX pathway. The IEPOX-SOA factor loadings correlated with independently measured mass concentrations of tracers of IEPOX-derived PM, namely C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols (R = 0. 96 and 0.78, respectively. The factor loading, as well as the ratio f of the loading to organic PM mass concentration, decreased under polluted compared to background conditions. For an increase in NOy concentration from 0.5 to 2 ppb, the factor loading and f decreased by two to three fold. Overall, sulfate concentration explained 37 % of the variability in the factor loading. After segregation of factor loading into subsets based on NOy concentration, the sulfate concentration explained up to 75 % of the variability. Considering both factors, the data sets show that the suppressing effects of increased NO concentrations dominated over the enhancing effects of higher sulfate concentrations. The pollution from Manaus elevated NOy concentrations more significantly than sulfate concentrations relative to background conditions. In this light, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides, as

  9. Factors influencing students' decision in choosing obstetrics and gynecology as a career in a university hospital in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rafea, Basim F; Al-Hassan, Basmah F; Al Nakshabandi, Kholoud A; Rahbini, Nora O; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K

    2011-07-01

    To determine factors influencing final year medical undergraduate trainees at King Saud University in choosing a career in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In this cross sectional study, the undergraduate final year medical students and interns at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were asked to complete a survey instrument designed to assess possible attracting and detracting factors. The survey was conducted from January 2010 to February 2010. Factors were analyzed in a univariable and multivariable analysis. The survey was distributed to 507 students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 330 participants (response rate 65%). Overall, 32 (9.7 %) of students listed Obstetrics and Gynecology in their top 3 choices. The rotation of students through Obstetrics and Gynecology was the most influential factor attracting 81.3% of the students who chose to take this course. Faculty interaction was a major reason for attracting students accounting for 71.9%, but resident interaction was less attractive where only 37.5% of students mentioned that they were affected positively by residents. Hands-on experience such as performing deliveries and other procedures were significant attracting factors. (p=0.006 and p=0.004). The findings in this study will hopefully aid in recruiting trainees to the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Saudi Arabia. Identifying the 5 major attracting factors from our study will allow our institute to integrate these factors in Obstetrics and Gynecology curriculum design, eventually increasing interest in postgraduate training in this specialty.

  10. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-01-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrople will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  11. Nanocrystalline permanent magnets with enhanced properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Parameters of permanent magnets result from the combination of intrinsic properties such as saturation magnetization, magnetic exchange, and magnetocrystalline energy, as well as microstructural parameters such as phase structure, grain size, and orientation. Reduction of grain size into nanocrystalline regime (∼ 50 nm) leads to the enhanced remanence which derives from ferromagnetic exchange coupling between highly refined grains. In this study the fundamental phenomena, quantities, and structure parameters, which define nanophase permanent magnets are presented and discussed. The theoretical considerations are confronted with experimental data for nanocrystalline Sm-Fe-N type permanent magnets. (author)

  12. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  13. Reactor safety review of permanent changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    Operational compliance engineers review all changes as part of a change control process. Each change, permanent or temporary, is required to undergo an intricate review process to ensure that the benefits associated with the change outweigh the risk. For permanent changes, it is necessary to ensure that the proposed design meets the nuclear safety requirements, conforms to the licensing requirements and complies with regulatory requirements. In addition, during installation of the permanent change and prior to in-service, a configuration management process is in place to align the change with operating and maintenance documents. (author)

  14. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  15. Detection of smaller Jc region and damage in YBCO coated conductors by using permanent magnet method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Saito, A.; Takano, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, H.; Takayama, T.; Kamitani, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J c ) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm 2 Co 17 ). J c could be determined from the repulsive force (F r ) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J c distribution. The measured F r when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J c ) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm 2 Co 17 ). J c could be determined from the repulsive force (F r ) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We tried to detect a smaller J c region in the coated conductor by using the system. The J c distribution could be determined without influence from the thick copper film on YBCO thin film. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J c distribution. The surface of the coated conductors was cut by using a knife. The measured F r when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. This J c measurement technique will be useful for detecting smaller J c regions and defects in coated conductors.

  16. Radioecological sensitivity of permanent grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The project 'SENSIB' of the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) aims at characterizing and classifying parameters with significant impact on the transfer of radioactive contaminants in the environment. This thesis is focused on permanent grassland areas. Its objectives are the analysis of the activity variations of two artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) in the chain from soil to dairy products as well as the categorization of ecological and anthropogenic parameters, which determine the sensitivity of the studied area. For this study, in situ sampling is carried out in 15 farms in 3 different French regions (Charente, Puy-de-Dome and Jura). The sampling sites are chosen according to their natural variations (geology, altitude and climate) and the soil types. Additionally to the radiologic measurements, geographic, soil and vegetation data as well as data concerning cattle-rearing and cheese manufacturing processes are gathered. From the soil to the grass vegetation, 137 Cs transfer factors vary between 3 x 10-3 and 148 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 73). Theses transfer factors are significantly higher in the Puy-de-Dome region than in the Jura region. The 137 Cs transfer factor from cattle feed to milk varies from 5.9 x 10-3 to 258 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (fresh weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 28). Statistically, it is higher in the Charente region. Finally, the 90 Sr transfer factor from milk to cheese ranges from 3.9 to 12.1. The studied site with the highest factor is the Jura (N = 25). The link between milk and dairy products is the stage with the most 137 Cs and 90 Sr transfers. A nonlinear approach based on a discretization method of the transfer factor with multiple comparison tests admits a classification of the sensitivity factors from soil to grass vegetation. We can determine 20 factors interfering in the 137 Cs transfer into the vegetation, for instance, the clay rate of the soils or a marker

  17. Academic formation and permanent education: influences on leadership styles of nurses Formação acadêmica e educação permanente: influências nos estilos de liderança de enfermeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cristina Kades Andrigue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: conhecer as influências da formação acadêmica e da Educação Permanente em Saúde (EPS nos estilos de liderança adotados pelos enfermeiros no âmbito hospitalar. Método: pesquisa qualitativa do tipo descritiva, apoiada no referencial de Hersey e Blanchard. Participaram do estudo seis enfermeiros da rede hospitalar de Chapecó (SC, que tipificavam diferentes estilos de liderança. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas e analisados conforme Análise Temática. Resultados: os participantes sentiram-se pouco influenciados para liderar diante da formação obtida na graduação e ressaltaram dificuldades de integração ensino-serviço, que interferiram no exercício da liderança. Quanto à EPS, sinalizaram a falta de investimentos na qualificação. Conclusão: destaca-se a importância de o ensino na graduação fortalecer as práticas de aprendizagem da liderança e entende-se que a liderança é aperfeiçoada ao longo da vida profissional.    Objective: to know the influences of academic training and Continuing Health Education (EPS on the leadership styles adopted by nurses in the hospital environment. Method: it is qualitative descriptive-type research supported in the references of Hersey and Blanchard. Six nurses from the hospital network of Chapecó, Santa Catarina, participated in this study and typified different leadership styles. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to Thematic Analysis. Results: the participants felt only slightly influenced to lead during the training obtained in their graduation course and highlighted difficulties in integrating education service, which interfered in exercising leadership. As for the Continuing Health Education (EPS, it indicated a lack of investment in qualification. Conclusion: standing it was highlighted the importance of education in graduation studies to strengthen leadership learning practices and it is

  18. Centralization as a predictor of provocation discography results in chronic low back pain, and the influence of disability and distress on diagnostic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, Mark; Oberg, Birgitta; Aprill, Charles N; McDonald, Barry

    2005-01-01

    The "centralization phenomenon" (CP) is the progressive retreat of referred pain towards the spinal midline in response to repeated movement testing (a McKenzie evaluation). A previous study suggested that it may have utility in the clinical diagnosis of discogenic pain and may assist patient selection for discography and specific treatments for disc pain. Estimation of the diagnostic predictive power of centralization and the influence of disability and patient distress on diagnostic performance, using provocation discography as a criterion standard for diagnosis, in chronic low back pain patients. This study was a prospective, blinded, concurrent, reference standard-related validity design carried out in a private radiology clinic specializing in diagnosis of chronic spinal pain. Consecutive patients with persistent low back pain were referred to the study clinic by orthopedists and other medical specialists for interventional radiological diagnostic procedures. Patients were typically disabled and displayed high levels of psychosocial distress. The sample included patients with previous lumbar surgery, and most had unsuccessful conservative therapies previously. results of provocation discography. The CP. Psychometric evaluation: Roland-Morris, Zung, Modified Somatic Perception questionnaires, Distress Risk Assessment Method, and 100-mm visual analog scales for pain intensity. Patients received a single physical therapy examination, followed by lumbar provocation discography. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of the CP were estimated in the group as a whole and in subgroups defined by psychometric measures. A total of 107 patients received the clinical examination and discography at two or more levels and post-discography computed tomography. Thirty-eight could not tolerate a full physical examination and were excluded from the main analysis. Disability and pain intensity ratings were high, and distress was common. Sensitivity, specificity, and

  19. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  20. Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material. - Highlights: • Simulations of isotropic permanent magnets. • Accurate calculation of remanence magnetization and strayfield. • Comparison with strayfield measurements and anisotropic magnet simulations. • Efficient 3D FEM–BEM coupling for solution of Maxwell equations.

  1. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  2. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AL. Update on mutations in glucokinase (GCK), which cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young, permanent neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Hum Mutat. 2009 Nov;30(11):1512-26. ...

  4. [Permanent education in health: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and

  5. Radioelement gauges. Appliances intended for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    The present norm defines for radioelement gauges intended for permanent installation: a classification of instruments and beam shutter devices; recommended construction techniques which satisfy health physics requirements; monitoring and test methods; information which must appear on the instruments [fr

  6. Canadian Eskimo permanent tooth emergence timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhall, J T; Belier, P L; Mayhall, M F

    1978-08-01

    To identify the times of emergence of the permanent teeth of Canadian Eskimos (Inuit), 368 children and adolescents were examined. The presence or absence of all permanent teeth except the third molars was recorded and these data subjected to probit analysis. Female emergence times were advanced over males. Generally, the Inuit of both sexes showed statistically significant earlier emergence times than Montreal children, except for the incisors. The present results do not support hypotheses indicating that premature extraction of the deciduous teeth advances the emergence of their succedaneous counterparts. There is some indication the controls of deciduous tooth emergence continue to play some part in emergence of the permanent dentition, especially the first permanent teeth that emerge.

  7. Multiple Unerupted Permanent Teeth Associated with Noonan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2] Oral findings in patients with NS include a high arched palate ... the atypical dental anomalies such as multiple unerupted permanent ... clinical features in a child with NS. .... Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  8. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  9. Permanent Magnet Dipole for DIRAC Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Two dipole magnets including one spare unit are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole. The design based on Sm2Co17 blocks assembled together with soft ferromagnetic pole tips. The magnet provides integrated field strength of 24.6 10-3 T×m inside the aperture of 60 mm. This Design Report summarizes the main magnetic and mechanic design parameters of the permanent dipole magnets.

  10. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  11. Workplace bullying a risk for permanent employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Lamontagne, Anthony D

    2012-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers. Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Sensitivity of permanent meadows areas. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcelot, L.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work proposed in the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project on the permanent meadows areas is to compare the sensitivity of these surfaces and cheese maker sector which are associated with them, and to identify the processes which determine this sensitivity. The realization of this objective will lean on certain data of activities acquired recently by the I.R.S.N. (compartments: soils, herb, milk and cheese), as well as on new measures, on three sites: Saint-Laurent-de-Geris ( West), Beaune-Le-Froid ( center), and Massif of Jura (East). Two scales of transfers observation and sensitivity are retained. In a first time, the sensitivity of meadows areas will studied at the regional scale, from data acquired in the Massif du Jura ( between 300 and 1200 metres up). In a second time, a study will allow to compare the sensitivity of three areas retained (West, Center, East) at the national scale. The expertise will be focused on the factors of sensitivity of the transfer soil-herb and the factors of sensitivity bound to the cheese makers sectors. The data of the already available zones of study create strong variabilities of the rates of 137 Cs transfer in the interfaces soil / herb and herb / milk, letting suppose that the nature of soils, the quantity and the quality of food ingested by the cattle constitutes dominating factors of sensitivity. Besides, the size of the basin of milk collection, extremely variable from a site of study in the other one, has to influence the contamination of cheeses and as such, it establishes an important factor of sensitivity of the cheese makers sector. (N.C.)

  13. Study of the influence of zirconium and gallium on the magnetic properties and microstructures of praseodymium-based permanent magnets; Estudo da influencia do zirconio e galio nas propriedades magneticas e na microestrutura dos imas permanentes a base de praseodimio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusco, Alexandre Giardini

    2006-07-01

    In this work was studied the influence of the addition of 0.5 at. % of zirconium and gallium on praseodymium-based HD sintered magnets obtained using a mixture of alloys. The alloys used in this study were: Pr{sub 12.6}Fe{sub 68.3}Co{sub 11.6}B{sub 6}Zr{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 1}, Pr{sub 16}Fe{sub 75.5}B{sub 8}Zr{sub 0.5}, Pr{sub 13}Fe{sub 80.5}B{sub 6}Zr{sub 0.5}. The investigation started by measuring the magnetic properties and observing the microstructure of the magnets. After that, the magnets were annealed at 1000 deg C for 2 hours followed by rapid cooling, in a total of 10 hours. This heat treatment was followed by 5 hours at the same temperature up to a total of 35 hours. Changes in the microstructure were compared to the change in the magnetic properties aiming at a proper understanding of the role of each added element in relation to the magnetically hard phase (phase {phi}). It has been shown that gallium and zirconium act as grain refiners of the matrix phase {phi}. Gallium acts in the grain and favoring of the shape stability and improvement of the magnetic properties. For the Pr{sub 14.3}Fe{sub 71.9}Co{sub 5.8}B{sub 7}Zr{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5} sintered magnet the evolution of the magnetic properties after 15 hours heat treatment was: remanence from (1.25{+-}0.02) T to (1.30{+-}0.02) T, intrinsic coercivity from (1.11{+-}0.02) T to (0.87{+-}0.02) T, squareness factor from (0.68{+-}0.02) to (0.82{+-}0.02) and energy product from (285{+-}5) kJ/m{sup 3} to (317{+-}5) kJ/m{sup 3}. Zirconium has two effects on the sintered magnets. Firstly, avoiding random grain growth and enhancing anisotropy. However, by concentrating on the grain boundaries, yield reverse domains and is detrimental to the intrinsic coercivity. For the sintered Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 7}Zr{sub 0.5} magnet the evolution of the magnetic properties achieved after a heat treatment of 15 hours was: remanence from (1.19{+-}0.02) T to (1.25{+-}0.02) T, coercivity from (0.74{+-}0.02) T to (0

  14. Study on the influence of the distance to shore for a wave energy farm operating in the central part of the Portuguese nearshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Eugen; Onea, Florin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nearshore impact of the wave farm (significant wave height fields and wave vectors). Conditions for a wave farm operating at 7 km from the shore, where: (a) average conditions for total time; (b) average conditions for winter time; (c) high energy non storm conditions. (MA) – Moderate absoption, (HA) – High absorption. - Highlights: • The coastal influence of a generic wave farm is assessed. • The target area is located in the central part of Portugal. • The wave decay down wave the farm is evaluated. • The impact on the coastal circulation is also assessed. - Abstract: The objective of the present work is to assess the coastal impact induced by a generic wave farm operating in the central part of the Portuguese continental coastal environment, south of Lisbon. In order to identify better the most relevant wave patterns in the target area, two data sets were processed and analyzed. The first is represented by the ‘in situ’ measurements provided by the Sines buoy, which operates in the immediate vicinity south of the target area, and the second consists in the wave data coming from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, in a point located offshore close to the target area. Three scenarios were considered for the numerical simulations that were carried out with a computational framework combining a wave and a circulation model. A generic wave farm was defined in the computational domain considering various distances from the shore: 1 km, 4 km and 7 km, respectively. In the first part of the work, the down-wave effect of the farm was evaluated taking into account the local wave characteristics in the target area and analyzing various wave parameters, as for example the wave power, wave height and mean wave direction. In the second part of the work, the influence of the farm on the nearshore circulation was also assessed. Based on the results of the present work it can be concluded that the nearshore impact of such a

  15. Periodic permanent magnet focusing system with high peak field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Weiwei; Bai Shuxin; Chen Ke

    2008-01-01

    In this study, hybrid periodic permanent magnet (PPM) system is studied, which has high axial magnetic field and low magnetic leakage. By simulation computation, some laws of magnetic field distribution vs. structure dimensions were obtained. A hybrid PPM is designed and constructed whose peak field reaches 0.6 T. The factors inducing discrepancies between computational results and practical measurements are analyzed. The magnetic field distribution is very sensitive to the variations of constructional parameters. Construction accuracy greatly influences the magnetic field distribution. Research results obtained here are potentially valuable for future work

  16. Perspectives for high-performance permanent magnets: applications, coercivity, and new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Satoshi; Nishino, Masamichi; Miyashita, Seiji

    2017-03-01

    High-performance permanent magnets are indispensable in the production of high-efficiency motors and generators and ultimately for sustaining the green earth. The central issue of modern permanent magnetism is to realize high coercivity near and above room temperature on marginally hard magnetic materials without relying upon the critical elements such as heavy rare earths by means of nanostructure engineering. Recent investigations based on advanced nanostructure analysis and large-scale first principles calculations have led to significant paradigm shifts in the understandings of coercivity mechanism in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, which includes the discovery of the ferromagnetism of the thin (2 nm) intergranular phase surrounding the Nd2Fe14B grains, the occurrence of negative (in-plane) magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Nd ions and some Fe atoms at the interface which degrades coercivity, and visualization of the stochastic behaviors of magnetization in the magnetization reversal process at high temperatures. A major change may occur also in the motor topologies, which is currently overwhelmed by the magnetic flux weakening interior permanent magnet motor type, to other types with variable flux permanent magnet type in some applications to open up a niche for new permanent magnet materials. Keynote talk at 8th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016), 8-12 November 2016, Ha Long City, Vietnam.

  17. Influence of summer marine fog and low cloud stratus on water relations of evergreen woody shrubs (Arctostaphylos: Ericaceae) in the chaparral of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Loik, Michael E; Parker, V Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Mediterranean-type climate (MTC) regions around the world are notable for cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. A dominant vegetation type in all five MTC regions is evergreen, sclerophyllous shrubland, called chaparral in California. The extreme summer dry season in California is moderated by a persistent low-elevation layer of marine fog and cloud cover along the margin of the Pacific coast. We tested whether late dry season water potentials (Ψ(min)) of chaparral shrubs, such as Arctostaphylos species in central California, are influenced by this coast-to-interior climate gradient. Lowland coastal (maritime) shrubs were found to have significantly less negative Ψ(min) than upland interior shrubs (interior), and stable isotope (δ(13)C) values exhibited greater water use efficiency in the interior. Post-fire resprouter shrubs (resprouters) had significantly less negative Ψ(min) than co-occurring obligate seeder shrubs (seeders) in interior and transitional chaparral, possibly because resprouters have deeper root systems with better access to subsurface water than shallow-rooted seeders. Unexpectedly, maritime resprouters and seeders did not differ significantly in their Ψ(min), possibly reflecting more favorable water availability for shrubs influenced by the summer marine layer. Microclimate and soil data also suggest that maritime habitats have more favorable water availability than the interior. While maritime seeders constitute the majority of local Arctostaphylos endemics, they exhibited significantly greater vulnerability to xylem cavitation than interior seeders. Because rare seeders in maritime chaparral are more vulnerable to xylem cavitation than interior seeders, the potential breakdown of the summer marine layer along the coast is of potential conservation concern.

  18. Permanent magnet materials and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent magnets are of great industrial importance in industrial drives, consumer products, computers, and automobiles. Since 1970, new classes of magnet materials have been developed. This book reviews the older and newer materials and is presented as a comprehensive design text for permanent magnets and their applications. After an initial chapter on the fundamentals of magnetism, the author discusses magnetic physics considerations specific to permanent magnets and describes the fabrications and characteristics of commercial materials: alnico, samarium-cobalt, ferrite, and neodymium-iron-boron. Thermal stability, magnet design procedures, magnetic field analysis methods, and measurement methods are discussed in subsequent chapters, followed by a concluding chapter reviewing commercial and industrial products that use permanent magnets. The chapter on thermal properties of magnet materials is of particular interest, bringing together information not readily found elsewhere. The review of applications is also deserving of attention, specifically the sections on motors and actuators. Although particle accelerator applications are discussed, the use of permanent magnet sextuples in modern ECR ion sources is not mentioned

  19. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  20. Examination of the influence of water-heated central heating systems on the levels of radon and radon progeny in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.; Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    A series of continuous real-time radon and progeny measurements, together with passive etched-track detector measurements returning average values, were undertaken in commercial premises in Northamptonshire. Detailed measurements over several months in two separate buildings show that the level of both radon and progeny are determined to a major extent by the influence of the operation and timing of the central heating systems in place. Both buildings studied are similar in construction to many single-storey domestic properties. The operative heating system reduced the radon and progeny levels relative to the non-operating mode by over 40% during the heating period of a normal working day. The variation in temperature during this time was generally less than 3 deg. C, indicative of a heat retentive building. Because the equilibrium (F) fraction is reduced during the heating period, the reductions in radon and progeny are not uniform. In the workplaces studied, the work-cycle was normally limited to 0900-1700 hours Monday to Friday, the period when the lowest values were recorded. Average daily values would therefore overstate by more than 50% the maximum potential dose during normal attendance hours. The corollary is that living under similar circumstances in domestic environments, the operation and timing of this type of heating regime may well result in higher exposure in the home than at work

  1. Comparison of influence of high thoracic epidural anesthesia and central analgesia on hemodynamic during on-bypass coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sobokar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite some advantages, the use of high thoracic epidural anesthesia (HTEA during cardiac operations may be discouraged by fear of adverse hemodynamic effects. Aim. To compare the hemodynamic effects of HTEA and central analgesia (CA during on-bypass CABG. Methods. 132 patients were assigned into two groups – study group (n = 85, where the surgery was carried out under HTEA and control group (n = 47 - where the surgery was carried out under CA. Data of the intraoperative monitoring and trans-oesophageal cardiac ultrasound - cardiac index (CI, stroke index (SI, ejection fraction (EF and index of systemic vascular resistance (ISVR were obtained. Results. After induction and sternotomy patients in the study group had higher EF - 57(53, 65% vs 54 ± 7% (p = 0,013 and 55 ± 8 vs 52 ± 9%, (p = 0,031. After sternotomy CI and SI in the study group were also higher, respectively 2,42 (2,0;3,1 vs 2,23±0,63 l · min-1 · m-2, (p = 0,041 and 43 (34;46 vs 37±10 ml · m-2 (p = 0.014. Conclusion. We concluded that HTEA has advantages over CA by its influence on hemodynamics.

  2. Factors influencing the movements during the breeding season of a female booted eagle (Aquila pennata tagged by satellite in central Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Josep

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging movements during the breeding season are a poorly studied aspect of booted eagle behaviour. We have investigated the relationship between weather and other abiotic factors and foraging behaviour, and also resource use by a female booted eagle, tagged by satellite-GPS transmitter in central Catalonia, during summer 2012 and spring 2013. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs revealed that the distance travelled from the nest was significantly related to temperature, but also to the time of day and the age of chicks. Temperature also had a significant positive influence on flight altitude and the latter on flight speed. The Resource Utilization Function (RUF showed significant resource use in locations close to water (rivers and water bodies and also in agricultural areas, preferably close to urban areas and rivers. On the other hand, unlike in other areas of Spain, the use of the edges between forest and agricultural areas and forest areas themselves showed negative coefficients with values not significant, perhaps related to changes in prey availability in the traditional hunting grounds.

  3. Factors influencing specialist outreach and support services to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, Johan; Jenkins, Louis

    2015-04-21

    Access to health care often depends on where one lives. Rural populations have significantly poorer health outcomes than their urban counterparts. Specialist outreach to rural communities is one way of improving access to care. A multifaceted style of outreach improves access and health outcomes, whilst a shifted outpatients style only improves access. In principle, stakeholders agree that specialist outreach and support (O&S) to rural populations is necessary. In practice, however, factors influence whether or not O&S reaches its goals, affecting sustainability.Aim and setting: Our aim was to better understand factors associated with the success or failure of specialist O&S to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts in the Western Cape. An anonymous parallel three-stage Delphi process was followed to obtain consensus in a specialist and district hospital panel. Twenty eight specialist and 31 district hospital experts were invited, with response rates of 60.7%-71.4% and 58.1%-74.2% respectively across the three rounds. Relationships, communication and planning were found to be factors feeding into a service delivery versus capacity building tension, which affects the efficiency of O&S. The success of the O&S programme is dependent on a site-specific model that is acceptable to both the outreaching specialists and the hosting district hospital. Good communication, constructive feedback and improved planning may improve relationships and efficiency, which might lead to a more sustainable and mutually beneficial O&S system.

  4. THE PRINCIPLE OF PERMANENCE IN A CONSUMER SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Il’in

    2017-01-01

    desire to use to update the range of available consumer items in accordance with changing fashion and constantly emerging commercial offers new models of things. Fictitious commitment to consumer redefining itself lies in the fact that: 1 it is just the thing (fetish-infantile the nature, 2 it is fundamentally not satisfied because the modern economy creates for each new desire satisfied, which also demands satisfaction. There is a senseless chain of fictitious, which maintains the gap between the new requirement and satisfaction. Falling into dependence on the proprietary permanence, consumer stresses its independence, what is one of the paradoxes of consumerism. The article also discusses the destructive influence of the principle of permanence on the environment.

  5. Development of a permanent magnet alternative for a solenoidal ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, J.; Fahy, A.; Barr, M. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Jardine, A.; Allison, W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dastoor, P.C., E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    The most sensitive desktop-sized ionizer utilising electron bombardment is currently the solenoidal ion source. We present an alternate design for such an ion source whereby the solenoidal windings of the electromagnet are replaced by a shaped cylindrical permanent magnet in order to reduce the complexity and running costs of the instrument. Through finite element modelling of the magnetic field in COMSOL and experimental measurements on a small-scale prototype magnet stack, we demonstrate the required shape of the permanent magnet in order to generate the needed field, and the necessity of soft iron collars to smooth fluctuations along the central axis.

  6. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States. [61 FR 37386, July 18...

  7. 13 CFR 120.900 - Sources of permanent financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of permanent financing... Development Company Loan Program (504) Permanent Financing § 120.900 Sources of permanent financing. Permanent financing for each Project must come from three sources: the Borrower's contribution, Third-Party Loans, and...

  8. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  9. The history of permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Permanent-magnet materials play a large and growing, but largely unseen, role in today's technology. Many common devices in the home and elsewhere, including appliances, computers and printers, contain permanent-magnet motors and actuators. The growth of applications for permanent magnets results in large part from the improvements in magnetic properties, which allow the engineer to design smaller, lighter and more efficient devices. The properties of the greatest technological interest are remanence, coercivity and maximum energy product. All are non-equilibrium and high structure-sensitive. Coercivity is particularly sensitive to microstructure, while remanence is sensitive to texture (crystallographic alignment). The energy product depends on both coercivity and remanence. The more than one hundredfold increase in the available energy product in this century, and the corresponding amount of magnet required for a specific application, are shown

  10. Analysis of a spherical permanent magnet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new form of actuator with a spherical permanent magnet rotor and a simple winding arrangement, which is capable of a high specific torque by utilizing a rare-earth permanent magnet. The magnetic-field distribution is established using an analytical technique formulated in spherical coordinates, and the results are validated by finite element analysis. The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the actuator torque and back emf in closed forms. In turn, these facilitate the characterization of the actuator and provide a firm basis for design optimization, system dynamic modeling, and closed-loop control law development. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Joe

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  12. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release

  13. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...... of the magnetostatic interaction energy. For comparison, the forces involved are also calculated numerically using finite elements methods. Based on the conservation of the magnetostatic and kinetic energies, the exit and asymptotic velocities are determined. The derived formulas can be used to optimize the generated...... forces and motion of the inner cylindrical magnet....

  14. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, E A; Dwyer, Lian O; Leith, Rona

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  15. Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p

  16. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardach, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  17. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardach Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  18. Permanent magnet design for magnetic heat pumps using total cost minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyber, R.; Trevizoli, P. V.; Christiaanse, T. V.; Govindappa, P.; Niknia, I.; Rowe, A.

    2017-11-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is an attractive technology for efficient heat pumps and cooling systems. The costs associated with a permanent magnet for near room temperature applications are a central issue which must be solved for broad market implementation. To address this problem, we present a permanent magnet topology optimization to minimize the total cost of cooling using a thermoeconomic cost-rate balance coupled with an AMR model. A genetic algorithm identifies cost-minimizing magnet topologies. For a fixed temperature span of 15 K and 4.2 kg of gadolinium, the optimal magnet configuration provides 3.3 kW of cooling power with a second law efficiency (ηII) of 0.33 using 16.3 kg of permanent magnet material.

  19. La centralidad en las comunicaciones y la influencia percibida en los pequeños grupos The communication centrality and the perceived influence in small groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Noemi Terroni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reporta los resultados de medidas del análisis de redes en la comunicación de pequeños grupos que resuelven una tarea de recuperación de memoria y su asociación con la influencia percibida. El reactivo empleado es una historia y los 65 participantes, alumnos de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, debieron reconstruir la misma primero en forma individual, luego grupal colaborativa y nuevamente en forma individual. Se registraron las interacciones grupales con comunicación cara a cara y mediada por computadora; se analizaron las medidas de prominencia, la centralidad y el prestigio de la comunicación y el tipo de alocución, orientado a la gestión grupal o hacia la tarea. Se observaron asociaciones significativas entre las medidas reticulares y la influencia percibida para ambos medios de comunicación y se hallaron diferencias en la comunicación de gestión grupal. Se discuten estos resultados con relación a las restricciones que imponen los canales de comunicación mediados.This work reports reticular measures of the social network analysis in the communication of small groups while solving a recall memory task and their association with the perceived influence. The task used is a story and the 65 subjects, students at the Mar del Plata University had to reconstruct the story, first individually, then in collaborative groups and again individually. The subjects’ interactions in face to face and computer mediated communication groups were recorded; the prominence measures, the centrality and the prestige of the communication and the type of speech were analyzed, oriented to the group management or towards the task (conceptual. Significant associations between the reticular measures and the perceived influence were observed, for both media, and differences in the group management communications were found. These results in relation to the restrictions of the communication mediated channels are discussed.

  20. Occurrence and air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls at a CAWNET background site in central China: Implications for influencing factors and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingxi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Zuwu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Gan; Lyu, Xiaopu; Cheng, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m 3 in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil. A strong positive temperature dependence and average fugacity fraction value > 0.5 were observed for p,p'-DDT, suggesting that volatilization of residual DDT in the soil was the main influencing factor on atmospheric p,p'-DDT. Highly average fugacity fractions (>0.7) of trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) and high TC/CC ratios both in the soil and atmosphere suggested fresh inputs. Higher gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were observed in winter and negative temperature dependence was directly attributed to the surrounding ongoing source (e.g. fuel consuming activities), especially in winter. Overall, most targeted OCPs and PCBs were influenced by long-range transport, and fugacity fraction values indicated highly volatile compounds (e.g. α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and lower chlorinated PCBs) were volatilized and low volatility compounds (e.g. p,p'-DDE and higher chlorinated PCBs) were deposited at the air-soil interface. Knowing the source and sink of OCPs and PCBs can help to control their pollution in this area and provide a reference for other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tubular permanent magnet actuators: cogging forces characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Encica, L.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Tubular permanent magnet actuators are evermore used in demanding industrial and automotive applications. However, these actuators can suffer from large cogging forces, which have a destabilizing effect on the servo control system and compromise position and speed control accuracy. This paper

  2. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs

  3. Standards on the permanence of recording materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Peter Z.

    1996-02-01

    The permanence of recording materials is dependent upon many factors, and these differ for photographic materials, magnetic tape and optical disks. Photographic permanence is affected by the (1) stability of the material, (2) the photographic processing and (3) the storage conditions. American National Standards on the material and the processing have been published for different types of film and standard test methods have been established for color film. The third feature of photographic permanence is the storage requirements and these have been established for photographic film, prints and plates. Standardization on the permanence of electronic recording materials is more complicated. As with photographic materials, stability is dependent upon (1) the material itself and (2) the storage environment. In addition, retention of the necessary (3) hardware and (4) software is also a prerequisite. American National Standards activity in these areas has been underway for the past six years. A test method for the material which determines the life expectancy of CD-ROMs has been standardized. The problems of determining the expected life of magnetic tape have been more formidable but the critical physical properties have been determined. A specification for the storage environment of magnetic tape has been finalized and one on the storage of optical disks is being worked on. Critical but unsolved problems are the obsolescence of both the hardware and the software necessary to read digital images.

  4. resonant inverter supplied interior permanent magnet (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    [5] Zhenyue Hong, “DC-voltage link resonant inverters”, Department of Electrical and. Electronic Engineering University of. Canterbury, New Zealand. [6] Kalyan Kumar Halder, Naruttam Kumar Roy and B.C. Ghosh, “Position Sensorless. Control for an Interior Permanent Magnet. Synchronous Motor SVM Drive with ANN.

  5. 78 FR 14122 - Revocation of Permanent Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Douglas Fir planking had to have at least a 1,900 fiber stress and 1,900,000 modulus of elasticity, while the Yellow Pine planking had to have at least 2,500 fiber stress and 2,000,000 modulus of elasticity... the permanent variances, and affected employees, to submit written data, views, and arguments...

  6. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  7. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  8. Risk factors for permanent hypernasality after adenoidectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To investigate the causes of persistent, apparently permanent hypernasal speech following adenoidectomy in 10 subjects without overt cleft palates, and to establish a protocol to be followed before this operation is perfonmed. Design. Retrospective and descriptive design. Participants. Ten subjects, fulfilling the ...

  9. Radionuclides gauges. Gauges designed for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This present norm determines, for radionuclides gauges designed for permanent installation, the characteristics that these gauges should satisfied in their construction and performance to respect the prescriptions. It indicates the testing methods which permit to verify the agreement, gives a classification of gauges and specifies the indications to put on the emitter block [fr

  10. Dovetail spoke internal permanent magnet machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, James Pellegrino [Ballston Lake, NY; EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza [Clifton Park, NY; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad [Latham, NY; VanDam, Jeremy Daniel [West Coxsackie, NY

    2011-08-23

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple pair of permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which magnetic field interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce a torque. The multiple pair of permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple middle wedges mounted between each pair of the multiple permanent magnets.

  11. Permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaques, P.; Ong, H.; Jupe, A.; Brown, I.; Jansenns, M.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the 'Oilfield of the Future' will incorporate distributed permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells. However the effectiveness of these sensors will be limited by the extent to which seismic signals can be discriminated, or de-coupled, from flow induced

  12. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Kant, Sarina G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Wever, Capi C.; Kunst, Henricus P. M.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Oudesluys-Murphy, A. M.; Korver, A. M. H.; Frijns, J. H. M.; Wever, C. C.; Konings, S.; Beers, W.; Dekker, F. W.; de Vries, J. J. C.; Vossen, A. C. T. M.; Kant, S. G.; van den Akker-van Marle, M. E.; Rieffe, C.; Ens-Dokkum, M. H.; van Straaten, H. L. M.; Uilenburg, N. N.; Elvers, B.; Loeber, G.; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, J.; Maré, M. J.; Van Zanten, G. A.; Goedegebure, A.; Coster, F.; Goverts, S. T.; Admiraal, R. J. C.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.; Kunst, H. P. M.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkhuizen, J.; Scharloo, M.; Hoeben, D.; Rijpma, G.; Graef, W.; Linschoten, D.; Kuijper, J.; Hof, N. J.; Pans, D.; Jorritsma, F.; van Beurden, M.; ter Huurne, C. T.; Brienesse, P.; Koldewijn, G. J.; Letourneur, K. G.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported

  13. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kant, S.G.; Dekker, F.W.; Wever, C.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Frijns, J.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the

  14. Permanent magnet motor technology design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrates the construction of permanent magnet (PM) motor drives and supplies ready-to-implement solutions to common roadblocks along the way. This book also supplies fundamental equations and calculations for determining and evaluating system performance, efficiency, reliability, and cost. It explores modern computer-aided design of PM motors.

  15. Constant force linear permanent magnet actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Meessen, K.J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In applications, such as vibration isolation, gravity compensation, pick-and-place machines, etc., there is a need for (long-stroke) passive constant force actuators combined with tubular permanent magnet actuators to minimize the power consumption, hence, passively counteract the gravitational

  16. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles on wave-driven sea-floor sediment mobility along the central California continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reid, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean surface waves are the dominant temporally and spatially variable process influencing sea floor sediment resuspension along most continental shelves. Wave-induced sediment mobility on the continental shelf and upper continental slope off central California for different phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events was modeled using monthly statistics derived from more than 14 years of concurrent hourly oceanographic and meteorologic data as boundary input for the Delft SWAN wave model, gridded sea floor grain-size data from the usSEABED database, and regional bathymetry. Differences as small as 0.5 m in wave height, 1 s in wave period, and 10° in wave direction, in conjunction with the spatially heterogeneous unconsolidated sea-floor sedimentary cover, result in significant changes in the predicted mobility of continental shelf surficial sediment in the study area. El Niño events result in more frequent mobilization on the inner shelf in the summer and winter than during La Niña events and on the outer shelf and upper slope in the winter months, while La Niña events result in more frequent mobilization on the mid-shelf during spring and summer months than during El Niño events. The timing and patterns of seabed mobility are addressed in context of geologic and biologic processes. By understanding the spatial and temporal variability in the disturbance of the sea floor, scientists can better interpret sedimentary patterns and ecosystem structure, while providing managers and planners an understanding of natural impacts when considering the permitting of offshore activities that disturb the sea floor such as trawling, dredging, and the emplacement of sea-floor engineering structures.

  18. The influence of central corneal thickness and age on intraocular pressure measured by pneumotonometry, non-contact tonometry, the Tono-Pen XL, and Goldmann applanation tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnu, P-A; Ho, T; Newson, T; El Sheikh, A; Sharma, K; White, E; Bunce, C; Garway-Heath, D

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT) on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements made with the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), Tono-Pen XL, ocular blood flow tonograph (OBF), and Canon TX-10 non-contact tonometer (NCT). CCT was recorded for either eye (randomly selected) of each of 105 untreated patients with ocular hypertension and glaucoma attending the glaucoma research unit at Moorfields Eye Hospital. For each of the selected eyes, IOP was measured with the GAT (two observers), Tono-Pen, OBF, and NCT in a randomised order. The relation of measured IOP and of inter-tonometer differences with CCT and subject age was explored by linear regression analysis. A significant association between measured IOP and CCT was found with each instrument. The change in measured IOP for a 10 mum increase in CCT was 0.28, 0.31, 0.38, and 0.46 for the GAT, Tono-Pen, OBF, and NCT, respectively (all p< or = 0.05). There was a significant association between the NCT/GAT differences and CCT, with a tendency of NCT to overestimate GAT in eyes with thicker corneas. There was a significant association between GAT/Tono-Pen and OBF/Tono-Pen differences and age, with a tendency of GAT and OBF to overestimate the Tono-Pen in eyes of older subjects. IOP measurement by all four methods is affected by CCT. The NCT is affected by CCT significantly more than the GAT. Subject age has a differential effect on the IOP measurements made by the GAT and OBF compared to the Tono-Pen.

  19. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okupny, Daniel; Rzepecki, Seweryn; Borówka, Ryszard Krzysztof; Forysiak, Jacek; Twardy, Juliusz; Fortuniak, Anna; Tomkowiak, Julita

    2016-06-01

    The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  20. Potential influence of the late Holocene climate on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding in the Minusinsk Hollow, south-central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyakharchuk, T A; Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E I; Soja, A J

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass–Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods. (papers)

  1. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okupny Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene. In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni. The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  2. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no open-quotes provenclose quotes long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems

  3. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  4. Delayed-onset complications of facial soft tissue augmentation with permanent fillers in 85 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadouch, Jonathan A.; Kadouch, Daniel J.; Fortuin, Shai; van Rozelaar, Leo; Karim, Refaat B.; Hoekzema, Rick

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate factors influencing the onset and type of adverse events in patients injected with permanent fillers in the face and to propose a therapeutic strategy for these complications. A prospectively attained series of 85 patients with delayed-onset complications after facial injection with

  5. Eruption time of permanent first molars and incisors among female primary school children of riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chohan, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the mean eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors and to compare the relationship of mean eruption time with body mass index (BMI) in Saudi female primary school children from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The mean age of children was 89.3 (SD 9.6) months ranging from 71 months to 109 months. The maxillary right first molar had the lowest mean eruption time of 77.4 (SD 3.9) months and the maxillary right lateral incisor was the last tooth to erupt with eruption time of 98.4 (SD 6.5) months. Furthermore, the mandibular incisors erupted significantly earlier than maxillary incisors. By the age of 100 months, 97% of the girls had all their first permanent molars erupted. There was no significant correlation observed between eruption times with BMI of the studied teeth except the maxillary right lateral incisor. However, an inverse relationship may exist between the eruption times and BMI. The Saudi female primary school children showed later eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors when compared with the reported results of other national studies. Key words: Eruption time, permanent teeth, Saudi Arabia, female children. (author)

  6. Central banks: Paradise lost

    OpenAIRE

    Issing, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the paper is to analyze how the concept behind central bank policy developed over time and how the recent financial crisis and its consequences will have an influence. While the principles of the institutional arrangement for central banks (independence, clear mandate, prohibition of monetary financing) are relevant as ever, pre- crisis consensus strategies of monetary policy have been revealed as flawed. The close monitoring of money and credit developments, a key lesson to be d...

  7. [Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Jiménez, M L; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J

    2009-02-01

    Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations. The concept of satisfaction is considered theoretically relevant in practically all the studies that have investigated the factors that influence the permanence of volunteer participation in organizations. However, the practical results are not conclusive, perhaps due to the wide range of ways in which the concept is understood and measured. The object of this study is: to analyse the internal structure of satisfaction and to verify its relationship with volunteer duration in organizations. The results of the factor analysis yield a three-factor structure: Satisfaction with the management of the organization, Satisfaction with the tasks, Satisfaction of motivations. The three factors allow us to differentiate between individuals who remain in the organization for a period of 12 consecutive months, and those who leave earlier. The results of structural equation model analysis show that the relationship between satisfaction and the length of time that volunteers stay with the organization is affected by the intention to remain.

  8. Development of cryogenic permanent magnet undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Shirasawa, Katsutoshi; Kitamura, Hideo; Bizen, Teruhiko; Seike, Takamitsu; Marechal, Xavier; Tsuru, Rieko; Iwaki, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    A short period undulator increases not only the photon energy of undulator radiation, but also the brilliance due to its increased number of undulator periods. As a result, brilliant undulator radiation becomes available in the photon energy range, which is currently covered by wigglers. In order to develop a short period undulator, high performance magnets are indispensable and superconductive undulators have been actively investigated in recent years. In this paper, however, we propose a new approach, so called a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator using NdFeB magnets at the temperatures around 150 K. The current status of this cryogenic permanent magnet undulator development at SPring-8 is presented including the results of the magnetic field measurements on a prototype undulator. (author)

  9. Autistic children and the object permanence task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, J L; Tanguay, P; Barthélémy, C; Martineaú, J; Perrot, A; Hameury, L; Sauvage, D

    1993-01-01

    Many mentally retarded autistic children can understand the concept of object permanence, but, in comparison to developmental-age matched normal children, the behavioral strategies they employ in carrying out the Casati-Lezine Object Permanence Test are deficient and lead to failure. These deficiencies appear unrelated to interference of stereotypic or other bizarre behavior in task performance. Similar problem-solving deficiencies can be found in mentally retarded children who are not autistic, suggesting that the deficiencies themselves are less related to the social-communication deficits of autistic children, but more to the general problem-solving difficulties found in children with a lower developmental quotient. Nevertheless, the qualitative analysis of results shows a tendency in autistic children, despite their better developmental level, to use less coordinated and regular sequences to solve the task than normal or mentally retarded children.

  10. Design and construction of permanent magnetic gears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Thorleif

    /l]. Measurement from this gear has resulted in a measured total torque density of 23 [Nm/l]. Mechanical versions of this gear type are found with total torque density in the 16 to 31 [Nm/l] range. The third and last gear technology that is investigated is a gear that reminds of a planetary gear. Research shows......This thesis deals with design and development of permanent magnetic gears. The goal of this thesis is to develop knowledge and calculation software for magnetic gears. They use strong NdFeB permanent magnets and a new magnetic gear technology, which will be a serious alternative to classical...... mechanical gears. The new magnetic gear will have a high torque density1 relationship –high efficiency and are maintenance free. In this project was manufactured two test gears which is tested and verified with models developed in this project. Present technological status for magnetic gears is introduced...

  11. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  12. Regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of fast regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets in salient-pole electron-optical lenses are described: 1)the hybrid method realized using the additional electromagnet introduced to a magnetic chain sequentially its field being composed or substracted with magnetosolid exciter field; 2)the method with saturation of a part of a magnetic circuit, with saturation being achievable at the begining or in the end of a regulation cycle. In the second method it is proposed to direct orthogonally the main flux excited by permanent magnets and the flux in the saturated part of the magnetic circuit excited using an electromagnet. It is shown that the second method allows one to reduce the required ampere-coils by more than an order as compared to the first method at one and the same regulation range and other equal conditions. The frequency of field regulation in the experimental mock-up was 10 kHz. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.

    Permanent magnet machines, with either surface mounted or embedded magnets on the rotor, are becoming more common due to the key advantages of higher energy conversion efficiency and higher torque density compared to the classical induction machine. Besides energy efficiency the permanent magnet...... the synchronous machine requires knowledge of the rotor shaft position due to the synchronous and undamped nature of the machine. The rotor position may be measured using a mechanical sensor, but the sensor reduces reliability and adds cost to the system and for this reason sensorless control methods started...... are dependent on the phase currents and rotor position. Based on the flux linkages the differential inductances are determined and used to establish the inductance saliency in terms of ratio and orientation. The orientation and its dependence on the current and rotor position are used to analyse the behaviour...

  14. Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, D. W.; Timpf, J.

    1992-08-01

    Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks. The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0.01% and a directional resolution of about 0.05°. The design and performance of the system will be presented.

  15. Towards a smoke-free hospital: how the smoking status of health professionals influences their knowledge, attitude and clinical activity. Results from a hospital in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, E; Marani, A; Salvati, O; Mangiaracina, G; Prestigiacomo, C; Osborn, J F; Cattaruzza, M S

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the prevalence of smoking among health professionals is higher than in the general population and this might hamper their role in the promotion of health. This study aimed to investigate how the smoking status of healthcare professionals might influence knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice in a hospital in central Italy in order to enforce effective tobacco control measures. Physicians and professionals of the hospital were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire which yielded epidemiological and environmental information on knowledge, attitude, clinical practice and quality of the hospital environments, in relation to smoking. Overall, among the employees of the hospital, the smoking prevalence was 47%, (42% among physicians and 43% among nurses); 30% admitted smoking in the hospital and three quarters of the smokers would like to quit. Some knowledge, opinions and attitudes differ statistically among the smoking categories. For example, only 35% of the smokers admitted that smoking is more dangerous to health than atmospheric and car pollution compared with 60% of the ex or never smokers (p=0.04). Fewer smokers realize that their behavior is seen as a role model by patients. A greater percentage of smokers state that patients (34%) and visitors (43%) often smoke in hospital and these percentages are significantly higher than those reported by ex or never smokers (p≤0.05). All smokers claim that they never smoke in patient rooms, infirmaries and clinics, whereas over 20% of ex or never smokers report that smoking sometimes occurs in these places (p=0.015). The mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the 25 rooms was 2.4 μg/m3 with a range from 1 to 7 μg/m3. This study implies that the prevalence of smoking among health professionals may be very high, and might be twice the rate observed in the general population. Generally, smokers report less knowledge compared with ex and never-smokers and it seems that they systematically underestimate the

  16. Tectonic uplift-influenced monsoonal changes promoted hominin occupation of the Luonan Basin: Insights from a loess-paleosol sequence, eastern Qinling Mountains, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qian; Hong, Hanlie; Zhao, Lulu; Furnes, Harald; Lu, Huayu; Han, Wen; Liu, Yao; Jia, Zhuoyue; Wang, Chaowen; Yin, Ke; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-08-01

    Quaternary soil deposits from northern and southern China are distinctly different, reflecting variability of the East Asian monsoon north and south of the Qinling Mountains. Coeval sediments from the transitional climatic zone of central China, which are little studied to date, have the potential to improve our understanding of Quaternary monsoon changes and associated influences on hominin occupation of this region. Here, we investigate in detail a well-preserved and continuous Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence (Shangbaichuan) from the Luonan Basin, using a variety of weathering indices including major and trace element ratios, clay mineralogy, and Fe-oxide mineralogy. The whole-rock samples display similar rare earth element patterns characterized by upper continental crustal ratios: (La/Yb)N ≈ 9.5 and Eu/Eu* ≈ 0.65. Elemental data such as (La/Yb)N, La/Th and Eu/Eu* ratios show a high degree of homogeneity, suggesting that dust in the source region may have been thoroughly mixed and recycled, resulting in all samples having a uniform initial composition. Indices for pedogenic weathering such as Na/K, Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr, CIA, CIW, CPA, PIA, kaolinite/illite, (kaolinite + smectite)/illite, and hematite/(hematite + goethite) exhibit similar secular trends and reveal a four-stage accumulation history. The indices also indicate that the climate was warmer and wetter during the most recent interglacial stage, compared with coeval environments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Secular changes in weathering intensity can be related to stepwise uplift of the Qinling Mountains and variation in East Asian monsoon intensity, both of which played significant roles in controlling climate evolution in the Luonan Basin. Furthermore, intensified aridity and winter monsoon strength in dust source areas, as evidenced by mineralogic and geochemical changes, may have been due to the mid-Pleistocene climate transition. Based on temporal correlation of warmer and wetter climatic conditions

  17. Tectonic evolution of the central-eastern sector of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and its influence on the eruptive history of the Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2006-11-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age located within the central and eastern sectors of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Morphostructural analysis, aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation, structural analysis and geological fieldwork were methods used to investigate the relationship between the evolution of the volcano and the tectonic framework of its basement. The study revealed that the area of Nevado de Toluca is affected by three main fault systems that intersect close to the volcanic edifice. These are from oldest to youngest, the Taxco-Querétaro, San Antonio and Tenango fault systems. The NNW-SSE Taxco-Querétaro fault system was active in the area since Early Miocene, and is characterized by right-lateral transtensive movement. Its reactivation during Early to Middle Pleistocene was responsible for the emplacement of andesitic to dacitic lava flows and domes of La Cieneguilla Supersynthem. The NE-SW San Antonio fault system was active during Late Pliocene, before the reactivation of the Taxco-Querétaro fault system, and is characterized by extensional left-lateral oblique-slip kinematics. The youngest is the E-W Tenango fault system that has been active since Late Pleistocene. This fault system is characterized by transtensive left-lateral strike-slip movement, and partly coeval with the youngest eruptive phase, the Nevado Supersynthem, which formed the present summit cone of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. The stress re-orientation from the Taxco-Querétaro to the Tenango fault system during Late Pleistocene is responsible for the ˜ 1 Ma hiatus in the magmatic activity between 1.15 Ma and 42 ka. After this period of repose, the eruptive style drastically changed from effusive to explosive with the emission of dacitic products. The methodology presented here furnish new data that can be used to better assess the complex structural evolution of this sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

  18. Permanent Magnet Flux-Switching Machine, Optimal Design and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Emilian Somesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analytical sizing-design procedure for a typical permanent magnet flux-switching machine (PMFSM with 12 stator and respectively 10 rotor poles is presented. An optimal design, based on Hooke-Jeeves method with the objective functions of maximum torque density, is performed. The results were validated via two dimensions finite element analysis (2D-FEA applied on the optimized structure. The influence of the permanent magnet (PM dimensions and type, respectively of the rotor poles' shape on the machine performance were also studied via 2D-FEA.

  19. Urethral alarm probe for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a urethral dosimetry system for real time dose verification along the urethra during permanent implant prostate brachytherapy. The urethral alarm uses 'spectroscopic dosimetry' to calculate the dose rate along the urethra in real time. The application of spectroscopic dosimetry for the urethral alarm probe was verified using Monte Carlo calculations. In phantom depth dose measurements as well as isotropy measurements were performed to verify the usefulness of the urethra alarm probe as an in vivo real time dosimeter. (author)

  20. Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.

    1982-01-01

    14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%

  1. High-field permanent-magnet structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupoid, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a permanent magnet structure. It comprises an azimuthally circumscribed section of a hollow hemispherical magnetic flux source, the magnetic orientation in the section with respect to the polar axis being substantially equal to twice the polar angle, a superconducting planar sheet abutting one flat face of the section along a longitudinal meridian, and at least one other planar sheet of selected material abutting another flat face of the section and perpendicular to the first-mentioned sheet

  2. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 9 (2012), s. 1715-1719 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : permanent magnet * cylindrical magnet * Earnshaw's theorem * magnetic gun * magnetostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885311008997

  3. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  4. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  5. Permanents, Determinants, and Generalized Complementary Basic Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2014), s. 1041-1051 ISSN 1846-3886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : factorization * GCB-matrix * permanent * intrinsic product Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2014 http://files.ele-math.com/abstracts/oam-08-57-abs.pdf

  6. ERUPTION PATTERN OF PERMANENT TEETH -IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was visible in the oral vacity. Generally permanent teeth erupted earlier in girls than in boys. The differences were 0.1 - 0.2 years for incisors and first molars, 0.2 - 0.4 years for canines and premolars and 0.3 - 0.5 years for second molars. Except for the second premolars, mandibular teeth erupted earlier than the maxillary in ...

  7. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology - A Retrospective after Fifty Years. Michel Morange. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 236-247. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Financing of permanent working capital in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Branko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempted to present the problem of establishing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises and to point out the necessity for permanent working capital in those agricultural enterprises which can’t cover fixed assets, long-term placements and portion of inventories (raw material and spare parts, production in process with own equity and long-term sources of financing. For the purpose of analysing adequate structure of financing medium agricultural enterprises, we will use one of the most popular methods, such as case study and ratio analysis. Results of the research show that in primary agricultural production, next to standard long-term investment loans and short-term loans for investment in agricultural production, there is a necessity for financing in the permanent working capital which could assist continuity of production process and enable conditions for more profitable business in agriculture. It also should be noted that real and book value on this level of permanent working capital differs substantially.

  9. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton Zanchi, F.; Waterloo, M.J.; Dolman, A.J.; Groenendijk, M.; Kruijt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and

  10. Monitoring In Patients With Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunoday G R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of brain injury in infections of central nervous system (CNS are complex. While the primary injury may be due to meningeal and/or parenchymal invasion by the pathogen and release of toxins, a variety of secondary insults occur, which may influence the outcome as much as the primary insult. This concept is well recognized in brain trauma(1,2 where early recognition of secondary injuries and their appropriate treatment has been shown to improve outcome. Hypoxia, ischemia and metabolic disturbances are important secondary insults recognized in brain trauma, These are known to cause permanent neurological damage and worsening of outcome if undetected and untreated. In CNS infections, with their complex pathophysiologies, there is ample scope for such secondary insults. Monitoring in patients with CNS infections is to detect these secondary insults, allowing for a more informed approach to treatment.

  11. U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  12. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  13. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  14. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  15. 76 FR 78698 - Proposed Revocation of Permanent Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administration (``OSHA'' or ``the Agency'') granted permanent variances to 24 companies engaged in the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0054] Proposed Revocation of Permanent Variances AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...

  16. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

  17. Analysis of Hall Probe Precise Positioning with Cylindrical Permanent Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicev, P.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Precise positioning of a Hall probe for cyclotron magnetic field mapping, using cylindrical permanent magnets, was analyzed. The necessary permanent magnet parameters in order to achieve ±20 μm position precision, were determined. (author)

  18. U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs), also known as “green card” holders, are non-citizens who are lawfully authorized to live permanently within the United States.

  19. U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A legal permanent resident (LPR) or “green card” recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  20. The outer vactank, an object of 7.6m diameter and 13m length is built up of three cylindrical parts. The central part that is integral part of the central barrel and the the extension on either side each one 4.5m long. These extensions house the shoulders that will support and prestress the CMS Coil. To weld the extensions onto the central part a full penetration weld of 24m length and 45 mm thickness has to be done by hand from inside and outside the vacuum tank and its deformation is controled permanently.

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The outer vacuum tank will hold the coil suspension system and transmits the weight of the inner detectors to the central barrel. Its thickness is staggered. In the central part its thickness is 60 mm and then goes down to 30 mm at the extremity.

  1. The particularities of vegetative regulation of central haemodynamic at children living in condition of chronic radiation and chemical influence in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherko, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    398 children 7-16 years old living in condition of environmental threats have been examined. The most essential changes of the vegetative regulation of central haemodynamic have been found at children 7-13 years old. The distortion of vegetative regulation of the central haemodynamic have been revealed: sympatcotonia in case of arterial hypotensia and deficiency of sympathetic regulation of arterial hypertensia. Level of hormones of the sympatoadrenality system was fall. (authors)

  2. Milton Friedman and the Emergence of the Permanent Income Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Ke Chao

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolution of MiltonFriedman's permanent income hypothesis from the 1940s to 1960s, andhow it became the paradigm of modern consumption theory. Modellingunobservables, such as permanent income and permanent consumption, isa long-standing issue in economics and econometrics. While theconventional approach has been to set an empirical model to make"permanent income" measurable, the historical change in the meaningof that theoretical construct is al...

  3. Electron current extraction from a permanent magnet waveguide plasma cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherford, B. R.; Foster, J. E. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kamhawi, H. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance plasma produced in a cylindrical waveguide with external permanent magnets was investigated as a possible plasma cathode electron source. The configuration is desirable in that it eliminates the need for a physical antenna inserted into the plasma, the erosion of which limits operating lifetime. Plasma bulk density was found to be overdense in the source. Extraction currents over 4 A were achieved with the device. Measurements of extracted electron currents were similar to calculated currents, which were estimated using Langmuir probe measurements at the plasma cathode orifice and along the length of the external plume. The influence of facility effects and trace ionization in the anode-cathode gap are also discussed.

  4. Structural looseness investigation in slow rotating permanent magnet generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Mijatovic, Nenad; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2016-01-01

    Structural looseness in electric machines is a condition influencing the alignment of the machine and thus the overall bearing health. In this work, assessment of the above mentioned failure mode is tested on a slow rotating (running speed equal to 0.7Hz) permanent magnet generator (PMG), while...... collecting vibration and current data in order to cross-reference the indications from the two monitoring techniques. It is found that electric signature analysis shows no response even when two hold down bolts are untightened, whereas the analysis results from the vibration data exhibit superior performance....... The vibration-based condition indicators with the best response are the stator slot pass frequency, which can be directly related to the cogging torque in PMGs, and the 4th electric frequency harmonic, whose amplitudes increase due to the overall lower structure damping coefficient under looseness...

  5. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Uherka, Kenneth L.; Abdoud, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing.

  6. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.; Abdoud, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure is disclosed. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing. 9 figs

  7. Generation of magnetic fields for accelerators with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, T.

    1994-01-01

    Commercially available permanent magnet materials and their properties are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of using permanent magnets as compared to electromagnets for the generation of specific magnetic fields are discussed. Basic permanent magnet configurations in multipole magnets and insertion devices are presented. (orig.)

  8. 6 CFR 7.29 - Documents of permanent historical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documents of permanent historical value. 7.29... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.29 Documents of permanent historical value. The... contained in records determined to have permanent historical value under 44 U.S.C. 2107 before they are...

  9. Foraging trade-offs along a predator-permanence gradient in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Whiteman, H.H.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of a top predator, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum), on larvae of two species of limnephilid caddisflies (Limnephilus externus and Asynarchus nigriculus) in subalpine wetlands in central Colorado. Asynarchus larvae predominate in temporary wetlands and are aggressive intraguild predators on Limnephilus larvae, which only predominate in permanent basins with salamanders. We first conducted a field experiment in mesocosms (cattle tanks) to quantify the predatory effects of different life stages of salamanders on the two caddisfly species. Two life stages of the salamanders (larvae and paedomorphs) preferentially preyed on Asynarchus relative to Limnephilus. Subsequent laboratory experiments revealed that high Asynarchus activity rates and relatively ineffective antipredatory behaviors led to higher salamander detection and attack rates compared to Limnephilus. In a second field experiment (full factorial for presence and absence of each of the three species), we found that salamander predation on Asynarchus had an indirect positive effect on Limnephilus: survival was higher in the presence of salamanders + Asynarchus than with just Asynarchus. In the laboratory we compared the predatory effects of salamanders with and without their mouths sewn shut and found the observed indirect positive effect on Limnephilus survival to be mainly the result of reduced numbers of Asynarchus rather than salamander-induced changes in Asynarchus behavior. We argue that indirect effects of predator-predator interactions on shared prey will be mainly density-mediated and not trait-mediated when one of the predators (in this case, Asynarchus) is under strong selection for rapid growth and therefore does not modify foraging behaviors in response to the other predator. The reciprocal dominance of Limnephilus and Asynarchus in habitats with and without salamanders

  10. Principles of treatment planning for compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad Tanbakuchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The first permanent molar is susceptible to caries, endodontic complications and developmental anomalies. Compromised teeth with poor prognosis could cause the clinician to face dilemmas. The aim of this review article was to assess recent guidelines on the treatment planning of compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period. Materials and Methods: The design of the study was based on review of literature by searching the MEDLINE, Web of science and Google scholar. Key words (permanent first molar, extraction, treatment plan were used. This search was limited to the English articles published after the year 2000. Conclusion: A number of factors influenced decision-making process regarding compromised first permanent molars including the restorative status of the tooth, dental age of the patient, degree of crowding and occlusal relationships were assessed. The ideal time for removal of these teeth was 8-9 years of age. However, the current evidence for managing compromised first permanent molars demands clinical trials.

  11. A novel permanent maglev rotary LVAD with passive magnetic bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X; Yuan, H Y; Zeng, P; Ru, W M

    2005-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that permanent maglev cannot achieve stability; however, the authors have discovered that stable permanent maglev is possible under the effect of a combination of passive magnetic and nonmagnetic forces. In addition, a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with passive magnetic bearings has been developed. It is a radially driven impeller pump, having a rotor and a stator. The rotor consists of driven magnets and impeller; the motor coil and pump housing form the stator. Two passive magnetic bearings counteract the attractive force between motor coil iron core and rotor magnets; the rotor thereafter can be disaffiliated from the stator and become levitated under the action of passive magnetic and haemodynamic forces. Because of the pressure difference between the outlet and the inlet of the pump, there is a small flow passing through the gap of rotor and stator, and then entering the lower pressure area along the central hole of the rotor. This small flow comes to a full washout of all blood contacting surfaces in the motor. Moreover, a decreased Bernoulli force in the larger gap with faster flow produces a centring force that leads to stable levitation of the rotor. Resultantly, neither mechanical wear nor thrombosis will occur in the pump. The rotor position detection reveals that the precondition of levitation is a high rotating speed (over 3250 rpm) and a high flow rate (over 1 l min(-1)). Haemodynamic tests with porcine blood indicate that the device as a LVAD requires a rotating speed between 3500 and 4000 rpm for producing a blood flow of 4 - 6 l min(-1) against 100 mmHg mean pressure head. The egg-sized device has a weight of 200 g and an O.D. of 40 mm at its largest point.

  12. Research on Strategies and Methods Suppressing Permanent Magnet Demagnetization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on a Multi-Physical Field and Rotor Multi-Topology Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM with sleeves on the rotor outer surface is investigated. The purpose of sleeves is to fix the permanent magnets and protect them from being destroyed by the large centrifugal force. However, the sleeve material characteristics have a great influence on the PMSM, and therewith, most of the rotor eddy-current losses are generated in the rotor sleeve, which could increase the device temperature and even cause thermal demagnetization of the magnets. Thus, a sleeve scheme design with low eddy-current losses is necessary, and a method suppressing the local temperature peak of permanent magnets is presented. The 3-D electromagnetic finite element model of a 12.5 kW, 2000 r/min PMSM with a segmented sleeve is established, and the electromagnetic field is calculated by using the finite element method. The results show the effectiveness of the presented method in reducing the eddy current losses in the rotor. Using the thermal method, it can be found that the maximum temperature position and zone of permanent magnet will change. Thus, some strategies are comparatively analyzed in order to obtain the change rule of the position and zone. The obtained conclusions may provide a useful reference for the design and research of PMSMs.

  13. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  14. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  15. Rare earth permanent magnet with easy magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.S.; Camp, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets have high energy products and coercivities, and thus the volume miniaturization of magnetic devices has been possible with improved magnetic performance. Although the high energy products of these rare earth permanent magnets provide substantial advantages for magnetic design and application, the strong magnetic force of the magnetized magnets makes assembly difficult. Therefore, a special device is needed to assemble the magnetized magnets. On the other hand, unmagnetized magnets are assembled and then they are magnetized. The assembled magnets are generally more difficult to magnetize than unassembled magnets because a much less effective magnetic field may be applied to them. This is particularly true for the rare earth permanent magnets because they usually need a much higher magnetic field to be fully magnetized than alnico or ferrite magnets. To obtain optimum magnetic properties, the required minimum magnetizing fields for SmCo 5 , Sm 2 TM 17 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets were reported as 25-30 kOe, 45-60 kOe and 25-30 kOe, respectively. If the required magnetizing field for full saturation could be lowered, the effective utilization of magnetic properties would be maximized and the magnetic design option could be expanded with reduced restrictions. To meet this demand, we have sought to lower the field required for full magnetic saturation, and found that an increase in Dy content in R-(Fe,Co,Cu)-B type magnets lowers the field required for full saturation as well as improves the temperature stability. By increasing the H ci with Dy addition from 14 kOe to 24 and 34 kOe, the field required for full magnetic saturation decreases from about 20 to 15 and 10 kOe, respectively. This dual benefit will open up new application areas with more freedom for magnet design options. The mechanism for the lower magnetizing fields will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.

  17. Patients with atrial fibrillation and permanent pacemaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Frederik; Ruwald, Martin H; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) with rate-lowering or anti-arrhythmic drugs has markedly changed over the last decade, but it is unknown how these changes have affected patients with NVAF with a permanent pacemaker (PPM). METHODS: Through Danish......,261. Thus, the proportional amount of NVAF patients with a PPM decreased from 1.3% to 1.1% (p = 0.015). Overall 45.9% had atrial fibrillation (AF) duration less than one year and the proportion declined from 55.5% to 42.4% (p

  18. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: Measurements and configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-05-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar PM multipoles, and discuss techniques for improving the field quality of such devices at distances appreciably far away from the axis. Applications to hybrid/PM insertion device designs for linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation in the x-ray range are described

  19. Permanent phonetic identification code for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatua, R.; Somasundaram, S.; Srivastava, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a system of self-checking short and easily memorisable 4-digit 'Permanent Phonetic Radiation Code' (PPRC) using radix 128 for Indians occupationally exposed to radiation, to facilitate entry of all radiation dose data pertaining to an individual in a single record of a file. The logic of PPRC is computer compatible. The necessary computer program has been developed in Health Physics Division for printing the PPRCs in Devanagari script through dot-matrix printers for making it understandable to the majority of the persons concerned. (author)

  20. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  1. Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2012-09-11

    A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

  2. Permanent Commission for Health and Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    The mandate of the Staff Association's permanent commission for Health and Safety is to examine all aspects of health and safety related to the working environment at CERN. In no way does it wish to be a substitute for the official bodies that are responsible for these matters. The Commission's aim is to formulate remarks on and make proposals about these questions to the relevant bodies and the CERN Management. Its main focus is the safety of the CERN staff but it is also concerned with the safety of the installations and of the CERN environment. The Commission reports to the Staff Council and the Executive Committee of the Staff Association.

  3. [Permanent constrictions of the jaws (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, A; Michaud, J

    1981-01-01

    Permanent constrictions of the jaws are of various types depending on the site of the lesion: temporomaxillary ankylosis, extra-articular constrictions of bone, skin, muscle, or mucosal origin, and those arising from tumors. The commonest cause is injury, those due to infection being currently less frequently observed, which cannot be said for those of tumoral origin. The consequences are difficulty in taking foud and poor buccodental hygiene, while temporomaxillary ankylosis in children provokes mandibular growth disturbances. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the constriction. Total resection of the ankylosed block is essential to avoid recurrences, while reeducation of buccal opening must be started early and continued for long periods in all cases.

  4. Permanent Magnet Eddy Current Loss Analysis of a Novel Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lu, Kaiyuan; Ye, Yunyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new motor integrated permanent magnet gear (MIPMG) is discussed. The focus is on eddy current loss analysis associated to permanent magnets (PMs). A convenient model of MIPMG is provided based on 2-D field-motion coupled time-stepping finite element method for transient eddy...... current analysis. The model takes the eddy current effect of PMs into account in determination of the magnetic field in the air-gap and in the magnet regions. The eddy current losses generated in the magnets are properly interpreted. Design improvements for reducing the eddy current losses are suggested...

  5. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  6. Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal elements supply to the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Paleoceanography during the past approx. 1 Ma

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Masuzawa, T.; Borole, D.V.; Parthiban, G.; Jauhari, P.; Yamamoto, M.

    A 2 m-long sediment core from the siliceous ooze domain in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB; 13 degrees 03'S: 74 degrees 44'E; water depth 5099 m) is studied for calcium carbonate, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, biogenic opal, major...

  7. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt; Joseph F. Merritt

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue Ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  8. Mobility of Non Permanent Mobility and Remmitance, Case in Tanjung Municipality, Juwiring, Klaten District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrotun Umrotun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study Non Permanent Mobility and Remmitance was conducted in Tanjung Village Juwiring Subdistrict Klaten entral Java. Non Permanent Mobility in the village was due to the outcome of the development, particularly the transportation facilities permitting the public transport to reach the depth of the village. The mobility of going back and from village to town was the consequence of the increasing job opportunities in town and the decreasing job opportunities in the village, as well as the striking difference of wages between what the people got in the village and that in town. The mobility of the commuting people also influenced the development in the village an addition to reducing the population density in town because the people did not stay permanently. The study was that mobile agents had better income than those who were not. The study showed that the working term, the working hours per week, and the level of education did not have  significant influence on the income. This was due the fact that most of the commuting people worked in the marginal sectors. The remmitance that the people brought from town constituted the main contribution to the life of the migrants. The remmitance was mainly spent for primary needs. Based on the research outcome, it is advisable that the transportation facilities be improved so that the commutation becomes easier since non permanent mobility of is proved to have increased the quality of their life and social environment.

  9. Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.

  10. Introduction to the permanent magnet motor market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Toshihiro; Hamada, Kaneyuki [Yaskawa Electric Corp. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Kyoto summit on global warming (COP3) in December 1997, the green-house gas emission level has to be reduced to 92-94% of the 1990 green-house gas level by the year 2014-2018. This would require conserving energy. An efficient means of achieving this voluntary goal is by employing high-efficiency drives, since motors consume 70% of all electricity for industrial use in Japan. As adjustable speed drives become popular, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors, lately, have been recognized for high-efficiency performance. Due to the progress in permanent magnet technology combined with modern control methods, especially vector control with and without speed-sensors, the IPM motor is gaining in popularity. Compact size and high-efficiency performance is furthering the IPM motor as the preferred motor in many applications. This paper describes the principle and operation of IPM motors and compares its performance with that of an induction motor. Important features and practical control methods for IPM motors are presented. Various application examples highlighting the advantages of employing an IPM motor system are discussed. The applications include, but are not limited to, machine tools, fans, pumps, elevators, cranes, etc. (orig.)

  11. Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

  12. Automatic design of permanent magnet coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonnet, J.-P.; Pandele, P.; Coutel, C.; Wurtz, F.

    1998-01-01

    Up to now, two main methods have been used to design permanent magnet couplings : finite element calculation, and analytical expressions of the forces between the magnets. The two methods use the same starting point, the permanent magnet coupling dimensions. The calculated parameters are the forces and the torques. The optimization of the couplings shape is generally done by using different curves describing torque variations as a function of the different geometrical parameters. We have developed a very new approach solving the reverse problem. Choosing the value of the torque, the airgap and an optimization criterium, the new method automatically calculates the size of the magnets and the ideal number of poles. It is based on a software, PASCOSMA, using an analytical model of the coupling which can be eventually corrected by a finite element method like FLUX2D. The coupling optimization is automatically made, keeping the parameters between predefined values. For a given application, it is very easy to obtain the best design, for example with the minimum magnet volume. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of torque capability of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors with different permanent magnet arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumberger, Bojan; Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Hamler, Anton; Gorican, Viktor; Jesenik, Marko; Trlep, Mladen

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors with different permanent magnet arrangement. Motors with the following permanent magnet topologies were accounted for in the comparison: the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SMPMSM), the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMASRM) and the flux reversal permanent magnet motor (FRPMM). Finite element method analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor. Calculated performance of four-pole IPMSM determined by finite element method calculation is confirmed with the measurements at nearly constant nominal output power in the range of speed 3000-10,000 rpm

  14. The electromagnetic design of a permanent magnet based separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelcu, S.

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this work was to design a permanent magnet based device that can selectively transport paramagnetic particles. Using specialised electromagnetic design software various arrangements of permanent magnets have been investigated. Each test geometry had to be constructively simple and able to produce highly non-uniform magnetic fields before being considered further in any more detail. The main parameter to indicate that the test geometry might be a suitable device has been ascribed to the ratio η between the highest (ON) and lowest (OFF) magnetic fields that were measured. A linear arrangement of permanent magnets has been considered first. This device produced a ratio η ∼ 2. Further, the cylindrical and the tubular arrangements may be considered as substantial improvements over the first geometry. The OFF magnetic fields have been substantially reduced by the method of magnetic shielding. Intensive research and modelling has been spent on addressing the problem of finding the optimal geometry for such arrangements. An experimental system has been also built, and the experimental values were compared against the theory. However, the results produced evidence that the manufacturing of any improved geometry (an estimated η ∼ 100) in this direction might be very difficult, for the tolerances involved were very strict. The disk arrangement was the latest device to be investigated. Particularly, a magnetic dipole model developed earlier for the ring arrangement suggested the way in which to arrange the magnets in the ON position. Moreover, the use of the magnetic symmetry of the device forced the OFF magnetic fields to negligible values. Detailed computer simulations of the dynamics of the particles in the applied magnetic field of the tubular and disk arrangements have been earned out. The adopted models could show realistic phenomena, e.g. particle clustering, chaining, block movement, etc. The separation efficiency proved to be nearly 100%. For the

  15. Influence de la gestion et du statut socio-économique de l'agro-pasteur sur la productivité des ovins et des caprins au Mali central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killanga, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of the Management and the Socio-Economie Status of the Agropastor on the Productivity of Sheep and Goats in Central Mali. A study of causes responsible of productivity differences between sheep and goats flocks in a central Malian village belonging to an agropastoral subsystem associated to a rainfed millet culture was carried out from July 1987 to March 1988. Management factors, socio-economic characteristics of agropastors and sheep and goats productivity parameters were simultaneously followed up and analysed. The results have shown that both sheep and goats were not managed in the same manner and that the observed causes of productivity differences between flocks are related to the agropastor's personnal production means, to his methods of management of animals, to his apprentice ship of the stock breeder profession and to the detention of other animal species.

  16. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  17. Depth profiles of 230Th excess, transition metals and mineralogy of ferromanganese crusts of the Central Indian Ocean basin and implications for palaeoceanographic influence on crust genesis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Borole, D.V.

    any pdstdeposi- tional redistribution over the dating interval (Krishnaswami and Cochran, 1978). The re- lationship used for growth rates estimation is: d In C/dz= -I/S where C= concentration of radionuclide; A=decay constant of the nuclide; s.... Ferromanganese de- posits from the central Pacific Ocean, I. Encrustations from the Line Island archipelago. Geochim. Cosmo- chim. Acta, 49: 427-436. Banakar, V.K., 1988. Chemical, radioisotopic and geo- chronological studies of polymetallic nodules...

  18. Central melanin-concentrating hormone influences liver and adipose metabolism via specific hypothalamic nuclei and efferent autonomic/JNK1 pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Imbernon, Monica; Beiroa, Daniel; Vázquez, María J.; Morgan, Donald A.; Veyrat–Durebex, Christelle; Porteiro, Begoña; Díaz–Arteaga, Adenis; Senra, Ana; Busquets, Silvia; Velásquez, Douglas A.; Al–Massadi, Omar; Varela, Luis; Gándara, Marina; López–Soriano, Francisco–Javier; Gallego, Rosalía

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS Specific neuronal circuits modulate autonomic outflow to liver and white adipose tissue. Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) deficient mice are hypophagic lean and do not develop hepatosteatosis when fed a high fat diet. Herein we sought to investigate the role of MCH an orexigenic neuropeptide specifically expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area on hepatic and adipocyte metabolism. METHODS Chronic central administration of MCH and adenoviral vectors increasing MCH sign...

  19. Optimal management and productivity of Eucalyptus grandis on former phosphate mined and citrus lands in central and southern Florida: influence of genetics and spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle W. Fabbro; Donald L. Rockwood

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus short rotation woody crops (SRWC) with superior genotypes are promising in central and south Florida due to their fast growth, freeze resilience, coppicing ability, and site tolerance. Four Eucalyptus grandis cultivars, E.nergy™ G1, G2, G3, and/or G5, were established in 2009 at varying planting densities on a...

  20. Probability estimates of heavy precipitation events in a flood-prone central-European region with enhanced influence of Mediterranean cyclones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Picek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2007), s. 43-50 ISSN 1680-7340 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : extreme precipitation event * region al frequency analysis * Generalized Extreme Value distribution * Generalized Logistic distribution * central Europe * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology www.adv-geosci.net/12/43/2007/

  1. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehls, John F.

    2006-04-01

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km 2 . Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of errors

  2. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  3. Atypical presentation of bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors with unusual talon cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed eruption of maxillary permanent central incisors in a child poses a distressing esthetic quandary to parents, by virtue of its location in the dental architecture. Well-aligned anterior teeth add confidence to smile and have enhanced self-esteem, which is critical even in early life. Impaction of the maxillary central incisors compared to third molars or the canines is less reported; bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors related to impacted permanent maxillary central incisors are rare and one of the supplemental central incisors showing unusual talon is still infrequent. A case of impacted maxillary permanent central incisors related to supplemental maxillary central incisors, with one of them showing an unusual talon cusp, is presented.

  4. Eddy current loss calculation and thermal analysis of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional magnetic field analytical model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is presented to calculate the eddy current loss, and the prediction of the copper plate temperature under various loads is analyzed. The magnetic field distribution is calculated, and then the eddy current loss is obtained, with the magnetic field analytical model established in cylindrical coordinate. The influence of various loads on eddy current loss is analyzed. Furthermore, a thermal model of axial-flux permanent magnet couplers is established by taking the eddy current loss as the heat source, using the electromagnetic-thermal coupled method. With the help of the thermal model, the influence of various loads on copper plate temperature rise is also analyzed. The calculated results are compared with the results of finite element method and measurement. The comparison results confirm the validity of the magnetic field analytical model and thermal model.

  5. Control of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date book devoted solely to the control of permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors, as the fastest growing AC motor. It covers a deep and detailed presentation of major PMS motor modeling and control methods. The readers can find rich materials on the fundamentals of PMS motor control in addition to new motor control methods, which have mainly been developed in the last two decades, including recent advancements in the field in a systematic manner. These include extensive modeling of PMS motors and a full range of vector control and direct torque control schemes, in addition to predictive control, deadbeat control, and combined control methods. All major sensorless control and parameter estimation methods are also studied. The book covers about 10 machine models in various reference frames and 70 control and estimation schemes with sufficient analytical and implementation details including about 200 original figures. A great emphasis is placed on energy-s...

  6. Object permanence tests on gibbons (Hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Skollár, Gabriella; Szerencsy, Nóra; Ujhelyi, Mária

    2008-11-01

    Ten gibbons of various species (Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar, Nomascus gabriellae, and Nomascus leucogenys) were tested on object permanence tasks. Three identical wooden boxes, presented in a linear line, were used to hide pieces of food. The authors conducted single visible, single invisible, double invisible, and control displacements, in both random and nonrandom order. During invisible displacements, the experimenter hid the object in her hand before putting it into a box. The performance of gibbons was better than expected by chance in all the tests, except for the randomly ordered double displacement. However, individual analysis of performance showed great variability across subjects, and only 1 gibbon is assumed to have solved single visible and single invisible displacements without recourse to a strategy that the control test eliminated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Object permanence in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Huber, Ludwig

    2004-03-01

    A series of 9 search tasks corresponding to the Piagetian Stages 3-6 of object permanence were administered to 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Success rates varied strongly among tasks and marmosets, but the performances of most subjects were above chance level on the majority of tasks of visible and invisible displacements. Although up to 24 trials were administered in the tests, subjects did not improve their performance across trials. Errors were due to preferences for specific locations or boxes, simple search strategies, and attentional deficits. The performances of at least 2 subjects that achieved very high scores up to the successive invisible displacement task suggest that this species is able to represent the existence and the movements of unperceived objects. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  8. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L

    2007-01-01

    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  9. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  10. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Manuel I

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r −4 at large distances, as expected. (paper)

  11. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  12. Experience with the SLC permanent magnet multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Spencer, J.

    1994-06-01

    Permanent magnets have been used in the SLC Damping Rings and their injection and extraction lines since 1985. Recent upgrades of the DR vacuum chambers provided an opportunity to check DR magnets prior to higher beam current operation. Several PM sextupoles downstream of the injection kickers in the electron ring had exceeded their thermal stabilization values of 80 degrees C and some showed serious mechanical deformations and radiation >1 R at contact. We discuss our observations, measurements and a few inexpensive modifications that should improve these magnets under such conditions. A new, block matching algorithm allowed us to use magnet blocks that had been considered unusable because of very different remament field strengths and easy axis errors

  13. Temporality and permanence in Romanian public art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judit Balko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between permanent monuments and temporary art projects, as temporality is one of the strategies employed by Romanian artists to counterbalance the support that the Romanian state has shown only towards monuments and memorials dedicated to affirming its value. The complex nature of public art requires a careful consideration of the different dimensions this practice employs, and for that the Western debate on this matter can be a reference point in understanding Romanian public art. We will be looking at possible aspects of the functions of these two main directions in Romanian public art, as they stand methodically one in opposition to the other, in connection with the texts of Piotr Piotrowski (Art and Democracy in Post-communist Europe, 2012 and Boris Groys (Art Power, 2008.

  14. Permanent automatic recalibration system for scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auphan, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A permanent automatic recalibration system for a scintillation camera, of the type consisting chiefly of a collimator if necessary, a scintillator, a light guide and a network of n photomultipliers coupled to a display system, is described. It uses a device to form a single reference light signal common to all the photomultiplication lines, integrated to these latter and associated with a periodic calibration control generator. By means of associated circuits governed by the control generator the gain in each line is brought to and/or maintained at a value between fixed upper and lower limits. Steps are taken so that any gain variation in a given line is adjusted with respect to the reference light signal common to all the lines. The light signal falls preferably in the same part of the spectrum as the scintillations formed in the scintillator [fr

  15. Design of permanent magnet quadrupole for LEHIPA DTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2011-01-01

    The drift tube linac (DTL) of the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA) has been designed to accelerate 30 mA proton beam from 3 MeV to 20 MeV in a distance of around 13 m. A FFDD lattice structure is selected to provide strong transverse focusing, where each drift tube includes one quadrupole magnet. Beam dynamics simulations specified an effective magnet length of 47 mm, maximum field gradient of 47 T/m, and bore aperture of 24 mm. For these specifications, a detailed design of a very thin permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is presented. Four types of PMQ designs have been compared: a 16-segment trapezoidal design in the Halbach configuration, two 16-segment rectangular designs (with and without gaps), and an 8-segment rectangular design. 2D and 3D modeling codes, POISSON and CST Studio suite are used for the design studies. The good field region is calculated based on field gradient deviation in the transverse plane and integral field homogeneity. The very low aspect ratio of these PMQs leads to edge effects, thereby reducing the central field strength. The 3D simulations are used to study these edge effects. (author)

  16. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  17. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motiejunaite, Jurga [Department of Mycology, Institute of Botany, LT-08406 Vilnius 21 (Lithuania)]. E-mail: mikojm@botanika.lt

    2007-03-15

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species. - Biotic factors are important when evaluating dynamics of epiphytic communities in polluted areas.

  18. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2007-01-01

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species. - Biotic factors are important when evaluating dynamics of epiphytic communities in polluted areas

  19. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiejūnaite, Jurga

    2007-03-01

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species.

  20. High resolution NMR imaging using a high field yokeless permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    We measured the homogeneity and stability of the magnetic field of a high field (about 1.04 tesla) yokeless permanent magnet with 40-mm gap for high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. Homogeneity was evaluated using a 3-dimensional (3D) lattice phantom and 3D spin-echo imaging sequences. In the central sphere (20-mm diameter), peak-to-peak magnetic field inhomogeneity was about 60 ppm, and the root-mean-square was 8 ppm. We measured room temperature, magnet temperature, and NMR frequency of the magnet simultaneously every minute for about 68 hours with and without the thermal insulator of the magnet. A simple mathematical model described the magnet's thermal property. Based on magnet performance, we performed high resolution (up to [20 µm](2)) imaging with internal NMR lock sequences of several biological samples. Our results demonstrated the usefulness of the high field small yokeless permanent magnet for high resolution NMR imaging.

  1. High resolution NMR imaging using a high field yokeless permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    We measured the homogeneity and stability of the magnetic field of a high field (about 1.04 tesla) yokeless permanent magnet with 40-mm gap for high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. Homogeneity was evaluated using a 3-dimensional (3D) lattice phantom and 3D spin-echo imaging sequences. In the central sphere (20-mm diameter), peak-to-peak magnetic field inhomogeneity was about 60 ppm, and the root-mean-square was 8 ppm. We measured room temperature, magnet temperature, and NMR frequency of the magnet simultaneously every minute for about 68 hours with and without the thermal insulator of the magnet. A simple mathematical model described the magnet's thermal property. Based on magnet performance, we performed high resolution (up to [20 μm] 2 ) imaging with internal NMR lock sequences of several biological samples. Our results demonstrated the usefulness of the high field small yokeless permanent magnet for high resolution NMR imaging. (author)

  2. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  3. Anisotropy and Microstructure of High Coercivity Rare Earth Iron Permanent Magnets, List of Papers Published

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    hardly influences both the pared by three different production technologies, absolute value of HA and its temperature dependence. The permanent magnets...ing reverse domains [2]. pared from 99.5% pure cast material supplied by The application of these magnets has been Rare Earth Products. The...the c/ re 3b Fig.. E ncrographs showingthe celular precipitation structure of precipitation hardened SmCo 2:17 magnets (a). In low coercivity magnets

  4. Discussions on performance of two types of permanent multipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianming; Xu Qing; Yin Zhaosheng

    1987-01-01

    The field distributions of MMD type and MW type multipole permanent magnets are calculated by means of programme POISCR and the results are summarized and discussed in this paper. The resutls show that, considering the nonlinearity of the real demagnetization curve of permanent magnet material, the field distributions of both types of permanent magnets with the same aperature are about the same but the field strength of MW type magnet with soft iron shield is higher than that of MMD type magnet

  5. Object permanence in adults : a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Subbotski, Eugene; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and German adult subjects observed the phenomenon of object non-permanence (destruction, reconstruction, or transformation of a physical object). Both samples attributed an equal degree of probability to real existence of object non-permanence. However, Soviet subjects attributed a significantly higher probability to the existence of "religion-independent" non-permanent mysterious phenomena, (e.g., "unidentified flying objects", "abominable snowman", "Loch Ness monster") while attribut...

  6. Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor within minimum cost

    OpenAIRE

    Півняк, Геннадій Григорович; Бешта, Олександр Степанович; Фурса, Сергій Григорійович; Neuberger, Nikolaus; Nolle, N.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes design and simulation experience of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The design goal is to develop PMSM of the least possible cost. For that purpose the standard induction motor stator was applied as a basic solution and permanent magnets were installed in rotor. Simulation results are presented, the dependence of efficiency and total loss on magnet material mass are obtained. The optimal value of permanent magnets is estimated for the given electric motor frame.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF E.U. INTEGRATION ON THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS NORTH-EAST OF ROMANIA, SUBCARPATHIA OF POLAND AND CENTRAL SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of some notable development differences in EU at interstate and interregional level imposed the elaboration of a regional development policy aimed at reducing such disparities. The financial assistance provided by the EU is to help the underdeveloped regions. In this article we highlight the overall level of development and its evolution in Romania, Poland and Slovakia, at regional level, in the context of EU accession. Our attention will be focused on the North-East region of Romania, achieving a comparative analysis with two other similar regions from Poland and Slovakia: Subcarpathia and Central Slovakia, respectively.

  8. Rotational characteristics in the resonance state of the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Y.; Sukedai, M. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The hybrid magnetic bearing has been developed. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller. Influence of the vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state is large. The resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system. The hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-Tc bulk superconductor (HTSC) has been developed. Repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. Effect of the hybrid system has been shown. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on the dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotational characteristics in the mechanical resonance state are studied, and the equivalent magnetic spring coefficient is estimated from the experimental results of the load weight. The resonance frequency is measured by the rotation experiments. The rotor achieves stable levitation even in the resonance state. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller than that of the lateral force generated by the repulsive force between the two permanent magnets at the smaller air gap. Thus influence of the lateral vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state becomes larger at a smaller air gap. The equivalent magnetic spring coefficient becomes also small, and the resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system.

  9. Central melanin-concentrating hormone influences liver and adipose metabolism via specific hypothalamic nuclei and efferent autonomic/JNK1 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernon, Monica; Beiroa, Daniel; Vázquez, María J; Morgan, Donald A; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Porteiro, Begoña; Díaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Senra, Ana; Busquets, Silvia; Velásquez, Douglas A; Al-Massadi, Omar; Varela, Luis; Gándara, Marina; López-Soriano, Francisco-Javier; Gallego, Rosalía; Seoane, Luisa M; Argiles, Josep M; López, Miguel; Davis, Roger J; Sabio, Guadalupe; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Rahmouni, Kamal; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2013-03-01

    Specific neuronal circuits modulate autonomic outflow to liver and white adipose tissue. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-deficient mice are hypophagic, lean, and do not develop hepatosteatosis when fed a high-fat diet. Herein, we sought to investigate the role of MCH, an orexigenic neuropeptide specifically expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area, on hepatic and adipocyte metabolism. Chronic central administration of MCH and adenoviral vectors increasing MCH signaling were performed in rats and mice. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism. The peripheral effects on lipid metabolism were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We showed that the activation of MCH receptors promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through the parasympathetic nervous system, whereas it increases fat deposition in white adipose tissue via the suppression of sympathetic traffic. These metabolic actions are independent of parallel changes in food intake and energy expenditure. In the liver, MCH triggers lipid accumulation and lipid uptake, with c-Jun N-terminal kinase being an essential player, whereas in adipocytes MCH induces metabolic pathways that promote lipid storage and decreases lipid mobilization. Genetic activation of MCH receptors or infusion of MCH specifically in the lateral hypothalamic area modulated hepatic lipid metabolism, whereas the specific activation of this receptor in the arcuate nucleus affected adipocyte metabolism. Our findings show that central MCH directly controls hepatic and adipocyte metabolism through different pathways. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE SPEECH THERAPIST AND HIS INFLUENCE IN SPEECH DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH CENTRAL DEFECTS AND INSTRUCTIVE AND ADVISORY WORK OF THE PARENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta TORTEVSKA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern way of living in which the communication becomes a basic and upbringing factor and regulator of the relations isolates children with hard individual, family, educative and social problems.The speech and language disorders are the most remarkable symptoms pointing out the complex of defects in the communicative activities, reduced cognitive functions and cerebral dysfunction's.The modern conception in the rehabilitation field leads to a full engagement of the children’s closest environment and especially parents.The study will include the work of the speech therapist with children with a diagnosis tardy speech development (alalia and developing dysphasia in the hearing, speech and voice rehabilitation institute-Skopje, and its role introducing the parents for their right access and the systematic conduction of the rehabilitation proceedings-especially stimulating the motors and speech development.The speech therapist’s task is to find out a way and to apply means by which the children with central damages could build their speech and lingual system and to help the parents through instructive and advisory work into the comprehension of the phases and stages of that system.The conclusion is that the proceedings of the early treatment with the children with central damages are naturally caused by the difference of their early supplementation. The suggestions that are referring to what should be substituted, how much it should be substituted and how it should be done leads to the frames of the early therapeutical access.

  11. Sexual function after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbreath, R.W.; Merrick, G.S.; Butler, W.M.; Stipetich, R.L.; Abel, L.J.; Lief, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of potency preservation following permanent prostate brachytherapy and to evaluate the effect of multiple clinical and treatment parameters on penile erectile function. Materials and Methods: 425 patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 to October 1999. 209 patients who were potent prior to brachytherapy and currently not receiving hormonal manipulation were mailed an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire with a pre-addressed stamped envelope. 180 patients completed and returned the questionnaire. Median patient follow-up was 39 months (range 18-74 months). Pre-implant erectile function was assigned using a three-tiered scoring system (2 = erections always or nearly always sufficient for vaginal penetration; 1 = erections sufficient for vaginal penetration but considered suboptimal; 0 = the inability to obtain erections and/or erections inadequate for vaginal penetration). Post-implant potency was defined as an IIEF score >11. Clinical parameters evaluated for sexual function included patient age, clinical T stage, elapsed time since implantation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco consumption. Evaluated treatment parameters included the utilization of neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation and the choice of isotope. The efficacy of sildenafil citrate in brachytherapy induced erectile dysfunction (ED) was also evaluated. Results: A pre-treatment erectile function score of 2 and 1 were assigned to 126 and 54 patients respectively. With 6 year follow up, 39% of patients maintained potency following prostate brachytherapy with a plateau on the curve. Post-implant preservation of potency (IIEF>11) correlated with pre-implant erectile function (50% versus 14% for pre-implant scores of 2 and 1 respectively, p≤0.0001), patient age (56%, 38%, and 23% for patients <60 years of age, 60-69 years of age, and ≥70 years of age respectively, p=0.012) and a history of diabetes mellitus

  12. Object permanence in young infants: further evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, R; DeVos, J

    1991-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 4.5- and even 3.5-month-old infants realize that objects continue to exist when hidden. The goal of the present experiments was to obtain converging evidence of object permanence in young infants. Experiments were conducted using paradigms previously used to demonstrate object permanence in 5.5-month-old infants and 6.5-month-old infants. In one experiment, 3.5-month-old infants watched a short or a tall carrot slide along a track. The track's center was hidden by a screen with a large window in its upper half. The short carrot was shorter than the window's lower edge and so did not appear in the window when passing behind the screen; the tall carrot was taller than the window's lower edge and hence should have appeared in the window but did not. The infants looked reliably longer at the tall than at the short carrot event, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence, height, and trajectory of each carrot behind the screen and (b) expected the tall carrot to appear in the screen window and were surprised that it did not. Control trials supported this interpretation. In another experiment, 4.0-month-old infants saw a toy car roll along a track that was partly hidden by a screen. A large toy mouse was placed behind the screen, either on top or in back of the track. The female infants looked reliably longer when the mouse stood on top as opposed to in back of the track, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence and trajectory of the car behind the screen, (b) represented the existence and location of the mouse behind the screen, and (c) were surprised to see the car reappear from behind the screen when the mouse stood in its path. A second experiment supported this interpretation. The results of these experiments provide further evidence that infants aged 3.5 months and older are able to represent and to reason about hidden objects.

  13. The influence of μ-opioid and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the modulation of pain responsive neurones in the central amygdala by tapentadol in rats with neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonor; Friend, Lauren V.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for neuropathic pain are either not fully effective or have problematic side effects. Combinations of drugs are often used. Tapentadol is a newer molecule that produces analgesia in various pain models through two inhibitory mechanisms, namely central μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition. These two components interact synergistically, resulting in levels of analgesia similar to opioid analgesics such as oxycodone and morphine, but with more tolerable side effects. The right central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical for the lateral spinal ascending pain pathway, regulates descending pain pathways and is key in the emotional-affective components of pain. Few studies have investigated the pharmacology of limbic brain areas in pain models. Here we determined the actions of systemic tapentadol on right CeA neurones of animals with neuropathy and which component of tapentadol contributes to its effect. Neuronal responses to multimodal peripheral stimulation of animals with spinal nerve ligation or sham surgery were recorded before and after two doses of tapentadol. After the higher dose of tapentadol either naloxone or yohimbine were administered. Systemic tapentadol resulted in dose-dependent decrease in right CeA neuronal activity only in neuropathy. Both naloxone and yohimbine reversed this effect to an extent that was modality selective. The interactions of the components of tapentadol are not limited to the synergy between the MOR and α2-adrenoceptors seen at spinal levels, but are seen at this supraspinal site where suppression of responses may relate to the ability of the drug to alter affective components of pain. PMID:25576174

  14. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  15. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  16. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists. ... including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). ... Keywords: Brain, influence, riders, substances ...

  17. Some economic aspects of rare-earth permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, H.

    1978-01-01

    The commercial feasibility of RE permanent magnets is analyzed in terms of price per unit of magnetostatic energy. The availability of the raw materials is also taken into consideration. The conclusion is that RE magnets are and remain relatively expensive as compared with other permanent magnets, and will find only limited application. (author)

  18. Modeling demagnetization effects in permanent magnet synchronous machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kral, C.; Sprangers, R.L.J.; Waarma, J.; Haumer, A.; Winter, O.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a permanent magnet model which takes temperature dependencies and demagnetization effects into account. The proposed model is integrated into a magnetic fundamental wave machine model using the model- ing language Modelica. For different rotor types permanent magnet models are

  19. Modeling of ironless permanent magnet planar motor structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, de J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model that includes end effects for ironless synchronous permanent-magnet planar actuators. Because of its flexibility, the model can be used to predict the performance of various permanent-magnet array and coil array topologies and commutation schemes. Moreover,

  20. Permanent tracheostomy: Its social impacts and their management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper respiratory tract obstruction resulting from bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is commonly managed with permanent tracheostomy in our environment. Objective: To evaluate the social impacts of permanent tracheostomy and its management in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. Materials and ...

  1. Crustal deformations at permanent GPS sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Knudsen, Per; Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The National Survey and Cadastre (KMS) is responsible for the geodetic definition of the reference network in Denmark. Permanent GPS stations play an important role in the monitoring and maintenance of the geodetic network. During 1998 and 1999 KMS established three permanent GPS station in Denma...

  2. Budget allocation for permanent and contingent capacity under stochastic demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.; Mincsovics, G.Z.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model of budget allocation for permanent and contingent workforce under stochastic demand. The level of permanent capacity is determined at the beginning of the horizon and is kept constant throughout whereas the number of temporary workers to be hired must be decided in each period.

  3. Budget allocation for permanent and contingent capacity under stochastic demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.; Mincsovics, G.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model of budget allocation for permanent and contingent workforce under stochastic demand. The level of permanent capacity is determined at the beginning of the horizon and is kept constant throughout, whereas the number of temporary workers to be hired must be decided in each period.

  4. Non-Syndromic Oligodontia in permanent dentition: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of a syndrome. The present case report highlights a unique case of non syndromic oligodontia, with agenesis of four permanent incisors, left permanent canine and right second premolar in the mandibular arch and its management with a novel fixed functional prosthetic appliance. Prosthetic rehabilitation is an urgent need ...

  5. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  6. Learning to Live With a Permanent Intestinal Ostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Burcharth, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the impact of a permanent stoma on patients' everyday lives and to gain further insight into their need for ostomy-related education.......The aim of the study was to explore the impact of a permanent stoma on patients' everyday lives and to gain further insight into their need for ostomy-related education....

  7. Study of peristomal skin disorders in patients with permanent stomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlufsen, P; Olsen, A G; Carlsen, B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the frequency, severity and diversity of peristomal skin disorders among individuals with a permanent stoma in a community population. All individuals with a permanent stoma (n=630) in a Danish community population were invited to participate in a cross-...

  8. Sensorless V/f Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Perera, P. D. Chandana; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    V/f control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motors can be useful for HVAC applications, where not high performance is required. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have efficiency advantages over the induction motor. But open loop V/f control is not stable in the whole frequency range. As demonstrated, the V/f control strategy becomes

  9. A permanent magnet system for Kibble balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shisong; Bielsa, Franck; Stock, Michael; Kiss, Adrien; Fang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    The magnet is one of the fundamental elements in Kibble balances. The Kibble balance group at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) proposed a permanent magnet with a radial field, which has been widely employed in other Kibble balance experiments. In this paper, we discuss a different method of operation for the BIPM-type magnet, i.e. only the lower half of the magnetic circuit is closed. The merit of such a magnet is its convenience for opening the air gap and adjusting the coil. A disadvantage is that it can yield a lower and sloped magnetic field profile with less shielding. In the approach described, high permeability yokes are used to flatten the magnetic profile, which has proven to be a novel and convenient approach for removing the nonuniformity of the magnetic profile due to magnet magnetization asymmetries. The performance of the half-closed BIPM magnet is evaluated using experimental measurements. The results show that the half-closed magnetic circuit retains most of the main features of the fully-closed magnet and is a good option for the early stages of Kibble balance operations. In addition, the profile change due to the coil current is predicted and experimentally verified with a bifilar coil. Related systematic effects are discussed for the Planck constant measurement.

  10. Looking for permanent electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Exploration of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) is one of the important ways to promote the research of fundamental symmetries and interactions. In this paper the progress of the exploration up to the present is overviewed and then the present status and expectation in future of the experiment using cooled unstable atoms which is the hopeful method to measure electron EDM is presented. At first the physical meaning of the CPT symmetry breaking is introduced and the upper limit of EDM of electron, muon, tau, proton, neutron, Λ hyperon and 199 Hg are tabulated. It is explained how EDM appears in the theory beyond the standard model, the supersymmetry model e.g. The on-going experiments of EDM exploration of neutrons, nuclei, electrons, molecules and charged particles are briefly reviewed. Finally the experiment to use the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) to produce ultra low temperature of nK range by using the laser to cool down radioactive element is presented. Since the amplification of EDM is expected to be large in heavy unstable atoms, francium isotopes which are obtained by heavy ion fusion of 197 Au target bombarded with 18 O beam are chosen in this experiment. It has been confirmed that Rb can be kept in the instrument for 20 minutes up to the present. Progress toward trapping Fr is under way by optimizing numbers of experimental parameters. Experiments by the groups in foreign countries are overviewed briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukey, M E; Prasad, C; Toothman, D A; Kaplan, N

    1999-07-01

    Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use permanent total enclosures (PTEs). By definition, an enclosure which meets the US Environmental Protection Agency's five-point criteria is a PTE and has a capture efficiency of 100%. Since costs play an important role in regulatory development, in selection of control equipment, and in control technology evaluations for permitting purposes, EPA has developed a Control Cost Manual for estimating costs of various items of control equipment. EPA's Manual does not contain any methodology for estimating PTE costs. In order to assist environmental regulators and potential users of PTEs, a methodology for estimating PTE costs was developed under contract with EPA, by Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES) and is the subject of this paper. The methodology for estimating PTE costs follows the approach used for other control devices in the Manual. It includes procedures for sizing various components of a PTE and for estimating capital as well as annual costs. It contains verification procedures for demonstrating compliance with EPA's five-point criteria. In addition, procedures are included to determine compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Meeting these standards is an important factor in properly designing PTEs. The methodology is encoded in Microsoft Exel spreadsheets to facilitate cost estimation and PTE verification. Examples are given throughout the methodology development and in the spreadsheets to illustrate the PTE design, verification, and cost estimation procedures.

  12. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2. Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.

  13. Magnetic Performance of a Nanocomposite Permanent Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Han Guang-Bing; Gao Ru-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We build a sandwiched structure model in which the intergranular phase (IP) is homogeneously distributed between soft and hard magnetic grains, and gives a continuously anisotropic expression of the coupling part under the assumption that the IP weakens the intergrain exchange-coupling interaction. Based on the idea that the hardening mechanism is of the pinning type, we calculate the effect of the IP's thickness d and its anisotropy constant K 1 (0) on the intrinsic coercivity of a nanocomposite permanent material. The calculated results indicate that the domain wall goes twice through irreversible domain wall displacement during the process of moving from soft to hard magnetic grains, and the intrinsic coercivity increases with increasing d, but decreases with increasing K 1 (0). When d and K 1 (0) take 2 nm and 0.7K h , respectively, with K h being the anisotropy constant in the inner part of the hard magnetic grain, the calculated intrinsic coercivity is in good agreement with the experimental data. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, Tim

    2013-10-15

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. It is originally designed and built for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) within the framework of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL). Additionally, two future experiments are planned at REGAE. First, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) will be performed in the framework of the LAOLA collaboration (LAboratory fOr Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration). This experiment will provide a method for the reconstruction of the electric field distribution within a linear plasma wakefield. Second, a time resolving high energy Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) will be implemented. Among others it is designed to allow for living cell imaging. Both experiments require strong focusing magnets inside the new target chamber at REGAE. Permanent magnetic solenoids (PMSs) can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. The present thesis deals with the design of such strong focusing PMSs. Since short and strong solenoids, as required for REGAE, exhibit a distinct non-linearity, the induced emittance growth is relatively large. This emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different set-ups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Furthermore a magnetic shielding is developed. Together with a mechanical lifting system it assures that magnetic leakage fields do not disturb experiments, where the PMSs are removed from the beamline.

  15. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  16. Elastic Moduli of Permanently Densified Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, T.; Margueritat, J.; Martinet, C.; Mermet, A.; Champagnon, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling the mechanical response of silica glass is still challenging, due to the lack of knowledge concerning the elastic properties of intermediate states of densification. An extensive Brillouin Light Scattering study on permanently densified silica glasses after cold compression in diamond anvil cell has been carried out, in order to deduce the elastic properties of such glasses and to provide new insights concerning the densification process. From sound velocity measurements, we derive phenomenological laws linking the elastic moduli of silica glass as a function of its densification ratio. The found elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the sparse data extracted from literature, and we show that they do not depend on the thermodynamic path taken during densification (room temperature or heating). We also demonstrate that the longitudinal sound velocity exhibits an anomalous behavior, displaying a minimum for a densification ratio of 5%, and highlight the fact that this anomaly has to be distinguished from the compressibility anomaly of a-SiO2 in the elastic domain. PMID:25431218

  17. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  18. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  19. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. It is originally designed and built for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) within the framework of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL). Additionally, two future experiments are planned at REGAE. First, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) will be performed in the framework of the LAOLA collaboration (LAboratory fOr Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration). This experiment will provide a method for the reconstruction of the electric field distribution within a linear plasma wakefield. Second, a time resolving high energy Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) will be implemented. Among others it is designed to allow for living cell imaging. Both experiments require strong focusing magnets inside the new target chamber at REGAE. Permanent magnetic solenoids (PMSs) can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. The present thesis deals with the design of such strong focusing PMSs. Since short and strong solenoids, as required for REGAE, exhibit a distinct non-linearity, the induced emittance growth is relatively large. This emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different set-ups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Furthermore a magnetic shielding is developed. Together with a mechanical lifting system it assures that magnetic leakage fields do not disturb experiments, where the PMSs are removed from the beamline.

  20. An evaluation of alternative stator lamination materials for a high-speed, 1.5 MW, permanent magnet generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the choice of stator lamination material on the iron loss in a high speed, high power permanent magnet generator, which is interfaced to a DC link via a simple bridge rectifier, is investigated. The rating of the generator is representative of machines which would be employed in