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Sample records for peripheral blast counts

  1. MPL expression on AML blasts predicts peripheral blood neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Philipp J; Ellegast, Jana M; Widmer, Corinne C; Fritsch, Kristin; Goede, Jeroen S; Valk, Peter J M; Löwenberg, Bob; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Manz, Markus G

    2016-11-03

    Although the molecular pathways that cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are increasingly well understood, the pathogenesis of peripheral blood cytopenia, a major cause of AML mortality, remains obscure. A prevailing assumption states that AML spatially displaces nonleukemic hematopoiesis from the bone marrow. However, examining an initial cohort of 223 AML patients, we found no correlation between bone marrow blast content and cytopenia, questioning the displacement theory. Measuring serum concentration of thrombopoietin (TPO), a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocytes, revealed loss of physiologic negative correlation with platelet count in AML cases with blasts expressing MPL, the thrombopoietin (scavenging) receptor. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that MPL hi blasts could indeed clear TPO, likely therefore leading to insufficient cytokine levels for nonleukemic hematopoiesis. Microarray analysis in an independent multicenter study cohort of 437 AML cases validated MPL expression as a central predictor of thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in AML. Moreover, t(8;21) AML cases demonstrated the highest average MPL expression and lowest average platelet and absolute neutrophil counts among subgroups. Our work thus explains the pathophysiology of peripheral blood cytopenia in a relevant number of AML cases. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Early clearance of peripheral blasts measured by flow cytometry during the first week of AML induction therapy as a new independent prognostic factor: a GOELAMS study.

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    Lacombe, F; Arnoulet, C; Maynadié, M; Lippert, E; Luquet, I; Pigneux, A; Vey, N; Casasnovas, O; Witz, F; Béné, M C

    2009-02-01

    An early appreciation of treatment efficacy could be very useful in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and a prognostic value has been suggested for the morphological assessment of decrease in blasts during induction therapy. More sensitive, multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) can detect far lower blast counts, allowing for a precise and reliable calculation of blast cell decrease rate (BDR). Such a multiparametric FCM four-colours/single-tube protocol, combining CD11b, CD45-ECD and CD16-PC5, was applied to peripheral blood samples from 130 AML patients, collected daily during induction chemotherapy. Normalized blast cell percentages were used to calculate the relevant decrease slopes. Slope thresholds (-15), or the time required to reach 90% depletion of the peripheral blast load (5 days), was strongly associated with the achievement of complete remission (P<0.0001). Log-rank test and Cox model showed that they also carried high statistical significance (P<0.0001) for disease-free survival. The prognostic value of cytogenetic features, confirmed in this series, was refined by BDR, which allowed to discriminate between good- and poor-risk patients among those with intermediate or normal karyotypes. This simple FCM protocol allows for an accurate prognostic sequential approach adapted to the determination of decrease in peripheral blast cells during induction chemotherapy.

  3. Evidence of central and peripheral vestibular pathology in blast-related traumatic brain injury.

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    Scherer, Matthew R; Burrows, Holly; Pinto, Robin; Littlefield, Philip; French, Louis M; Tarbett, Aaron K; Schubert, Michael C

    2011-06-01

    To prospectively assay the vestibular and oculomotor systems of blast-exposed service members with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prospective, nonblinded, nonrandomized descriptive study. Tertiary care facility (Department of Defense Medical Center). Twenty-four service members recovering from blast-related TBI sustained in Iraq or Afghanistan. Focused history and physical, videonystagmography (VNG), rotational chair, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials, computerized dynamic posturography, and self-report measures. Vestibular testing confirms a greater incidence of vestibular and oculomotor dysfunction in symptomatic (vestibular-like dizziness) personnel with blast-related TBI relative to asymptomatic group members. VNG in the symptomatic group revealed abnormal nystagmus or oculomotor findings in 6 of 12 subjects tested. Similarly, rotational chair testing in this group revealed evidence of both peripheral (4/12) and central (2/12) vestibular pathology. By contrast, the asymptomatic group revealed less vestibular impairment with 1 of 10 rotational chair abnormalities. The asymptomatic group was further characterized by fewer aberrant nystagmus findings (4/12 abnormal VNGs). Computerized dynamic posturography testing revealed no significant differences between groups. Self-report measures demonstrated differences between groups. Vestibular function testing confirms a greater incidence of peripheral vestibular hypofunction in dizzy service members with blast-related TBI relative to those who are asymptomatic. Additionally, oculomotor abnormalities and/or nystagmus consistent with central involvement were present in 10 of the 24 study participants tested. The precise cause of these findings remains unknown.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and the peripheral blood white cell count.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, A C

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examined if the white cell count (WCC) is increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and if so, is it due to PCOS or to the associated obesity? Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 113 women studied, 36 had PCOS and 77 did not. The mean WCC was higher in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS group (8.9 x 10(9)\\/l vs 7.4 x 10(9)\\/l p = 0.002). This increase was due to a higher neutrophil count (5.6 x 10(9)\\/l vs 4.3 x 10(9)\\/l; p = 0.003). There was a leucocytosis (WCC >11 x 10(9)\\/l) present in 19% of the PCOS group compared with 1% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). The neutrophil count was abnormally high (>7.7 x 10(9)\\/l) in 14% of the PCOS group compared with 4% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). On regression analysis, however, the only independent variable which explained both the increased WCC and the increased neutrophil count was PCOS. We found that PCOS is associated with an increased WCC due to increased neutrophils, which supports the evidence that PCOS is associated with low-grade inflammation. The increase appears to be due to the underlying PCOS, and not to the increased adiposity associated with PCOS.

  5. Repair of changes in peripheral blood count of rats after chronic irradiation

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    Chlebovsky, O; Praslicka, M; Chlebovska, K [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1980-01-01

    Changes are described in the peripheral blood count of rats irradiated during 120 days with doses of 95.7, 191.4, 258.4, 344.5 and 507.2 mGy/day; during 15 days with a dose of 1004.8 mGy and examined till the 180th day after termination of irradiation. The course of repair can be divided into two phases, namely: phase 1 till the 40th day after termination of irradiation when leukocyte and platelet counts reach approximately 50% of control values; this phase lasts until the 100th day after cessation of irradiation; phase 2 from the 100th till the 180th day when these peripheral blood element counts attain the level of control values. Thus in the stated conditions of irradiation, 150 to 180 days are required for radiation damage to the hemopoietic system to repair.

  6. Association of peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts with obesity-related complications in young adults.

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    Yoshimura, Aya; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Orito, Chieko; Kawahara, Yukako; Takasaki, Hiroyo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashino, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with elevated leukocytes in adults and children. This study assessed the associations between peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts and obesity-related complications in young adults. 12 obese (median age 21.5 (range 19-28) years, median BMI 35.7 (range 32.0-44.9) kg/m(2)) and 11 normal (median age 23 (range 18-27) years, median BMI 19.5 (range 18.1-21.7) kg/m(2)) adults were enrolled. Complete blood count and serum levels of liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Fat mass was calculated using a bioimpedance analysis device, and ultrasonography was performed to measure fat thickness and to detect fatty change of the liver. Total leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly increased in obese young adults. Total leukocyte count was associated with liver enzyme levels, insulin resistance as well as visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness. Neutrophil count was associated with insulin resistance. Lymphocyte count was associated with serum liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Monocyte count was associated with serum liver enzyme, insulin resistance, visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat mass, and percentage body fat. The results of this study suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in young adults. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  7. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information

  8. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  9. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jia-Jia; Li, Zhi-Ming; Li, Ya-Jun; Xia, Yi; Wang, Yu; Wei, Wen-Xiao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lin, Tong-Yu; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL

  10. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Jia; Li, Ya-Jun; Xia, Yi; Wang, Yu; Wei, Wen-Xiao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lin, Tong-Yu; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-03

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL.

  11. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of adequacy of hematopoietic stem cell collection for autologous transplantation

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    Combariza, Juan F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to carry out an autologous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells should be mobilized to peripheral blood and later collected by apheresis. The CD34+ cell count is a tool to establish the optimal time to begin the apheresis procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between peripheral blood CD34+ cell count and the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Materials and methods: A predictive test evaluation study was carried out to establish the usefulness of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of successful stem cell collection in patients that will receive an autologous transplantation. Results: 77 patients were included (median age: 49 years; range: 5-66. The predominant baseline diagnosis was lymphoma (53.2 %. The percentage of patients with successful harvest of hematopoietic stem cells was proportional to the number of CD34+cells in peripheral blood at the end of the mobilization procedure. We propose that more than 15 CD34+cells/μL must be present in order to achieve an adequate collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Conclusion: Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count is a useful tool to predict the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells.

  12. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

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    Shidong Hu

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM.Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital.Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001.The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  13. Azacitidine in the 'real-world': an evaluation of 1101 higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/low blast count acute myeloid leukaemia patients in Ontario, Canada.

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    Mozessohn, Lee; Cheung, Matthew C; Fallahpour, Saber; Gill, Tripat; Maloul, Asmaa; Zhang, Liying; Lau, Olivia; Buckstein, Rena

    2018-06-01

    The outcome of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with uniformly higher-risk disease treated with azacitidine (AZA) in the 'real-world' remains largely unknown. We evaluated 1101 consecutive higher-risk MDS patients (International Prognostic Scoring System intermediate-2/high) and low-blast count acute myeloid leukaemia (AML; 21-30% blasts) patients treated in Ontario, Canada. By dosing schedule, 24·7% received AZA for seven consecutive days, 12·4% for six consecutive days and 62·9% by 5-2-2. Overall, median number of cycles was 6 (range 1-67) and 8 (range 6-14) when restricted to the 692 (63%) patients who received at least 4 cycles. The actuarial median survival was 11·6 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 10·7-12·4) for the entire cohort and 18·0 months (landmark analysis; 95% CI 16·6-19·1 months) for those receiving at least 4 cycles. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the 3 dosing schedules (P = 0·87). In our large 'real-world' evaluation of AZA in higher-risk MDS/low-blast count AML, we demonstrated a lower than expected OS. Reassuringly, survival did not differ by dosing schedules. The OS was higher in the 2/3 of patients who received at least 4 cycles of treatment, reinforcing the necessity of sustained administration until therapeutic benefits are realised. This represents the largest 'real-world' evaluation of AZA in higher-risk MDS/low-blast count AML. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

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    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  15. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

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    Hu, Shidong; Zou, Zhenyu; Li, Hao; Zou, Guijun; Li, Zhao; Xu, Jian; Wang, Lingde; Du, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China) between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital. Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P colon cancer (OR: 0.078, 95%CI: 0.020~0.309, P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001). The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  16. Study on the peripheral white blood cell count in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with microangiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wenpin; Zhu Pinghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible role played by peripheral white blood cells in the development of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and complication of microvascular pathological changes. Methods: White blood cell count and metabolism related parameters (FBG, 2hPBG, 2h Pinsulin, TCH, HDL, LDL, TG, HbA1c, BMI, age) were examined in 33 DM2 patients without complication, 41 DM2 patients with micro-angiopathy and 31 controls. Results: The white blood cell counts in both DM2 patients with no complication and the DM2 with microvascular pathological changes were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). The white blood cell counts were positively correlated with age,body metabolism index (BMI), triglyceride (TG), 2h glucose (PBG) and 2h insulin (the r value 0.248, 0.201, 0.435, 0.225, 0.352 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion: Peripheral white blood cells possibly played some role in development of DM2 and microvascular pathological changes and might be of some predictive importance. (authors)

  17. Peripheral blood count in preoperative radiotherapy (with radiomodificators) of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidchik, Yu.E.; Zharkov, V.V.; Prokhorova, V.I.; Rubanova, C.Z.

    1989-01-01

    Indices of peripheral blood in 215 patients with lung cancer during preoperative radiation using hyperglycemia or metronidazole are studied. It is shown that after preoperative radiotherapy, when radiomodifying effects are not used, the content of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, leukocytes, the concentration of hemoglobin in peripheral blood, as well as erythrocyte sedimentation rare didn't change. Functional disorders of the leukopoietic function and the thrombopoietic function of bone marrow when using metronidazole are registered when applying various types of preoperative radiotherapy. Lymphopenia is established when using various types of radiotherapy with radiomodificators

  18. Effect of fractionated regional external beam radiotherapy on peripheral blood cell count

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    Zachariah, B.; Jacob, S.S.; Gwede, C.; Cantor, A.; Patil, J.; Casey, L.; Zachariah, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for obtaining weekly complete blood count (CBC) values and to identify the pattern of changes in CBC during regional conventional fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of CBC data on 299 adult cancer patients who received definitive conventional radiotherapy to head and neck (n=95), chest (n=96), and pelvis (n=108) was performed. Temporal patterns and magnitude of change in white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets during radiotherapy were examined. Results: There were statistically significant declines in all counts, albeit not clinically significant. Notable differences between disease sites were found. The greatest weekly interval change in counts occurred during the first week of radiotherapy for all groups of patients. The mean WBC nadir values during treatment were 5.8 for head and neck, 6.8 for chest, and 5.4 for pelvis. The nadirs for all counts occurred toward the middle-to-end of radiotherapy. Lymphocytes were found to be more sensitive to radiotherapy than other leukocyte subcomponents. Conclusion: Our study suggests that weekly CBC monitoring is not necessary for all patients undergoing standard fractionated radiotherapy. Baseline blood counts may be used to determine an optimal schedule for monitoring CBCs in patients receiving conventional radiation alone. Reduced monitoring of CBC may result in significant financial savings

  19. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

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    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  20. Impact of baseline cytogenetic findings and cytogenetic response on outcome of high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and low blast count AML treated with azacitidine.

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    Sébert, Marie; Komrokji, Rami S; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Prebet, Thomas; Cluzeau, Thomas; Santini, Valeria; Gyan, Emmanuel; Sanna, Alessandro; Ali, Najla HAl; Hobson, Sean; Eclache, Virginie; List, Alan; Fenaux, Pierre; Adès, Lionel

    2017-12-01

    Karyotype according to the revised IPSS is a strong independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), however established in untreated patients. The prognostic impact of cytogenetics and cytogenetic response (CyR) in MDS patients receiving azacitidine (AZA) remains uncertain. We examined the prognostic value of baseline cytogenetics and CyR for overall response rate (ORR) and OS in 702 AZA-treated higher risk MDS and low blast count acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including 493 (70%) with abnormal karyotype. None of the cytogenetic abnormalities had significant impact on ORR (43.9%) or complete response (15.35%), except 3q abnormalities and complex karyotypes, which were associated with a lower ORR. OS differed significantly across all R-IPSS cytogenetic subgroups (pcytogenetics. CyR was achieved in 32% of the 281 evaluable patients with abnormal cytogenetics, was complete (CCyR) in 71 (25.3%) patients. We found no correlation between hematological response and cytogenetic response and 21% of the patients with CCyR did not achieve morphological response. In the 281 patients, we found no impact of CyR on survival, but when restricting to MDS (ie: <20% marrow blasts) achievement of CCyR was associated with better OS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

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    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  2. Comparison of the peripheral blood eosinophil count using near-patient testing and standard automated laboratory measurement in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects

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    Hambleton K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsty Hambleton, Clare M Connolly, Catherine Borg, Joanne H Davies, Helen P Jeffers, Richard EK Russell, Mona Bafadhel Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Near-patient testing (NPT allows clinical decisions to be made in a rapid and convenient manner and is often cost effective. In COPD the peripheral blood eosinophil count has been demonstrated to have utility in providing prognostic information and predicting response to treatment during an acute exacerbation. For this potential to be achieved having a reliable NPT of blood eosinophil count would be extremely useful. Therefore, we investigated the use of the HemoCue® WBC Diff System and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects. This method requires a simple skin prick of blood and was compared to standard venepuncture laboratory analysis. The HemoCue® WBC Diff System measured the peripheral blood eosinophil count in healthy, asthma and COPD subjects with very close correlation to the eosinophil count as measured by standard venepuncture. The correlations were unaffected by disease status. This method for the measurement of the peripheral blood eosinophil count has the potential to provide rapid near-patient results and thus influence the speed of management decisions in the treatment of airway diseases. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eosinophils, near-patient testing

  3. [Changes and significance of peripheral blood platelet count in tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-lin; Jia, Yu-jie; Jiang, Miao-na; Shu, Xiao-hong; Li, Chuan-gang

    2008-06-01

    To establish a mouse model for BTT739 tumor-bearing mice cured by a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX). And then to observe the dynamic changes and significance of peripheral blood counts especially blood platelet count during tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice. Mouse bladder carcinoma tissues were inoculated subcutaneously into T739 mice. Seven days later, different doses of CTX or the same volume of NS were administered intraperitoneally to treat these tumor-bearing T739 mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of CTX that could cure most of these tumor-bearing mice. Then another 12 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 15 mg/kg CTX treatment group and control group. Blood samples were obtained from orbital venous sinus on different times after CTX treatment. Complete blood counts were performed and the relationship between peripheral blood platelet counts and tumor shrinkage was analyzed. Within 2 weeks after CTX treatment, the speed of tumor shrinkage had a positive relationship with the dose of CTX used; but the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice had a negative relationship with the dose of CTX used in 2 months after CTX treatment. 15 mg/kg CTX could cure most of the tumor bearing mice, while it had no remarkably inhibitive effects on peripheral blood cells. The perpherial platelet count increased to (1483.4+/-184.4)x10(9)/L in mice 6 h after CTX treatment. There was significant difference compared with that in mice of control group (1086.6+/-81.0)x10(9)/L (P0.05). CTX 15 mg/kg could cure most of bladder tumor-bearing T739 mice. The transient increase of the peripheral platelet count in 6 h after CTX treatment may relate to the antitumor effects of CTX.

  4. Association of peripheral differential leukocyte counts with dyslipidemia risk in Chinese patients with hypertension: insight from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Wen; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Yu; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fan Fan; Gao, Wei; Sun, Ningling; Li, Jianping; Venners, Scott A; Jiang, Shanqun; Huo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between peripheral differential leukocyte counts and dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 10,866 patients with hypertension were enrolled for a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Plasma lipid levels and total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were determined according to standard methods. Peripheral differential leukocyte counts were consistently and positively associated with serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and TG levels (all P dyslipidemia/normolipidemia), we found that patients in the highest quartile of total leukocyte count (≥7.6 × 10 9 cells/l) had 1.64 times the risk of high TG [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46, 1.85], 1.34 times the risk of high TC (95% CI: 1.20, 1.50), and 1.24 times the risk of high LDL-C (95% CI: 1.12, 1.39) compared with their counterparts in the lowest quartile of total leukocyte count. Similar patterns were also observed with neutrophils and lymphocytes. In summary, these findings indicate that elevated differential leukocyte counts are directly associated with serum lipid levels and increased odds of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Study on serum TNF-α level, B-cell count and T-cell subsets distribution in peripheral blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Buqing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum TNF-α levels, B-cell count and T-cell subsets distribution in peripheral blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), B cell as well as T cell subsets distribution type (with monoclonal antibody technique) were examined in 37 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 30 controls. Results Serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 3 , CD 4 and CD 4 /CD 8 were obviously lower (P<0.01). Conclusion: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  6. The impact of preapheresis white blood cell count on autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection efficiency and HSC infusion side effect rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Araci M; Kondo, Andrea T; Yokoyama, Ana Paula H; Lira, Sanny M C; Bub, Carolina B; Souza, Aline M; Cipolletta, Andrea N F; Alvarez, Kelen C; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kutner, Jose M; Chiattone, Carlos S

    2018-01-19

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) collection efficiency (CE) is reportedly affected by the patient's blood properties; however, studies to identify factors correlated with CE have shown inconsistent results. Additionally, variables such as stem cell graft granulocyte content and patient age, sex, and underlying disease, may be associated with hematopietic stem cell (HSC) infusion-related adverse reactions. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of preleukapheresis PB granulocyte count and PBSC harvest variables with CD34 + collection yield and efficiency, and thawed HSC infusion side effect occurrence. We evaluated data from 361 patients who had undergone autologous PBSC transplant. Large volume leukapheresis was the method for PBSC collection. Complete Blood Count and CD34 + cell enumeration were performed in the preapheresis PB and the apheresis product sample. The PBSC grafts were submitted to non-controlled rate freezing after addition of 5% DMSO plus 6% hidroxyethylstarch as a cryoprotectant solution. The cryopreserved graft was thawed in a 37°C water bath and then infused without further manipulation. The CD34 + yield was associated with preapheresis PB CD34 + count and immature granulocyte count. The PBSC CE was negatively correlated with preapheresis white blood cell (WBC), immature granulocyte and granulocyte count. The leukapheresis product total nucleated cell (TNC) and granulocyte content was correlated with the thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. This study has shown that preapheresis PB WBC and granulocyte counts were associated with leukapheresis CE. Additionally, the leukapheresis product TNC and granulocyte content was correlated with thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nodal tumor response according to the count of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations during preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jae Sung; Oh, Young Tae; Noh, O Kyu; Chun, Mi Son; Park, Jun Eun; Cho, Sung Ran [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between the circulating lymphocyte subpopulation counts during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and tumor response in locally advanced rectal cancer. From August 2015 to June 2016, 10 patients treated with preoperative CRT followed by surgery were enrolled. Patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Surgical resection was performed at 4 to 8 weeks after the completion of preoperative CRT. The absolute blood lymphocyte subpopulation was obtained prior to and after 4 weeks of CRT. We analyzed the association between a tumor response and change in the lymphocyte subpopulation during CRT. Among 10 patients, 2 (20%) had evidence of pathologic complete response. In 8 patients with clinically node positive, 4 (50%) had nodal tumor response. All lymphocyte subpopulation counts at 4 weeks after CRT were significantly lower than those observed during pretreatment (p < 0.01). A high decrease in natural killer (NK) cell, count during CRT (baseline cell count - cell count at 4 weeks) was associated with node down staging (p = 0.034). Our results suggest that the change of lymphocyte subset to preoperative CRT may be a predictive factor for tumor response in rectal cancer.

  8. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SWINE INFLUENZA A (H1N1- BASING ONEPIDEMIOLOGIC CLUE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION, IMAGING FINDINGS, PERIPHERAL LEUCOCYTE COUNTS AND SPO2 LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswararao Kopparti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is a retrospective study of 22 cases of RT-PCR positive swine influenza spanning from 2014 to 20-09-2017 with main objective of early identification of influenza A H1N1 basing on epidemiological clue, clinical presentation, imaging findings and lab parameters as early antiviral therapy and judicious management of ARDS brings good outcome as per available literature. 1,2,3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 22 confirmed adult cases of swine influenza by throat/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR for H1N1 were studied in terms of clinical presentation, imaging findings, lab manifestations and SpO2 levels4 with particular emphasis on imaging findings. RESULTS 95% presented with symptoms of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI. Nearly, 80% of patients belonged to fourth to fifth decades. Leucocyte count was normal in 75% and 25% had low leucocyte count (<4000, SpO2 levels were normal in 25% and low in 75% cases. CXR was abnormal in 82% of cases of which 83% had mid/lower zone peripheral, patchy, pleural-based consolidations and 17% showed all lung zone opacities. HRCT chest done in 32% of cases showed similar features of chest xray findings with dominant mid/lower zone pleural-based consolidations to ground-glass haziness without pleural effusions and no mediastinal nodal involvement. CONCLUSION As intermittent outbreaks of swine influenza are still continuing in India with recent spurt in incidence in the months of April/May 2017, early diagnosis of H1N1 A is necessary for improved outcome. Early diagnosis is feasible by ILI presentation, normal or low leucocyte count, low SpO2 levels and characteristic radiologic findings of bilateral mid/lower zone pleural-based peripheral patchy opacities to consolidations. As this can be done at peripheral level, primary care physicians need to be sensitised in early diagnosis and treatment and prompt referral to higher centres when needed. Since, the present study is a retrospective one and of public health

  9. Effect of indomethacin, diclofenac sodium and sodium salicylate on peripheral blood cell counts in sublethally gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Kozubik, A.; Pipalova, I.

    1989-01-01

    Treatment with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium was found to increase granulocyte counts in the blood of sublethally gamma-irradiated mice. Treatment with sodium salicylate was ineffective in this respect, administration of sodium salicylate together with indomethacin even decreased the indomethacin-induced effects. The results suggest that the hemopoiesis-stimulating effects of non-steroidal anti-flammatory drugs cannot be correlated with the anti-inflammatory activity but rather with the side effects of these compounds, including the action on gastro-intestinal prostanoid production. This conclusion doubts on the possibility of the usefulness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in conditions of the radiation syndrome. (orig.) [de

  10. Correlation of the severity of atopic dermatitis with absolute eosinophil counts in peripheral blood and serum IgE levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .

  11. Old beagle dogs have lower faecal concentrations of some fermentation products and lower peripheral lymphocyte counts than young adult beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Márcia de Oliveira Sampaio; Beraldo, Mariana Casteleti; Putarov, Thaila Cristina; Brunetto, Márcio Antônio; Zaine, Leandro; Glória, Maria Beatriz Abreu; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2011-10-01

    The effects of age on microbiota composition, gut fermentation end-product formation and peripheral lymphocyte numbers were compared between old and young adult Beagle dogs fed four kibble diets differing in yeast cell wall contents. The experiment had a double 4 × 4 Latin square design, one with four mature dogs (4 years old) and the other with four old dogs (10 years old), with four replicates (diets) per dog. In each period a 15 d adaptation period preceded a 5 d total collection of faeces for the digestibility trial. On day 21, fresh faecal samples were collected for the determination of bacterial enumeration, pH, biogenic amine and short-chain fatty acid. Flow cytometry was used for immunophenotypic evaluation. Dogs were fed four kibble diets with similar composition with 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 % of yeast cell wall (as-fed), respectively. Data were evaluated using general linear models of Statistical Analysis Systems statistical software (P 0.15). Faecal concentrations of butyrate, histamine, agmatine and spermine were lower (P ≤ 0.05) and faecal pH was higher (P = 0.03) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs, suggesting an alteration in bacterial metabolic activity, or in the rate of intestinal absorption of these compounds. Concentrations of T-lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes were also lower (P ≤ 0.01) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs. The study confirmed alterations in peripheral lymphocytes and revealed a reduced concentration of some fermentation end products in the colon of old dogs.

  12. Early effects of treatment with radium and cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the proportions and absolute counts of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of women with cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluzanska, A.; Robak, T.; Kuchowicz, W.; Bartuzel, T.; Studencki, E.; Zadrozna, O.; Mazurowa, A.

    1977-01-01

    In 20 women with cervical carcinoma the T and B lymphocyte counts were determined in peripheral blood. The determinations were carried out before starting treatment and immediately after radium therapy in a mean dose of 6573 mgh and then after full therapeutic dose of cobalt-60 radiation of 4000 R. For identification of T lymphocytes the rosette E test was used and lymphocytes B were identified by means of the EAC rosette test. Presence of immunoglobulins on lymphocytes B was determined as well. In women with cervical carcinoma the total lymphocyte count in 1 mm 3 of blood, the proportions and absolute counts of T and B lymphocytes were not different from those in healthy women. Immediately after radium therapy the lymphocyte count in peripheral blood fell which was due mainly to a fall of the total count and in the proportion of B lymphocytes. The proportion of lymphocytes T was unchanged and their quantitative fall was statistically not significant. After application of the total therapeutic dose of cobalt-60 radiation a further fall of lymphocyte count was observed, due to a fall of the absolute count of T and B lymphocytes. Their proportions were unchanged. (author)

  13. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B lymphocyte count and T lymphocyte subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B cell count and T subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), peripheral B cell count as well as T subsets (with monoclonal technique) were examined in 34 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome and 35 controls. Results: The serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P 3 , CD 4 , CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy induced hY- pertension syndrome is a kind of autoimmune diseases with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  14. The peripheral cannabinoid receptor Cb2, frequently expressed on AML blasts, either induces a neutrophilic differentiation block or confers abnormal migration properties in a ligand-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Alberich-Jorda (Meritxell); N. Rayman (Nazik); M. Tas (Marjolein); S.E. Verbakel (Sandra); N. Battista (Natalia); K. van Lom (Kirsten); B. Löwenberg (Bob); M. Maccarrone (Mauro); H.R. Delwel (Ruud)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCb2, the gene encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, is located in a common virus integration site and is overex-pressed in retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemias. Here we show that this G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is also aberrantly expressed in a

  15. Blast management

    OpenAIRE

    Shouraki, Mohammad Kargar; Naserkheil, Ali Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Blast Management (BM) is composed of the combination of human resources management (HRM) principles and concepts and various methods of quality management (QM) with a financial approach. BM is made up of three aspects: hard, soft and concept and BLAST means an explosive shift in organization's mindset and thought and rapid action against it. The first aspect, hard, includes a set of managerial toots and philosophies to improve the quality and productivity with a financial approach.

  16. Brain injuries from blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is

  17. Predictive Value of Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts in Cord and Peripheral Blood of Asphyxiated Term Neonates in the First Week of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bahman Bijari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC circulating in the blood of neonates can be associated with relative hypoxia and adverse outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the NRBC count during the first week of life in neonates diagnosed with asphyxia as compared to healthy neonates and to determine the short-term morbidity and mortality for the affected babies. Methods: The cross-sectional study compared 15 healthy neonates with 15 neonates diagnosed with asphyxia confirmed by pH of cord blood or Apgar scores. The nucleated red blood cell (NRBC counts were calculated right after birth, and on days 3 and 7, and the hematological parameters of umbilical cord blood were also evaluated. The infants were followed for mortality and associated morbidity. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test, analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The initial NRBC counts were significantly higher in the asphyxiated group than in the control group and the difference remained significant through the end of first week. All of the umbilical cord blood parameters were significantly lower in the study group and were negatively correlated with the NRBC count. At birth, higher NRBC count correlated with higher mortality. conclution: Results show that NRBC count is a useful predictive factor for neonatal asphyxia through the end of the first week of life, although a larger study population and a longer follow up period seems to be necessary.

  18. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  19. Elevated neutrophil and monocyte counts in peripheral blood are associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: a prognostic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H; Bastholt, L; Geertsen, P

    2005-01-01

    factors in univariate analyses. Subsequently, a multivariate Cox's regression analysis identified elevated LDH (Pperformance status of 2 (P=0.008, hazard ratio 1.6) as independent prognostic factors for poor survival...... of several phase II protocols and the majority received treatment with intermediate dose subcutaneous IL-2 and interferon-alpha. Neutrophil and monocyte counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), number of metastatic sites, location of metastases and performance status were all statistically significant prognostic...... survival of 12.6 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4-13.8), 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.8-7.2) and 3.4 months (95% CI, 1.2-5.6), respectively. The low-risk group encompassed the majority of long-term survivors, whereas the patients in the high-risk group with a very poor prognosis should probably...

  20. Comparison of alcohol, povidone-iodine and octenidine dihydrochloride as skin disinfectants to reduce bacterial count prior to peripheral venous catheter insertions in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Rundjan

    2011-10-01

    Results Ninety subjects were divided into 3 groups of 30, each group using either 70% alcohol swabs, 10% povidone-iodine, or octenidine as skin antiseptic. Skin swabs were taken before and after antiseptic application and drying, as well as 5 minutes after application. The mean reductions in CFU/cm2 (% after antiseptic application (and fully dried were 97.54% for povidone-iodine, 97.52% for octenidine, and 89.07% for alcohol. There were no significant differences in mean CFU reductions among the three antiseptics groups (P=0.299. Furthermore, 5 minutes after application, there were still no significant differences in the three antiseptic groups (P=0.289. Conclusions Although octenidine showed a significant bacterial count reduction after application, it was not significantly different from those of alcohol or povidone-iodine. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:277-81].

  1. Association of peripheral NK cell counts with Helios+ IFN-γ- Tregs in patients with good long-term renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, K; Zhu, L; Aly, M; Weimer, R; Bulut, N; Morath, C; Opelz, G; Daniel, V

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about a possible interaction of natural killer (NK) cells with regulatory T cells (T reg ) in long-term stable kidney transplant recipients. Absolute counts of lymphocyte and T reg subsets were studied in whole blood samples of 136 long-term stable renal transplant recipients and 52 healthy controls using eight-colour fluorescence flow cytometry. Patients were 1946 ± 2201 days (153-10 268 days) post-transplant and showed a serum creatinine of 1·7 ± 0·7 mg/dl. Renal transplant recipients investigated > 1·5 years post-transplant showed higher total NK cell counts than recipients studied express the phenotype Helios + interferon (IFN)-γ - and appear to have stable FoxP3 expression and originate from the thymus. Furthermore, high total NK cells were associated with T reg that co-express the phenotypes interleukin (IL)-10 - transforming growth factor (TGF)-β + (P = 0·013), CD183 + CD62L - (P = 0·003), CD183 + CD62 + (P = 0·001), CD183 - CD62L + (P = 0·002), CD252 - CD152 + (P term good allograft function and the statistical association of these two lymphocyte subsets with each other suggest a direct or indirect (via DC) interaction of these cell subpopulations that contributes to good long-term allograft acceptance. Moreover, we speculate that regulatory NK cells are formed late post-transplant that are able to inhibit graft-reactive effector cells. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ subset in peripheral blood following mobilization correlates closely and inversely with the absolute count of harvested stem cells in multiple myeloma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Bela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stem cells (SCs guarantee complete/longterm bone marrow (BM repopulation after SC-transplants. The aim of the study was to evaluate absolute count of total SCs (determined by ISHAGE-sequential-gating protocol – SCish and relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ (CD90+SCish subset in peripheral blood (PB as predictive factors of mobilization and apheresis product (AP quality. Methods. Mobilization included chemotherapy and granulocytegrowth- factor (G-CSF. Harvesting was performed by Spectra- Optia-IDL-system. The SCsish were determined as a constitutional part of CD34+ cells in the “stem-cell-region” using FC- 500 flow-cytometer. In this study, the original ISHAGEsequential- gating protocol was modified by introduction of anti-CD90-PE monoclonal-antibody into the analysis of CD90 expression on SCish (CD90+SCish. The results were presented as a percentage of SCish per nucleated-cell count, absolute SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP, percentage of the CD90+SCish expressed to SCish and absolute CD90+SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP. Results. The absolute count of total SCish and CD90+SCish was significantly higher (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0266, respectively in the AP than in the PB samples. The CD90+SCish/total SCish indexes from PB were higher than indexes from the AP (p = 0.039. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish showed a highly significant inverse correlation with the absolute count of total SCish in both, the PB and AP (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0013 respectively. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish from the PB also showed a significant (p = 0.0002 inverse relationship with total SCish count in the AP. Patients with less than 10% CD90+SCish in the PB had evidently higher (p = 0.0025 total SCish count in the AP. Conclusion. We speculate that lower CD90+SCish yield in the AP is not a consequence of an inferior collection efficacy, but most likely a result of several still not fully resolved immature SC

  3. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  4. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-07-01

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34 + cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34 + cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34 + cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total of 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34 + levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution, with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34 + on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34 + as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34 + ranging from .5 cells/µL to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3 cells/µL to 4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34 + cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PB stem cell mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  6. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  7. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Božić; Karlo Braun

    1992-01-01

    The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in...

  8. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two...

  9. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  10. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  12. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  13. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  15. The BLAST experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasell, D.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems.

  16. Anatomical manifestations of primary blast ocular trauma observed in a postmortem porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Daniel; Sponsel, William E; Lund, Brian J; Gray, Walt; Watson, Richard; Groth, Sylvia L; Thoe, Kimberly; Glickman, Randolph D; Reilly, Matthew A

    2014-02-24

    We qualitatively describe the anatomic features of primary blast ocular injury observed using a postmortem porcine eye model. Porcine eyes were exposed to various levels of blast energy to determine the optimal conditions for future testing. We studied 53 enucleated porcine eyes: 13 controls and 40 exposed to a range of primary blast energy levels. Eyes were preassessed with B-scan and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) ultrasonography, photographed, mounted in gelatin within acrylic orbits, and monitored with high-speed videography during blast-tube impulse exposure. Postimpact photography, ultrasonography, and histopathology were performed, and ocular damage was assessed. Evidence for primary blast injury was obtained. While some of the same damage was observed in the control eyes, the incidence and severity of this damage in exposed eyes increased with impulse and peak pressure, suggesting that primary blast exacerbated these injuries. Common findings included angle recession, internal scleral delamination, cyclodialysis, peripheral chorioretinal detachments, and radial peripapillary retinal detachments. No full-thickness openings of the eyewall were observed in any of the eyes tested. Scleral damage demonstrated the strongest associative tendency for increasing likelihood of injury with increased overpressure. These data provide evidence that primary blast alone (in the absence of particle impact) can produce clinically relevant ocular damage in a postmortem model. The blast parameters derived from this study are being used currently in an in vivo model. We also propose a new Cumulative Injury Score indicating the clinical relevance of observed injuries.

  17. Categorical counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2010-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  19. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  20. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  1. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  2. Blasting technology advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    Nitroglycerine explosives are increasingly giving way to emulsions and low cost Anfo compositions, the latter sometimes incorporating emulsion in order to improve water resistance and performance. The aim is to produce an explosive which is extremely efficient, relatively safe and can be tailored to meet user requirements. Discussion is presented of emulsion delivery systems, initiation systems, electronic detonators, computer blast modelling, directional explosives, underground automation, and the development of Soviet explosives. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large

  4. Control blasting of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

  5. NCBI BLAST+ integrated into Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Peter J A; Chilton, John M; Grüning, Björn; Johnson, James E; Soranzo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The NCBI BLAST suite has become ubiquitous in modern molecular biology and is used for small tasks such as checking capillary sequencing results of single PCR products, genome annotation or even larger scale pan-genome analyses. For early adopters of the Galaxy web-based biomedical data analysis platform, integrating BLAST into Galaxy was a natural step for sequence comparison workflows. The command line NCBI BLAST+ tool suite was wrapped for use within Galaxy. Appropriate datatypes were defined as needed. The integration of the BLAST+ tool suite into Galaxy has the goal of making common BLAST tasks easy and advanced tasks possible. This project is an informal international collaborative effort, and is deployed and used on Galaxy servers worldwide. Several examples of applications are described here.

  6. Erythroleukemia shares biological features and outcome with myelodysplastic syndromes with excess blasts: a rationale for its inclusion into future classifications of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Xavier; Arenillas, Leonor; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Arnan, Montserrat; Ramos, Fernando; Ardanaz, María Teresa; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Benet; Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2016-12-01

    Erythroleukemia was considered an acute myeloid leukemia in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and is defined by the presence of ≥50% bone marrow erythroblasts, having <20% bone marrow blasts from total nucleated cells but ≥20% bone marrow myeloblasts from nonerythroid cells. Erythroleukemia shares clinicopathologic features with myelodysplastic syndromes, especially with erythroid-predominant myelodysplastic syndromes (≥50% bone marrow erythroblasts). The upcoming WHO revision proposes to eliminate the nonerythroid blast cell count rule and to move erythroleukemia patients into the appropriate myelodysplastic syndrome category on the basis of the absolute blast cell count. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with de novo erythroleukemia and compared their clinico-biological features and outcome with those of de novo myelodysplastic syndromes, focusing on erythroid-predominant myelodysplastic syndromes. Median overall survival of 405 erythroid-predominant myelodysplastic syndromes without excess blasts was significantly longer than that observed in 57 erythroid-predominant refractory anemias with excess blasts-1 and in 59 erythroleukemias, but no significant difference was observed between erythroid-predominant refractory anemias with excess blasts-1 and erythroleukemias. In this subset of patients with ≥50% bone marrow erythroblasts and excess blasts, the presence of a high-risk karyotype defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System or by the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System was the main prognostic factor. In the same way, the survival of 459 refractory anemias with excess blasts-2, independently of having ≥20% bone marrow blasts from nonerythroid cells or not, was almost identical to the observed in 59 erythroleukemias. Interestingly, 11 low-blast count erythroleukemias with 5 to <10% bone marrow blasts from total nucleated cells showed similar survival than the rest of erythroleukemias. Our data

  7. Blast from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Forget dynamite or hydraulic and mechanical drills. Industrial and federal researchers have started boring holes with rocket fuel. In a cooperative arrangement between Sandia National Laboratory, Global Environmental Solutions, and Universal Tech Corp., scientists and engineers extracted fuel from 200 rocket motors and used it as a mining explosive. In a demonstration completed last fall, researchers used 4950 kg of solid rocket propellant to move more than 22,500 metric tons of rock from the Lone Star Quarry in Prairie, Oklahoma. They found that the fuel improved blast energy and detonation velocity over traditional explosives, and it required fewer drill holes.

  8. Trouble shooting problem blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konya, K.D. [Society of Explosive Engineers, Montville, OH (United States)

    1996-02-01

    There have been many occurrences of water-gel or emulsion explosives or heavy Anfo`s (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) either not detonating in some blast holes in surface coal mining operations, or producing yellow or reddish-brown fumes upon reaction. The explosives rely on entrapped gas to detonate properly. It is important to control the size of the bubble and the dispersion of gas bubbles throughout the explosive. The article discusses and compares the use of microspheres and of gassing agents for detonation control.

  9. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  10. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. Good wall quality is desirable in any excavation. In excavations required for nuclear waste disposal, the objective will be to minimize blast-induced fractures which may complicate the sealing requirements necessary to control subsequent movement of groundwater around a sealed disposal vault. The construction of the URL has provided an opportunity for the development of controlled blasting methods, especially for drilling accuracy and optimization of explosive loads in the perimeter and cushion holes. The work has been assisted by the use of blast simulations with the mathematical model Blaspa. This paper reviews the results of a recent project to develop a controlled method of full-face blasting, and compares the observed field results with the results of a blast simulator called Blaspa. Good agreement is found between the two, and the Blaspa results indicate quantitatively how the blasting may induce damage in the final excavation surface. In particular, the rock in the final wall may be stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes. Bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate. In practice, these findings indicate that quantitative rock stress and rock burst-out velocity criteria can be established to minimize wall damage and bootleg. Thus, blast simulations become an efficient way to design controlled blasting and to optimize quality of the excavation surface

  11. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  12. Centrifugal shot blast system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997

  13. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  14. Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 131 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  16. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  17. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Morin, R.A.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    An underground research laboratory (URL) has been constructed as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in deep crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. This paper reviews the results of the program to develop controlled blasting for the full-face method, comparing the field observed results achieved with the simulated theoretical results. The simulated results indicate how the blasting may damage the excavation surface. Results suggest that the rock around the final wall is stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes and that bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate

  18. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  19. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  20. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  1. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated...

  2. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  4. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Hyperphosphatemia during spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome culminate in severe hyphosphatemia at the time of blast crisis of Phneg CML to acute myelomoncytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Ophira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extreme swing of phosphor from severe hyperphosphatemia to severe hypophosphatemia in a patient with blast crisis of myeloid origin was the result of imbalance between massive apoptosis of leukemic cells in the context of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome and massive production of leukemic cells with only 1% of blast in peripheral blood. The mutated p53 protein suggested acting as oncogene in the presented case and possibly affecting phosphor status.

  6. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  7. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  8. Water in the blast hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R. [Pilshaw Associates, KS (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Water in the blast area is a considerable problem in US opencast coal mining. While gelatin dynamite was reasonably water resistant, Anfo is not. All potential solutions to this problem: the use of Anfo and emulsion (Heavy Anfo), pumping, draining, and the use of water bags, involve considerable extra cost. With small amounts of water an alternative solution has been formulated: the use of a self inflating gas bag to exclude water, and loading the Anfo from the water line up to the stemming level of the blasthole. Quite substantial water columns may be sealed off in this manner, with little or no deleterious effect on blast effects.

  9. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  10. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  11. NOBLAST and JAMBLAST: New Options for BLAST and a Java Application Manager for BLAST results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagnel, Jacques; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-03-15

    NOBLAST (New Options for BLAST) is an open source program that provides a new user-friendly tabular output format for various NCBI BLAST programs (Blastn, Blastp, Blastx, Tblastn, Tblastx, Mega BLAST and Psi BLAST) without any use of a parser and provides E-value correction in case of use of segmented BLAST database. JAMBLAST using the NOBLAST output allows the user to manage, view and filter the BLAST hits using a number of selection criteria. A distribution package of NOBLAST and JAMBLAST including detailed installation procedure is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/JAMBLAST/ and http://sourceforge.net/projects/NOBLAST. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Study on peripheral expansion of bone marrow in hematologic patients and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Dai; Kang Fu

    1995-01-01

    It is found previously that the changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy resulting from hematologic disorders were various. This study focused on discussing the imaging features and regularity of expanded peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in some blood diseases as well as their clinical usefulness. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 99m Tc-sulfur colloid 370∼550 MBq was performed in 130 cases with different types of blood diseases (iron-deficiency anemia 17 cases, chronic hemolytic 13 cases, aplastic 41 cases; leukemia 37 cases, marrow dyshyperplasia syndrome 22 cases) and various stages of the disease (19 cases). The aspiration in PBM comparing with central bone marrow (CBM) was made in 12 aplastic anemia and 10 leukemia patients. The expansion rate of PBM was 58.5% and the various blood diseases had different expansion regions. Repeated imaging showed that the expanded PBM tended to retract during clinical recovery. Aspiration from the expanding PBM defined more active hematopoiesis and higher count of leukemia blast cells than that from iliac crest. The results indicated the presence of 'focal residual leukemia' (FRL) in PBM of complete remission leukemia patient. The result of this study suggested that the expansion patterns of PBM in various hematologic disorders have definite features, which are helpful for the differential diagnosis, valuable for evaluation of the reserved capability of active marrow and prognosis of the patients according to the further analysis of the PBM state. The bone marrow imaging is also an indispensable technique for finding FRL

  13. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  14. Effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 6 on the growth of leukemic blasts in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C J; Cheng, T Y; Chang, S L; Su, W J; Tseng, J Y

    1992-05-01

    We examined the stimulatory effects of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 6 (IL)-6 on the in vitro proliferation of leukemic blast cells from patients with acute leukemia. Bone marrow or peripheral blood leukemic blast cells were obtained from 21 patients, including 14 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), four cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), two cases of acute undifferentiated leukemia, and one case of acute mixed-lineage leukemia. The proliferation of leukemic blast cells was evaluated by measuring the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into cells incubated with various concentrations of cytokines for 3 days. GM-CSF stimulated the DNA synthesis (with greater than 2.0 stimulation index) of blast cells in 9 of 14 (64%) AML cases, two cases of acute undifferentiated leukemia and one case of acute mixed-lineage leukemia. Only two cases of AML blasts responded to IL-6 to grow in the short-term suspension cultures. GM-CSF and IL-6 did not display a synergistic effect on the growth of leukemic cells. Moreover, GM-CSF and IL-6 did not stimulate the proliferation of ALL blast cells. Binding study also revealed the specific binding of GM-CSF on the blast cells of acute undifferentiated leukemia and acute mixed-lineage leukemia. Our results indicated that leukemic blast cells of acute undifferentiated leukemia and acute mixed-lineage leukemia possessed functional GM-CSF receptors.

  15. An analysis of the heap construction by long hole blasting for in-situ leaching of blasted ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijiao

    1999-01-01

    The author establishes specific requirements for heap construction by blasting on the basis of the mechanism for in situ leaching of blasted ore, analyses the feasibility of heap construction by long hole blasting, selection of the blast plan and the relevant technological problems, and gives a case of heap construction by long hole blasting in Renhua uranium mine

  16. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...

  17. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  19. Counting It Twice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattschneider, Doris

    1991-01-01

    Provided are examples from many domains of mathematics that illustrate the Fubini Principle in its discrete version: the value of a summation over a rectangular array is independent of the order of summation. Included are: counting using partitions as in proof by pictures, combinatorial arguments, indirect counting as in the inclusion-exclusion…

  20. Propylthiouracil and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Van Boekel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is a rare manifestation in hyperthyroidism. We describe the neurological manifestations of a 38 year old female with Graves' disease who developed peripheral neuropathy in the course of her treatment with propylthiouracil. After the drug was tapered off, the neurological signs disappeared. Therefore, we call attention for a possible toxic effect on peripheral nervous system caused by this drug.

  1. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    injury conditions (blast and acceleration vs acceleration alone) undergo neurobehavioral and histopathological assessments to comprehensively... reversal . To facilitate mid-air blasts, a release mechanism was devised. Balls were attached to the bail of the mechanism. The blast wave would cause

  2. CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristão Ramos, Ravi José; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cézar; da Silva Delgado, Gabrielle; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Silva, Rosane; Koca, Jaroslav

    2017-11-15

    CrocoBLAST is a tool for dramatically speeding up BLAST+ execution on any computer. Alignments that would take days or weeks with NCBI BLAST+ can be run overnight with CrocoBLAST. Additionally, CrocoBLAST provides features critical for NGS data analysis, including: results identical to those of BLAST+; compatibility with any BLAST+ version; real-time information regarding calculation progress and remaining run time; access to partial alignment results; queueing, pausing, and resuming BLAST+ calculations without information loss. CrocoBLAST is freely available online, with ample documentation (webchem.ncbr.muni.cz/Platform/App/CrocoBLAST). No installation or user registration is required. CrocoBLAST is implemented in C, while the graphical user interface is implemented in Java. CrocoBLAST is supported under Linux and Windows, and can be run under Mac OS X in a Linux virtual machine. jkoca@ceitec.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study.

  4. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  5. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  6. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    and services to assist recovery . Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Taylor, PA and Ford, CC. 2009. "Simulation of Blast-Induced Early-Time...reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite... Warden 2006). As of 2008 it was estimated that approximately 19% or 320,000 OIF/OEF veterans had sustained a TBI (Tanielian et al. 2008). In 2011 a

  7. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  8. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  11. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  12. Scintillation counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

  13. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  14. Counting Knights and Knaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find ...

  17. Water in blast holes can improve blasting efficiency and cut costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, G.

    1983-08-01

    Water in blast holes has been a traditional problem faced by blasting engineers and foremen in surface mining. Presently accepted techniques for blasting in water-filled holes include the use of more expensive water-gel explosives which are denser than water, dewatering of holes by pumping, and blowing out the water with a small charge before loading the main ANFO charge column. These methods involve considerable expense and delay to the normal charge-loading procedure. The author describes a method of using the water in blast holes to improve blasting efficiency and reduce the consumption of explosive.

  18. The Kruskal Count

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Rains, Eric; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The Kruskal Count is a card trick invented by Martin J. Kruskal in which a magician "guesses" a card selected by a subject according to a certain counting procedure. With high probability the magician can correctly "guess" the card. The success of the trick is based on a mathematical principle related to coupling methods for Markov chains. This paper analyzes in detail two simplified variants of the trick and estimates the probability of success. The model predictions are compared with simula...

  19. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  20. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  1. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structrures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. Since the blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade, it is

  2. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varas, J.M.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. The blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade. In particular

  3. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  4. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  5. Platelet count is associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P J; Hvas, A M; Frederiksen, H

    2016-01-01

    count (100-450×10(9)/L) and mortality, development of future cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or peripheral vascular disease), venous thromboembolism, bleeding or cancer in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a register-based cohort study of 21......,252 adults (≥20years) from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS). Laboratory results from GESUS were linked to information from national registers regarding morbidity and death. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, haemoglobin......, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein and Charlson comorbidity index. RESULTS: We found a U-shaped relationship between mortality and platelet count. Mortality was significantly increased for platelet count 300×10(9)/L. When categorizing platelet count using the interval 201-250×10(9)/L...

  6. Regulatory T cells-derived IL-35 promotes the growth of adult acute myeloid leukemia blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qianshan; Pan, Ying; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huiping; Xiong, Shudao; Li, Qing; Wang, Jia; Tao, Lili; Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Rui; Zhai, Zhimin

    2015-11-15

    Tumor immune escape mechanism mediated by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IL-35, as a novel inhibitory cytokine, is produced by Tregs specially and regulates functions of Tregs in murine. However, IL-35 expression of Tregs in human is still disputed, and its role in AML is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that IL-35 was expressed highly in peripheral blood plasma of adult patients with AML and significantly correlated with the clinical stages of malignancy. Tregs-derived from adult AML patients produced IL-35 in a stimulation-dependent manner. IL-35 promoted AML blasts immune escape by expanding Tregs and inhibiting CD4+CD25-effector T cells (Teffs). Furthermore, IL-35 directly promoted the proliferation of AML blasts and reduced the apoptosis of AML blasts. Together, our study demonstrates that IL-35-derived from Tregs promotes the growth of adult AML blasts, suggesting that IL-35 has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML. © 2015 UICC.

  7. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  8. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13 Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed...

  9. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  10. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  11. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  12. Anorectal injury in pelvic blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Tom G; Garner, J P

    2013-03-01

    The signature injury of the Afghanistan campaign has, amongst other things, included an increased incidence of destructive anorectal injury. There is no significant body of evidence about this type of injury on which to base management strategies. This review examines the historical military data, later civilian reports, many of which have challenged the military dogmas of Vietnam, and the spartan contemporaneous military data which does not particularly address pelviperineal blast injury. There is no evidence to support a move away from the doctrine of the four D's (diversion, distal washout, drainage and direct repair), but sound surgical judgement remains the mainstay of managing these challenging and highly morbid injuries.

  13. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  14. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  15. Antigen Expression on Blast Cells and Hematological Parameters at Presentation in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, S.; Bukhari, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the expression of various antigens on the leukemic blasts and to determine the hematological parameters, in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) patients at presentation. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: King Edward Medical University, Lahore and Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore, from February 2013 to March 2014. Methodology: A total of 50 newly diagnosed and untreated patients of ALL were selected from Mayo Hospital and Hameed Latif Hospital. These patients included both genders and all age groups. Hemoglobin, total leukocyte count and platelet count were determined on hematology analyser-Sysmex-Kx-2I. Blast cell percentage was estimated on Giemsa stained blood smears. Immuno phenotyping was done on bone marrow samples by 5 colour flow cytometery on Beckman Counter Navious Flow cytometer. An acute leukemia panel of 23 antibodies was used. The data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 22. Results: Of the 50 ALL patients, 36 (72 percentage) were B-ALL and 14 (28 percentage) T-ALL. There were 18 (36 percentage) children and 32 (64 percentage) adults. T-ALL included 22 percentage of the childhood and 31 percentage of the adult cases. Immuno phenotypic analysis showed that CD19, CD79a and CD20 were B-lineage specific markers whereas cCD3, CD3 and CD5 were T-lineage specific. CD10 was the most sensitive marker for B-ALL and CD7 was the most sensitive marker of T-ALL. TdT was expressed in 92 percentage B-ALL and 71 percentage T-ALL cases, CD34 in 58 percentage and 43 percentage cases and CD45 in 83 percentage and 100 percentage respectively. High leukocyte count (> 50 x 109/L) was present in 58 percentage cases. Hemoglobin was < 10 g/dl in 74 percentage patients and platelet count was below 20 x 109/Lin 12 percentage patients. Leukocyte count, hemoglobin, platelet count and blast cell percentage did not show a significant difference in the two ALL immuno types. Conclusion: The frequency of T-ALL is higher in childhood

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

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  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

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  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ...

  7. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 285 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 033 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  11. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm. (2004 Summer). Immature Reticulocyte Fraction(IRF). The Pathology Center Newsletter v9(1). [On-line information]. Available ... Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Levin, M. (2007 March 8, Updated). Reticulocyte Count. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On- ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  13. Radiation intensity counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 043 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 ...

  15. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  16. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  17. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration

  18. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Amini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary systemic vasculitis in pre-capillary arteries is associated with peripheral neuropathy. In some types of systematic vasculitis about 60 % of patients have peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement. In vasculitic peripheral neuropathies (VPN a necrotizing and inflammatory process leads to narrowing of vasa nervorum lumen and eventually the appearance of ischemic lesions in peripheral nerves. Some features might be suggestive of VPN, like: axonal nerve degeneration, wallerian-like degeneration, and diameter irregularity of nerve. Peripheral nervous system (PNS destruction during systemic vasculitides should be considered, due to its frequency and early occurrence in vasculitis progression. The first line treatment of non systematic VPNs is corticosteroid agents, but these drugs might worsen the VPNs or systemic vasculitis.

  19. Blasting jobs on the building site of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voda, J.; Podel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The problems are discussed of the preparation and implementation on the Temelin nuclear power plant building site of blasting, the volume of drilling and the choice of the drill hammer - all based on experience gained during the construction of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The amount of explosives used on the Temelin site will be 1400 t. The use of mechanical charging may shorten the preparation of the site by 20 to 30%. Explosive emulsion slurries are being developed from home raw materials whose application will reduce the volume of drilling by 15%. The method of controlled breaking secures adequate quality of peripheral walls and bottom chink but special explosives will have to be used. Seismic effects are discussed of blasting on dwellings, agricultural and industrial buildings in the vicinity of the site, on-site buildings, underground mains and special structures of the nuclear power plant. (E.S.)

  20. Primary blast survival and injury risk assessment for repeated blast exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Matthew B; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Rafaels, Karin A; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce P

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of explosives by modern insurgents and terrorists has increased the potential frequency of blast exposure in soldiers and civilians. This growing threat highlights the importance of understanding and evaluating blast injury risk and the increase of injury risk from exposure to repeated blast effects. Data from more than 3,250 large animal experiments were collected from studies focusing on the effects of blast exposure. The current study uses 2,349 experiments from the data collection for analysis of the primary blast injury and survival risk for both long- and short-duration blasts, including the effects from repeated exposures. A piecewise linear logistic regression was performed on the data to develop survival and injury risk assessment curves. New injury risk assessment curves uniting long- and short-duration blasts were developed for incident and reflected pressure measures and were used to evaluate the risk of injury based on blast over pressure, positive-phase duration, and the number of repeated exposures. The risk assessments were derived for three levels of injury severity: nonauditory, pulmonary, and fatality. The analysis showed a marked initial decrease in injury tolerance with each subsequent blast exposure. This effect decreases with increasing number of blast exposures. The new injury risk functions showed good agreement with the existing experimental data and provided a simplified model for primary blast injury risk. This model can be used to predict blast injury or fatality risk for single exposure and repeated exposure cases and has application in modern combat scenarios or in setting occupational health limits. .Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  1. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.

  2. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  3. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z; Fries, R J

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)

  4. Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The article discusses the reasons why conventional blasting operations, mainly that of explosive products, drilling and initiation methods are inefficient, and suggests new methods and materials to overcome the problems of the conventional operations. The author suggests that the use of bulk ANFO for casting, instead of high energy and density explosives with high velocity detonation is more effective in producing heave action results. Similarly the drilling of smaller blast holes than is conventional allows better loading distribution of explosives in the rock mass. The author also suggests that casting would be more efficient if the shot rows were loaded differently to produce a variable burden blasting pattern.

  5. Membranes replace irradiated blast cells as growth requirement for leukemic blast progenitors in suspension culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, N.; McCulloch, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) may be considered as a renewal population, maintained by blast stem cells capable of both self-renewal and the generation of progeny with reduced or absent proliferative potential. This growth requires that two conditions be met: first, the cultures must contain growth factors in media conditioned either by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (PHA-LCM), or by cells of the continuous bladder carcinoma line HTB9 (HTB9-CM). Second, the cell density must be maintained at 10(6) blasts/ml; this may be achieved by adding irradiated cells to smaller numbers of intact blasts. The authors are concerned with the mechanism of the feeding function. They present evidence that (a) cell-cell contact is required. (b) Blasts are heterogeneous in respect to their capacity to support growth. (c) Fractions containing membranes from blast cells will substitute for intact cells in promoting the generation of new blast progenitors in culture. (d) This membrane function may be specific for AML blasts, since membranes from blasts of lymphoblastic leukemia or normal marrow cells were inactive

  6. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  7. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Utah Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... more slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...

  8. Blast Mitigation Using Water - A Status Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kailasanath, K

    2002-01-01

    ..., and aggressive research and development', this report reviews the current knowledge base on blast mitigation using water and identifies the key issues that need to be resolved in order to develop...

  9. International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

  10. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  11. A Software Framework for Blast Event Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swensen, D. A; Denison, M. K; Guilkey, James; Harman, Todd; Goetz, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... The BCF will provide a virtual test-bed where disparate computational models can seamlessly interact with one another to provide a unified modeling solution for blast-vehicle-occupant scenarios...

  12. Bomb blast imaging: bringing order to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, E A; Ballard, M; Alwan-Walker, H; Kashef, E; Batrick, N; Hettiaratchy, S; Moran, C G

    2018-06-01

    Blast injuries are complex, severe, and outside of our everyday clinical practice, but every radiologist needs to understand them. By their nature, bomb blasts are unpredictable and affect multiple victims, yet require an immediate, coordinated, and whole-hearted response from all members of the clinical team, including all radiology staff. This article will help you gain the requisite expertise in blast imaging including recognising primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. It will also help you understand the fundamental role that imaging plays during mass casualty attacks and how to avoid radiology becoming a bottleneck to the forward flow of severely injured patients as they are triaged and treated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given.

  14. Blast effects physical properties of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book compiles a variety of experimental data on blast waves. The book begins with an introductory chapter and proceeds to the topic of blast wave phenomenology, with a discussion Rankine-Hugoniot equations and the Friedlander equation, used to describe the pressure-time history of a blast wave. Additional topics include arrival time measurement, the initiation of detonation by exploding wires, a discussion of TNT equivalency, and small scale experiments. Gaseous and high explosive detonations are covered as well. The topics and experiments covered were chosen based on the comparison of used scale sizes, from small to large. Each characteristic parameter of blast waves is analyzed and expressed versus scaled distance in terms of energy and mass. Finally, the appendix compiles a number of polynomial laws that will prove indispensable for engineers and researchers.

  15. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  16. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oval in shape. Diagnosis A doctor's evaluation Sometimes culture The diagnosis of peripheral ulcerative keratitis is suspected when the doctor sees the affected cornea in a person who also has a severe and/or long- ...

  17. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  18. Blasting in hot zone - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabiullah, B.M.P.; Pingua, J.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    A significant quantity of coking coal reserves in the country are under fire particularly in Jharia coalfield. To control the fire and prevent loss of coal, an opencast mining method is adopted. The main problem with these opencast mines is drilling in hot strata and selection of suitable explosives and blasting in the fire zone. Trial blasts were conducted at two open cast mines. The problem was tackled by quenching the hot blast holes with water. Temperature of blast holes were recorded soon after drilling, after quenching with water and just before charging with explosives. The rise in temperature of charged explosives with time was also recorded until blasting. The thermal behaviour of commercially available explosives (including slurry, emulsion, ANFO and detonating cord) was investigated in laboratory and field simulated conditions. Emulsion, slurry compositions and detonating cord were found safe to use in hot holes up to 120{degree}C for duration of two hours. This paper describes the blasting practices adopted in the fire zones. 4 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  20. The second generation of electronic blasting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammelmann, F.; Petzold, J. [Dynamit Nobel GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    8 years after the market introduction of the first commercial electronic detonator - DYNATRONIC - the paper describes a new area of electronic blasting systems Made in Germany: i-kon. The results of a joint development between Dynamit Nobel and Orica is a unique universal electronic detonator, which is as simple to use as a standard non-electric detonator. The delay time or delay interval is not factory preprogrammed and the system is not based on a numbered system like conventional detonators. The miner or Blaster decides on site which delay timing he likes to use and is programming the whole blast on site. The new i-kon system allows delay times between 0 and 8000 ms by increments of 1 ms. With the control equipment it is possible to blast up to 1600 detonators in a single blast. The paper describes the construction and functionality of this new electronic blasting system - manufactured and developed by Precision Blasting Systems, a joint venture between Orica and Dynamic Nobel. (orig.)

  1. Promoting peripheral myelin repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the ...

  2. Effect of blasting on output increase of bucket wheel excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.

    1987-12-01

    In brown coal surface mines, consolidated sediments become a problem as mining operations advance into greater depth below the original terrain. Owing to higher digging resistance, the output of bucket wheel excavators drops. This problem may be solved by blasting technology and using drilling machines with higher digging force. This paper describes the blasting operations at the Nastup Mines in Tusmice, Czechoslovakia. About 60% of blasting explosives used is a simple mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel (ANFO), the rest falls on classic blasting gelatines and blasting explosives plasticized by slurry. It is found that blasting improves output by 30% while electric energy consumption is reduced.

  3. Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual conference on explosives and blasting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Various aspects of explosives and blasting techniques are covered. Those of particular interest to the coal industry buffer blasting versus cast blasting, post-blast cast profile shape prediction, fragmentation model to estimate ROM size distribution of soft rocks, blasting accidents, blast vibrations, ANFO explosives and carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. DYNAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANT DOOR USING BLAST LOAD MODELED AS IMPACT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Pranata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A blast resistant single door was designed to withstand a 0.91 bar blast pressure and 44 ms blast duration. The analysis was done using Dynamic Time History Analysis using Blast Load modeled as Impact Load for given duration. The material properties used have been modified to accommodate dynamic effects. The analysis was done using dynamic finite element method (fem for time of the blast duration, and the maximum/minimum internal forces and displacement were taken from the time history output, in order to know the behavior under blast load and estimate the safety margin of the door. Results obtained from this research indicated that the maximum z-displacement is 1.709 mm, while in the term of serviceability, the permitted is 25 mm. The maximum reaction force is 73,960 N, while the maximum anchor capacity is 82,069 N. On blast condition, the maximum frame stress is 71.71 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 45.28 MPa. While on rebound condition, the maximum frame stress is 172.11 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 29.46 MPa. The maximum door edge rotation is 0.44 degree, which is not exceed the permitted boundary (1.2 degree. Keywords: Dynamic time history, blast resistant door, single door, finite element method.

  5. Raydet non-electric blast initiation system for efficient and environment-friendly surface blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, M.O. [IDL Chemicals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Technical Services Cell

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using the Raydet shock tube based blast initiation system and reviews research work carried out on release of explosive energy in the drillhole, effect of stemming retention (stemming effectiveness) and advantages of `true bottom hole initiation` of drillholes in surface blasting. Some case studies are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of 3 H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  8. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  9. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  10. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  11. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  12. Do your syringes count?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Mixed phenotype (T/B/myeloid) extramedullary blast crisis as an initial presentation of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xin; Qing, Annie; Ji, Ping; French, Samuel W; Mason, Holli

    2018-04-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome generated by the reciprocal translocation t(9,22)(q34;q11). The natural progression of the disease follows a biphasic or triphasic course. Most cases of CML are diagnosed in the chronic phase. Extramedullary blast crisis rarely occurs during the course of CML, and is extremely rare as the initial presentation of CML. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old female with enlarged neck lymph nodes and fatigue. She was diagnosed with B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with possible mixed phenotype (B/myeloid) by right neck lymph node biopsy at an outside hospital. However, review of her peripheral blood smear and her bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed features consistent with CML, which was confirmed by PCR and karyotyping. An ultrasound-guided right cervical lymph node core biopsy showed a diffuse infiltrate of blasts, near totally replacing the normal lymph node tissue, admixed with some hematopoietic cells including megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors and maturing myeloid cells. By flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, the blasts expressed CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD5, CD7, CD56, TdT, CD10 (weak, subset), CD19 (subset), CD79a, PAX-5 (subset), CD34, CD38, CD117 (subset), HLA-DR (subset), CD11b, CD13 (subset), CD33 (subset), and weak cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase, without co-expression of surface CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD22, CD14, CD15, CD16 and CD64, consistent with blasts with mixed phenotype (T/B/myeloid). A diagnosis of extramedullary blast crisis of CML was made. Chromosomal analysis performed on the lymph node biopsy tissue revealed multiple numerical and structural abnormalities including the Ph chromosome (46-49,XX,add(1)(p34),add(3)(p25),add(5)(q13),-6,t(9;22)(q34;q11.2),+10,-15,add(17)(p11.2),+19, +der(22)t(9;22),+mar[cp8]). After completion of one cycle of combined chemotherapy plus dasatinib treatment, she was transferred to City of Hope

  14. Peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral lymphocyte subsets--T-helper (CD4+), T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+), and naive/virgin T cells/natural killer cells (CD45RA)--were studied quantitatively in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) and 29 sex- and age-matched RAU-free control donors. The CD4+ percentage...... was significantly lower in the patients than in the control group (P less than 0.0001), whereas CD8+ and CD4/CD8 ratio figures did not differ significantly between patients and controls. The CD45RA+ counts were significantly higher in the patient group (P less than 0.01). The study supports previous investigations...

  15. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  16. Modal Logics with Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

    We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

  17. Digital coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.M.; Ius, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method. (orig.)

  18. Digital coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, S. M.; Ius, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method.

  19. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  20. Blast densification trials for oilsands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Port, A. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Eaton, T. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Shell Canada Muskeg River Mine External Tailings Facility (ETF) is an upstream constructed tailings facility located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Raises have incrementally stepped out over the beach since construction of the starter dam and deposition within standing water has left some parts of the beach in a loose state. In order to assess the effectiveness of blast densification, a blast densification trial program that was conducted in 2006 at the ETF. The primary purpose of the test program was to determine the effectiveness of blast densification in tailings containing layers and zones of bitumen. The paper described the site characterization and explosive compaction trial program, with particular reference to test layout; drilling methodology; and blasting and timing sequence. The paper also described the instrumentation, including the seismographs; high pressure electric piezometers; low pressure electric piezometers; vibrating wire piezometers; inclinometers; settlement gauges; and surveys. Trial observations and post-trial observations were also presented. It was concluded that controlled blasting techniques could be used to safely induce liquefaction in localized areas within the tailings deposit, with a resulting increase in the tailings density. 5 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  1. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  2. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  3. Resistance of some leukemic blasts to lysis by lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotides, P; Sjoegren, A -M; Reizenstein, P; Porwit, A. Immunopathology Lab., Dept. of Pathology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm; Wasserman, J

    1988-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and AML patients in remission were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2). These stimulated cells (lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells) showed increased DNA synthesis as measured by /sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake. A synergistic effect of PHA and IL-2 was found. LAK cells' ability to kill acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts was investigated by the /sup 51/Cr release assay. LAK cells showed a cytotoxicity (over 10% specific /sup 51/Cr release) against 9/12 leukemic blasts, even at effector/target (E/T) ratios as low as 5:1. However, on average only 22.2% (SD 11.8) and 36.5% (SD 12.5) /sup 51/Cr release were obtained in 4- and 18-hour cytotoxicity assays, respectively, at an E/T ratio of 20:1. Leukemic blasts in 3/12 AML cases and normal PBMC were entirely resistant to lysis, even at an E/T ratio of 80:1. Susceptibility to lysis was not correlated to peanut-agglutinin receptor expression. LAK cells were more cytotoxic towards the K-562 cell line (natural killer activity) than unstimulated PBMC.

  4. Circulating endothelial cells are increased in chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.T. Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We measured circulating endothelial precursor cells (EPCs, activated circulating endothelial cells (aCECs, and mature circulating endothelial cells (mCECs using four-color multiparametric flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 84 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and 65 healthy controls; and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF by quantitative real-time PCR in 50 CML patients and 32 healthy controls. Because of an increase in mCECs, the median percentage of CECs in CML blast crisis (0.0146% was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (0.0059%, P0.05. In addition, VEGF gene expression was significantly higher in all phases of CML: 0.245 in blast crisis, 0.320 in the active phase, and 0.330 in chronic phase patients than it was in healthy subjects (0.145. In conclusion, CML in blast crisis had increased levels of CECs and VEGF gene expression, which may serve as markers of disease progression and may become targets for the management of CML.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... two working faces are approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation...

  6. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  7. Counting statistics in low level radioactivity measurements fluctuating counting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdur, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A divergence between the probability distribution of the number of nuclear disintegrations and the number of observed counts, caused by counting efficiency fluctuation, is discussed. The negative binominal distribution is proposed to describe the probability distribution of the number of counts, instead of Poisson distribution, which is assumed to hold for the number of nuclear disintegrations only. From actual measurements the r.m.s. amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation is estimated. Some consequences of counting efficiency fluctuation are investigated and the corresponding formulae are derived: (1) for detection limit as a function of the number of partial measurements and the relative amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation, and (2) for optimum allocation of the number of partial measurements between sample and background. (author)

  8. Divide and Conquer (DC BLAST: fast and easy BLAST execution within HPC environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Cheol Yim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is currently faced with very large-scale data sets that lead to computational jobs, especially sequence similarity searches, that can take absurdly long times to run. For example, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and BLAST+ suite, which is by far the most widely used tool for rapid similarity searching among nucleic acid or amino acid sequences, is highly central processing unit (CPU intensive. While the BLAST suite of programs perform searches very rapidly, they have the potential to be accelerated. In recent years, distributed computing environments have become more widely accessible and used due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing (HPC systems. Therefore, simple solutions for data parallelization are needed to expedite BLAST and other sequence analysis tools. However, existing software for parallel sequence similarity searches often requires extensive computational experience and skill on the part of the user. In order to accelerate BLAST and other sequence analysis tools, Divide and Conquer BLAST (DCBLAST was developed to perform NCBI BLAST searches within a cluster, grid, or HPC environment by using a query sequence distribution approach. Scaling from one (1 to 256 CPU cores resulted in significant improvements in processing speed. Thus, DCBLAST dramatically accelerates the execution of BLAST searches using a simple, accessible, robust, and parallel approach. DCBLAST works across multiple nodes automatically and it overcomes the speed limitation of single-node BLAST programs. DCBLAST can be used on any HPC system, can take advantage of hundreds of nodes, and has no output limitations. This freely available tool simplifies distributed computation pipelines to facilitate the rapid discovery of sequence similarities between very large data sets.

  9. Nuclear blast and fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Maddock, C.E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The underground shelter has walls, floor, and roof comprising at least one layer of fibre glass reinforced resin on each side of a layer of a light material, e.g. balsa wood or foamed material. The walls and other sections of the shelter are made by moulding at least one layer of resin impregnated fibre glass in a suitable mould, placing a layer of balsa wood on the moulded fibre glass/resin, and adding one or more further layers of fibre glass reinforced resin onto the balsa wood to form a sandwich type construction. The sections may have joists and reinforcing webs, and peripheral flanges. (author)

  10. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life- and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares. There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield. We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBI-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  11. New techniques for improved performance in surface blasting operation and optimisation of blast design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental blasts were conducted for optimisation of blasting parameters using separate technologies involving non-electric initiation systems, air decking accessories in conjunction with different explosive products like emulsion (cartridge and site-mixed), slurries (cartridge and site-mixed) and ANFO. The cost associated with each such technology was then compared with the conventional methods of drilling and blasting operations. The results of cost analyses are given. Theoretical and practical aspects of such technologies and their best possible usage in order to establish the desired fragmentation, muck profile, wall control and ultimately the accepted level of costs are mentioned in subsequent sections. 16 refs., 17 figs., 8 plates, 11 tabs.

  12. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  13. Drilling-and-blasting method of demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyn Denis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experience and gives the examples of dismantling and demolition of the construction structures of the buildings and facilities using the drilling-and-blasting method. The drilling-and-blasting method is widely used in construction and reconstruction. The demolition means may be classified according to impact on a material of structures to be demolished and to forces application, where, by virtue of an impact energy type, we choose the blasting method. This method is used during the complete demolition or fragmentation of concrete, reinforced concrete, masonry structures, of old buildings and facilities demolition to their base or in the intended direction. Blasting method may be used as well during the steel and reinforced concrete structures demolition to the smaller easy-to-move parts. Reviewed are the organizational-process activities, which are performed during the various structures dismantling. Given are the areas of application for the various methods of structures demolition. Given is the example of demolition of “Sevemaya” boiler house brick chimney at the territory of Murmansk DSK using the blast in confined spaces of the operating company. Subject of research: methods of construction structures demolition in alarm situations and acts of God. Objects: determination of the most efficient demolition methods in the present conditions of construction operations development. Materials and methods: the developed activities on the construction structures dismantling are given. Results: the most efficient methods and ways of construction structures demolition are defined. Conclusions: it is required for improvement of methods and ways of the structures drilling-and-blasting demolition.

  14. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure High blood cholesterol Coronary heart disease Stroke Metabolic syndrome Screening and Prevention Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) and its complications. Know your family history of health problems related to P.A. ...

  15. Promoting peripheral myelin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the target of myelin repair strategies in acute injuries and chronic diseases, such as hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In one approach, the endogenous regenerative capacity of Schwann cells is enhanced through interventions such as exercise, electrical stimulation or pharmacological means. Alternatively, Schwann cells derived from healthy nerves, or engineered from different tissue sources have been transplanted into the PNS to support remyelination. These transplant approaches can then be further enhanced by exercise and/or electrical stimulation, as well as by the inclusion of biomaterial engineered to support glial cell viability and neurite extension. Advances in our basic understanding of peripheral nerve biology, as well as biomaterial engineering, will further improve the functional repair of myelinated peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  17. Implementations of BLAST for parallel computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jülich, A

    1995-02-01

    The BLAST sequence comparison programs have been ported to a variety of parallel computers-the shared memory machine Cray Y-MP 8/864 and the distributed memory architectures Intel iPSC/860 and nCUBE. Additionally, the programs were ported to run on workstation clusters. We explain the parallelization techniques and consider the pros and cons of these methods. The BLAST programs are very well suited for parallelization for a moderate number of processors. We illustrate our results using the program blastp as an example. As input data for blastp, a 799 residue protein query sequence and the protein database PIR were used.

  18. Dry blasting decontaminating method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, when abrasives are dry blasted on the surface of radioactive wastes and the recovered abrasives are classified for re-use, abrasives having a microvicker's hardness (HMV) of greater than 600 and a grain size of greater than 1mm are used in a case where the radioactive wastes to be abraded are stainless steels. This enables dry blasting decontamination for stainless steels which has been considered to be impossible. In addition since the amount of secondary wastes are reduced, it is extremely effective. (T.M.)

  19. Let's Make Data Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, A. E.; Abrams, S.; Chodacki, J.; Cruse, P.; Fenner, M.; Jones, M. B.; Lowenberg, D.; Rueda, L.; Vieglais, D.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of research has traditionally been measured by citations to journal publications and used extensively for evaluation and assessment in academia, but this process misses the impact and reach of data and software as first-class scientific products. For traditional publications, Article-Level Metrics (ALM) capture the multitude of ways in which research is disseminated and used, such as references and citations within social media and other journal articles. Here we present on the extension of usage and citation metrics collection to include other artifacts of research, namely datasets. The Make Data Count (MDC) project will enable measuring the impact of research data in a manner similar to what is currently done with publications. Data-level metrics (DLM) are a multidimensional suite of indicators measuring the broad reach and use of data as legitimate research outputs. By making data metrics openly available for reuse in a number of different ways, the MDC project represents an important first step on the path towards the full integration of data metrics into the research data management ecosystem. By assuring researchers that their contributions to scholarly progress represented by data corpora are acknowledged, data level metrics provide a foundation for streamlining the advancement of knowledge by actively promoting desirable best practices regarding research data management, publication, and sharing.

  20. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  1. HLA-G Expression on Blasts and Tolerogenic Cells in Patients Affected by Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Locafaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G contributes to cancer cell immune escape from host antitumor responses. The clinical relevance of HLA-G in several malignancies has been reported. However, the role of HLA-G expression and functions in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML is still controversial. Our group identified a subset of tolerogenic dendritic cells, DC-10 that express HLA-G and secrete IL-10. DC-10 are present in the peripheral blood and are essential in promoting and maintaining tolerance via the induction of adaptive T regulatory (Treg cells. We investigated HLA-G expression on blasts and the presence of HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of AML patients at diagnosis. Moreover, we explored the possible influence of the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR of HLA-G, which has been associated with HLA-G expression, on AML susceptibility. Results showed that HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells are highly represented in AML patients with HLA-G positive blasts. None of the HLA-G variation sites evaluated was associated with AML susceptibility. This is the first report describing HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in AML patients, suggesting that they may represent a strategy by which leukemic cells escape the host’s immune system. Further studies on larger populations are required to verify our findings.

  2. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  3. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  4. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  6. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  7. A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

    2014-01-01

    Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit.

  8. Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-08-01

    A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120 000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier.

  9. Consideration on local blast vibration control by delay blasting; Danpatsu happa ni yoru kyokuchiteki shindo seigyo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Gento; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Yamatomi, Jiro [The University of Tokyo School of Engineering Department of Geosystem Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Tatsuya [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    In this research, local blast vibration control based on the theory of superposition of waves was investigated. Firstly, the influence of delay time errors of conventional electric detonators upon the level of local blast vibration was examined. Secondly, for a further effective local blast vibration control, a new delay blasting design concept 'combined delay blasting' that postulates the use of electronic detonators, which virtually have no delay time errors, is proposed. For a delay blasting with uniform detonation time intervals, an optimum time interval to minimize the local PPV (Peak Particle Velocity) is obtained based on the relationship between the PPV and the time interval, which is derived by superposing identical vibration time histories of each single hole shot. However, due to the scattering of the actual delay time caused by errors, PPV of a production blast seldom coincides with the estimated one. Since the expected value and the variance of PPV mainly depend on sensitivity of PPV around the nominal delay time, it is proposed that not only the optimum but also several sub-optimum candidates of delay time should be examined taking error into consideration. Concerning the 'combined delay blasting', its concept and some simulation results are presented. The estimated reduction effect of blast vibration of a delay blast based on this concept was quite favorable, indicating a possibility for further effective local blast vibration control. (author)

  10. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  11. 8 Museve NBI BombBlast.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professionals, executives, managers, semi professionals and skilled workers comprised 89.5% of the victims when ... dependants. Being inside a building and within 100 metres from the blast carried the largest risk of injury. A ... Kenya had never experienced a suicidal terrorist bombing ..... Rapid assessment of Injuries.

  12. Ice blasting device for washing pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, when the inside of a pump casing such as a recycling pump is scrubbed, since operator's safety should be ensured, it requires a large-scaled operation. Then, a cover is attached to a flange of the pump casing, in which a driving portion is disposed passing through the cover vertically movably and rotatably, an arm is disposed bendably to the top end of the arm, and a blast nozzle is disposed to the top end of the arm for jetting ice particles, with a camera being disposed to the blast nozzle. The inside of the casing can be scrubbed safely and rapidly by an ice blast method by remote operation while monitoring the state of scrubbing for the inside of the casing by a camera. Further, since the flange of the pump casing for installing the ice blast device is covered by the cover, mists are not scattered to the outside. In addition, mists may be sucked and removed by an exhaustion duct. (N.H.)

  13. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  14. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.

  15. Track counting in radon dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenbeck, Ingo; Koehler, Bernd; Reichert, Klaus-Martin

    2013-01-01

    The newly developed, computer-controlled track counting system is capable of imaging and analyzing the entire area of nuclear track detectors. The high optical resolution allows a new analysis approach for the process of automated counting using digital image processing technologies. This way, higher exposed detectors can be evaluated reliably by an automated process as well. (orig.)

  16. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  17. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  18. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the leading wires shall be immediately... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting...

  19. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  20. Correlations in the (Sub)Mil1imeter Background from ACT x BLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia,Nick; Bock, James J.; Bond, J. Richard; Nolta, Michael R.; Sievers, Jon; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at: 250, 350, and 500 microns (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope, BLAST; and at 1380 and 2030 microns (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, ACT. The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg(sup 2) in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole (SEP). The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the CMB, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline, and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25(sigma) significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4(sigma), and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on red shift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study represents a first of its kind, and demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints 011 future models.

  1. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  2. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  3. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  4. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, J.L.; Fletcher, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  5. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Al-Hosni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results: The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78. The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037. When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420. Conclusions: The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts.

  6. In vivo counting of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.

    1985-03-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation detector system consisting of six individually mounted intrinsic germanium planar detectors, each 20 cm 2 by 13 mm thick, mounted together such that the angle of the whole system can be changed to match the slope of the chest of the person being counted, is described. The sensitivity of the system for counting uranium and plutonium in vivo and the precedures used in calibrating the system are also described. Some results of counts done on uranium mill workers are presented. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Development of a Continuous Drill and Blast Tunneling Concept, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-01

    A spiral drilling pattern is described which offers high efficiency drill and blast tunnelling via frequent small blasts rather than occasional large blasts. Design work is presented for a machine which would stay at the face to provide essentially c...

  8. 77 FR 31878 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... requirements designed to protect covered employees working with and around blasting operations. Inventories of... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard ACTION: Notice... (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Blasting Operations and Use of...

  9. Daspsone Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Sarojini

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24 year old lady being treated with 300 mg of dapsone daily for dermatitits herpetiformis, developed weakness and wasting of muscles of feet with claw hand deformity and t drop, 2 months tater. Neurological examination and nerve conduction studies conformed the presence of a peripheral motor neuropathy. Dapsone was discontinued and the patient was treated with cotrimatoxazole, gluten-free diet and supportive therapy. This satisfactorily controlled the dermatological lesion without adversely affecting the resolution of her neuropthy. Symptomatic improvement reported by the patient was confirmed by EMG and nerve conduction studies.

  10. Peripheral ossifying fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Mani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF is an exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue covered with a surface epithelium associated with the formation of randomly dispersed foci of a mineralized product consisting of bone, cementum-like tissue, or dystrophic calcifications having a recurrent rate of nearly 20%. It is one of the most common reactive gingival lesions, which have often been called by the generic term "epulis." This case report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of POF, its differential diagnosis, and treatment.

  11. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  12. Safety management system during rock blasting at FRFCF construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, C.; Kandasamy, S.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Blasting is an important activity during rock excavation to reach required depth for obtaining stability of the civil structure. For the construction of various Plant Buildings of Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF), IGCAR at Kalpakkam, based on the geological survey it is required to reach a depth of 21.4 meters from existing ground level. This paper details about the procedures and precaution adopted during the rock blasting activities at FRFCF site. The volume of rock removed by blasting was 3 lakh cubic meters. The total number of blasting carried out was 304 using 105.73 tons of blasting material. The entire blasting work could be completed within 174 days without any incident. (author)

  13. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  14. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  15. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  16. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, control of blast effects in sensitive areas, blasthole deviation, regulatory impact when blasting at Superfund sites, computer-aided blast design and monitoring, tunneling techniques, shaft excavations, video camera analysis of blasting operations, soil densification, cost optimization, mine blasting accidents, non-electric initiation systems, and delay detonators. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  18. Liquid scintillation counting of chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fric, F.; Horickova, B.; Haspel-Horvatovic, E.

    1975-01-01

    A precise and reproducible method of liquid scintillation counting was worked out for measuring the radioactivity of 14 C-labelled chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b solutions without previous bleaching. The spurious count rate caused by luminescence of the scintillant-chlorophyll system is eliminated by using a suitable scintillant and by measuring the radioactivity at 4 to 8 0 C after an appropriate time of dark adaptation. Bleaching of the chlorophyll solutions is necessary only for measuring of very low radioactivity. (author)

  19. Pathological Fingerprints, Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Blast Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    changes after blast injury. J. Trauma 56, 393–403. Murthy, J.M., Chopra, J.S., and Gulati, D.R. (1979). Subdural hematoma in an adult following a blast...neuronal damage), diffuse brain injury, and subdural hemorrhage. It is still controversial whether primary blast forces directly damage the brain, and if...emboli, leading to infarction (Guy et al., 2000a; Guy et al., 2000b). The most common types of TBI are diffuse axonal injury, contusion, and subdural

  20. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  1. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  2. Experimental Study and Engineering Practice of Pressured Water Coupling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden strata movement in large space stope is the major reason that induces the appearance of strong mining pressure. Presplitting blasting for hard coal rocks is crucial for the prevention and control of strong pressure in stope. In this study, pressured water coupling blasting technique was proposed. The process and effect of blasting were analyzed by orthogonal test and field practice. Results showed that the presence of pressure-bearing water and explosive cartridges in the drill are the main influence factors of the blasting effect of cement test block. The high load-transmitting performance of pore water and energy accumulation in explosive cartridges were analyzed. Noxious substances produced during the blasting process were properly controlled because of the moistening, cooling, and diluting effect of pore water. Not only the goal of safe and static rock fragmentation by high-explosive detonation but also a combination of superdynamic blast loading and static loading effect of the pressured water was achieved. Then the practice of blasting control of hard coal rocks in Datong coal mine was analyzed to determine reasonable parameters of pressured water coupling blasting. A good presplitting blasting control effect was achieved for the hard coal rocks.

  3. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  4. Collapse of rocks by blasting. Razrusheniye gornykh porod Vzryvom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A F; Kutuzov, B N

    1983-01-01

    Information is provided about drilling boreholes and wells, explosives and the means for initiating them, storage, transporting and calculation of the explosive materials. Physical essence of the destructive, scientific and air effect of the blast are presented, principles of arrangement and calculation of the charges, reasons for malfunctions and methods of eliminating them, measures for protecting the surrounding objects from harmful effect of the industrial blast. Questions are examined of planning, organization and safety of the blasting operations. The second edition (first edition 1967) has been revised with regard for changes that occurred in the field of blasting operations.

  5. Water-Depth-Based Prediction Formula for the Blasting Vibration Velocity of Lighthouse Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighthouses are the most important hydraulic structures that should be protected during underwater drilling blasting. Thus, the effect of blasting vibration on lighthouse should be studied. On the basis of the dimensional analysis, we deduced a revised formula for water depth based on Sodev’s empirical formula and established the linear fitting model. During the underwater reef project in the main channel of Shipu Harbor in the Ningbo–Zhoushan Port, the blasting vibration data of the lighthouse near the underwater blasting area were monitored. The undetermined coefficient, resolvable coefficient, and F value of the two formulas were then obtained. The comparison of the data obtained from the two formulas showed that they can effectively predict the blasting vibration on the lighthouse. The correction formula that considers water depth can obviously reduce prediction errors and accurately predict blasting vibration.

  6. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Norman, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  7. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  8. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    in a canvas harness. The harness was further supported by a steel frame which was suspended from a metal beam (3.7 m off the ground) mounted on...direction of the wave propagation (Figure 5). After proper alignment of the head with respect to the center of the C4 charge, the steel frame was...further tied to four hooks cemented to the concrete ground with straps to prevent excessive motion during the blast exposure. The intensity of the two

  9. Blast vibration monitoring, July to December, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of the vibration waveforms produced appears at this stage to preclude simple comparison of different blasts. A modelling approach is indicated from the preliminary experiments. The required elemental charge length and the steady state column length of ANFO in 381 mm holes must be determined for further development of a model. This information may be acquired by firing a number of charges of varying lengths with all other variables held constant.

  10. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer

  11. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpardo, C.; Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide 241 Am decays by alpha emission to 237 Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237 Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241 Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  12. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  13. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10"6 ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  14. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  15. D-BLAST OFDM with Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jianxuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO systems formed by multiple transmit and receive antennas can improve performance and increase capacity of wireless communication systems. Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST structure offers a low-complexity solution for realizing the attractive capacity of MIMO systems. However, for broadband wireless communications, channel is frequency-selective and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has to be used with MIMO techniques to reduce system complexity. In this paper, we investigate D-BLAST for MIMO-OFDM systems. We develop a layerwise channel estimation algorithm which is robust to channel variation by exploiting the characteristic of the D-BLAST structure. Further improvement is made by subspace tracking to considerably reduce the error floor. Simulation results show that the layerwise estimators require 1 dB less signal-to-noise ratio (SNR than the traditional blockwise estimator for a word error rate (WER of when Doppler frequency is 40 Hz. Among the layerwise estimators, the subspace-tracking estimator provides a 0.8 dB gain for WER with 200 Hz Doppler frequency compared with the DFT-based estimator.

  16. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  17. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  18. Water-Depth-Based Prediction Formula for the Blasting Vibration Velocity of Lighthouse Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Wenbin; Wang, Zhenxiong; Liu, Jianqing; Xu, Jinglin; Liu, Xin; Cao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Lighthouses are the most important hydraulic structures that should be protected during underwater drilling blasting. Thus, the effect of blasting vibration on lighthouse should be studied. On the basis of the dimensional analysis, we deduced a revised formula for water depth based on Sodev’s empirical formula and established the linear fitting model. During the underwater reef project in the main channel of Shipu Harbor in the Ningbo–Zhoushan Port, the blasting vibration data of the lighthou...

  19. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated...

  20. Numerical Investigation of Structural Response of Corrugated Blast Wall Depending on Blast Load Pulse Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Sohn

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon explosions are one of most hazardous events for workers on offshore platforms. To protect structures against explosion loads, corrugated blast walls are typically installed. However, the profiles of real explosion loads are quite different depending on the congestion and confinement of Topside structures. As the level of congestion and confinement increases, the explosion load increases by up to 8 bar, and the rising time of the load decreases. This study primarily aims to investigate the structural behavior characteristics of corrugated blast walls under different types of explosion loadings. Four loading shapes were applied in the structural response analysis, which utilized a dynamic nonlinear finite element method.

  1. Evaluation of Blast Resistance of Fiber Reinforced Composite Specimens under Contact Blast Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, O.; Foglar, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents results of experimental programme which took place in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Experiments were focused on the resistance of full scale concrete panels subjected to contact blast loading. Specimens were loaded by contact blast by plastic explosive. All specimens were reinforced concrete slabs made of fiber concrete. Basalt mesh and textile sheets were added to some of the experiments for creating more heterogeneous material to achieve better resistance of the specimens. Evaluation of experiments was mainly focused on the damaged area on the contact side and soffit of the specimens. Dependency of the final damage of concrete panels on the weight of explosive and concrete strength was assessed.

  2. Peripheral degenerative joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilzio Antonio da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-α actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

  3. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Carolina V.; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P.; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000–10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  5. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Messias

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5. S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts.

  6. Eosinophil count is positively correlated with coronary artery calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Muhei; Fukui, Michiaki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Oda, Yohei; Nakamura, Naoto; Tomiyasu, Ki-ichiro; Akabame, Satoshi; Nakano, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that allergic disorders and increased eosinophil count were associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between eosinophil count and coronary artery calcification (CAC). We performed a cross-sectional study in 1363 consecutive participants with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the relationships between CAC score determined by multislice CT and peripheral eosinophil count as well as major cardiovascular risk factors, including age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Sex (P=0.0004), hypertension (P=0.0002), dyslipidemia (P=0.0004) and DM (P=0.0061) were associated with log (CAC+1), respectively. Positive correlations were found between log (CAC+1), and age (r=0.325, P<0.0001) and eosinophil count (r=0.165, P<0.0001). Negative correlations were found between log (CAC+1) and eGFR (r=-0.166, P<0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that age (β=0.314, P<0.0001), sex (β=0.124, P<0.0001), hypertension (β=0.084, P=0.0008), DM (β=0.108, P<0.0001), eGFR (β=-0.079, P=0.0021) and eosinophil count (β=0.147, P<0.0001) were independent determinants of log (CAC+1). In conclusion, eosinophil count correlated positively with CAC in participants with clinical suspicion of CHD. (author)

  7. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years.......006, respectively). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because......BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  8. Odontogenic keratocyst: a peripheral variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, H; Vij, R; Gupta, V; Sengupta, S

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst, which is developmental in nature, is an intraosseous lesion though on rare occasions it may occur in an extraosseous location. The extraosseous variant is referred to as peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. Though, clinically, peripheral odontogenic keratocyst resembles the gingival cyst of adults, it has histologic features that are pathognomonic of odontogenic keratocyst. This article presents a case of this uncommon entity.

  9. Photon-counting image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Teranishi, Nobukazu; Theuwissen, Albert; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    The field of photon-counting image sensors is advancing rapidly with the development of various solid-state image sensor technologies including single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) and deep-sub-electron read noise CMOS image sensor pixels. This foundational platform technology will enable opportunities for new imaging modalities and instrumentation for science and industry, as well as new consumer applications. Papers discussing various photon-counting image sensor technologies and selected new applications are presented in this all-invited Special Issue.

  10. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  11. Improved CFD Model to Predict Flow and Temperature Distributions in a Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Keisuke M.; Guo, Bao-Yu; Zughbi, Habib; Zulli, Paul; Yu, Ai-Bing

    2014-10-01

    The campaign life of a blast furnace is limited by the erosion of hearth refractories. Flow and temperature distributions of the liquid iron have a significant influence on the erosion mechanism. In this work, an improved three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is developed to simulate the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the hearth of BlueScope's Port Kembla No. 5 Blast Furnace. Model improvements feature more justified input parameters in turbulence modeling, buoyancy modeling, wall boundary conditions, material properties, and modeling of the solidification of iron. The model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with the thermocouple data available, where agreements are established within ±3 pct. The flow distribution in the hearth is discussed for intact and eroded hearth profiles, for sitting and floating coke bed states. It is shown that natural convection affects the flow in several ways: for example, the formation of (a) stagnant zones preventing hearth bottom from eroding or (b) the downward jetting of molten liquid promoting side wall erosion, or (c) at times, a vortex-like peripheral flow, promoting the "elephant foot" type erosion. A significant influence of coke bed permeability on the macroscopic flow pattern and the refractory temperature is observed.

  12. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Fecher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to—and largely limited by—the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  13. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Philipp; Caspell, Richard; Naeem, Villian; Karulin, Alexey Y; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2018-05-31

    In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to-and largely limited by-the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot ® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  14. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks, and...

  15. Blasting Standards for the Ghanaian Mining Industry | Amegbey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana is a well known mining nation and hard rock mining has been going on since the 10th century. Mining companies in Ghana are well aware of the regulatory requirements to carry out blasting activities such that neighbouring communities are protected from excessive impact as a result of blast vibrations amongst other ...

  16. Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J.; Libralesso, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

  17. Implementation of a user defined mine blast model in LSDYNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.; Leerdam, P.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A user defined mine blast model has been developed and implemented into the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA to provide a numerically efficient method for simulating an antivehicular mine blast. The objective is to provide a simple and robust numerical method which is able to represent both the

  18. Inheritance of blast resistance and identification of SSR marker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... arm of chromosome 6 and in close proximity of blast resis- ... resistance to a M. oryzae race in a gene-for-gene manner. DNA markers have been ... order to identify the new sources of resistance against blast, there is need for ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use so long as the present approval is maintained. (e) Electric detonators shall be compatible... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310...

  20. Equipment Specific Optimum Blast-Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Upadhyay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Design of blasting parameters plays an important role in the optimization of mining cost as well as cost of subsequent processing of ore. Drilling and handling costs are the major mining cost. This work presents an indirect optimization model for mining cost through optimization of blasting parameters for a particular set of drilling and loading equipment.

  1. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  2. Reducing Drill and Blast Cost through Blast Optimisation – A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Case Study* ... using the proposed blast parameters increased by 14.3 to 50.0% for ore zones and 12.5 ... of gold, compels technologists in the industry to .... 127. Bench Height (H), m. 4. 4. 4.5. 4.5. 4.5. 4.5. Sub-drill (U), m. 0.5.

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoD, and shall not be used for advertising or...Trembelay, J., “Validation of a Loading Model for Simulating Blast Mine Effects on Armoured Vehicles,” 7th International LS-DYNA Users Conference

  4. Blasting and Blast Effects in Cold Regions. Part 3. Explosions in Ground Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    121- York, Ontario: Technical Marketing Services- 123. Explosives, Canadian Industries, 6th edition. Gaffney, E.S. (1984b) Hugoniot of water ice. In...Mines, blasting. U.S. Bureau of Nlines , Report of Insesti- Report of lnsestigations RI 7751. gations 8507. Piekutoiski. A.J. (1974) I.aborator,, scale

  5. Effect of Surface Blasting on Subway Tunnels- A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Entezari Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During wars and crises, the underground tunnels are used as a safe space. Therefore, the stability and safety of them under a blast is of particular importance. In this paper, the Finite Difference Method has been used to study the influence of the change in geotechnical parameters and depth on surface blasting on subway tunnels. Results showed that increasing the internal friction angle, modulus of elasticity and cohesion of the soil reduced the effects of blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment in the center of tunnel crown. Furthermore, the results showed that increasing the depth of the tunnel reduced the effects of blast loading. Comparing all parameters collectively showed that the increase in the modulus of elasticity of the soil and depth of the tunnel is the most effective in reducing the influence of the blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment of the tunnel crown, respectively.

  6. Confirmation of the decontamination ability using the dry blasting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izuka, Hirotaka; Tsuhara, Yuuki; Ito, Hajime; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    The decontamination method of metallic waste was considered to reduce the radioactive waste in decommissioning a nuclear power plant. Stainless steel occupies most for the material of the system equipment of PWR. The contamination by radioactive materials is stuck in the surface in the equipment as the metal oxide (e.g. chromium oxide, iron oxide). The method of efficient abrasion by the dry blasting device was considered to remove metal oxide from stainless steel. The kind of blasting abrasives material and the abrasive operation condition (the blasting angle, rate) were considered to investigate the abrasion ability to stainless steel. The abrasive condition which was appropriate abrasive ability was investigated and appropriate blasting abrasives was selected to stainless steel. The decontamination test by selected blasting abrasives and abrasive operation condition was performed using samples and the relation between abrasive rate and activity concentration was confirmed. The metallic radioactive waste was confirmed to be able to decontaminate to the clearance level. (author)

  7. Liquid scintillation, counting, and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, E.A.; Tolbert, B.M.; Sutula, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    The emissions of radioactive isotopes in both aqueous and organic samples can be measured by liquid scintillation counting in micellar systems. The micellar systems are made up of scintillation solvent, scintillation solute and a mixture of surfactants, preferably at least one of which is relatively oil-soluble water-insoluble and another which is relatively water-soluble oil-insoluble

  8. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  9. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  10. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  11. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  12. Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    then consists of a sequence (or tree) of rule applications and provides an independently checkable certificate of the validity of the result. This reduces the need to trust, or otherwise verify, the correctness of the vote counting software once the certificate has been validated. Using a rule...

  14. Counting SET-free sets

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Nate

    2016-01-01

    We consider the following counting problem related to the card game SET: How many $k$-element SET-free sets are there in an $n$-dimensional SET deck? Through a series of algebraic reformulations and reinterpretations, we show the answer to this question satisfies two polynomiality conditions.

  15. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  16. Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Shridharani, Jay K; Matthews, Kyle A; Capehart, Bruce P; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R

    2013-02-01

    Clinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body armour use on the potential for primary blast injury and to determine the risk of brain and pulmonary injury following a blast and its impact on the clinical care of patients with a history of blast exposure. A shock tube was used to generate blast overpressures on soft ballistic protective vests (NIJ Level-2) and hard protective vests (NIJ Level-4) while overpressure was recorded behind the vest. Both types of vest were found to significantly decrease pulmonary injury risk following a blast for a wide range of conditions. At the highest tested blast overpressure, the soft vest decreased the behind armour overpressure by a factor of 14.2, and the hard vest decreased behind armour overpressure by a factor of 56.8. Addition of body armour increased the 50th percentile pulmonary death tolerance of both vests to higher levels than the 50th percentile for brain injury. These results suggest that ballistic protective body armour vests, especially hard body armour plates, provide substantial chest protection in primary blasts and explain the increased frequency of head injuries, without the presence of pulmonary injuries, in protected subjects reporting a history of blast exposure. These results suggest increased clinical suspicion for mild to severe brain injury is warranted in persons wearing body armour exposed to a blast with or without pulmonary injury.

  17. Survey of rice blast race identity for blast resistance gene identification in the USA and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a significant threat to stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. The major resistance gene (Pi-ta) located within a cluster of resistance genes on rice chromosome 12 has been demonstrated to confer resistance to the rice blast disease. Katy, a rice cultivar released in ...

  18. Experimental investigation of blast mitigation and particle-blast interaction during the explosive dispersal of particles and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The attenuation of a blast wave from a high-explosive charge surrounded by a layer of inert material is investigated experimentally in a spherical geometry for a wide range of materials. The blast wave pressure is inferred from extracting the blast wave velocity with high-speed video as well as direct measurements with pressure transducers. The mitigant consists of either a packed bed of particles, a particle bed saturated with water, or a homogeneous liquid. The reduction in peak blast wave overpressure is primarily dependent on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, M/ C, with the mitigant material properties playing a secondary role. Relative peak pressure mitigation reduces with distance and for low values of M/ C (compaction, deformation, and fracture of the powders plays an important role. The difference in scaled arrival time of the blast and material fronts increases with M/ C and scaled distance, with solid particles giving the largest separation between the blast wave and cloud of particles. Surrounding a high-explosive charge with a layer of particles reduces the positive-phase blast impulse, whereas a liquid layer has no influence on the impulse in the far field. Taking the total impulse due to the blast wave and material impact into account implies that the damage to a nearby structure may actually be augmented for a range of distances. These results should be taken into consideration in the design of explosive mitigant systems.

  19. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including electric...

  1. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  2. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  3. Explosive and accessories in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingua, B.M.P.; Nabiullah, M.; Jagdish, S.; Mishra, G.D.; Singh, T.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1999-02-01

    Chemical explosives are commonly used in the mining industry. Those used in India include nitroglycerine (NG) base, ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (ANFO), slurry emulsion and liquid oxygen (LOX). Examples of each type and their general properties are lighted. The electric and non-electric detonating systems used are described. Two Indian companies are producing non-electric in-hole delay system. Raydet (IDL-make) and Excel (ICI-make). Their firing characteristics are listed. Tables are given for burden for different density of rock and explosive strength. Causes of bad blast are itemised. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Reliability of engineered basements as blast shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.; Robinson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the probability of failure of structures by considering multiple failure modes was formulated. It was applied to the analysis of a reinforced concrete slab when subjected to a uniformly distributed blast load over its surface. Currently available criteria for failure due to flexure and shear were used in predicting the probability of failure. This method is capable of considering all major components of a structure, the respective failure modes of each component, and of predicting the probability of failure of the structure as a whole

  5. Design of blast simulators for nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, A.; Opalka, K.O.; Kitchens, C.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional computational technique is used to model the flow of a large, complicated shock tube. The shock tube, or Large Blast Simulator, is used to simulate conventional or nuclear explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in the facility at Gramat, France. Such future shock tubes will include a thermal irradiation capability to better simulate a nuclear event. The computations point to the need for venting of the combustion products since the pressure history will be considerably altered as the shock propagates through these hot gases

  6. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    influence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the shock wave response 3. Development of the geometric model for the head of a 23 55-kg Yucatan pig 4...of Tissue-Tek® optimum cutting compound and 20% sucrose (w/v) and frozen in a stream of liquid nitrogen (Saljo et al, 2008). The frozen blocks will...review of current models of the pig head under air blast loading 2. Development of a 2-D pig head FE model to study the influence of cerebrospinal fluid

  7. Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Francis, N.; Houseworth, J.; Kramer, N.

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic

  8. Activity of Bruton's tyrosine-kinase inhibitor ibrutinib in patients with CD117-positive acute myeloid leukaemia: a mechanistic study using patient-derived blast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Stuart A; Pillinger, Genevra; Abdul-Aziz, Amina; Piddock, Rachel; Shafat, Manar S; Murray, Megan Y; Zaitseva, Lyubov; Lawes, Matthew J; MacEwan, David J; Bowles, Kristian M

    2015-05-01

    Roughly 80% of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia have high activity of Bruton's tyrosine-kinase (BTK) in their blast cells compared with normal haemopoietic cells, rendering the cells sensitive to the oral BTK inhibitor ibrutinib in vitro. We aimed to develop the biological understanding of the BTK pathway in acute myeloid leukaemia to identify clinically relevant diagnostic information that might define a subset of patients that should respond to ibrutinib treatment. We obtained acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells from unselected patients attending our UK hospital between Feb 19, 2010, and Jan 20, 2014. We isolated primary acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells from heparinised blood and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to establish the activity of BTK in response to CD117 activation. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of ibrutinib on CD117-induced BTK activation, downstream signalling, adhesion to primary bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, and proliferation of primary acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to compare results between groups. We obtained acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells from 29 patients. Ibrutinib significantly inhibited CD117-mediated proliferation of primary acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells (p=0·028). CD117 activation increased BTK activity by inducing phosphorylated BTK in patients with CD117-positive acute myeloid leukaemia. Furthermore, ibrutinib inhibited CD117-induced activity of BTK and downstream kinases at a concentration of 100 nM or more. CD117-mediated adhesion of CD117-expressing blast cells to bone-marrow stromal cells was significantly inhibited by Ibrutinib at 500 nM (p=0·028) INTERPRETATION: As first-in-man clinical trials of ibrutinib in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia commence, the data suggest not all patients will respond. Our findings show that BTK has specific pro-tumoural biological actions downstream of surface CD117 activation, which are inhibited by ibrutinib

  9. Peripheral vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.A.; O'Mara, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for the evaluation of the cardiovascular system are among the oldest in nuclear medicine. Arm-to-arm circulation times were determined in humans using the naturally occurring radioactivity of radium. In 1948 artificially produced radioactive sodium was used to evaluate the circulation time through the heart in both normal subjects and patients with heart disease. This technique utilized an intravenous injection of sodium-24 into the antecubital vein of one arm and the generation of a graph of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller tube placed over the percordium as the radiolabeled blood passed through the chambers of the heart. This simple measurement had many components to it: a venous phase, a pulmonary circulation phase, and a phase for the cardiac chambers. Since this early work, the development of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, advances in detection devices, and the introduction of computers into clinical nuclear medicine have permitted separation of these various components, allowing the study of venous, pulmonary, intracardiac, arterial, and capillary phases

  10. Factors affecting autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell collections by large-volume leukapheresis: a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araci Massami Sakashita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate factors affecting peripheral bloodhematopoietic stem cell yield in patients undergoing large-volumeleukapheresis for autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.Methods: Data from 304 consecutive autologous peripheral bloodstem cell donors mobilized with hematopoietic growth factor (usually G-CSF, associated or not with chemotherapy, at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein between February 1999 and June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The objective was to obtain at least 2 x 106CD34+ cells/kg of body weight. Pre-mobilization factors analyzedincluded patient’s age, gender and diagnosis. Post mobilizationparameters evaluated were pre-apheresis peripheral white bloodcell count, immature circulating cell count, mononuclear cell count,peripheral blood CD34+ cell count, platelet count, and hemoglobinlevel. The effect of pre and post-mobilization factors on hematopoietic stem cell collection yield was investigated using logistic regression analysis (univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: Premobilization factors correlating to poor CD34+ cell yield in univariate analysis were acute myeloid leukemia (p = 0.017 and other hematological diseases (p = 0.023. Significant post-mobilization factors included peripheral blood immature circulating cells (p = 0.001, granulocytes (p = 0.002, hemoglobin level (p = 0.016, and CD34+ cell concentration (p < 0.001 in the first harvesting day. However, according to multivariate analysis, peripheral blood CD34+ cell content (p < 0.001 was the only independent factor that significantly correlated to poor hematopoietic stem cell yield. Conclusion: In this study, peripheral blood CD34+ cell concentration was the only factor significantly correlated to yield in patients submitted to for autologous collection.

  11. Utility of peripheral blood immunophenotyping by flow cytometry in the diagnosis of pediatric acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrock, Laura K; Summers, Ryan J; Park, Sunita; Gillespie, Scott; Castellino, Sharon; Lew, Glen; Keller, Frank G

    2017-10-01

    Childhood acute leukemia is traditionally diagnosed from a bone marrow aspirate (BMA). New-onset acute leukemia patients do not always have visible circulating blasts in the peripheral blood (PB) at diagnosis. While the role of bone marrow flow cytometry for the diagnosis of acute leukemia is well established, the utility of PB flow cytometry (PBFC) is unknown. We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis to compare PBFC versus BMA in establishing or excluding a diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia. We retrospectively identified 485 PBFC samples with concurrent BMA from 2008 to 2013. Results of four-color flow cytometry for immunophenotypic characterization of leukemic versus nonclonal disease were characterized. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated among patients without a known diagnosis or prior therapy. Among 485 samples eligible for analysis, 120 had negative PBFC and BMA, 359 had positive PBFC and BMA, 3 had negative PBFC and positive BMA, and 3 had positive PBFC and negative BMA. There were small but significant differences in sensitivity (100 vs. 93.8%; P = 0.002) and positive predictive value (100 vs. 93.8%; P = 0.002) favoring BMA over PBFC among those demonstrating absence of circulating morphologic blasts. PBFC has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia. The predictive value of PBFC remains high for patients without visible circulating blasts and may enhance the diagnostic process for determining the indications for marrow testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shu; Qi, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes...

  13. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  14. Theory of photoelectron counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present essay is to provide a detailed analysis of those theoretical aspects of photoelectron counting which are capable of experimental verification. Most of our interest is in the physical phenomena themselves, while part is in the mathematical techniques. Many of the mathematical methods used in the analysis of the photoelectron counting problem are generally unfamiliar to physicists interested in the subject. For this reason we have developed the essay in such a fashion that, although primary interest is focused on the physical phenomena, we have also taken pains to carry out enough of the analysis so that the reader can follow the main details. We have chosen to present a consistently quantum mechanical version of the subject, in that we follow the Glauber theory throughout. (orig./WL)

  15. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  16. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma T-Cell Lymphoma Transformed Mycosis Fungoides Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Young Adult Lymphoma Overview Treatment Options Relapsed/Refractory Long-term ...

  17. Network node for peripheral sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbitt, J.; Johnson, M.

    1977-01-01

    A module which enables several independent computer systems to share the peripherals (graphics display and line printer) of a PDP-11 computer is described. The module requires no software support in the PDP-11

  18. Determination of Destress Blasting Effectiveness Using Seismic Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Łukasz; Mendecki, Maciej J.; Zuberek, Wacaław M.

    2017-12-01

    Underground mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently performed under difficult geological and mining conditions. The mining depth, dislocations (faults and folds) and mining remnants are responsible for rockburst hazard in the highest degree. This hazard can be minimized by using active rockburst prevention, where destress blastings play an important role. Destress blastings in coal seams aim to destress the local stress concentrations. These blastings are usually performed from the longwall face to decrease the stress level ahead of the longwall. An accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is important during mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which affect the risk of rockburst. Seismic source parameters characterize the focus of tremor, which may be useful in estimating the destress blasting effects. Investigated destress blastings were performed in coal seam no. 507 during its longwall mining in one of the coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin under difficult geological and mining conditions. The seismic source parameters of the provoked tremors were calculated. The presented preliminary investigations enable a rapid estimation of the destress blasting effectiveness using seismic source parameters, but further analysis in other geological and mining conditions with other blasting parameters is required.

  19. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  20. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1% followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06% had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%. Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%. Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24% whereas 3 (1.94% had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%. Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis.

  1. Card counting in continuous time

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal betting strategy for a house-banked casino card game that is played for several coups before reshuffling. The sampling without replacement makes it possible to take advantage of the changes in the expected value as the deck is depleted, making large bets when the game is advantageous. Using such a strategy, which is easy to implement, is known as card counting. We consider the case of a large number of decks, making an approximat...

  2. Development of decontamination system for radioactive matter on paved road using dry ice blast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Haruo; Wakayama, Masanori; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    As a decontamination method for paved road surface, the 'Dry Ice Blast Decontamination System' has been developed. This decontamination system has characteristic as follows; 1) Generation of decontamination waste is extremely small, 2) not using water, 3) not damaging the pavement surface. In actual decontamination work, more than 60% average (maximum 84%) reduction rate of the radiation counting rate has been achieved. In addition to these features, this system prevent the diffusion into the surrounding and the radiation exposure of workers by sucking waste quickly using attached dust collecting function. This system is also characterized in that it does not cause a difference in skill by the operator because of faceted decontamination using repetitive motion by concatenating three pellet injection nozzle and self-propelled decontamination machine. (author)

  3. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  4. Accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia: evaluation of clinical criteria as predictors of survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fiorini Furtado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published criteria defining the accelerated phase in chronic myeloid leukemia are heterogeneous and little is known about predictors of poor outcome.METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 139 subjects in the accelerated phase of chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib at a single center in Brazil. The objective was to identify risk factors for survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase in this population. The factors analyzed were: blasts 10-29%, basophils ≥ 20%, platelets > 1 × 106/µL or 1 × 105/µL in the peripheral blood, as well as clonal evolution, splenomegaly, hemoglobin 12 months (p-value = 0.030.CONCLUSION: These data indicate that patients with the above risk factors have a worse prognosis. This information can guide the therapy to be used.

  5. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Daviscourt, Joshua; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast p...

  6. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li

    2005-01-01

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  7. Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano

  8. Protecting the lower extremity against a/p blast mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Dyk, T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available the Lower Extremity against a/p Blast Mines J T van Dyk DEFENCE, PEACE, SAFETY AND SECURITY LANDWARDS SCIENCES COMPETENCY AREA Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Contents • R&D overview • Effect of a/p blast mines • Basic... explosive principles – Shock effect (brisance) – Blast effect • Test methods • Protection concepts • Test results Slide 3 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Goals: Compare LEAP study results with field injuries Investigate energy...

  9. Scale testing of a partially confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundling, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in pressure readings. A scale model of the blast chamber, Emily, was constructed with the addition of a pendulum plate hanging concentrically covering 65% of the open area. PURPOSE OF SCALED BLAST CHAMBER The purpose of this particular test is to evaluate... PHASE Illustrated in Figure 3 and 4 are the results obtained during testing of the scaled blast chamber. In both cases the pressure dissipates over time, showing pulsating behaviour as the shockwaves reflect off the chamber walls. By looking...

  10. Image analysis software for following progression of peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplin-Zapf, Thomas; Miller, Clayton; Larkin, Sean; Hermesmeyer, Eduardo; Macy, Jenny; Pellegrini, Marco; Luccarelli, Saverio; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Holmes, Timothy

    2009-02-01

    A relationship has been reported by several research groups [1 - 4] between the density and shapes of nerve fibers in the cornea and the existence and severity of peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is a complication of several prevalent diseases or conditions, which include diabetes, HIV, prolonged alcohol overconsumption and aging. A common clinical technique for confirming the condition is intramuscular electromyography (EMG), which is invasive, so a noninvasive technique like the one proposed here carries important potential advantages for the physician and patient. A software program that automatically detects the nerve fibers, counts them and measures their shapes is being developed and tested. Tests were carried out with a database of subjects with levels of severity of diabetic neuropathy as determined by EMG testing. Results from this testing, that include a linear regression analysis are shown.

  11. Massive injection of coal and superoxygenated blast into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toxopeus, H.L.; Danloy, G.; Franssen, R.; Havelange, O. [Corus, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present project was to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a massive injection of coal, {+-}270 kg/tHM, combined with a high O{sub 2} enrichment of the blast. The coke rate would thus be reduced to well below 250 kg/tHM. A reference level of 200-220 kg coal/tHM was successfully accomplished. However, the technical condition of the blast furnace hearths overruled all ambitions, the anticipated trial scheme had to be abandoned and no further trials were performed. A very short trial was aborted shortly after reaching an injection level of around 265 coal/tHM, due to excessive generation of very fine sludge originating from incomplete combustion. This forced the operators to investigate the merits of combustion more in depth. At the aimed low coke-rate detailed information about the gas distribution is of utmost importance. Therefore, in conjunction with the industrial tests, CRM designed a gas tracing method. Measurement of the transfer time between the injection point (a tuyere) and the sampling points (on an above-burden probe) would allow deduction of the radial gas distribution. CRM made the design and the start-up of an installation built by Hoogovens on blast furnace 7 of IJmuiden. Since then, repeated measurements have shown that the gas transfer time profiles are consistent with the data measured at the blast furnace top and at the wall. The modifications of the moveable armour position are reflected better and faster on the gas distribution as measured by helium tracing than on the skin flow temperatures.

  12. Experimental investigation of blast mitigation and particle-blast interaction during the explosive dispersal of particles and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The attenuation of a blast wave from a high-explosive charge surrounded by a layer of inert material is investigated experimentally in a spherical geometry for a wide range of materials. The blast wave pressure is inferred from extracting the blast wave velocity with high-speed video as well as direct measurements with pressure transducers. The mitigant consists of either a packed bed of particles, a particle bed saturated with water, or a homogeneous liquid. The reduction in peak blast wave overpressure is primarily dependent on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, M/C, with the mitigant material properties playing a secondary role. Relative peak pressure mitigation reduces with distance and for low values of M/C (pressure levels in the mid-to-far field. Solid particles are more effective at mitigating the blast overpressure than liquids, particularly in the near field and at low values of M/C, suggesting that the energy dissipation during compaction, deformation, and fracture of the powders plays an important role. The difference in scaled arrival time of the blast and material fronts increases with M/C and scaled distance, with solid particles giving the largest separation between the blast wave and cloud of particles. Surrounding a high-explosive charge with a layer of particles reduces the positive-phase blast impulse, whereas a liquid layer has no influence on the impulse in the far field. Taking the total impulse due to the blast wave and material impact into account implies that the damage to a nearby structure may actually be augmented for a range of distances. These results should be taken into consideration in the design of explosive mitigant systems.

  13. Environmental problems associated with blasting in mines: public apprehensions of damage due to blast vibrations - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1994-12-31

    Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.

  14. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  15. Linking blast physics to biological outcomes in mild traumatic brain injury: Narrative review and preliminary report of an open-field blast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hailong; Cui, Jiankun; Simonyi, Agnes; Johnson, Catherine E; Hubler, Graham K; DePalma, Ralph G; Gu, Zezong

    2018-03-15

    Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders. Appropriate animal models of blast-induced TBI will not only assist the understanding of physical characteristics of the blast, but also help to address the potential mechanisms. This report provides a brief overview of physical principles of blast, injury mechanisms related to blast exposure, current blast animal models, and the neurological behavioral and neuropathological findings related to blast injury in experimental settings. We describe relationships between blast peak pressures and the observed injuries. We also report preliminary use of a highly reproducible and intensity-graded blast murine model carried out in open-field with explosives, and describe physical and pathological findings in this experimental model. Our results indicate close relationships between blast intensities and neuropathology and behavioral deficits, particularly at low level blast intensities relevant to mTBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nearest neighbors by neighborhood counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui

    2006-06-01

    Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data.

  17. Seismic stations with GSM telemetry for registration of quarry blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Milan; Číž, Radim; Málek, Jiří; Žanda, Libor

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 25-32 ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : blasting * seismic station * GSM mobile modem Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  18. Analysing Blast and Fragment Penetration Effects on Composite Helicopter Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van't Hof, C; Herlaar, K; Luyten, J. M; van der Jagt, M. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The last decades the threat of helicopters has increased in military circumstances. Consequently the helicopters will be exposed to weapon effects like high blast loads and fragment impact more frequently...

  19. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-11

    Aug 11, 2014 ... of chemical measures for the control and management of blast, which are not .... tion of genetic components of variation, epistasis model and gene effects in two .... and environmental variance is estimated from mean variance.

  20. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  1. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    geologists at Newmont Ahafo Mine have realised the impact of blast movement on ore losses and dilution and have ... Movement to Reduce Ore Losses and Dilution at Ahafo Gold Mine in Ghana”, Ghana Mining Journal, pp. .... classification.

  2. Evaluation of Grade 120 Granulated Ground blast Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...

  3. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on the Ecosystem of Old ... intensity and temperature of explosive dissolution in the mine environment shows that TNT ... based on their physical/chemical properties as: gelatin.

  4. An Operational Model for the Prediction of Jet Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    This paper presents an operational model for the prediction of jet blast. The model was : developed based upon three modules including a jet exhaust model, jet centerline decay : model and aircraft motion model. The final analysis was compared with d...

  5. Blast Impact Prediction Studies at Ghana Manganese Company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Keywords: Blast impact, Environment, Prediction, Regulatory threshold. 1 Introduction ... Noise is an environmental nuisance. .... explosion energy released into the ground generates vibration waves within the rock. Several.

  6. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  8. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  9. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  12. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  13. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  14. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  15. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  16. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO 2 ), as shown in a front view, is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO 2 xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. Figure 2 shows a block diagram with the various subsystems labeled

  17. Investigations of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T. W.; Josey, T.; Wang, Y.; Villanueva, M.; Ritzel, D. V.; Nelson, P.; Lee, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of an advanced blast simulator (ABS) has enabled the reproducible generation of single-pulse shock waves that simulate free-field blast with high fidelity. Studies with rodents in the ABS demonstrated the necessity of head restraint during head-only exposures. When the head was not restrained, violent global head motion was induced by pressures that would not produce similar movement of a target the size and mass of a human head. This scaling artefact produced changes in brain function that were reminiscent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to impact-acceleration effects. Restraint of the rodent head eliminated these, but still produced subtle changes in brain biochemistry, showing that blast-induced pressure waves do cause brain deficits. Further experiments were carried out with rat brain cell aggregate cultures that enabled the conduct of studies without the gross movement encountered when using rodents. The suspension nature of this model was also exploited to minimize the boundary effects that complicate the interpretation of primary blast studies using surface cultures. Using this system, brain tissue was found not only to be sensitive to pressure changes, but also able to discriminate between the highly defined single-pulse shock waves produced by underwater blast and the complex pressure history exposures experienced by aggregates encased within a sphere and subjected to simulated air blast. The nature of blast-induced primary TBI requires a multidisciplinary research approach that addresses the fidelity of the blast insult, its accurate measurement and characterization, as well as the limitations of the biological models used.

  18. The Pre-Blast Concept for use on Armour Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    distribution is displayed. The (1 1 1) pole figure for TWIP steel (FCC crystal structure) is shown representatively, while (1 0 0) is chosen for Dual...avoid the blasted plates impacting the ceiling of the blast chamber. A type ‘k’ thermocouple was then welded to a corner on the top side of the plates...angle distribution is displayed. The (1 1 1) pole figure for TWIP steel (FCC crystal structure) is shown representatively, while (1 0 0) is chosen

  19. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 μm mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials. This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m 3 . This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of radioactivity on

  20. PaperBLAST: Text Mining Papers for Information about Homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST's database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. PaperBLAST is available at http://papers.genomics.lbl.gov/. IMPORTANCE With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins' functions.

  1. Application of Grid Planning Method in Drilling-Blasting Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Spasovski, Orce

    2012-01-01

    The problem occurs almost every day in operation and causes troubles to mining engineers. The right performance of drilling-blasting work is important for the successful operation of the entire excavation. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of planning and how it can contribute to the right organization and make drilling-blasting and other mining activities in mine operations easier. Defining the activities and practical example that has been given are carried out by the u...

  2. Effects of occupational exposure to carbon black on peripheral white blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Bassig, Bryan A; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Xiao; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Jia, Xiaowei; Shen, Meili; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Wei; Yang, Xiaofa; Vermeulen, Roel; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in

  3. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  4. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A

    1963-03-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.

  5. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary

  6. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  7. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  8. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Kroidl, Inge; Schunk, Mirjam; Alberer, Martin; Beissner, Marcus; Pritsch, Michael; Kroidl, Arne; Fröschl, Günter; Hanus, Ingrid; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2014-04-23

    Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.

  9. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  10. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  11. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  12. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all

  13. prfectBLAST: a platform-independent portable front end for the command terminal BLAST+ stand-alone suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Sotelo, Perfecto; Ramirez-Prado, Jorge Humberto

    2012-11-01

    prfectBLAST is a multiplatform graphical user interface (GUI) for the stand-alone BLAST+ suite of applications. It allows researchers to do nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity searches against public (or user-customized) databases that are locally stored. It does not require any dependencies or installation and can be used from a portable flash drive. prfectBLAST is implemented in Java version 6 (SUN) and runs on all platforms that support Java and for which National Center for Biotechnology Information has made available stand-alone BLAST executables, including MS Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. It is free and open source software, made available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPLv3) and can be downloaded at www.cicy.mx/sitios/jramirez or http://code.google.com/p/prfectblast/.

  14. Numerical analysis of blast flow-field of baffle type muzzle brake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.H. [Graduate School, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Ko, S. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-11-01

    A three-dimensional unsteady, inviscid blast flow-field of a baffle type muzzle brake has been simulated by solving the Euler equation. The blast flow-field includes the effect of the free air blast, precursor blast flow and the propellant blast gas flow. Chimera grid scheme was used to generate 9 multi-block volume grids for the complex geometry. The evolution of the blast flow-field is presented by showing the contours of pressure, density and Mach number for certain time step. The comparison of the calculated and measured peak pressures on the surfaces of the muzzle brake is also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Peripheral Atherectomy: Applications and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleider, Derek; Russell, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral atherectomy is a class of procedures that is rapidly increasing in volume. Multiple classes of devices exist, and newer variants are added to the market annually. The devices see wide application for de novo lesions, in-stent restenosis, and adjunctive therapy for drug-coated balloons. The body of evidence supporting atherectomy is less robust than for many other peripheral therapies. The frequency and severity of complications from atherectomy can be significant compared with angioplasty and stenting, and familiarity with preventative and bailout techniques is essential for the interventionalist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Atherectomy for peripheral arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Louise Skovgaard; Høgh, Annette Langager; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2015-04-13

    Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease is managed according to national and international guidelines and the number of vascular reconstructions performed each year has increased over the past decade mainly due to an increasing frequency of endovascular procedures. Atherectomy as an alternative to the established treatment of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease has recently been analysed in a Cochrane review. In Denmark, atherectomy is not performed and so far the evidence is poor as the method is not an alternative to the established treatment in this country.

  17. Imaging of the peripheral retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kernt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical progress of the recent years has revolutionized imaging in ophthalmology. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, digital angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and detection of fundus autofluorescence (FAF have fundamentally changed our understanding of numerous retinal and choroidal diseases. Besides the tremendous advances in macular diagnostics, there is more and more evidence that central pathologies are often directly linked to changes in the peripheral retina. This review provides a brief overview on current posterior segment imaging techniques with a special focus on the peripheral retina.

  18. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2018-03-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  19. Radon counting statistics - a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive decay is a Poisson process, and so the Coefficient of Variation (COV) of open-quotes nclose quotes counts of a single nuclide is usually estimated as 1/√n. This is only true if the count duration is much shorter than the half-life of the nuclide. At longer count durations, the COV is smaller than the Poisson estimate. Most radon measurement methods count the alpha decays of 222 Rn, plus the progeny 218 Po and 214 Po, and estimate the 222 Rn activity from the sum of the counts. At long count durations, the chain decay of these nuclides means that every 222 Rn decay must be followed by two other alpha decays. The total number of decays is open-quotes 3Nclose quotes, where N is the number of radon decays, and the true COV of the radon concentration estimate is 1/√(N), √3 larger than the Poisson total count estimate of 1/√3N. Most count periods are comparable to the half lives of the progeny, so the relationship between COV and count time is complex. A Monte-Carlo estimate of the ratio of true COV to Poisson estimate was carried out for a range of count periods from 1 min to 16 h and three common radon measurement methods: liquid scintillation, scintillation cell, and electrostatic precipitation of progeny. The Poisson approximation underestimates COV by less than 20% for count durations of less than 60 min

  20. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  1. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  2. Mass counting of radioactivity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterlin, D.L.; Obrycki, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for concurrently counting a plurality of radioactive samples is claimed. The position sensitive circuitry of a scintillation camera is employed to sort electrical pulses resulting from scintillations according to the geometrical locations of scintillations causing those pulses. A scintillation means, in the form of a scintillating crystal material or a liquid scintillator, is positioned proximate to an array of radioactive samples. Improvement in the accuracy of pulse classification may be obtained by employing collimating means. If a plurality of scintillation crystals are employed to measure the iodine-125 content of samples, a method and means are provided for correcting for variations in crystal light transmission properties, sample volume, and sample container radiation absorption. 2 claims, 7 drawing figures

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY AND PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE IN THE OUTCOME OF DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Prakash S, Krishnakumar, Chandra Prabha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peripheral neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease are the risk factors for the development of diabetic foot. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences and predictors of outcome parameters in patients with diabetic foot by stratifying these subjects according to the severity of these risk factors. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in 70 patients in the age group of 30-90 years diagnosed as Type II Diabetes with foot ulcers. After detailed clinical examination the following tests were conducted in all the patients: Complete blood count (CBC, Haemoglobin (Hb, Random Blood Sugar (RBS, Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate (ESR, Chest X-ray(CXR, Electrocardiography (ECG, foot X-ray, pus culture, Neuropathy testing by Semmes Weinstein Monofilament Test and Vibration Perception Threshold and Peripheral vascularity assessment by Duplex Doppler. Then grading of the ulcers was done using Wagner’s Grade. The outcome of the patients was assessed by recording the healing time, mode of surgery and amputation rates of the patients. Results: A total of 70 patients with diabetic foot were consecutively included into the study (65.7% male, age (31% in 51-60 years, mean diabetes duration (5.2 years, Ulcer Grade (37% in Grade IV, Foot lesions (45.7% in toe, Blood sugar levels (64% in 300-400 mg/dl, Neuropathy (84%, Peripheral vascular disease (67%, major amputation (7% and mortality (1.4%. Conclusion: All diabetic patients should undergo testing for neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease apart from doing other tests.

  4. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  5. MEGACARYOCYTES IN THE PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minot, George R.

    1922-01-01

    A megacaryocyte is seen commonly as an occasional cell in the peripheral blood of patients with myelogenous leucemia. Less commonly they appear in relatively large numbers. These giant cells also may occur in the blood under other conditions. Their presence is indicative of a bone marrow under intense strain. PMID:19868650

  6. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleras-Duran, Laia; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral catheterization is a technique that can be difficult in some patients. Some studies have recently described the use of ultrasound to guide the venous catheterization. To describe the success rate, time required, complications of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization. and patients and professionals satisfaction The search was performed in databases (Medline-PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Cuiden Plus) for studies published about ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization performed on patients that provided results on the success of the technique, complications, time used, patient satisfaction and the type of professional who performed the technique. A total of 21 studies were included. Most of them get a higher success rate 80% in the catheterization ecoguide and time it is not higher than the traditional technique. The Technical complications analyzed were arterial puncture rates and lower nerve 10%. In all studies measuring and comparing patient satisfaction in the art ecoguide is greater. Various professional groups perform the technique. The use of ultrasound for peripheral pipes has a high success rate, complications are rare and the time used is similar to that of the traditional technique. The technique of inserting catheters through ultrasound may be learned by any professional group performing venipuncture. Finally, it gets underscores the high patient satisfaction with the use of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...

  8. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bluish color to the skin A lower temperature in one leg compared to the other leg Poor nail growth on the toes and decreased hair growth on the legs Erectile dysfunction, especially among men who have diabetes Diagnosis Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is diagnosed based ...

  9. BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sai-Keung

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were established. A technology for estimating energy use in buildings under local weather conditions was developed by using the results of this study. A weather data file of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) has been compiled for building energy studies by analyzing and evaluating the weather of Hong Kong from the year 1979 to 1988. The weather data file TMY and the example weather years 1980 and 1988 were used by BLAST-3.0 to evaluate and study the energy use in different buildings. BLAST-3.0 was compared with other building energy simulation and approximation methods: Bin method and Degree Days method. Energy use in rectangular compartments of different volumes varying from 4,000 m3 to 40,000 m3 with different aspect ratios were analyzed. The use of energy in buildings with concrete roofs was compared with those with glass roofs at indoor temperature 21°C, 23°C and 25°C. Correlation relationships among building energy, space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation were derived and investigated. The effects of space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation on building energy were evaluated. The coefficients of the mathematical relationships between space volume and energy use in a building were computed and found satisfactory. The calculated coefficients can be used for quick estimation of energy use in buildings under similar situations. To study energy use in buildings, the cooling load per floor area against room volume was investigated. The case of an air-conditioned single compartment with 5 m ceiling height was

  10. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL... when closed to fire the blast. (b) Lead wires shall not be connected to the blasting switch until the...

  11. Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic response ... commercial software system and a special-purpose, blast-specific software product to ... depend both on the analysis model of choice and the stand-off distances.

  12. Accuracy of Platelet Counting by Optical and Impedance Methods in Patients with Thrombocytopaenia and Microcytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Rachid Boulassel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obtaining accurate platelet counts in microcytic blood samples is challenging, even with the most reliable automated haematology analysers. The CELL-DYN™ Sapphire (Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois, USA analyser uses both optical density and electronic impedance methods for platelet counting. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of optical density and electrical impedance methods in determining true platelet counts in thrombocytopaenic samples with microcytosis as defined by low mean corpuscular volume (MCV of red blood cells. Additionally, the impact of microcytosis on platelet count accuracy was evaluated. Methods: This study was carried out between February and December 2014 at the Haematology Laboratory of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman. Blood samples were collected and analysed from 189 patients with thrombocytopaenia and MCV values of <76 femtolitres. Platelet counts were tested using both optical and impedance methods. Stained peripheral blood films for each sample were then reviewed as a reference method to confirm platelet counts. Results: The platelet counts estimated by the impedance method were on average 30% higher than those estimated by the optical method (P <0.001. The estimated intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.41–0.62, indicating moderate reliability between the methods. The degree of agreement between methods ranged from -85.5 to 24.3 with an estimated bias of -30, suggesting that these methods generate different platelet results. Conclusion: The impedance method significantly overestimated platelet counts in microcytic and thrombocytopaenic blood samples. Further attention is therefore needed to improve the accuracy of platelet counts, particularly for patients with conditions associated with microcytosis.

  13. Sonographic identification of peripheral nerves in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saundra A Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing utilization of ultrasonography in emergency medicine combined with the concern over adequate pain management in the emergency department (ED, ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade in ED is an area of increasing interest. The medical literature has multiple reports supporting the use of ultrasound guidance in peripheral nerve blocks. However, to perform a peripheral nerve block, one must first be able to reliably identify the specific nerve before the procedure. Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to describe the number of supervised peripheral nerve examinations that are necessary for an emergency medicine physician to gain proficiency in accurately locating and identifying the median, radial, and ulnar nerves of the forearm via ultrasound. Methods: The proficiency outcome was defined as the number of attempts before a resident is able to correctly locate and identify the nerves on ten consecutive examinations. Didactic education was provided via a 1 h lecture on forearm anatomy, sonographic technique, and identification of the nerves. Participants also received two supervised hands-on examinations for each nerve. Count data are summarized using percentages or medians and range. Random effects negative binomial regression was used for modeling panel count data. Results: Complete data for the number of attempts, gender, and postgraduate year (PGY training year were available for 38 residents. Nineteen males and 19 females performed examinations. The median PGY year in practice was 3 (range 1-3, with 10 (27% in year 1, 8 (22% in year 2, and 19 (51% in year 3 or beyond. The median number (range of required supervised attempts for radial, median, and ulnar nerves was 1 (0-12, 0 (0-10, and 0 (0-17, respectively. Conclusion: We can conclude that the maximum number of supervised attempts to achieve accurate nerve identification was 17 (ulnar, 12 (radial, and 10 (median in our study. The only

  14. Severe atypical herpes zoster as an initial symptom of fatal myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia and blast excess (RAEB II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Gesina Hansel,1 Anja Baunacke,1 Georgi Tchernev2 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR, Sofia, Bulgaria Abstract: Herpes zoster is a common disease caused due to varicella zoster virus (VZV infection with increasing incidence by age. If the patient has a severe, extended, or treatment-recalcitrant course of herpes zoster, this must be a red flag to search for underlying pathologies. Here, we report about a 64-year-old male patient with diabetes, who came to our emergency department because of general malaise, fever, chills, and a pronounced nuchal and facial swelling on the left side. Based on herpetiform-grouped vesicles and yellowish crusts, an impetiginized facial herpes zoster was diagnosed, and combined antiviral and antibiotic treatment was initiated. He was HIV negative. Despite intensified treatment, his situation worsened. We observed blasts in peripheral blood, but bone marrow biopsy was initially denied. Some days later after deterioration of his disease, he accepted further diagnostics. A myelodysplastic syndrome with blast excess (refractory anemia and blast excess II, RAEB II could be confirmed. The following translocations were detected: t(2;12(p13; q13 and t(6;9(p22;q34. REAB II has an unfortunate prognosis. Cytoreductive treatment was initiated by the hemato-oncologist. Unfortunately, the patient deceased due to septic shock. Keywords: herpes zoster, varicella zoster virus, myelodysplastic syndrome, sepsis, emergency

  15. Primary Blast Injury Criteria for Animal/Human TBI Models using Field Validated Shock Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    acute hemorrhage characterized by partial filling of small groups of alveoli by blood . 240 kPa: Mild multifocal pools of acute hemorrhage which...Neurotrauma, Blast TBI, Primary blast brain injury, Blast overpressure, Blood -brain barrier, Neuroinflammation, Oxidative stress, Neuroproteomics 16...stress, neuroinflammation and BBB damage as a result of blast overpressure in the acute phase (0, 4 and 24 hours post-exposure). Our group

  16. Proceedings of the seventh annual symposium on explosives and blasting research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this symposium dealt with the following topics: advanced primer designs, seismic effects of blasting, systems for velocity of detonation measurement and pressure measurement, toxic fumes from explosions, blast performance, blasting for rock fragmentation, computer-aided blast design, characteristics of liquid oxygen explosives, and correlations of performance of explosives with ground vibration, partitioning of energy, and firing time scatter effects. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Effect of successful 131I treatment on the peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoping; He Yunnan; Hu Qingwu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of successful 131 I therapy on the levels peripheral blood picture in hyperthyroid patients. Methods: Serum T 3 , T 4 , TSH (with ACCESS microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay) and blood Hb, RBC, WBC and DC, Plt (with COULTER three assortments) counts were determined in 110 controls and 210 hyperthyroid patients both before and after 131 I therapy. Results: 131 I treatment of hyperthyroidism in this group of patients was very successful (P 131 I therapy. Conclusion: The application of 131 I to treat hyperthyroidism was very successful with no remarkable effect on peripheral blood picture. (authors)

  18. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000234.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge To use the sharing ... peripheral artery). You may have also had a stent placed. To perform the procedure: Your doctor inserted ...

  19. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  20. Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: lessons from lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A.; Ohtani, K.; Armonda, R.; Tomita, H.; Sakuma, A.; Mugikura, S.; Takayama, K.; Kushimoto, S.; Tominaga, T.

    2017-11-01

    Traumatic injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four mechanisms: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. The mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury mechanism is associated with the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four mechanisms of bTBI, there is a remarkable lack of information regarding the mechanism of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shock waves (SWs) has given us insight into the mechanisms of tissue and cellular damage in bTBI, including both air-mediated and underwater SW sources. From a basic physics perspective, the typical blast wave consists of a lead SW followed by shock-accelerated flow. The resultant tissue injury includes several features observed in primary bTBI, such as hemorrhage, edema, pseudo-aneurysm formation, vasoconstriction, and induction of apoptosis. These are well-described pathological findings within the SW literature. Acoustic impedance mismatch, penetration of tissue by shock/bubble interaction, geometry of the skull, shear stress, tensile stress, and subsequent cavitation formation are all important factors in determining the extent of SW-induced tissue and cellular injury. In addition, neuropsychiatric aspects of blast events need to be taken into account, as evidenced by reports of comorbidity and of some similar symptoms between physical injury resulting in bTBI and the psychiatric sequelae of post-traumatic stress. Research into blast injury biophysics is important to elucidate specific pathophysiologic mechanisms of blast injury, which enable accurate differential diagnosis, as well as development of effective treatments. Herein we describe the requirements for an adequate experimental setup when investigating blast-induced tissue and cellular injury; review SW physics

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)

  3. Controlled Blasting for Deconstruction of a Railway Bridge Near Sahibganj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Oraon, S.

    2018-06-01

    Some of the Indian Railway bridges require reconstruction for electrification and expansion of railway tracks. Dismantling of bridge within time schedule in densely populated area requires controlled and pre-planned blasting methodology for safe pulling down of the structure and quick removal of blasted debris for fast restoration of tracks and smooth plying of trains. The three arched railway bridge (Bridge No. 61) located between Sahibganj and Karamtola cases one such example where the bridge was dismantled and the track was restored within 4 h of blasting, though the stipulated block period for demolition and restoration of tracks was 6 h. The 25.48 m long three-arched bridge was drilled and blasted with 225 number of blastholes (32 mm diameter) and 100 kg explosive (25 mm diameter). Length of blastholes varied between 0.5 and 1.8 m with blast geometry of 0.3-0.35 m burden and 0.33 m spacing. This paper deals with the conceptual and theoretical model developed for identification of the key locations for drilling and implementation of the same. It also discusses about the precautionary measures and the drilling pattern adopted for quick demolition and speedy restoration of tracks.

  4. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the DICE THROW event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.

    1978-03-01

    To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, we subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters included two Russian and two Chinese types. The best shelter tested was a Small-Pole Shelter that had a box-like room of Russian design with ORNL-designed expedient blast entries and blast doors added. It was undamaged at the 53-psi peak overpressure range; the pressure rise inside was only 1.5 psi. An unmodified Russian Pole-Covered Trench Shelter was badly damaged at 6.8 psi. A Chinese ''Man'' Shelter, which skillfully uses very small poles to attain protective earth arching, survived 20 psi, undamaged. Two types of expedient shelters built of materials found in and around most American homes gave good protection at overpressures up to about 6 psi. Rug-Covered Trench Shelters were proved unsatisfactory. Water storage pits lined with ordinary plastic trash bags were proven practical at up to 53 psi, as were triangular expedient blast doors made of poles

  5. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R; Maekiranta, R [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  6. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  7. BLAST and FASTA similarity searching for multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William R

    2014-01-01

    BLAST, FASTA, and other similarity searching programs seek to identify homologous proteins and DNA sequences based on excess sequence similarity. If two sequences share much more similarity than expected by chance, the simplest explanation for the excess similarity is common ancestry-homology. The most effective similarity searches compare protein sequences, rather than DNA sequences, for sequences that encode proteins, and use expectation values, rather than percent identity, to infer homology. The BLAST and FASTA packages of sequence comparison programs provide programs for comparing protein and DNA sequences to protein databases (the most sensitive searches). Protein and translated-DNA comparisons to protein databases routinely allow evolutionary look back times from 1 to 2 billion years; DNA:DNA searches are 5-10-fold less sensitive. BLAST and FASTA can be run on popular web sites, but can also be downloaded and installed on local computers. With local installation, target databases can be customized for the sequence data being characterized. With today's very large protein databases, search sensitivity can also be improved by searching smaller comprehensive databases, for example, a complete protein set from an evolutionarily neighboring model organism. By default, BLAST and FASTA use scoring strategies target for distant evolutionary relationships; for comparisons involving short domains or queries, or searches that seek relatively close homologs (e.g. mouse-human), shallower scoring matrices will be more effective. Both BLAST and FASTA provide very accurate statistical estimates, which can be used to reliably identify protein sequences that diverged more than 2 billion years ago.

  8. Effects of air blast on power plant structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Valentin, R.A.; McLennan, D.A.; Turula, P.

    1978-10-01

    The effects of air blast from high explosives detonation on selected power plant structures and components are investigated analytically. Relying on a synthesis of state of the art methods estimates of structural response are obtained. Similarly blast loadings are determined from compilations of experimental data reported in the literature. Plastic-yield line analysis is employed to determine the response of both concrete and steel flat walls (plates) under impulsive loading. Linear elastic theory is used to investigate the spalling of concrete walls and mode analysis methods predict the deflection of piping. The specific problems considered are: the gross deformation of reinforced concrete shield and containment structures due to blast impulse, the spalling of concrete walls, the interaction or impact of concrete debris with steel containments and liners, and the response of exposed piping to blast impulse. It is found that for sufficiently close-in detonations and/or large explosive charge weights severe damage or destruction will result. This is particularly true for structures or components directly exposed to blast impulse

  9. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Blasting vibrations control: The shortcomings of traditional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillaume, P.M.; Kiszlo, M. [Institut National de l`Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bernard, T. [Compagnie Nouvelle de Scientifiques, Nice (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the context of its studies for the French ministry of the environment and for the French national coal board, INERIS (the French institute for the industrial environment and hazards, formerly CERCHAR) has made a complete critical survey of the methods generally used to reduce the levels of blasting vibrations. It is generally acknowledged that the main parameter to control vibrations is the so-called instantaneous charge, or charge per delay. This should be reduced as much as possible in order to diminish vibration levels. On account of this, the use of a new generation of blasting devices, such as non-electric detonators or electronic sequential timers has been developed since the seventies. INERIS has collected data from about 900 blasts in 2 quarries and 3 open pit mines. These data include input parameters such as borehole diameter, burden, spacing, charge per hole, charge per delay, total fired charge, etc ... They also include output measurements, such as vibration peak particle velocities, and main frequencies. These data have been analyzed with the help of multi variable statistical tools. Blasting tests were undertaken to evaluate new methods of vibrations control, such as the superposition of vibration signals. These methods appear to be accurate in many critical cases, but certainly would be highly improved with a better accuracy of firing delays. The development of electronic detonators seems to be the way of the future for a better blasting control.

  11. Controlled Blasting for Deconstruction of a Railway Bridge Near Sahibganj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Oraon, S.

    2018-02-01

    Some of the Indian Railway bridges require reconstruction for electrification and expansion of railway tracks. Dismantling of bridge within time schedule in densely populated area requires controlled and pre-planned blasting methodology for safe pulling down of the structure and quick removal of blasted debris for fast restoration of tracks and smooth plying of trains. The three arched railway bridge (Bridge No. 61) located between Sahibganj and Karamtola cases one such example where the bridge was dismantled and the track was restored within 4 h of blasting, though the stipulated block period for demolition and restoration of tracks was 6 h. The 25.48 m long three-arched bridge was drilled and blasted with 225 number of blastholes (32 mm diameter) and 100 kg explosive (25 mm diameter). Length of blastholes varied between 0.5 and 1.8 m with blast geometry of 0.3-0.35 m burden and 0.33 m spacing. This paper deals with the conceptual and theoretical model developed for identification of the key locations for drilling and implementation of the same. It also discusses about the precautionary measures and the drilling pattern adopted for quick demolition and speedy restoration of tracks.

  12. Analysis of MINIE2013 Explosion Air-Blast Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Rodgers, Arthur J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, Keehoon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, Abelardo L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-14

    We report analysis of air-blast overpressure measurements from the MINIE2013 explosive experiments. The MINIE2013 experiment involved a series of nearly 70 near-surface (height-ofburst, HOB, ranging from -1 to +4 m) low-yield (W=2-20 kg TNT equivalent) chemical highexplosives tests that were recorded at local distances (230 m – 28.5 km). Many of the W and HOB combinations were repeated, allowing for quantification of the variability in air-blast features and corresponding yield estimates. We measured canonical signal features (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, and positive pulse duration) from the air-blast data and compared these to existing air-blast models. Peak overpressure measurements showed good agreement with the models at close ranges but tended to attenuate more rapidly at longer range (~ 1 km), which is likely caused by upward refraction of acoustic waves due to a negative vertical gradient of sound speed. We estimated yields of the MINIE2013 explosions using the Integrated Yield Determination Tool (IYDT). Errors of the estimated yields were on average within 30% of the reported yields, and there were no significant differences in the accuracy of the IYDT predictions grouped by yield. IYDT estimates tend to be lower than ground truth yields, possibly because of reduced overpressure amplitudes by upward refraction. Finally, we report preliminary results on a development of a new parameterized air-blast waveform.

  13. Counting Zero: Rethinking Feminist Epistemologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns feminist engagements with epistemologies. Feminist epistemologies have revealed and challenged the exclusions and denigrations at work in knowledge production processes. And yet, the emphasis on the partiality of knowledge and the non-innocence of any subject position also cast doubt on the possibility of feminist political communities. In view of this, it has been argued that the very parameter of epistemology poses limitations for feminism, for it leads to either political paralysis or prescriptive politics that in fact undoes the political of politics. From a different perspective, decolonial feminists argue for radical epistemic disobedience and delinking the move beyond the confines of Western systems of knowledge and its extractive knowledge economy. Nevertheless, the oppositional logic informs both feminist epistemologies and its critiques, which I argue is symptomatic of the epistemic habits of academic feminism. This article ends with a preliminary reconsideration of the question of origin through the figure of zero. It asks whether it might be possible to conceive of feminist epistemologies as performing the task of counting zero – accounting for origin, wholeness, and universality – that takes into account specificities without forfeiting coalition and claims to knowledge.

  14. Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia with Two Immunophenotypically Distinct B and T Blasts Populations, Double Chromosome and Complex Karyotype: Report of an Unusual Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah A. Kohla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL is considered as a rare type of leukemia with an incidence of less than 4% of all acute leukemia based on the most recent 2008 WHO classification. Common subtypes are the B/myeloid and T/myeloid; B/T and trilineage MPAL being extremely rare. We present a case of a male in his 20s, whose peripheral blood smears showed 34% blast cells and bone marrow with 70% blasts. Immunophenotyping by multiparametric flow cytometry showed two populations of blasts, the major one with B-lineage and the minor one with T-lineage. Conventional karyotyping revealed complex karyotype with the presence of double Philadelphia chromosome ( Ph + . BCR/ABL1 rearrangement was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. The BCR/ABL1 ES probe on interphase cells indicated pl90 minor m-BCR/ABL fusion in 46% and a second abnormal clone with double Ph + in 16% of the cells analyzed confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR. The case was diagnosed as MPAL with double Philadelphia chromosome Ph + . The patient was treated with dasatinib, four cycle hyper CVAD/methotrexate cytarabin protocol, and allogeneic transplant. He is still alive in complete hematological, cytogenetic, and molecular remission. Mixed phenotype B/T acute leukemia is an extremely rare disease, particularly those with double Philadelphia chromosomes and clinically presents challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

  15. A review of three cases of mobile blast: The new culprit of hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Mody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although blast injuries are common with war; cooking gas; firecracker, mobile phone blast cases are increasing in number in last couple of years. We present 3 cases of mobile blast in 3 children causing injury to dominant hand in them.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE STABILITY OF SURROUNDING ROCK IN TUNNEL BLASTING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxian Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, criteria and blasting technologies are introduced in order to control the stability of surrounding rock of tunnel built using drill-and-blast safety. The paper is composed of three parts, namely, a blast vibration propagation law in roof surrounding rock in close proximity to tunnel face, two formulae to calculate particle critical vibration velocity of shotcrete and key structural element at the roof of tunnel, and innovative technologies of tunnel blasting. The blast vibration propagation law is the base to control the stability of surrounding rock during tunnel blasting. Based on Morhr-Coulomb criterion and the dynamic analysis, two formulae to calculate the critical particle vibration velocity are proposed. Based on a series of trial blasts using electronic detonators, two innovative blasting technologies are derived. One is the blast holes detonated one by one by using electronic detonator, and another is the blast holes detonated by combining initiation system of electronic detonators and nonel detonators. The use of electronic detonators in tunnel blasting not only leads to a smaller blast vibration but also to a smaller extent of the EDZ (excavation damaged zone.

  17. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs

  18. 29 CFR 1926.904 - Storage of explosives and blasting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., electric blasting caps, detonating primers, and primed cartridges shall not be stored in the same magazine... feet of explosives and detonator storage magazine. (d) No explosives or blasting agents shall be... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of explosives and blasting agents. 1926.904 Section...

  19. Heterogeneous counting on filter support media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.; Kohler, V.; Kelly, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Many investigators in the biomedical research area have used filter paper as the support for radioactive samples. This means that a heterogeneous counting of sample sometimes results. The count rate of a sample on a filter will be affected by positioning, degree of dryness, sample application procedure, the type of filter, and the type of cocktail used. Positioning of the filter (up or down) in the counting vial can cause a variation of 35% or more when counting tritiated samples on filter paper. Samples of varying degrees of dryness when added to the counting cocktail can cause nonreproducible counts if handled improperly. Count rates starting at 2400 CPM initially can become 10,000 CPM in 24 hours for 3 H-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples dried on standard cellulose acetate membrane filters. Data on cellulose nitrate filters show a similar trend. Sample application procedures in which the sample is applied to the filter in a small spot or on a large amount of the surface area can cause nonreproducible or very low counting rates. A tritiated DNA sample, when applied topically, gives a count rate of 4,000 CPM. When the sample is spread over the whole filter, 13,400 CPM are obtained with a much better coefficient of variation (5% versus 20%). Adding protein carrier (bovine serum albumin-BSA) to the sample to trap more of the tritiated DNA on the filter during the filtration process causes a serious beta absorption problem. Count rates which are one-fourth the count rate applied to the filter are obtained on calibrated runs. Many of the problems encountered can be alleviated by a proper choice of filter and the use of a liquid scintillation cocktail which dissolves the filter. Filter-Solv has been used to dissolve cellulose nitrate filters and filters which are a combination of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate. Count rates obtained for these dissolved samples are very reproducible and highly efficient

  20. Leveraging multiple datasets for deep leaf counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Andrei; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A

    2017-01-01

    The number of leaves a plant has is one of the key traits (phenotypes) describing its development and growth. Here, we propose an automated, deep learning based approach for counting leaves in model rosette plants. While state-of-the-art results on leaf counting with deep learning methods have recently been reported, they obtain the count as a result of leaf segmentation and thus require per-leaf (instance) segmentation to train the models (a rather strong annotation). Instead, our method tre...

  1. Diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia from intracerebral hemorrhage and blast crisis. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Nahed, Brian V; Walcott, Brian P; Kahle, Kristopher T; Soupir, Chad P; Cahill, Daniel P; Borges, Lawrence F

    2010-09-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from acute leukemia. While ICH is often identified in autopsy studies of leukemic patients, it is rare for ICH to be the presenting sign that ultimately leads to the diagnosis of leukemia. We report a patient with previously undiagnosed acute precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who presented with diffuse encephalopathy due to ICH in the setting of an acute blast crisis. The diagnosis of ALL was initially suspected, because of the hyperleukocytosis observed on presentation, then confirmed with a bone marrow biopsy and flow cytometry study of the peripheral blood. Furthermore, detection of the BCR/ABL Philadelphia translocation t(9:22)(q34:q11) in this leukemic patient by fluorescent in situ hybridization permitted targeted therapy of the blast crisis with imatinib (Gleevec). Understanding the underlying etiology of ICH is pivotal in its management. This case demonstrates that the presence of hyperleukocytosis in a patient with intracerebral hemorrhage should raise clinical suspicion for acute leukemia as the cause of the ICH.

  2. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  3. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  4. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: Counting noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions). When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. We show that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective. (orig./FKS)

  5. Outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in mine blast limb injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Zafar, A.; Khan, N.; Mufti, N.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the pattern of mine blast limb injuries in civilian population of Kashmir, to evaluate the outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in these injuries and to determine the sensitivity of hand-held percutaneous Doppler for tissue viability. One hundred and three patients who sustained mine blast injuries to upper or lower limbs, along side the line of control between the Indian-held Kashmir and Azad Kashmir, regardless of age and gender, were included in this study. Patients who already had amputation after injury at some other place were excluded. All patients were initially managed in emergency and had more than one surgical intervention. Transcutaneous Doppler was used to evaluate the vascularity of the remaining tissue. All patients were operated under spinal or general anaesthesia and had repeated debridements followed by skin cover by split skin graft, full thickness skin graft or rotational flaps. Every patient received at least 5 days course of antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis. Postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up was conducted for at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Mean age of victims in this study was 22 years. Out of 103 patients, 72 (69.9%) received initial wound care in the peripheral primary health care centre but were not amputated while 31 patients (30%) were just dressed and referred for further treatment at tertiary care hospitals. Eighty five patients (82.5%), out of the total, had some sort of traumatic amputation at presentation due to the original injury. That included loss of limb below knee in 19 (18.45%) patients, at distal tibiofibular region in 13 (12.6%), mid tarsal amputations in 39(37.9%), and hemi foot amputation in 15 (14.6%) patients. Nine (8.7%) patients had losses of two or less than two toes, 1 (0.97%) patient had injury at mid palmer region, and 5 (4.9%) patients had 2 fingers traumatic amputation. Eighteen (17.5%) patients had soft tissue ( with or without bony injury) injury only

  6. Monitoring sweep in peripheral waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouser, B.J.; Al-Askar, Y.A.; Hassoun, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the techniques used and the results obtained in monitoring the water advance in a peripheral waterflood of a carbonate reservoir. The peripheral pattern used in the subject reservoir gives a water advanced similar to that obtained in a water drive reservoir. However, monitoring this particular reservoir is complicated by the use of a low salinity brine for flooding and the areal shape of the reservoir. The use of pulsed neutron capture logging in conjunction with production logging has been effective in differentiating between oil and water in porous zones in existing producers. The use of the two logs has been successful despite the problems normally encountered when logging open hole completions in a reservoir being flooded with a low salinity brine. Results have been confirmed and enhanced by open hole logs of new wells being drilled in the water invaded areas

  7. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  8. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  9. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  10. Communication, Consumption and Peripheral Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍZIA VILLAÇA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses central/peripheral dynamics and its new semantics in the big scenario of globalization. The processes of hybridization between the local and the global spaces are discussed focusing the strategies of inclusion and exclusion through some examples from media and cultural industry. The methodology helps to reflect about the theme using elements of epistemology communication, consumer society and cultural studies.

  11. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  13. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  14. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  15. Effect of surface conditions on blast wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seung Ho; Li, Yi Bao; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jung Il

    2016-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of blast wave propagations on surfaces by solving axisymmetric two-dimensional Euler equations. Assuming the initial stage of fireball at the breakaway point after an explosion, we investigated the effect of surface conditions considering surface convex or concave elements and thermal conditions on blast wave propagations near the ground surface. Parametric studies were performed by varying the geometrical factors of the surface element as well as thermal layer characteristics. We found that the peak overpressure near the ground zero was increased due to the surface elements, while modulations of the blast wave propagations were limited within a region for the surface elements. Because of the thermal layer, the precursor was formed in the propagations, which led to the attenuation of the peak overpressure on the ground surface

  16. Superficial characterization of titanium league when submitted to abrasive blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, L.Y.; Leite, I.V.; Szesz, E.M.; Siqueira, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium and some of its alloys exhibit a good biocompatibility. These characteristics are frequently used in the manufacture of orthopedic and dental implants. It is possible to modify its surface making it the bioactive using various methods, such as deposition of hydroxyapatite by plasma spray and increasing the roughness of the surface by abrasive blasting. This work is to modify the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI (ASTM F136: 02a) for abrasive blasting and study the morphology, crystallographic phases and the mechanical characteristics of the surface obtained. For such purpose, SEM images, diffraction of X-rays and tests of risk produced by nanoindenter. The sandblasting was done using alumina powder and blasting time of 6s. The morphology of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V ELI changed after sandblasting with increased roughness. It is possible to conclude that after sandblasting the titanium surface do not have a ductile behavior. (author)

  17. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse delivered to the protective liquid blanket. Configurations used in the study include both 2700 MJ and 350 MJ fusion yields per pulse for 5 meter and 3 meter radius reactor chambers. For the former, an annular jet array is used for the blanket geometry, while in the latter, both annular jet array as well as slab geometries are used. Results of the study indicate that blast venting and wall loading may be manageable in the HYLIFE-II design by a judicious choice of blanket configuration

  18. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m 2 ), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m 2 ). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  19. A review of blasting activity in the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leith, W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Bruk, L. [BRUK Hydrogeologcal Consulting, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Monitoring a comprehensive nuclear test ban by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at lower magnitudes, where industrial explosions (primarily mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded and may, for some countries, dominate the seismicity. The USGS has recently obtained preliminary data on blasting activities in the former Soviet Union (FSU), one of the few countries in which the use of explosives exceeded that of the United States. A review of the Soviet data suggests that there are both similarities and differences in blasting practices between the U.S. and the FSU. These data are important because they provide some insight into variations form U.S. practice and because they can be used directly to estimate the assets needed to effectively monitor that country. Key findings include: (1) in 1988, approximately 2.6 million metric tons of high explosives were detonated in the FSu; this compares with 2.1 million metric tons in the U.S. in the same year; (2) about 80% of the explosives were used in mining, 10% in construction and 10% for other uses; (3) 84% of the explosives were consumed by only six Ministries of the FSU, and 66% were consumed in the three main mining industries: MinCherMet, MinTsvetMet and MinUgleProm; (4) in 1988 alone, the FSU conducted over 100 explosions in excess of 1 kt total charge (compare with one blast over 1 kt in the U.S. in 1987), and none of these were in the coal mining industry; (5) most very large blasts occurred on the surface, and in only a small number of mines; most underground blasts were less than 100 tons.

  20. PaperBLAST: Text Mining Papers for Information about Homologs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST’s database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins’ functions.

  1. 77 FR 49277 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... effects that confined blasting can have on marine animals near the blast (Keevin et al., 1999). The visual... Atmospheric Administration Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations... Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps of...

  2. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  3. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields (≥10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10 -10 scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged from

  4. Directed blasts and blast-generated pyroclastic density currents: a comparison of the Bezymianny 1956, Mount St Helens 1980, and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat 1997 eruptions and deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Voight, Barry; Belousova, Marina

    2007-01-01

    damage sustained at MSH until modern 3D numerical modeling is accomplished, but argue that much of the damage observed in directed blasts can be reasonably interpreted to have been caused by high dynamic pressures and clast impact loading by an inclined collapsing fountain and stratified PDC. This view is reinforced by recent modeling cited for SHV. In distal and peripheral regions, solids concentration, maximum particle size, current speed, and dynamic pressure are diminished, resulting in lesser damage and enhanced influence by local topography on the PDC. Despite the different scales of the blasts (devastated areas were respectively 500, 600, and >10 km2 for BZ, MSH, and SHV), and some complexity involving retrogressive slide blocks and clusters of explosions, their pyroclastic deposits demonstrate strong similarity. Juvenile material composes >50% of the deposits, implying for the blasts a dominantly magmatic mechanism although hydrothermal explosions also occurred. The character of the magma fragmented by explosions (highly viscous, phenocryst-rich, variable microlite content) determined the bimodal distributions of juvenile clast density and vesicularity. Thickness of the deposits fluctuates in proximal areas but in general decreases with distance from the crater, and laterally from the axial region. The proximal stratigraphy of the blast deposits comprises four layers named A, B, C, D from bottom to top. Layer A is represented by very poorly sorted debris with admixtures of vegetation and soil, with a strongly erosive ground contact; its appearance varies at different sites due to different ground conditions at the time of the blasts. The layer reflects intense turbulent boundary shear between the basal part of the energetic head of the PDC and the substrate. Layer B exhibits relatively well-sorted fines depleted debris with some charred plant fragments; its deposition occurred by rapid suspension sedimentation in rapidly waning, high-concentration conditions

  5. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  6. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 {mu}m mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials.This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m{sup 3}. This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of

  7. Optimizing cast blasting efficiency using ANFO with liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, A.

    2007-01-15

    As part of a five research project funded by the National Science Foundation, Peabody Energy studied three experimental cast blasts conducted at the North Antelope Rochelle mine site on July 24,28 and 31 2005. The initial purpose of this research project was to determine the influence that blast initiation sequence have on: NOx production; Face Displacement; Highwall damage; Explosive performance; Vibration emissions; Displacement; Surface swell; and Cast benefit. Two new discoveries on velocity of detonation (VoD) and pressure of detonation (PoD) were made as a result of this research project. Furthermore, a relationship between surface swell velocity and face velocity was also noted. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  9. Impact of valproates on haemostasis and blood cell count in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igrutinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is a highly prevalent disease affecting 0.5-1.5% of the world's population. One of the most frequently used antiepileptics are valproates. These medicines show a negative impact on haemostasis and peripheral blood count. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine the negative impact of valproates on haemostasis and peripheral blood count in children and to analyse whether these disturbances were dependent on the dosage of valproates and drug level in blood. METHOD A two-year research was conducted. The research included: 35 children using valproates, 12 children using the therapy of both valproates and carbamazepine and 30 healthy children. Complete peripheral blood count, screening tests of haemostasis (bleeding time, prothrombin time, prothrombin ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and capacity of thrombocyte aggregation research were done in all the children. RESULTS We found significantly more common frequency of leukopenia and neutropenia in children using valproates in comparison with the healthy children group. We also found the more common frequency of eosinophilia in comparison with healthy children. The children with the valproate therapy have lower approximate values of the number of platelets, fibrinogen and platelet aggregation in comparison with healthy children, but they have a higher approximate value of bleeding time and prothrombin time. These disturbances are in correlation with the dosage and the level of the medicine in blood. CONCLUSION Valproates have a negative effect on certain blood count parameters and haemostasis in children. Drug dosage and blood drug level are correlated with their negative impact on haemostasis parameters.

  10. Windows .NET Network Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Melvin J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is one of the most common and useful tools for Genetic Research. This paper describes a software application we have termed Windows .NET Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST, which enhances the BLAST utility by improving usability, fault recovery, and scalability in a Windows desktop environment. Our goal was to develop an easy to use, fault tolerant, high-throughput BLAST solution that incorporates a comprehensive BLAST result viewer with curation and annotation functionality. Results W.ND-BLAST is a comprehensive Windows-based software toolkit that targets researchers, including those with minimal computer skills, and provides the ability increase the performance of BLAST by distributing BLAST queries to any number of Windows based machines across local area networks (LAN. W.ND-BLAST provides intuitive Graphic User Interfaces (GUI for BLAST database creation, BLAST execution, BLAST output evaluation and BLAST result exportation. This software also provides several layers of fault tolerance and fault recovery to prevent loss of data if nodes or master machines fail. This paper lays out the functionality of W.ND-BLAST. W.ND-BLAST displays close to 100% performance efficiency when distributing tasks to 12 remote computers of the same performance class. A high throughput BLAST job which took 662.68 minutes (11 hours on one average machine was completed in 44.97 minutes when distributed to 17 nodes, which included lower performance class machines. Finally, there is a comprehensive high-throughput BLAST Output Viewer (BOV and Annotation Engine components, which provides comprehensive exportation of BLAST hits to text files, annotated fasta files, tables, or association files. Conclusion W.ND-BLAST provides an interactive tool that allows scientists to easily utilizing their available computing resources for high throughput and comprehensive sequence analyses. The install package for W.ND-BLAST is

  11. ORGANISATIONAL-TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLASTING WORKS ON THE GRIČ TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Deković

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes organisational-technological characteristics of blasting works during the excavation of the Grič Tunnel. The significance of blasting works during the excavation of the tunnel is shown through adjustment of blasting parameters taking into consideration the dynamics of the works, cost-effectiveness and influence of geological circumstances. Successfulness of blasting directly influences the subsequent tunnel excavation cycle both in terms of duration as well as eventually in terms of influence on the entire tunnel investment. Comparison of changes of basic blasting parameters during tunnel excavation ensured optimal excavation progress with minimal price per meter of tunnel progress.

  12. System and method of liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapkin, E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of liquid scintillation counting utilizing a combustion step to overcome quenching effects comprises novel features of automatic sequential introduction of samples into a combustion zone and automatic sequential collection and delivery of combustion products into a counting zone. 37 claims, 13 figures

  13. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  14. Current status of liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Scintillation counting of alpha particles has been used since the turn of the century. The advent of pulse shape discrimination has made this method of detection accurate and reliable. The history, concepts and development of scintillation counting and pulse shape discrimination are discussed. A brief look at the ongoing work in the consolidation of components now used for pulse shape discrimination is included

  15. Lazy reference counting for the Microgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.; Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Scholz, S.-B.

    2012-01-01

    This papers revisits non-deferred reference counting, a common technique to ensure that potentially shared large heap objects can be reused safely when they are both input and output to computations. Traditionally, thread-safe reference counting exploit implicit memory-based communication of counter

  16. A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Jacob M.

    This book presents a word count of Arabic prose based on 60 twentieth-century Egyptian books. The text is divided into an alphabetical list and a word frequency list. This word count is intended as an aid in the: (1) writing of primers and the compilation of graded readers, (2) examination of the vocabulary selection of primers and readers…

  17. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  18. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  19. Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Unclassifiable (MDS-U) With 1% Blasts Is a Distinct Subgroup of MDS-U With a Poor Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolskee, Elizabeth; Hasserjian, Robert P; Hassane, Duane; Tam, Wayne; Mathew, Susan; Ok, Chi Young; Wang, Sa A; Oak, Jean; Arber, Daniel A; Orazi, Attilio

    2017-07-01

    Three situations qualify as myelodysplastic syndrome, unclassifiable (MDS-U): (1) refractory cytopenia with dysplasia and 1% blasts in peripheral blood (BL), (2) pancytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (Pan), and (3) persistent cytopenia, less than 5% bone marrow blasts, and less than 10% dysplastic cells and presence of MDS-defining cytogenetic abnormalities (CG). We compared the clinicopathologic features and mutational profiles for these three groups. MDS-U cases were reviewed at four major academic institutions. Targeted next-generation sequencing for genes implicated in myeloid neoplasms was performed in a subset of cases. Twenty-seven patients were identified (six MDS-U BL, 13 MDS-U Pan, and eight MDS-U CG). Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were found in six of six, seven of 13, and eight of eight cases in MDS-U BL, Pan, and CG, respectively (P > .05). Overall, four of six patients with MDS-U BL progressed to acute myeloid leukemia; no MDS-U Pan or CG patients did. The rates of progression-free survival and mortality (overall survival) were significantly higher in MDS-U BL compared with Pan and CG (P MDS-U BL is a distinct subset of MDS-U with a poor prognosis, while MDS-U Pan and CG are relatively indolent. Evaluation of peripheral blood smears in patients with MDS is essential for accurate classification and prognosis. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Hepatic abscess versus peripheral cholangiocarcinoma: Sonographic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Kunkuk University College of Medicine, Chung-Ju Hospital, Chung-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To find out the sonographic findings that are useful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-two hepatic abscesses and 22 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas which had been confirmed histologically were included in this study. Objective points were echo characteristics of the lesion, internal septation, presence of peripheral low echoic rim, demarcation from normal liver(well or poorly defined), posterior enhancement, multiplicity, dilatation of bile duct(obstructive or non-obstructive), intrahepatic duct stone, pleural effusion, and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Echo characteristics of the lesion were classified in-to four types. Type I; Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, type II; Echogenic without hypoechoic portion, type III; Predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, type IV; Hypoechoic without echogenic portion. 1)Nine abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type I(p=0.037), 2)One abscess and 18 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type II(p=0.001), 3)Seven abscesses and none of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type III(p=0.001), 4)Five abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type IV(p=0.410). Only 7 abscesses showed internal septations(p=0.013). One abscess and 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed peripheral hypoechoic halos(p=0.012). Only 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed obstructive bile duct dilatation (p=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between abscess and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma on other objective points. Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, and internal septation are the features suggestive of hepatic abscess, and echogenic without hypoechoic portion, peripheral hypoechoic halo, obstructive bile duct dilatation are suggestive of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore these sonographic findings are helpful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral

  1. Chromosome aberrations of the peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits exposed to single and fractionated whole-body x-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Masaharu; Sugahara, Tsutomu.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the frequency of peripheral lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations were observed during or after irradiation of rabbits exposed to fractionated or single whole-body irradiations. In rabbits given daily fractionated whole-body irradiations the incidence of the aberrations showed a linear increase in the first week; however, the incidence decreased thereafter though exposures were repeated. The lymphocyte count tended to decrease as the number of irradiations increased. In rabbits exposed to a single dose of 250 R or 500 R the incidence of aberrations rapidly decreased over a period of 10 days following irradiation, and then showed a little change thereafter. The lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood reached a nadir 2 - 5 days after irradiation, and then started to increase gradually. It was speculated that there are two types of lymphocytes, long-lived and short-lived, in the peripheral blood of rabbits, both of which are PHA-committed. (auth.)

  2. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blast Wave Physics. II. The Distribution of rho and Structure of the Circumburst Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, R. L. C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Weltervrede, P.

    2008-01-01

    We constrain blast wave parameters and the circumburst media ofa subsample of 10 BeppoSAX gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral fits to their X-ray, optical, and NIR afterglow data. The spectral fits have been done in count space and include the effects ofmetallicity, and are compared with the previously reported optical and X-ray temporal behavior. Using the blast wave model and some assumptions which include on-axis viewing and standard jet structure, constant blast wave energy, and no evolution of the microphysical parameters, we find a mean value ofp for the sample as a whole of 9.... oa -0.003.0" 2 a_ statistical analysis of the distribution demonstrates that the p-values in this sample are inconsistent with a single universal value forp at the 3 _ level or greater, which has significant implications for particle acceleration models. This approach provides us with a measured distribution ofcircumburst density structures rather than considering only the cases of k ----0 (homogeneous) and k - 2 (windlike). We find five GRBs for which k can be well constrained, and in four of these cases the circumburst medium is clearly windlike. The fifth source has a value of 0 medium.

  3. Controlled blasting experiments in a small drift at the CANMET experimental mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, Y.C.

    1994-03-01

    Experiments on controlled blasting conducted at the CANMET Experimental Mine to develop suitable controlled blasting techniques for small development headings are described. The methods selected for study must maintain the drill-blast-muck cycle achieved each work shift. The experiments also examine blast damage mechanisms to formulate criteria for dilution minimization with blast designs in stopes. The drift faces are 2.4 m square, with 34 to 43 holes drilled 2.4 m deep. Cartridged water gels, emulsions, and semi-gelatin dynamite were used in the cuts and as primers, ANFO as the main explosive, and semi- gelatin dynamite in 19 mm diameter cartridges was used in perimeter holes. The results of the first set of experiments show the efficiency of controlled blasting techniques to reduce blast damage. 60 refs., 71 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. [Monoclonal antibodies ICO-02 to blast cell antigens in patients with chronic myeloleukemia in blast crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, A Iu

    1984-01-01

    Mice were immunized with blood cells of a patient with chronic granulocytic leukemia, and their cells were subsequently used for the preparation of hybridoma ICO-02. This hybridoma is continuously producing monoclonal antibodies which reacted with cells in 4 out of 13 patients with blastic crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia and in 6 out of 38 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Antibodies reacted with blast cells in 2 out of 3 patients with undifferentiated blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia and in 2 out of 5 patients with lymphoid variant of blastic crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Cells of 6 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia which reacted with the monoclonal antibodies had immunological markers of T lymphocytes bone-marrow precursors. Monoclonal antibodies did not react with cells of blood and bone marrow from healthy people and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute monoblastic leukemia and lymphosarcoma.

  5. Analysis of ways to control the supply of the blast, and their impact on gas-dynamic processes in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Петрович Кравченко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of two methods of control over hot blast supply into a blast furnace with constant pressure and constant amount (consumption. The analysis of these two methods was performed with the aim of determining their influence upon changes in gas pressure in the blast furnace top. The blast furnace was considered as a unity of vessels (furnace hearth, the top and gas-dynamic resistance (a column of charge materials. A differential equation was obtained, with regard to the dynamic balance of gas flow at the inlet and outlet of the top; the equation relates the pressure and gas consumption at the top to the pressure and hot blast consumption at the inlet and outlet of the furnace and to the resistance of the column of charge materials. The column of charge materials is considered as n-th number of channels through which gas flow inside the furnace moves and which resist to the flow. By the analysis of this equation at steady state (automatic stabilization of gas pressure in the top, the conditions were obtained to be satisfied with the specified value of gas pressure in the top. This value is equal to a half of the sum of the value of hot blast pressure at the inlet into the furnace and the value of pressure inside the collector of blast furnace gas. This conclusion is verified by the operation practice of blast furnaces in Ukraine. While analyzing the second method of controlling the supply of blast supply-stabilization of consumption (amount of hot blast supplied into the furnace it has been shown that the method could be realized in condition of stabilization of the amount of blast furnace gas, going out of the furnace. As the resistance of the column of charge materials constantly changes it is necessary to change the hot blast pressure in order to ensure the constant amount of blast, supplied into the furnace. It is often connected with possible substantial pressure fluctuations of hot blast at the inlet of the

  6. Peripheral Mechanisms of Ischemic Myalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Queme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain due to ischemia is present in a variety of clinical conditions including peripheral vascular disease (PVD, sickle cell disease (SCD, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, and even fibromyalgia (FM. The clinical features associated with deep tissue ischemia are unique because although the subjective description of pain is common to other forms of myalgia, patients with ischemic muscle pain often respond poorly to conventional analgesic therapies. Moreover, these patients also display increased cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction, which often leads to exercise intolerance or exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular conditions. This suggests that the mechanisms of myalgia development and the role of altered cardiovascular function under conditions of ischemia may be distinct compared to other injuries/diseases of the muscles. It is widely accepted that group III and IV muscle afferents play an important role in the development of pain due to ischemia. These same muscle afferents also form the sensory component of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR, which is the increase in heart rate and blood pressure (BP experienced after muscle contraction. Studies suggest that afferent sensitization after ischemia depends on interactions between purinergic (P2X and P2Y receptors, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs in individual populations of peripheral sensory neurons. Specific alterations in primary afferent function through these receptor mechanisms correlate with increased pain related behaviors and altered EPRs. Recent evidence suggests that factors within the muscles during ischemic conditions including upregulation of growth factors and cytokines, and microvascular changes may be linked to the overexpression of these different receptor molecules in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG that in turn modulate pain and sympathetic reflexes. In this review article, we will discuss the

  7. Isotopic diagnosis of peripheral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, Pierre; Scalet, Michel

    1975-01-01

    Radio-isotope diagnosis of peripheral venous thrombosis, using tracer doses of iodine-labelled fibrinogen, provides an important contribution to the solution of the worrying problem of pulmonary embolism due to latent phlebitis. This elegant and precise technique permits early diagnosis of venous thrombosis of the lower limbs at a subclinical stage. It has permitted determination of the frequency, both after surgery and after myocardial infarction, and above all, it provides an objective criterion for assessment of the efficacy of prophylactic measures proposed [fr

  8. The usefulness of measurement of whole body count in assessing bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular bone uptake on follow-up bone scan: a comparison with bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seong Chan; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin

    2003-01-01

    Increased periarticular uptake could be associated with peripheral bone marrow expansion in cancer patients with axial bone marrow metastasis. We compared bone scan and bone marrow scan to investigate whether the increased whole body count in patients with increased periarticular uptake on bone scan is useful in the diagnosis of axial marrow metastasis, and evaluate the role of additional bone marrow scan in these cases. Twelve patients with malignant diseases who showed increased periarticular uptake on bone scan were included. Whole body count was measured on bone scan and it is considered to be increased when the count is more than twice of other patients. Bone marrow scan was taken within 3-7 days. Five hematologic malignancy, 3 stomach cancer, 2 breast cancer, 1 prostate cancer and 1 lung canner were included. All three patients with increased whole body count on bone scan showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. Eight of 9 patients without increased whole body count showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. One turned out to be blastic crisis of chronic myelogeneous leukemia, and seven showed normal axial marrow with peripheral marrow expansion in chronic anemia of malignancy. The last one without increased whole body count showed normal bone marrow scan finding. Increased whole body count on bone scan could be a clue to axial bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular uptake, and bone marrow scan is a valuable method for differential diagnosis in these cases

  9. Transglutaminase 2 expression in acute myeloid leukemia: Association with adhesion molecule expression and leukemic blast motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Ravandi-Kashani, Farhad; Borthakur, Gautam; Coombes, Kevin R.; Zhang, Nianxiang; Kornblau, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous disease with differential oncogene association, outcome and treatment regimens. Treatment strategies for AML have improved outcome but despite increased molecular biological information AML is still associated with poor prognosis. Proteomic analysis on the effects of a range of leukemogenic oncogenes showed that the protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is expressed at greater levels as a consequence of oncogenic transformation. Further analysis of this observation was performed with 511 AML samples using reverse phase proteomic arrays, demonstrating that TG2 expression was higher at relapse than diagnosis in many cases. In addition elevated TG2 expression correlated with increased expression of numerous adhesion proteins and many apoptosis regulating proteins, two processes related to leukemogenesis. TG2 has previously been linked to drug resistance in cancer and given the negative correlation between TG2 levels and peripheral blasts observed increased TG2 levels may lead to the protection of the leukemic stem cell due to increased adhesion/reduced motility. TG2 may therefore form part of a network of proteins that define poor outcome in AML patients and potentially offer a target to sensitize AML stem cells to drug treatment. PMID:23576428

  10. Blasted copper slag as fine aggregate in Portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, M A G; Sales, A T C; Andrade, N

    2017-07-01

    The present work focuses on assessing the viability of applying blasted copper slag, produced during abrasive blasting, as fine aggregate for Portland cement concrete manufacturing, resulting in an alternative and safe disposal method. Leaching assays showed no toxicity for this material. Concrete mixtures were produced, with high aggregate replacement ratios, varying from 0% to 100%. Axial compressive strength, diametrical compressive strength, elastic modulus, physical indexes and durability were evaluated. Assays showed a significant improvement in workability, with the increase in substitution of fine aggregate. With 80% of replacement, the concrete presented lower levels of water absorption capacity. Axial compressive strength and diametrical compressive strength decreased, with the increase of residue replacement content. The greatest reductions of compressive strength were found when the replacement was over 40%. For tensile strength by diametrical compression, the greatest reduction occurred for the concrete with 80% of replacement. After the accelerated aging, results of mechanic properties showed a small reduction of the concrete with blasted copper slag performance, when compared with the reference mixture. Results indicated that the blasted copper slag is a technically viable material for application as fine aggregate for concrete mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of blasting on the strength of a rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, L

    1964-01-01

    Although the fact that blasting concussions tend to loosen a rock mass has always been known, the enormous reduction in strength associated with such loosening is not generally recognized. Recent investigations of the effect of blasting on a rock mass have shown that even slight loosening may markedly reduce the strength. This factor introduces a new slant on modern blasting methods, some of which will have to be considered more critically. The sensitivity of the mass to impacts depends on stress concentrations at the end of joints (Kerbspannungen) and on tensile stresses developed in the immediate vicinity of a joint, even in regions where the field stresses are not tensile. Thus, the sensitivity depends on the shape and orientation of the joints and particularly on the degree of separation of the individual joint families. The orientation of the joint families to the strains produced by blasting is just as important as the reduction in overall strength arising from the drop in friction due to the effects of the ''knocking out'' process (Foppl) on the joint body complex. Concussions may critically increase the degree of separation of the joint network thus reducing the tensile and shear strengths of the rock mass. (19 refs.)

  12. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  13. blastjs: a BLAST+ wrapper for Node.js.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Martin; MacLean, Dan; Schudoma, Christian

    2016-02-27

    To cope with the ever-increasing amount of sequence data generated in the field of genomics, the demand for efficient and fast database searches that drive functional and structural annotation in both large- and small-scale genome projects is on the rise. The tools of the BLAST+ suite are the most widely employed bioinformatic method for these database searches. Recent trends in bioinformatics application development show an increasing number of JavaScript apps that are based on modern frameworks such as Node.js. Until now, there is no way of using database searches with the BLAST+ suite from a Node.js codebase. We developed blastjs, a Node.js library that wraps the search tools of the BLAST+ suite and thus allows to easily add significant functionality to any Node.js-based application. blastjs is a library that allows the incorporation of BLAST+ functionality into bioinformatics applications based on JavaScript and Node.js. The library was designed to be as user-friendly as possible and therefore requires only a minimal amount of code in the client application. The library is freely available under the MIT license at https://github.com/teammaclean/blastjs.

  14. Blast wave injury prediction models for complex scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Blast waves from explosions can cause lethal injuries to humans. Development of injury criteria has been ongoing for many years, but with the main focus on free field conditions. However, with terrorist actions as a new threat, explosions in urban areas have become of much more interest. Urban areas

  15. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    out in connection with the construction of a new quay at the existing harbour of Sisimiut, Greenland. Subsequent to the largest of a series of underwater blasts, the distribution of suspended sediment in the water column at and around the construction site was observed using a CTD (Conductivity...

  16. Grit blasting nozzle fabricated from mild tool steel proves satisfactory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Farland, J. E.; Turbitt, B.

    1966-01-01

    Dry blasting with glass beads through a nozzle assembly descales both the outside and inside surfaces of tubes of Inconel 718 used for the distribution of gaseous oxygen. The inside of the nozzle is coated with polyurethane and the deflector with a commercially available liquid urethane rubber.

  17. Enhancements and Analysis of CTH Software for Underbody Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoD, and shall not be used for advertising or...Trembelay, J., “Validation of a Loading Model for Simulating Blast Mine Effects on Armoured Vehicles,” 7th International LS-DYNA Users Conference

  18. A numerical technique to design blast noise mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    Large weapons, such as armor, artillery or demolitions, create a high-energy blast wave. It has a low frequency content, typically between 15 and 125 Hz, and can propagate over large distances. As a result it is a relative important cause for annoyance. Mitigation measures need to be close to the

  19. Test methods for protective footwear against AP mine blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, D.S.; Williams, K.; Bass, C.R.; Magnan, P.; Dosquet, F.; Bergeron, D.M.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The testing and development of protective footwear for anti-personnel landmine blast threats is of great importance to civilian and military deminers, and peacekeepers. This study will review the wide range of test methods that have been developed by NATO countries to test footwear against the

  20. Predicting fragmentation sizing profiles for different blasting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.M.; Chung, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper evaluates the efficiency of blasting in a large scale underground heap leaching operation. The prediction model is based on the dynamic tensile breaking strength of rock formation, the detonation characteristics of the explosives and the drill hole pattern. The modelling includes crack pattern development and fragmentation computation fitted by the Rosin-Rammler distribution equation