Counting with symmetric functions
Mendes, Anthony
2015-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Dattoli
1996-05-01
Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.
Quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garabedian, P.; Ku, L.
1999-01-01
Compact hybrid configurations with two field periods have been studied recently as candidates for a proof of principle experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This project has led us to the discovery of a family of quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods that have significant advantages, although their aspect ratios are a little larger. They have reversed shear and perform better in a local analysis of ballooning modes. Nonlinear equilibrium and stability calculations predict that the average beta limit will be at least as high as 4% if the bootstrap current turns out to be as big as that expected in comparable tokamaks. The concept relies on a combination of helical fields and bootstrap current to achieve adequate rotational transform at low aspect ratio. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials
Macdonald, I G
1997-01-01
One of the most classical areas of algebra, the theory of symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials has long been known to be connected to combinatorics, representation theory, and other branches of mathematics. Written by perhaps the most famous author on the topic, this volume explains some of the current developments regarding these connections. It is based on lectures presented by the author at Rutgers University. Specifically, he gives recent results on orthogonal polynomials associated with affine Hecke algebras, surveying the proofs of certain famous combinatorial conjectures.
An existence proof of a symmetric periodic orbit in the octahedral six-body problem
Cavalcanti, Anete Soares
2016-01-01
We present a proof of the existence of a periodic orbit for the Newtonian six-body problem with equal masses. This orbit has three double collisions each period and no multiple collisions. Our proof is based on the minimization of the Lagrangian action functional on a well chosen class of symmetric loops.
On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...
first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Berenstein
1980-01-01
Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.
Invariant subspaces in some function spaces on symmetric spaces. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platonov, S S
1998-01-01
Let G be a semisimple connected Lie group with finite centre, K a maximal compact subgroup of G, and M=G/K a Riemannian symmetric space of non-compact type. We study the problem of describing the structure of closed linear subspaces in various function spaces on M that are invariant under the quasiregular representation of the group G. We consider the case when M is a symplectic symmetric space of rank 1
(Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimyk, A U; Patera, J
2007-01-01
We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found
A partition function approximation using elementary symmetric functions.
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Ramu Anandakrishnan
Full Text Available In statistical mechanics, the canonical partition function [Formula: see text] can be used to compute equilibrium properties of a physical system. Calculating [Formula: see text] however, is in general computationally intractable, since the computation scales exponentially with the number of particles [Formula: see text] in the system. A commonly used method for approximating equilibrium properties, is the Monte Carlo (MC method. For some problems the MC method converges slowly, requiring a very large number of MC steps. For such problems the computational cost of the Monte Carlo method can be prohibitive. Presented here is a deterministic algorithm - the direct interaction algorithm (DIA - for approximating the canonical partition function [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] operations. The DIA approximates the partition function as a combinatorial sum of products known as elementary symmetric functions (ESFs, which can be computed in [Formula: see text] operations. The DIA was used to compute equilibrium properties for the isotropic 2D Ising model, and the accuracy of the DIA was compared to that of the basic Metropolis Monte Carlo method. Our results show that the DIA may be a practical alternative for some problems where the Monte Carlo method converge slowly, and computational speed is a critical constraint, such as for very large systems or web-based applications.
Polysheroidal periodic functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truskova, N.F.
1985-01-01
Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given
Vector Boolean Functions: applications in symmetric cryptography
Álvarez Cubero, José Antonio
2015-01-01
Esta tesis establece los fundamentos teóricos y diseña una colección abierta de clases C++ denominada VBF (Vector Boolean Functions) para analizar funciones booleanas vectoriales (funciones que asocian un vector booleano a otro vector booleano) desde una perspectiva criptográfica. Esta nueva implementación emplea la librería NTL de Victor Shoup, incorporando nuevos módulos que complementan a las funciones de NTL, adecuándolas para el análisis criptográfico. La clase fundamental que representa...
Whittaker Vector of Deformed Virasoro Algebra and Macdonald Symmetric Functions
Yanagida, Shintarou
2016-03-01
We give a proof of Awata and Yamada's conjecture for the explicit formula of Whittaker vector of the deformed Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space. The formula is expressed as a summation over Macdonald symmetric functions with factored coefficients. In the proof, we fully use currents appearing in the Fock representation of Ding-Iohara-Miki quantum algebra.
Hubbard physics in the symmetric half-filled periodic anderson-hubbard model
Hagymási, I.; Itai, K.; Sólyom, J.
2013-05-01
Two very different methods — exact diagonalization on finite chains and a variational method — are used to study the possibility of a metal-insulator transition in the symmetric half-filled periodic Anderson-Hubbard model. With this aim we calculate the density of doubly occupied d sites ( gn d ) as a function of various parameters. In the absence of on-site Coulomb interaction ( U f ) between f electrons, the two methods yield similar results. The double occupancy of d levels remains always finite just as in the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Exact diagonalization on finite chains gives the same result for finite U f , while the Gutzwiller method leads to a Brinkman-Rice transition at a critical value ( U {/d c }), which depends on U f and V.
Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan
2008-01-01
Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.
Renormalization of period doubling in symmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao, J.; Greene, J.M.
1987-01-01
We have determined three maps (truncated at quadratic terms) that are fixed under the renormalization operator of pitchfork period doubling in symmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps. Each of these contains the previously known two-dimensional area-preserving map that is fixed under the period-doubling operator. One of these three fixed maps consists of two uncoupled two-dimensional (nonlinear) area-preserving fixed maps. The other two contain also the two-dimensional area-preserving fixed map coupled (in general) with a linear two-dimensional map. The renormalization calculation recovers all numerical results for the pitchfork period doubling in the symmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps, reported by Mao and Helleman [Phys. Rev. A 35, 1847 (1987)]. For a large class of nonsymmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps, we found that the fixed maps are the same as those for the symmetric maps
Long-period polar rain variations, solar wind and hemispherically symmetric polar rain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makita, K.; Meng, C.
1987-01-01
On the basic of electron data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F2 satellite the long-period variations of the polar rain flux are examined for four consecutive solar rotations. It is clearly demonstrated that the asymmetric enhancement of the polar rain flux is strongly controlled by the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, the orbit-to-orbit and day-to-day variations of the polar rain flux are detected even during a very stable sector period, and the polar rain flux does not have any clear relationship to the magnitude of the IMF B/sub x/ or B/sub y/. Thus the polarity of B/sub x/ controls only the accessibility of a polar region. It is also noticed that the intensity of polar rain fluxes does not show any relationship to the density of the solar wind, suggesting that the origin of the polar rain electrons is different from the commonly observed part of the solar wind electron distribution function. In addition to the asymmetric polar rain distribution, increasing polar rain fluxes of similar high intensity are sometimes detected over both polar caps. An examination of more than 1 year's data from the DMSP F2 and F4 satellites shows that simultaneous intense uniform precipitations (>10 7 electrons/cm 2 s sr) over both polar caps are not coincidental; it also shows that the spectra are similar. The occurrence of hemispherically symmetric events is not common. They generally are observed after an IMF sector transition period, during unstable periods in the sector structure, and while the solar wind density is high. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gadegaard, N.; Almdal, K.; Larsen, N.B.
1999-01-01
The lamellar structure of a symmetric diblock copolymer was studied as a function of temperature. We used dPEP-PDMS with a molecular weight of 8.3 kg/mol as model system. The polymer was dissolved in chloroform and spin-casted on silicon wafers into thin uniform films. The degree and direction...
Steiner symmetrization and the initial coefficients of univalent functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinin, Vladimir N
2010-01-01
We establish the inequality |a 1 | 2 -Rea 1 a -1 ≥|a 1 *| 2 -Rea 1 *a -1 * for the initial coefficients of any function f(z)=a 1 z+a 0 +a -1 /z+? meromorphic and univalent in the domain D={z:|z|>1}, where a 1 * and a -1 * are the corresponding coefficients in the expansion of the function f*(z) that maps the domain D conformally and univalently onto the exterior of the result of the Steiner symmetrization with respect to the real axis of the complement of the set f(D). The Polya-Szego inequality |a 1 |≥|a 1 *| is already known. We describe some applications of our inequality to functions of class Σ.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulina Komar
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Thermoelectric modules based on half-Heusler compounds offer a cheap and clean way to create eco-friendly electrical energy from waste heat. Here we study the impact of the period composition on the electrical and thermal properties in non-symmetric superlattices, where the ratio of components varies according to (TiNiSnn:(HfNiSn6−n, and 0 ⩽ n ⩽ 6 unit cells. The thermal conductivity (κ showed a strong dependence on the material content achieving a minimum value for n = 3, whereas the highest value of the figure of merit ZT was achieved for n = 4. The measured κ can be well modeled using non-symmetric strain relaxation applied to the model of the series of thermal resistances.
Rings of continuous functions, symmetric products, and Frobenius algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchstaber, Viktor M; Rees, E G
2004-01-01
A constructive proof is given for the classical theorem of Gel'fand and Kolmogorov (1939) characterising the image of the evaluation map from a compact Hausdorff space X into the linear space C(X)* dual to the ring C(X) of continuous functions on X. Our approach to the proof enabled us to obtain a more general result characterising the image of the evaluation map from the symmetric products Sym n (X) into C(X)*. A similar result holds if X=C m and leads to explicit equations for symmetric products of affine algebraic varieties as algebraic subvarieties in the linear space dual to the polynomial ring. This leads to a better understanding of the algebra of multisymmetric polynomials. The proof of all these results is based on a formula used by Frobenius in 1896 in defining higher characters of finite groups. This formula had no further applications for a long time; however, it has appeared in several independent contexts during the last fifteen years. It was used by A. Wiles and R.L. Taylor in studying representations and by H.-J. Hoehnke and K.W. Johnson and later by J. McKay in studying finite groups. It plays an important role in our work concerning multivalued groups. Several properties of this remarkable formula are described. It is also used to prove a theorem on the structure constants of Frobenius algebras, which have recently attracted attention due to constructions taken from topological field theory and singularity theory. This theorem develops a result of Hoehnke published in 1958. As a corollary, a direct self-contained proof is obtained for the fact that the 1-, 2-, and 3-characters of the regular representation determine a finite group up to isomorphism. This result was first published by Hoehnke and Johnson in 1992
Scaling Limit of Symmetric Random Walk in High-Contrast Periodic Environment
Piatnitski, A.; Zhizhina, E.
2017-11-01
The paper deals with the asymptotic properties of a symmetric random walk in a high contrast periodic medium in Z^d, d≥1. From the existing homogenization results it follows that under diffusive scaling the limit behaviour of this random walk need not be Markovian. The goal of this work is to show that if in addition to the coordinate of the random walk in Z^d we introduce an extra variable that characterizes the position of the random walk inside the period then the limit dynamics of this two-component process is Markov. We describe the limit process and observe that the components of the limit process are coupled. We also prove the convergence in the path space for the said random walk.
Hypercyclic operators on algebra of symmetric snalytic functions on $\\ell_p$
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Z. H. Mozhyrovska
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the paper, it is proposed a method of construction of hypercyclic composition operators on $H(\\mathbb{C}^n$ using polynomial automorphisms of $\\mathbb{C}^n$ and symmetric analytic functions on $\\ell_p.$ In particular, we show that an ``symmetric translation'' operator is hypercyclic on a Frechet algebra of symmetric entire functions on $\\ell_p$ which are bounded on bounded subsets.
Characteristic function-based semiparametric inference for skew-symmetric models
Potgieter, Cornelis J.
2012-12-26
Skew-symmetric models offer a very flexible class of distributions for modelling data. These distributions can also be viewed as selection models for the symmetric component of the specified skew-symmetric distribution. The estimation of the location and scale parameters corresponding to the symmetric component is considered here, with the symmetric component known. Emphasis is placed on using the empirical characteristic function to estimate these parameters. This is made possible by an invariance property of the skew-symmetric family of distributions, namely that even transformations of random variables that are skew-symmetric have a distribution only depending on the symmetric density. A distance metric between the real components of the empirical and true characteristic functions is minimized to obtain the estimators. The method is semiparametric, in that the symmetric component is specified, but the skewing function is assumed unknown. Furthermore, the methodology is extended to hypothesis testing. Two tests for a hypothesis of specific parameter values are considered, as well as a test for the hypothesis that the symmetric component has a specific parametric form. A resampling algorithm is described for practical implementation of these tests. The outcomes of various numerical experiments are presented. © 2012 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.
Extending SIESTA capabilities: removing field-periodic and stellarator symmetric limitations
Cook, C. R.; Hirshman, S. P.; Sanchez, R.; Anderson, D. T.
2011-10-01
SIESTA is a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium code capable of resolving magnetic islands in toroidal plasma confinement devices. Currently SIESTA assumes that plasma perturbations, and thus also magnetic islands, are field-periodic. This limitation is being removed from the code by allowing the displacement toroidal mode number to not be restricted to multiples of the number of field periods. Extending SIESTA in this manner will allow larger, lower-order resonant islands to form in devices such as CTH. An example of a non-field-periodic perturbation in CTH will be demonstrated. Currently the code also operates in a stellarator-symmetric fashion in which an ``up-down'' symmetry is present at some toroidal angle. Nearly all of the current tokamaks (and ITER in the future) operate with a divertor and as such do not possess stellarator symmetry. Removal of this symmetry restriction requires including both sine and cosine terms in the Fourier expansion for the geometry of the device and the fields contained within. The current status of this extension of the code will be discussed, along with the method of implementation. U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.
Isomorphism and the #betta#-function of the non-linear sigma model in symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hikami, S.
1983-01-01
The renormalization group #betta#-function of the non-linear sigma model in symmetric spaces is discussed via the isomorphic relation and the reciprocal relation about a parameter α. The four-loop term is investigated and the symmetric properties of the #betta#-function are studied. The four-loop term in the #betta#-function is shown to be vanishing for the orthogonal Anderson localization problem. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Louis Dornstetter
2002-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.
Jean-Louis Dornstetter; Daniel Krob; Jean-Yves Thibon; Ekaterina A. Vassilieva
2002-01-01
This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchajkin, V.V.
1977-01-01
The two-dimensional functional is used to show that the mathematical expectation of symmetrical functionals may be represented as a nonlinear functional obtained from the solution of the Boltzman equations (Green's function). For the highest moments of additive detector readings, which are a particular case of symmetrical functionals, a similar result was obtained by the author previously when he studied particles transport with and without multiplication. In physical terms such a concept is conditioned by the absence of moving particles with one another, the assumption of which is the basis of the linear transport theory
Group characters, symmetric functions, and the Hecke algebra
Goldschmidt, David M
1993-01-01
Directed at graduate students and mathematicians, this book covers an unusual set of interrelated topics, presenting a self-contained exposition of the algebra behind the Jones polynomial along with various excursions into related areas. The book is made up of lecture notes from a course taught by Goldschmidt at the University of California at Berkeley in 1989. The course was organized in three parts. Part I covers, among other things, Burnside's Theorem that groups of order p^aq^b are solvable, Frobenius' Theorem on the existence of Frobenius kernels, and Brauer's characterization of characters. Part II covers the classical character theory of the symmetric group and includes an algorithm for computing the character table of S^n ; a construction of the Specht modules; the "determinant form" for the irreducible characters; the hook-length formula of Frame, Robinson, and Thrall; and the Murnaghan-Nakayama formula. Part III covers the ordinary representation theory of the Hecke algebra, the construction of the ...
Completely X-symmetric S-matrices corresponding to theta functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, D.V.
1981-01-01
We consider the realization of the classical Weyl commutation relations using THETA-functions. The representations of the Heisenberg group enable us to realize completely symmetric factorized S-matrices in terms of THETA-functions corresponding to the torsion subgroup of an abelian variety. (orig.)
A family of tridiagonal pairs and related symmetric functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baseilhac, Pascal
2006-01-01
A family of tridiagonal pairs which appear in the context of quantum integrable systems is studied in detail. The corresponding eigenvalue sequences, eigenspaces and the block tridiagonal structure of their matrix realizations with respect the dual eigenbasis are described. The overlap functions between the two dual bases are shown to satisfy a coupled system of recurrence relations and a set of discrete second-order q-difference equations which generalize those associated with the Askey-Wilson orthogonal polynomials with a discrete argument. Normalizing the fundamental solution to unity, the hierarchies of solutions are rational functions of one discrete argument, explicitly derived in some simplest examples. The weight function which ensures the orthogonality of the system of rational functions defined on a discrete real support is given
A family of tridiagonal pairs and related symmetric functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baseilhac, Pascal [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS/UMR 6083, Federation Denis Poisson, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)
2006-09-22
A family of tridiagonal pairs which appear in the context of quantum integrable systems is studied in detail. The corresponding eigenvalue sequences, eigenspaces and the block tridiagonal structure of their matrix realizations with respect the dual eigenbasis are described. The overlap functions between the two dual bases are shown to satisfy a coupled system of recurrence relations and a set of discrete second-order q-difference equations which generalize those associated with the Askey-Wilson orthogonal polynomials with a discrete argument. Normalizing the fundamental solution to unity, the hierarchies of solutions are rational functions of one discrete argument, explicitly derived in some simplest examples. The weight function which ensures the orthogonality of the system of rational functions defined on a discrete real support is given.
Elicited Bid Functions in a (a)Symmetric First-Price Auctions
Pezanis-Christou, P.; Sadrieh, A.
2003-01-01
We report on a series of experiments that examine bidding behavior in first-price sealed bid auctions with symmetric and asymmetric bidders.To study the extent of strategic behavior, we use an experimental design that elicits bidders complete bid functions in each round (auction) of the
Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.
2013-12-01
An alternative approach is proposed to utilize symmetric yield functions for modeling the tension-compression asymmetry commonly observed in hcp materials. In this work, the strength differential (SD) effect is modeled by choosing separate symmetric plane stress yield functions (for example, Barlat Yld 2000-2d) for the tension i.e., in the first quadrant of principal stress space, and compression i.e., third quadrant of principal stress space. In the second and fourth quadrants, the yield locus is constructed by adopting interpolating functions between uniaxial tensile and compressive stress states. In this work, different interpolating functions are chosen and the predictive capability of each approach is discussed. The main advantage of this proposed approach is that the yield locus parameters are deterministic and relatively easy to identify when compared to the Cazacu family of yield functions commonly used for modeling SD effect observed in hcp materials.
Interpolation of magnetic surface functions for an axi-symmetric plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Taiki; Maeyama, Mitsuaki
2000-01-01
Informations of the magnetic surface functions of magnetically confined plasma are indispensable for equilibrium, stability and transport analyses. In this paper, in order to identify a realistic surface functions and compare those with ones which are introduced from Taylor's relaxation theory, we propose a code to interpolate these surface functions for an axi-symmetric plasma from experimentally measured data. To confirm our code, we used the date which were analyzed from known functions given as a measured data. As a result, we have developed a code which can derive surface functions I and P. Effects of measurement error on those functions are also examined. (author)
Commuting periodic operators and the periodic Wigner function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zak, J
2004-01-01
Commuting periodic operators (CPO) depending on the coordinate x-hat and the momentum p-hat operators are defined. The CPO are functions of the two basic commuting operators exp(i x-hat 2π/a) and exp(i/h p-hat a), with a being an arbitrary constant. A periodic Wigner function (PWF) w(x, p) is defined and it is shown that it is applicable in a normal expectation value calculation to the CPO, as done in the original Wigner paper. Moreover, this PWF is non-negative everywhere, and it can therefore be interpreted as an actual probability distribution. The PWF w(x, p) is shown to be given as an expectation value of the periodic Dirac delta function in the phase plane. (letter to the editor)
Symmetric periodic solutions for a class of differential delay equations with distributed delay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Kennedy
2014-03-01
where $g$ and $f$ are smooth, bounded, and odd and satisfy a positive and a negative feedback condition, respectively. Using elementary fixed point theory we prove the existence of a nontrivial periodic solution of period $2 + 2d$ satisfying certain symmetries, given certain growth conditions on $f$ and $g$ near zero.
THE COVARIATION FUNCTION FOR SYMMETRIC &ALPHA;-STABLE RANDOM VARIABLES WITH FINITE FIRST MOMENTS
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Dedi Rosadi
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a generalized dependence measure which is designed to measure dependence of two symmetric α-stable random variables with finite mean(1<α<=2 and contains the covariance function as the special case (when α=2. Weshortly discuss some basic properties of the function and consider several methods to estimate the function and further investigate the numerical properties of the estimatorusing the simulated data. We show how to apply this function to measure dependence of some stock returns on the composite index LQ45 in Indonesia Stock Exchange.
David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity
Gerson, Hope
2008-01-01
This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…
A symmetric integral identity for Bessel functions with applications to integral geometry
Salman, Yehonatan
2017-12-01
In the article of Kunyansky (Inverse Probl 23(1):373-383, 2007) a symmetric integral identity for Bessel functions of the first and second kind was proved in order to obtain an explicit inversion formula for the spherical mean transform where our data is given on the unit sphere in Rn . The aim of this paper is to prove an analogous symmetric integral identity in case where our data for the spherical mean transform is given on an ellipse E in R2 . For this, we will use the recent results obtained by Cohl and Volkmer (J Phys A Math Theor 45:355204, 2012) for the expansions into eigenfunctions of Bessel functions of the first and second kind in elliptical coordinates.
Foundations of symmetric spaces of measurable functions Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces
Rubshtein, Ben-Zion A; Muratov, Mustafa A; Pashkova, Yulia S
2016-01-01
Key definitions and results in symmetric spaces, particularly Lp, Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces are emphasized in this textbook. A comprehensive overview of the Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces is presented based on concepts and results of symmetric spaces. Scientists and researchers will find the application of linear operators, ergodic theory, harmonic analysis and mathematical physics noteworthy and useful. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and may be used as a general reference for the theory of functions, measure theory, and functional analysis. This self-contained text is presented in four parts totaling seventeen chapters to correspond with a one-semester lecture course. Each of the four parts begins with an overview and is subsequently divided into chapters, each of which concludes with exercises and notes. A chapter called “Complements” is included at the end of the text as supplementary material to assist students with independent work.
Mongelli, Pietro
2011-01-01
The Jacobi-Stirling numbers and the Legendre-Stirling numbers of the first and second kind were first introduced in [6], [7]. In this paper we note that Jacobi-Stirling numbers and Legendre-Stirling numbers are specializations of elementary and complete symmetric functions. We then study combinatorial interpretations of this specialization and obtain new combinatorial interpretations of the Jacobi-Stirling and Legendre-Stirling numbers.
Crossing rule for a PT-symmetric two-level time-periodic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseyev, Nimrod
2011-01-01
For a two-level system in a time-periodic field we show that in the non-Hermitian PT case the level crossing is of two quasistationary states that have the same dynamical symmetry property. At the field's parameters where the two levels which have the same dynamical symmetry cross, the corresponding quasienergy states coalesce and a self-orthogonal state is obtained. This situation is very different from the Hermitian case where a crossing of two quasienergy levels happens only when the corresponding two quasistationary states have different dynamical symmetry properties and, unlike the situation in the non-Hermitian case, the spectrum remains complete also when the two levels cross.
Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table
Struyf, Jef
2009-01-01
An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Yousung; Shao, Yihan; Gordon, Mark S.; Doren, Douglas J.; Head-Gordon, Martin
2003-01-01
We report a spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) solution at the symmetric dimer structure for cluster models of Si(100). With this solution, it is shown that the symmetric structure is a minimum on the DFT potential energy surface, although higher in energy than the buckled structure. In restricted DFT calculations the symmetric structure is a saddle point connecting the two buckled minima. To further assess the effects of electron correlation on the relative energies of symmetric versus buckled dimers on Si(100), multireference second order perturbation theory (MRMP2) calculations are performed on these DFT optimized minima. The symmetric structure is predicted to be lower in energy than the buckled structure via MRMP2, while the reverse order is found by DFT. The implications for recent experimental interpretations are discussed
Periodic subsystem density-functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele; Ceresoli, Davide
2014-01-01
By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn–Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn–Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed
Periodic subsystem density-functional theory
Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele
2014-11-01
By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn-Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.
Efficient time-symmetric simulation of torqued rigid bodies using Jacobi elliptic functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celledoni, E; Saefstroem, N
2006-01-01
If the three moments of inertia are distinct, the solution to the Euler equations for the free rigid body is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Using the arithmetic-geometric mean algorithm (Abramowitz and Stegun 1992 Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (New York: Dover)), these functions can be calculated efficiently and accurately. Compared to standard numerical ODE and Lie-Poisson solvers, the overall approach yields a faster and more accurate numerical solution to the Euler equations. This approach is designed for mass asymmetric rigid bodies. In the case of symmetric bodies, the exact solution is available in terms of trigonometric functions, see Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51), Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Benettin et al (2001 SIAM J. Sci. Comp. 23 1189-203) for details. In this paper, we consider the case of asymmetric rigid bodies subject to external forces. We consider a strategy similar to the symplectic splitting method proposed in Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51). The method proposed here is time-symmetric. We decompose the vector field of our problem into a free rigid body (FRB) problem and another completely integrable vector field. The FRB problem consists of the Euler equations and a differential equation for the 3 x 3 orientation matrix. The Euler equations are integrated exactly while the matrix equation is approximated using a truncated Magnus series. In our experiments, we observe that the overall numerical solution benefits greatly from the very accurate solution of the Euler equations. We apply the method to the heavy top and the simulation of artificial satellite attitude dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertem, S. Piril [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Caire, Benjamin R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Tsai, Tsung-Han [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Zeng, Di [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Vandiver, Melissa A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Kusoglu, Ahmet [Energy Conversion Group, Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720; Seifert, Soenke [Energy Conversion Group, Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720; Hayward, Ryan C. [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Weber, Adam Z. [Energy Conversion Group, Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720; Herring, Andrew M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Coughlin, E. Bryan [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive Amherst Massachusetts 01003; Liberatore, Matthew W. [Department of Chemical Engineering Department, University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft Street MS305 Toledo Ohio 43606
2017-02-07
Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a promising class of materials for applications that require selective ion transport, such as fuel cells, water purification, and electrolysis devices. Studies of structure–morphology–property relationships of ion-exchange membranes revealed that block copolymers exhibit improved ion conductivity and mechanical properties due to their microphase-separated morphologies with well-defined ionic domains. While most studies focused on symmetric diblock or triblock copolymers, here, the first example of a midblock quaternized pentablock AEM is presented. A symmetric ABCBA pentablock copolymer was functionalized to obtain a midblock brominated polymer. Solution cast films were then quaternized to obtain AEMs with resulting ion exchange capacities (IEC) ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 mmol/g. Despite the relatively low IEC, the polymers were highly conductive (up to 60 mS/cm Br2 at 90 8C and 95%RH) with low water absorption (<25 wt %) and maintained adequate mechanical properties in both dry and hydrated conditions. Xray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed formation of cylindrical non-ionic domains in a connected ionic phase.
Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur
1996-01-01
This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces
Giner, Emmanuel; Tenti, Lorenzo; Angeli, Celestino; Malrieu, Jean-Paul
2016-09-28
The impact of the antisymmetrization is often addressed as a local property of the many-electron wave function, namely that the wave function should vanish when two electrons with parallel spins are in the same position in space. In this paper, we emphasize that this presentation is unduly restrictive: we illustrate the strong non-local character of the antisymmetrization principle, together with the fact that it is a matter of spin symmetry rather than spin parallelism. To this aim, we focus our attention on the simplest representation of various states of two-electron systems, both in atomic (helium atom) and molecular (H 2 and the π system of the ethylene molecule) cases. We discuss the non-local property of the nodal structure of some two-electron wave functions, both using analytical derivations and graphical representations of cuttings of the nodal hypersurfaces. The attention is then focussed on the impact of the antisymmetrization on the maxima of the two-body density, and we show that it introduces strong correlation effects (radial and/or angular) with a non-local character. These correlation effects are analyzed in terms of inflation and depletion zones, which are easily identifiable, thanks to the nodes of the orbitals composing the wave function. Also, we show that the correlation effects induced by the antisymmetrization occur also for anti-parallel spins since all M s components of a given spin state have the same N-body densities. Finally, we illustrate that these correlation effects occur also for the singlet states, but they have strictly opposite impacts: the inflation zones in the triplet become depletion zones in the singlet and vice versa.
Schur-Convexity for a Class of Symmetric Functions and Its Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Feng Xia
2009-01-01
Full Text Available For x=(x1,x2,…,xn∈R+n, the symmetric function ϕn(x,r is defined by ϕn(x,r=ϕn(x1,x2,…,xn;r=∏1≤i1
Platelet function in the postprandial period
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Sinzinger Helmut
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been related to cardiovascular events. Among different underlying mechanisms platelet activation seems to be responsible too. No comparable data between various tests in normo- vs. hyperlipidemics before and at different time intervals are available after a fat meal. We aimed to compare 9 of them within the same patients at several time points in postprandial hyperlipidemia. Results For some tests baseline values between the groups were significantly different (TXB2, platelet sensitivity, sedimentation and WU-test. However, hyperlipidemia revealed a variable influence on the tests examined. Some of the available tests apparently sensitive to show platelet activation reflect the increase in triglycerides (TG, such as the sedimentation index. ADP-induced platelet aggregatory activity in count adjusted washed isolated platelet samples during postprandial hyperlipidemia indicates mildly enhanced platelet activity, but does not seem to induce significant changes in aggregation. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 400 mg/dl fasting changes in platelet function are more pronounced due to delayed decay and may last up to 16 hours paralleling TG reaching the prevalue. The overwhelming majority of platelet function tests do not significantly respond to postprandial hyperlipidemia. The correlation between the tests applied is poor. For standardization purpose, platelet aggregation tests, aimed to examine proaggregatory capacity in atherosclerosis, should only be performed at the same time of the day after a fasting period > 6 hours. The great variation in preanalytical work-up on comparison of various tests, large number of platelet tests available and their respective potential value are discussed. Conclusions At present, the suspicion that platelet function is significantly activated in the postprandial period cannot be supported by any of the tests used. The
Characteristic function-based semiparametric inference for skew-symmetric models
Potgieter, Cornelis J.; Genton, Marc G.
2012-01-01
testing. Two tests for a hypothesis of specific parameter values are considered, as well as a test for the hypothesis that the symmetric component has a specific parametric form. A resampling algorithm is described for practical implementation
Symmetrized partial-wave method for density-functional cluster calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averill, F.W.; Painter, G.S.
1994-01-01
The computational advantage and accuracy of the Harris method is linked to the simplicity and adequacy of the reference-density model. In an earlier paper, we investigated one way the Harris functional could be extended to systems outside the limits of weakly interacting atoms by making the charge density of the interacting atoms self-consistent within the constraints of overlapping spherical atomic densities. In the present study, a method is presented for augmenting the interacting atom charge densities with symmetrized partial-wave expansions on each atomic site. The added variational freedom of the partial waves leads to a scheme capable of giving exact results within a given exchange-correlation approximation while maintaining many of the desirable convergence and stability properties of the original Harris method. Incorporation of the symmetry of the cluster in the partial-wave construction further reduces the level of computational effort. This partial-wave cluster method is illustrated by its application to the dimer C 2 , the hypothetical atomic cluster Fe 6 Al 8 , and the benzene molecule
Cinar, Bahar; Sert, Ahmet; Gokmen, Zeynel; Aypar, Ebru; Aslan, Eyup; Odabas, Dursun
2015-02-01
Previous studies have demonstrated structural changes in the heart and cardiac dysfunction in foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. There are no available data that evaluated left ventricular dimensions and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. We also assessed associated maternal risk factors, and compared results with healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates. In all, 62 asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, 39 symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, and 50 healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. The asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters and posterior wall diameter in systole and diastole than the control group. The symmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-diastolic diameter than the control group. All left ventricular dimensions were lower in the asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates compared with symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates (p>0.05), but not statistically significant except left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole (3.08±0.83 mm versus 3.54 ±0.72 mm) (pintrauterine growth restriction groups had significantly lower relative posterior wall thickness (0.54±0.19 versus 0.48±0.13 versus 0.8±0.12), left ventricular mass (9.8±4.3 g versus 8.9±3.4 g versus 22.2±5.7 g), and left ventricular mass index (63.6±29.1 g/m2 versus 54.5±24.4 g/m2 versus 109±28.8 g/m2) when compared with the control group. Our study has demonstrated that although neonates with both symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction had lower left ventricular dimensions, relative
Golden, Ryan; Cho, Ilwoo
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study structure theorems of algebras of symmetric functions. Based on a certain relation on elementary symmetric polynomials generating such algebras, we consider perturbation in the algebras. In particular, we understand generators of the algebras as perturbations. From such perturbations, define injective maps on generators, which induce algebra-monomorphisms (or embeddings) on the algebras. They provide inductive structure theorems on algebras of symmetric polynomials. As...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazantzis, P.G.
1979-01-01
New families of three-dimensional double-symmetric periodic orbits are determined numerically in the Sun-Jupiter case of the restricted three-body problem. These families bifurcate from the 'vertical-critical' orbits (αsub(ν) = -1, csub(ν) = 0) of the 'basic' plane families i. g 1 g 2 h, a, m and I. Further the numerical procedure employed in the determination of these families has been described and interesting results have been pointed out. Also, computer plots of the orbits of these families have been shown in conical projections. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen
2013-01-01
Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2013-06-15
Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Pierre Costes
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The preparation of non-symmetric Schiff base ligands possessing one oxime function that is associated to a second function such as pyrrole or phenol function is first described. These ligands, which possess inner N4 or N3O coordination sites, allow formation of cationic or neutral non-symmetric CuII or NiII metallo-ligand complexes under their mono- or di-deprotonated forms. In presence of Lanthanide ions the neutral complexes do not coordinate to the LnIII ions, the oxygen atom of the oxime function being only hydrogen-bonded to a water molecule that is linked to the LnIII ion. This surprising behavior allows for the isolation of LnIII ions by non-interacting metal complexes. Reaction of cationic NiII complexes possessing a protonated oxime function with LnIII ions leads to the formation of original and dianionic (Gd(NO352− entities that are well separated from each other. This work highlights the preparation of well isolated mononuclear LnIII entities into a matrix of diamagnetic metal complexes. These new complexes complete our previous work dealing with the complexing ability of the oxime function toward Lanthanide ions. It could open the way to the synthesis of new entities with interesting properties, such as single-ion magnets for example.
Symmetric cryptographic protocols
Ramkumar, Mahalingam
2014-01-01
This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees. • Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols • Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks • Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases
Whitchurch, Brandon; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Koukouloyannis, Vassilis
2018-01-01
In this work we study the dynamical behavior of two interacting vortex pairs, each one of them consisting of two point vortices with opposite circulation in the two-dimensional plane. The vortices are considered as effective particles and their interaction can be described in classical mechanics terms. We first construct a Poincaré section, for a typical value of the energy, in order to acquire a picture of the structure of the phase space of the system. We divide the phase space in different regions which correspond to qualitatively distinct motions and we demonstrate its different temporal evolution in the "real" vortex space. Our main emphasis is on the leapfrogging periodic orbit, around which we identify a region that we term the "leapfrogging envelope" which involves mostly regular motions, such as higher order periodic and quasiperiodic solutions. We also identify the chaotic region of the phase plane surrounding the leapfrogging envelope as well as the so-called walkabout and braiding motions. Varying the energy as our control parameter, we construct a bifurcation tree of the main leapfrogging solution and its instabilities, as well as the instabilities of its daughter branches. We identify the symmetry-breaking instability of the leapfrogging solution (in line with earlier works), and also obtain the corresponding asymmetric branches of periodic solutions. We then characterize their own instabilities (including period doubling ones) and bifurcations in an effort to provide a more systematic perspective towards the types of motions available to this dynamical system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radović Sanja
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Iris flower is a complex morphological structure composed of two trimerous whorls of functionally distinct petaloid organs (the falls and the standards, one whorl of the stamens and one tricarpellary gynoecium. The petal-like style arms of the carpels are banded over the basal part of the falls, forming three pollination tunnels, each of which is perceived by the Iris pollinators as a single bilaterally symmetrical flower. Apart from the stamens, all petaloid floral organs are preferentially involved in advertising rewards to potential pollinators. Here we used the methods of geometric morphometrics to explore the shape variation in falls, standards and style arms of the Iris pumila flowers and to disentangle the symmetric and the asymmetric component of the total shape variance. Our results show that symmetric variation contributes mostly to the total shape variance in each of the three floral organs. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA was the dominant component of the asymmetric shape variation in the falls and the standards, but appeared to be marginally significant in the style arms. The values of FA indexes for the shape of falls (insects’ landing platforms and for the shape of standards (long-distance reward signals were found to be two orders of magnitude greater compared to that of the style arms. Directional asymmetry appeared to be very low, but highly statistically significant for all analyzed floral organs. Because floral symmetry can reliably indicate the presence of floral rewards, an almost perfect symmetry recorded for the style arm shape might be the outcome of pollinator preferences for symmetrical pollination units. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173007
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corbera, Montserrat; Llibre, Jaume; Perez-Chavela, Ernesto
2006-01-01
In this paper we consider vector fields in R 3 that are invariant under a suitable symmetry and that possess a 'generalized heteroclinic loop' L formed by two singular points (e + and e - ) and their invariant manifolds: one of dimension 2 (a sphere minus the points e + and e - ) and one of dimension 1 (the open diameter of the sphere having endpoints e + and e - ). In particular, we analyse the dynamics of the vector field near the heteroclinic loop L by means of a convenient Poincar? map, and we prove the existence of infinitely many symmetric periodic orbits near L. We also study two families of vector fields satisfying this dynamics. The first one is a class of quadratic polynomial vector fields in R 3 , and the second one is the charged rhomboidal four-body problem
A periodic point-based method for the analysis of Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 symmetric quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, David
2011-01-01
We present a novel method of looking at Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 quantum games. Our method is based on a mathematical connection between the problem of identifying Nash equilibria in game theory, and the topological problem of the periodic points in nonlinear maps. To adapt our method to the original protocol designed by Eisert et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3077-80) to study quantum games, we are forced to extend the space of strategies from the initial proposal. We apply our method to the extended strategy space version of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and find that a new set of Nash equilibria emerge in a natural way. Nash equilibria in this set are optimal as Eisert's solution of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and include this solution as a limit case.
A periodic point-based method for the analysis of Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 symmetric quantum games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, David, E-mail: schneide@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de EnergIa Atomica. Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-03-04
We present a novel method of looking at Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 quantum games. Our method is based on a mathematical connection between the problem of identifying Nash equilibria in game theory, and the topological problem of the periodic points in nonlinear maps. To adapt our method to the original protocol designed by Eisert et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3077-80) to study quantum games, we are forced to extend the space of strategies from the initial proposal. We apply our method to the extended strategy space version of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and find that a new set of Nash equilibria emerge in a natural way. Nash equilibria in this set are optimal as Eisert's solution of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and include this solution as a limit case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1993-01-01
The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqiang Di
Full Text Available Both symmetric and asymmetric color image encryption have advantages and disadvantages. In order to combine their advantages and try to overcome their disadvantages, chaos synchronization is used to avoid the key transmission for the proposed semi-symmetric image encryption scheme. Our scheme is a hybrid chaotic encryption algorithm, and it consists of a scrambling stage and a diffusion stage. The control law and the update rule of function projective synchronization between the 3-cell quantum cellular neural networks (QCNN response system and the 6th-order cellular neural network (CNN drive system are formulated. Since the function projective synchronization is used to synchronize the response system and drive system, Alice and Bob got the key by two different chaotic systems independently and avoid the key transmission by some extra security links, which prevents security key leakage during the transmission. Both numerical simulations and security analyses such as information entropy analysis, differential attack are conducted to verify the feasibility, security, and efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Pradipta [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sudip, E-mail: sudip_chattopadhyay@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray, E-mail: jprc_8@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)
2012-06-19
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exploration of directed transport in stochastic systems with embedded nonlinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formalism is valid for open system in the presence of arbitrary periodic potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective temperature depends on correlation time and extent of correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the directed motion in presence of external cross-correlated noises. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Steady state current increases with increase in the extent of correlation. - Abstract: Starting from a Langevin description of a particle submerged in a heat bath that offers a state dependent dissipation, we examine the noise-induced transport of a Brownian particle in the presence of two external, mutually correlated noises and envisage that in a symmetric periodic potential, the steady state current increases with an increase in the extent of correlation. The study of inhomogeneous diffusion in the presence of colored noise makes the present development formally interesting since this brings in a direct implication that exercising control on the degree of correlation can enhance the current in a properly designed experiment. As an offshoot of this development, we also envisage an effective temperature that depends on the correlation time and the extent of correlation.
Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Li, Xin
2018-02-01
The influence of spatially-periodic momentum modulation on beam dynamics in parity-time (PT) symmetric optical lattice is systematically investigated in the one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations. In the linear regime, we demonstrate that the momentum modulation can alter the first and second PT thresholds of the classical lattice, periodically or regularly change the shapes of the band structure, rotate and split the diffraction patterns of beams leading to multiple refraction and emissions. In the Kerr-nonlinear regime for one-dimension (1D) case, a large family of fundamental solitons within the semi-infinite gap can be found to be stable, even beyond the second PT threshold; it is shown that the momentum modulation can shrink the existing range of fundamental solitons and not change their stability. For two-dimension (2D) case, most solitons with higher intensities are relatively unstable in their existing regions which are narrower than those in 1D case, but we also find stable fundamental solitons corroborated by linear stability analysis and direct beam propagation. More importantly, the momentum modulation can also utterly change the direction of the transverse power flow and control the energy exchange among gain or loss regions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. V. Vasylyshyn
2017-07-01
Full Text Available It is known that the so-called elementary symmetric polynomials $R_n(x = \\int_{[0,1]}(x(t^n\\,dt$ form an algebraic basis in the algebra of all symmetric continuous polynomials on the complex Banach space $L_\\infty,$ which is dense in the Fr\\'{e}chet algebra $H_{bs}(L_\\infty$ of all entire symmetric functions of bounded type on $L_\\infty.$ Consequently, every continuous homomorphism $\\varphi: H_{bs}(L_\\infty \\to \\mathbb{C}$ is uniquely determined by the sequence $\\{\\varphi(R_n\\}_{n=1}^\\infty.$ By the continuity of the homomorphism $\\varphi,$ the sequence $\\{\\sqrt[n]{|\\varphi(R_n|}\\}_{n=1}^\\infty$ is bounded. On the other hand, for every sequence $\\{\\xi_n\\}_{n=1}^\\infty \\subset \\mathbb{C},$ such that the sequence $\\{\\sqrt[n]{|\\xi_n|}\\}_{n=1}^\\infty$ is bounded, there exists $x_\\xi \\in L_\\infty$ such that $R_n(x_\\xi = \\xi_n$ for every $n \\in \\mathbb{N}.$ Therefore, for the point-evaluation functional $\\delta_{x_\\xi}$ we have $\\delta_{x_\\xi}(R_n = \\xi_n$ for every $n \\in \\mathbb{N}.$ Thus, every continuous complex-valued homomorphism of $H_{bs}(L_\\infty$ is a point-evaluation functional at some point of $L_\\infty.$ Note that such a point is not unique. We can consider an equivalence relation on $L_\\infty,$ defined by $x\\sim y \\Leftrightarrow \\delta_x = \\delta_y.$ The spectrum (the set of all continuous complex-valued homomorphisms $M_{bs}$ of the algebra $H_{bs}(L_\\infty$ is one-to-one with the quotient set $L_\\infty/_\\sim.$ Consequently, $M_{bs}$ can be endowed with the quotient topology. On the other hand, it is naturally to identify $M_{bs}$ with the set of all sequences $\\{\\xi_n\\}_{n=1}^\\infty \\subset \\mathbb{C}$ such that the sequence $\\{\\sqrt[n]{|\\xi_n|}\\}_{n=1}^\\infty$ is bounded.We show that the quotient topology is Hausdorffand that $M_{bs}$ with the operation of coordinate-wise addition of sequences forms an abelian topological group.
Circulant Matrices and Affine Equivalence of Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions
2015-01-01
degree of the MRS is, we have a similar result as [40, Theorem 1.1] for n = 4p (p prime), or squarefree integers n, which along with our Theorem 5.2...Boolean functions: Construction and analysis in terms of algebraic immunity, in: H. Gilbert, H. Handschuh (Eds.), Fast Software Encryption, in: LNCS...vol. 1403, Springer-Verlag, 1998, pp. 475–488. [20] J.E. Fuller, Analysis of affine equivalent Boolean functions for cryptography (Ph.D. thesis
Wang, Kun; Schoonover, Robert W; Su, Richard; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A
2014-05-01
Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is an emerging computed biomedical imaging modality that exploits optical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms that are based on discrete imaging models are actively being developed for OAT due to their ability to improve image quality by incorporating accurate models of the imaging physics, instrument response, and measurement noise. In this work, we investigate the use of discrete imaging models based on Kaiser-Bessel window functions for iterative image reconstruction in OAT. A closed-form expression for the pressure produced by a Kaiser-Bessel function is calculated, which facilitates accurate computation of the system matrix. Computer-simulation and experimental studies are employed to demonstrate the potential advantages of Kaiser-Bessel function-based iterative image reconstruction in OAT.
The period function of the generalized Lotka-Volterra centers
Villadelprat, J.
2008-05-01
The present paper deals with the period function of the quadratic centers. In the literature different terminologies are used to classify these centers, but essentially there are four families: Hamiltonian, reversible , codimension four Q4 and generalized Lotka-Volterra systems . Chicone [C. Chicone, Review in MathSciNet, Ref. 94h:58072] conjectured that the reversible centers have at most two critical periods, and that the centers of the three other families have a monotonic period function. With regard to the second part of this conjecture, only the monotonicity of the Hamiltonian and Q4 families [W.A. Coppel, L. Gavrilov, The period function of a Hamiltonian quadratic system, Differential Integral Equations 6 (1993) 1357-1365; Y. Zhao, The monotonicity of period function for codimension four quadratic system Q4, J. Differential Equations 185 (2002) 370-387] has been proved. Concerning the family, no substantial progress has been made since the middle 80s, when several authors showed independently the monotonicity of the classical Lotka-Volterra centers [F. Rothe, The periods of the Volterra-Lokta system, J. Reine Angew. Math. 355 (1985) 129-138; R. Schaaf, Global behaviour of solution branches for some Neumann problems depending on one or several parameters, J. Reine Angew. Math. 346 (1984) 1-31; J. Waldvogel, The period in the Lotka-Volterra system is monotonic, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 114 (1986) 178-184]. By means of the first period constant one can easily conclude that the period function of the centers in the family is monotone increasing near the inner boundary of its period annulus (i.e., the center itself). Thus, according to Chicone's conjecture, it should be also monotone increasing near the outer boundary, which in the Poincaré disc is a polycycle. In this paper we show that this is true. In addition we prove that, except for a zero measure subset of the parameter plane, there is no bifurcation of critical periods from the outer boundary. Finally we
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.
1981-01-01
We consider general expressions of factorized S-matrices with Abelian symmetry expressed in terms of theta-functions. These expressions arise from representations of the Heisenberg group. New examples of factorized S-matrices lead to a large class of completely integrable models of statistical mechanics which generalize the XYZ-model of the eight-vertex model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haeggblom, H.
1968-08-01
The method of calculating the resonance interaction effect by series expansions has been studied. Starting from the assumption that the neutron flux in a homogeneous mixture is inversely proportional to the total cross section, the expression for the flux can be simplified by series expansions. Two types of expansions are investigated and it is shown that only one of them is generally applicable. It is also shown that this expansion gives sufficient accuracy if the approximate resonance line shape function is reasonably representative. An investigation is made of the approximation of the resonance shape function with a Gaussian function which in some cases has been used to calculate the interaction effect. It is shown that this approximation is not sufficiently accurate in all cases which can occur in practice. Then, a rational approximation is introduced which in the first order approximation gives the same order of accuracy as a practically exact shape function. The integrations can be made analytically in the complex plane and the method is therefore very fast compared to purely numerical integrations. The method can be applied both to statistically correlated and uncorrelated resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haeggblom, H
1968-08-15
The method of calculating the resonance interaction effect by series expansions has been studied. Starting from the assumption that the neutron flux in a homogeneous mixture is inversely proportional to the total cross section, the expression for the flux can be simplified by series expansions. Two types of expansions are investigated and it is shown that only one of them is generally applicable. It is also shown that this expansion gives sufficient accuracy if the approximate resonance line shape function is reasonably representative. An investigation is made of the approximation of the resonance shape function with a Gaussian function which in some cases has been used to calculate the interaction effect. It is shown that this approximation is not sufficiently accurate in all cases which can occur in practice. Then, a rational approximation is introduced which in the first order approximation gives the same order of accuracy as a practically exact shape function. The integrations can be made analytically in the complex plane and the method is therefore very fast compared to purely numerical integrations. The method can be applied both to statistically correlated and uncorrelated resonances.
Period functions for Maass wave forms and cohomology
Bruggeman, R; Zagier, D; Bruggeman, R W; Zagier, D
2015-01-01
The authors construct explicit isomorphisms between spaces of Maass wave forms and cohomology groups for discrete cofinite groups \\Gamma\\subset\\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{R}}). In the case that \\Gamma is the modular group \\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{Z}}) this gives a cohomological framework for the results in Period functions for Maass wave forms. I, of J. Lewis and D. Zagier in Ann. Math. 153 (2001), 191-258, where a bijection was given between cuspidal Maass forms and period functions. The authors introduce the concepts of mixed parabolic cohomology group and semi-analytic vectors in principal serie
Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C.
2015-01-01
This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper. PMID:26230694
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Molina-García
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors. Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.
Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C
2015-07-29
This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.
Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children.
Gale, Catharine R; O'Callaghan, Finbar J; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Martyn, Christopher N
2004-02-01
There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship between brain growth in different periods of pre- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87 points (95% CI 1.05 to 4.69) for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 years of age, after adjustment for sex, number of older siblings, maternal IQ, age, education, social class, duration of breastfeeding and history of low mood in the post-partum period. Postnatal head growth was significantly greater in children whose mothers were educated to degree level or of higher socio-economic status. There was no relation between IQ and measurements of head size at 18 weeks gestation or at birth. These results suggest that brain growth during infancy and early childhood is more important than growth during foetal life in determining cognitive function.
A Simple Quantum Neural Net with a Periodic Activation Function
Daskin, Ammar
2018-01-01
In this paper, we propose a simple neural net that requires only $O(nlog_2k)$ number of qubits and $O(nk)$ quantum gates: Here, $n$ is the number of input parameters, and $k$ is the number of weights applied to these parameters in the proposed neural net. We describe the network in terms of a quantum circuit, and then draw its equivalent classical neural net which involves $O(k^n)$ nodes in the hidden layer. Then, we show that the network uses a periodic activation function of cosine values o...
Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.
1984-01-01
A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.
Further results on periods and period doubling for iterates of the trapezoic function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyer, W.A.; Stein, P.R.
1982-01-01
The trapezoidal function lambda f/sub e/(x), is defined for fixed e element of (0,1] and for lambda element of [1,2] by lambda f/sub e/ (x) = lambda for /x-1/< 1-e and lambda f/sub e/(x) = lambda(1-/x-1/)/(1-e) for 1 greater than or equal to /x-1/greater than or equal to 1-e. For a fixed e, this is a one parameter family of endomorphisms of the interval [0,2]. The structure of the periods (or cycles) of these mappings is studied. In addition, the metric properties of the corresponding bifurcation diagrams are considered; in particular, the rate of convergence of a sequence of bifurcation points in the (x,lambda) plane is studied. It is shown to be different from that found by Feigenbaum and others for mappings which are not flat at the top. The limiting case e = 1 is of special interest. For cycles and containing a point x element of[e,2-e], the period quadruplicates instead of doubling as it does in the usual case
Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.
Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R
2015-08-01
Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Period doubling for trapezoid function iteration: metric theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyer, W.A.; Stein, P.R.
1982-01-01
Iterations of a one-parameter family F(lambda,x) = lambda f(x) of endomorphisms of [0,2] having the form of a trapezoid f(x) = x/e for x belongs to [0,e], f(x) = 1 for x belongs to (e,2 - e) and f(x) = (2 - x)/e for x belongs to [2 - e,2], are investigated. Here lambda belongs to [1,2] and e belongs to (0,1). Let lambda/sub n/ be the smallest value of lambda > 1 for which x = 1 is a periodic point of period 2/sup n/. It is proved that for e < 0.99, lambda/sub n/ - lambda/sub n-1/ approx. = k(lambda/sub infinity//e)/sup -2n/, where k is some constant and lambda/sub infinity/ = lim/sub n→infinity/lambda/sub n/. The same conclusion probably holds for any e < 1. This behavior is substantially different from that found by Feigenbaum and others for the case where f(x) assumes its maximum value for a unique x. Numerical investigations are reported for functions related to the trapezoid function
Designing advanced functional periodic mesoporous organosilicas for biomedical applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dolores Esquivel
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs, reported for the first time in 1999, constitute a new branch of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high-ordered structures, uniform pore size and homogenous distribution of organic bridges into a silica framework. Unlike conventional mesoporous silicas, these materials offer the possibility to adjust the surface (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and physical properties (morphology, porosity as well as their mechanical stability through the incorporation of different functional organic moieties in their pore walls. A broad variety of PMOs has been designed for their subsequent application in many fields. More recently, PMOs have attracted growing interest in emerging areas as biology and biomedicine. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent breakthroughs achieved for PMOs in biological and biomedical applications.
Availability and cost functions for periodically inspected preventively maintained units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaurio, J.K.
1999-01-01
Unavailability and cost rate functions are developed for components whose failures can occur randomly but they are detected only by periodic testing or inspections. If a failure occurs between consecutive inspections, the unit remains failed until the next inspection. Components are renewed by preventive maintenance periodically, or by repair or replacement after a failure, whichever occurs first (age-replacement). The model takes into account finite repair and maintenance durations as well as costs due to testing, repair, maintenance and lost production or accidents. For normally operating units the time-related penalty is loss of production. For standby safety equipment it is the expected cost of an accident that can happen when the component is down due to a dormant failure, repair or maintenance. The objective of maintenance optimization is to minimize the total cost rate by proper selection of two intervals, one for inspections and one for replacements. General conditions and techniques are developed for solving optimal test and maintenance intervals, with and without constraints on the production loss or accident rate. Insights are gained into how the optimal intervals depend on various cost parameters and reliability characteristics
Ramachary, Dhevalapally B; Venkaiah, Chintalapudi; Reddy, Y Vijayendar; Kishor, Mamillapalli
2009-05-21
In this paper we describe new multi-catalysis cascade (MCC) reactions for the one-pot synthesis of highly functionalized non-symmetrical malonates. These metal-free reactions are either five-step (olefination/hydrogenation/alkylation/ketenization/esterification) or six-step (olefination/hydrogenation/alkylation/ketenization/esterification/alkylation), and employ aldehydes/ketones, Meldrum's acid, 1,4-dihydropyridine/o-phenylenediamine, diazomethane, alcohols and active ethylene/acetylenes, and involve iminium-, self-, self-, self- and base-catalysis, respectively. Many of the products have direct application in agricultural and pharmaceutical chemistry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalas, D.; Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.
1976-01-01
A numerical method is presented of solving the radiative transfer equation in the comoving frame of a spherically symmetric expanding atmosphere in which both the line and the electron-scattering source function can depend on frequency (i.e., when there is partial frequency redistribution in the scattering process). This method is used to assess the adequacy of various assumptions regarding frequency redistribution in the comoving frame and to discuss the effects of electron scattering more accurately than previously possible. The methods developed here can be used in realistic model atmospheres to account for the (major) effects of electron scattering upon emergent flux profiles
Onozuka, Takashi; Niizeki, Komajiro
1998-09-01
Variation of the lattice-modulation period p a of the “incommensurate” phase Bi2Br2(Ca1-xPrx)Cu2O8+δ (0≦x≦0.72) with Pr-concentration x was examined by electron diffraction. The plot of p a versus x exhibits roughly a linear decrease but it has a staircase structure. The period of each stair, p a, agrees with a value expected for a commensurate structure. We observed nine stairs which are symmetrically arranged; the central stair corresponds to the primary structure with a simple modulation, and a stair on the left (or right) corresponds to a structure which is derived from the primary structure by introducing an advanced (or delayed) discommensuration. The observed structures cover a full range of commensurate structures predicted theoretically.
Jiang, Haiyong
2016-04-11
We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.
Symmetrization of Facade Layouts
Jiang, Haiyong; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Nan, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaopeng
2016-01-01
We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.
Jiang, Haiyong; Dong, Weiming; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng
2016-01-01
We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.
Symmetrization of Facade Layouts
Jiang, Haiyong
2016-02-26
We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.
Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
College of Agricultural Engineering & Post Harvest Technology (CAEPHT),. Central Agricultural ... during the recession period is the key to its proper management. The spring .... In equation (1), Q is the recession flow, t is time, and a, b are ...
Functional activity of cows in body povnovikovyh independent period
PISCHAN S.; LYTVYSCHENKO L.; MARTYNENKO A.; PISCHAN І.
2011-01-01
The results of studies of physiological and productive milking cows in the early postnatal period. Proved that nepatolohichna modified organism physiological state accompanied by changes in body temperature, milk production and quality of dairy animals.
Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions
Vicknair, David; Spruell, James
2009-01-01
An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…
Momentum Distribution Functions in a One-Dimensional Extended Periodic Anderson Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Hagymási
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the momentum distribution of the electrons in an extended periodic Anderson model, where the interaction, Ucf, between itinerant and localized electrons is taken into account. In the symmetric half-filled model, due to the increase of the interorbital interaction, the f electrons become more and more delocalized, while the itinerancy of conduction electrons decreases. Above a certain value of Ucf the f electrons become again localized together with the conduction electrons. In the less than half-filled case, we observe that Ucf causes strong correlations between the f electrons in the mixed valence regime.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zobel, Emilie H; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik
2017-01-01
IDI). C statistic (area under the curve) quantifies the model's improved ability to discriminate events from non-events. rIDI quantifies the increase in separation of events and non-events on a relative scale. RESULTS: Higher SDMA was associated with increased risk of all three endpoints (unadjusted: p......BACKGROUND: To evaluate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in renal function in a well characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms...... of coronary artery disease. METHODS: 200 participants followed for 6.1 years. SDMA and ADMA were measured at baseline. Endpoints included (1) composite cardiovascular endpoint (n = 40); (2) all-cause mortality (n = 26); and (3) decline in eGFR of >30% (n = 42). Cox models were unadjusted and adjusted...
Martínez, A; Patrykiejew, A; Sokolowski, S
2003-01-01
We investigate adsorption in slit-like pores of model symmetric binary mixtures exhibiting demixing in bulk phase, by using a density functional approach. Our focus is on the evaluation of the first-order phase transitions in adsorbed fluids and the lines separating mixed and demixed phases. The scenario for phase transitions is sensitive to the pore width and to the energy of adsorption. Both these parameters can change the phase diagrams of the confined fluid. In particular, for relatively wide pores and for strong wall-fluid interactions, the demixing line can precede the first-order transition. Moreover, a competition between layering transitions and demixing within particular layers also leads to further enrichment of the phase diagram.
Diagrams for symmetric product orbifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pakman, Ari; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S.
2009-01-01
We develop a diagrammatic language for symmetric product orbifolds of two-dimensional conformal field theories. Correlation functions of twist operators are written as sums of diagrams: each diagram corresponds to a branched covering map from a surface where the fields are single-valued to the base sphere where twist operators are inserted. This diagrammatic language facilitates the study of the large N limit and makes more transparent the analogy between symmetric product orbifolds and free non-abelian gauge theories. We give a general algorithm to calculate the leading large N contribution to four-point correlators of twist fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julie S Pendergast
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The mammalian circadian system, which is composed of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN as well as other oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues, controls daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. Lesions of the SCN abolish circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and transplants of fetal SCN tissue restore rhythmic behavior with the periodicity of the donor's genotype, suggesting that the SCN determines the period of the circadian behavioral rhythm. According to the model of timekeeping in the SCN, the Period (Per genes are important elements of the transcriptional/translational feedback loops that generate the endogenous circadian rhythm. Previous studies have investigated the functions of the Per genes by examining locomotor activity in mice lacking functional PERIOD proteins. Variable behavioral phenotypes were observed depending on the line and genetic background of the mice. In the current study we assessed both wheel-running activity and Per1-promoter-driven luciferase expression (Per1-luc in cultured SCN, pituitary, and lung explants from Per2(-/- and Per3(-/- mice congenic with the C57BL/6J strain. We found that the Per2(-/- phenotype is enhanced in vitro compared to in vivo, such that the period of Per1-luc expression in Per2(-/- SCN explants is 1.5 hours shorter than in Per2+/+ SCN, while the free-running period of wheel-running activity is only 11 minutes shorter in Per2(-/- compared to Per2+/+ mice. In contrast, circadian rhythms in SCN explants from Per3(-/- mice do not differ from Per3+/+ mice. Instead, the period and phase of Per1-luc expression are significantly altered in Per3(-/- pituitary and lung explants compared to Per3+/+ mice. Taken together these data suggest that the function of each Per gene may differ between tissues. Per2 appears to be important for period determination in the SCN, while Per3 participates in timekeeping in the pituitary and lung.
Functional Requirements for Continuation Period Equipment and Drilling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sweeney, J.J.
2000-01-01
For geophysical measurements, creating a functional requirement based on finding a specific-sized target at a specific depth is difficult because of the wide variation of subsurface and surface geologic conditions that can be encountered. An alternative approach used in this paper is to specify functional requirements based on what is needed to search for the effects of a given target within a reasonable background of environmental or geological variation (noise). There is a gap between what the state-of-the-art expert with a large amount of experience can be expected to accomplish and what a non-expert inspector with limited experience can do. There are also limitations because of the Treaty environment (equipment certification, transparency, managed access, etc.); thus, for OSI, we must opt for pragmatic approach. Equipment must be easy to use, rugged, and functional over a wide range of environmental conditions. Equipment should consist of commercially available technology. Well-established operational procedures should be used for taking measurements, reducing data, and presenting data, with software mostly provided by the manufacturer along with the equipment. Equipment should be used in conjunction with WGB-approved position-finding equipment capable of relative position determinations pertinent to the type of equipment and measurement
Cendagorta, Joseph R; Bačić, Zlatko; Tuckerman, Mark E
2018-03-14
We introduce a scheme for approximating quantum time correlation functions numerically within the Feynman path integral formulation. Starting with the symmetrized version of the correlation function expressed as a discretized path integral, we introduce a change of integration variables often used in the derivation of trajectory-based semiclassical methods. In particular, we transform to sum and difference variables between forward and backward complex-time propagation paths. Once the transformation is performed, the potential energy is expanded in powers of the difference variables, which allows us to perform the integrals over these variables analytically. The manner in which this procedure is carried out results in an open-chain path integral (in the remaining sum variables) with a modified potential that is evaluated using imaginary-time path-integral sampling rather than requiring the generation of a large ensemble of trajectories. Consequently, any number of path integral sampling schemes can be employed to compute the remaining path integral, including Monte Carlo, path-integral molecular dynamics, or enhanced path-integral molecular dynamics. We believe that this approach constitutes a different perspective in semiclassical-type approximations to quantum time correlation functions. Importantly, we argue that our approximation can be systematically improved within a cumulant expansion formalism. We test this approximation on a set of one-dimensional problems that are commonly used to benchmark approximate quantum dynamical schemes. We show that the method is at least as accurate as the popular ring-polymer molecular dynamics technique and linearized semiclassical initial value representation for correlation functions of linear operators in most of these examples and improves the accuracy of correlation functions of nonlinear operators.
Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Bačić, Zlatko; Tuckerman, Mark E.
2018-03-01
We introduce a scheme for approximating quantum time correlation functions numerically within the Feynman path integral formulation. Starting with the symmetrized version of the correlation function expressed as a discretized path integral, we introduce a change of integration variables often used in the derivation of trajectory-based semiclassical methods. In particular, we transform to sum and difference variables between forward and backward complex-time propagation paths. Once the transformation is performed, the potential energy is expanded in powers of the difference variables, which allows us to perform the integrals over these variables analytically. The manner in which this procedure is carried out results in an open-chain path integral (in the remaining sum variables) with a modified potential that is evaluated using imaginary-time path-integral sampling rather than requiring the generation of a large ensemble of trajectories. Consequently, any number of path integral sampling schemes can be employed to compute the remaining path integral, including Monte Carlo, path-integral molecular dynamics, or enhanced path-integral molecular dynamics. We believe that this approach constitutes a different perspective in semiclassical-type approximations to quantum time correlation functions. Importantly, we argue that our approximation can be systematically improved within a cumulant expansion formalism. We test this approximation on a set of one-dimensional problems that are commonly used to benchmark approximate quantum dynamical schemes. We show that the method is at least as accurate as the popular ring-polymer molecular dynamics technique and linearized semiclassical initial value representation for correlation functions of linear operators in most of these examples and improves the accuracy of correlation functions of nonlinear operators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Ying Zheng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Through embedding an in-house subroutine into FLUENT code by utilizing the functionalization of user-defined function provided by the software, a new numerical simulation methodology on viscoelastic fluid flows has been established. In order to benchmark this methodology, numerical simulations under different viscoelastic fluid solution concentrations (with solvent viscosity ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.9, extensibility parameters (100≤L2≤500, Reynolds numbers (0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 100, and Weissenberg numbers (0 ≤ Wi ≤ 20 are conducted on unsteady laminar flows through a symmetric planar sudden expansion with expansion ratio of 1: 3 for viscoelastic fluid flows. The constitutive model used to describe the viscoelastic effect of viscoelastic fluid flow is FENE-P (finitely extensive nonlinear elastic-Peterlin model. The numerical simulation results show that the influences of elasticity, inertia, and concentration on the flow bifurcation characteristics are more significant than those of extensibility. The present simulation results including the critical Reynolds number for which the flow becomes asymmetric, vortex size, bifurcation diagram, velocity distribution, streamline, and pressure loss show good agreements with some published results. That means the newly established method based on FLUENT software platform for simulating peculiar flow behaviors of viscoelastic fluid is credible and suitable for the study of viscoelastic fluid flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui-Sheng Ding
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we first introduce a new class of pseudo almost periodic type functions and investigate some properties of pseudo almost periodic type functions; and then we discuss the existence of pseudo almost periodic solutions to the class of abstract partial functional differential equations $x'(t=Ax(t+f(t,x_t$ with finite delay in a Banach space X.
Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces
Quast, Peter
2011-01-01
We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prunele, E de
2003-01-01
Conditions for bound states for a periodic linear chain are given within the framework of an exactly solvable non-relativistic quantum-mechanical model in three-dimensional space. These conditions express the strength parameter in terms of the distance between two consecutive centres of the chain, and of the range interaction parameter. This expression can be formulated in terms of polylogarithm functions, and, in some particular cases, in terms of the Riemann zeta function. An interesting mathematical result is that these expressions also correspond to the spectra of Toeplitz complex symmetric operators. The non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function are interpreted as multiple points, at the origin, of the spectra of these Toeplitz operators
Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2007-01-01
Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced
A symmetrical rail accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igenbergs, E.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuki, Takayuki
1976-01-01
Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)
Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.; Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.
1996-01-01
The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design
Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics
Zhao, Han
2018-01-17
The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.
Global convergence of periodic solution of neural networks with discontinuous activation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Lihong; Guo Zhenyuan
2009-01-01
In this paper, without assuming boundedness and monotonicity of the activation functions, we establish some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and global asymptotic stability of periodic solution of neural networks with discontinuous activation functions by using the Yoshizawa-like theorem and constructing proper Lyapunov function. The obtained results improve and extend previous works.
Two Point Correlation Functions for a Periodic Box-Ball System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Mada
2011-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate correlation functions in a periodic box-ball system. For the second and the third nearest neighbor correlation functions, we give explicit formulae obtained by combinatorial methods. A recursion formula for a specific N-point functions is also presented.
Periodic differential equations an introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and allied functions
Arscott, Felix M; Stark, M; Ulam, S
1964-01-01
Periodic Differential Equations: An Introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and Allied Functions covers the fundamental problems and techniques of solution of periodic differential equations. This book is composed of 10 chapters that present important equations and the special functions they generate, ranging from Mathieu's equation to the intractable ellipsoidal wave equation.This book starts with a survey of the main problems related to the formation of periodic differential equations. The subsequent chapters deal with the general theory of Mathieu's equation, Mathieu functions of integral order, and
Multiparty symmetric sum types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...
Symmetric Tensor Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard
2010-01-01
We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....
TWIN POSITIVE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS OF FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH INFINITE DELAY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, the author studies a class of nonlinear functional differential equation. By using a fixed point theorem in cones, sufficient conditions are established for the existence of twin positive periodic solutions.
Distributed Searchable Symmetric Encryption
Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Leenders, Bram; Lim, Hoon Wei; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Huaxiong; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem
Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) allows a client to store encrypted data on a storage provider in such a way, that the client is able to search and retrieve the data selectively without the storage provider learning the contents of the data or the words being searched for. Practical SSE schemes
The Bessel-Struve intertwining operator on ℂ and mean-periodic functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gasmi
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We give a description of all transmutation operators from the Bessel-Struve operator to the second-derivative operator. Next we define and characterize the mean-periodic functions on the space ℋ of entire functions and we characterize the continuous linear mappings from ℋ into itself which commute with Bessel-Struve operator.
[Dynamics of functional status of submarine personnel during the pre-deployment period].
Khankevich, Iu R; Bloshchinskiĭ, I A; Val'skiĭ, A V; Nabokov, N L
2014-09-01
Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuce, C.
2014-01-01
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuce, C., E-mail: cyuce@anadolu.edu.tr
2014-06-13
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists.
Lee, Hyoin; Jung, Seungmoon; Lee, Peter; Jeong, Yong
2017-10-01
The latent period, a seizure-free phase, is the duration between brain injury and the onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) during epileptogenesis. The latent period is thought to involve several progressive pathophysiological events that lead to the evolution of the chronic epilepsy phase. Hence, it is vital to investigate the changes in the latent period during epileptogenesis in order to better understand temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to achieve early diagnosis and appropriate management of the condition. Accordingly, recent studies with patients with TLE using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have reported that alterations of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) during the chronic period are associated with some clinical manifestations, including learning and memory impairments, emotional instability, and social behavior deficits, in addition to repetitive seizure episodes. In contrast, the changes in the intrinsic rsFC during epileptogenesis, particularly during the latent period, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the alterations in intrinsic rsFC during the latent and chronic periods in a pilocarpine-induced TLE mouse model using intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI). This technique can monitor the changes in the local hemoglobin concentration according to neuronal activity and can help investigate large-scale brain intrinsic networks. After seeding on the anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) and calculating the correlation coefficients between each ROI, we established and compared functional correlation matrices and functional connectivity maps during the latent and chronic periods of epilepsy. We found a decrease in the interhemispheric rsFC at the frontal and temporal regions during both the latent and chronic periods. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the interhemispheric rsFC was observed in the somatosensory area during the chronic period. Changes in network configurations during
Periodicities common to the solar atmosphere rotation and the functioning of human organism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyagun, N.F.
1995-01-01
The study is made of the occurrence rates of menstrual cycle periods for ∼ 2000 women. Peaks on the distribution histogram, corresponding to 21, 25, 28 and 30 days, coincide with a set of axial rotation periods of the solar atmosphere. It is proposed that the functioning of human organism is determined not only by the Moon bu by the rithmics of solar system. 10 refs., 1 fig
Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by linear functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)] e-mail: konst@citedi.mx
2005-08-01
This paper is concerned with the localization problem of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by using linear functions. Conditions of the localization of all periodic orbits in sets of a simple structure are obtained. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and the application of homogeneous polynomial forms of even degrees. As examples, the Lanford system, the jerky system with one quadratic monomial and a quartically perturbed harmonic oscillator are considered.
Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by linear functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starkov, Konstantin E.
2005-01-01
This paper is concerned with the localization problem of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by using linear functions. Conditions of the localization of all periodic orbits in sets of a simple structure are obtained. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and the application of homogeneous polynomial forms of even degrees. As examples, the Lanford system, the jerky system with one quadratic monomial and a quartically perturbed harmonic oscillator are considered
Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding.
Luber, Sandra
2014-12-21
We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.
Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luber, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.luber@chem.uzh.ch [Institut für Chemie, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland)
2014-12-21
We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.
Periodization Strategies in Older Adults: Impact on Physical Function and Health.
Conlon, Jenny A; Newton, Robert U; Tufano, James J; Banyard, Harry G; Hopper, Amanda J; Ridge, Ashley J; Haff, G Gregory
2016-12-01
This study compared the effect of periodized versus nonperiodized (NP) resistance training (RT) on physical function and health outcomes in older adults. Forty-one apparently healthy untrained older adults (women = 21, men = 20; 70.9 ± 5.1 yr; 166.3 ± 8.2 cm; 72.9 ± 13.4 kg) were recruited and randomly stratified to a NP, block periodized, or daily undulating periodized training group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after a 22-wk × 3 d·wk RT intervention, including; anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure and biomarkers, maximal strength, functional capacity, balance confidence, and quality of life. Thirty-three subjects satisfied all study requirements and were included in analyses (women = 17, men = 16; 71.3 ± 5.4 yr; 166.3 ± 8.5 cm; 72.5 ± 13.7 kg). The main finding was that all three RT models produced significant improvements in several physical function and physiological health outcomes, including; systolic blood pressure, blood biomarkers, body composition, maximal strength, functional capacity and balance confidence, with no between-group differences. Periodized RT, specifically block periodization and daily undulating periodized, and NP RT are equally effective for promoting significant improvements in physical function and health outcomes among apparently healthy untrained older adults. Therefore, periodization strategies do not appear to be necessary during the initial stages of RT in this population. Practitioners should work toward increasing RT participation in the age via feasible and efficacious interventions targeting long-term adherence in minimally supervised settings.
Chen, Yan; Feng, Huijuan; Ma, Jiayao; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong
2016-06-01
The traditional waterbomb origami, produced from a pattern consisting of a series of vertices where six creases meet, is one of the most widely used origami patterns. From a rigid origami viewpoint, it generally has multiple degrees of freedom, but when the pattern is folded symmetrically, the mobility reduces to one. This paper presents a thorough kinematic investigation on symmetric folding of the waterbomb pattern. It has been found that the pattern can have two folding paths under certain circumstance. Moreover, the pattern can be used to fold thick panels. Not only do the additional constraints imposed to fold the thick panels lead to single degree of freedom folding, but the folding process is also kinematically equivalent to the origami of zero-thickness sheets. The findings pave the way for the pattern being readily used to fold deployable structures ranging from flat roofs to large solar panels.
Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leibowitz, E.
1980-01-01
The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed
Functions of delay-period activity in the prefrontal cortex and mnemonic scotomas revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shintaro eFunahashi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Working memory is one of key concepts to understand functions of the prefrontal cortex. Delay-period activity is an important neural correlate to understand the role of working memory in prefrontal functions. The importance of delay-period activity is that this activity can encode not only visuospatial information but also a variety of information including non-spatial visual features, auditory and tactile stimuli, task rules, expected reward, and numerical quantity. This activity also participates in a variety of information processing including sensory-to-motor information transformation. These mnemonic features of delay-period activity enable to perform various important operations that the prefrontal cortex participates in, such as executive controls, and therefore, support the notion that working memory is an important function to understand prefrontal functions. On the other hand, although experiments using manual versions of the delayed-response task had revealed many important findings, an oculomotor version of this task enabled us to use multiple cue positions, exclude postural orientation during the delay period, and further prove the importance of mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex. In addition, monkeys with unilateral lesions exhibited specific impairment only in the performance of memory-guided saccades directed toward visual cues in the visual field contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere. This result indicates that memories for visuospatial coordinates in each hemifield are processed primarily in the contralateral prefrontal cortex. This result further strengthened the idea of mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex. Thus, the mnemonic functions of the prefrontal cortex and delay-period activity may not need to be reconsidered, but should be emphasized.
Representations of locally symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1995-09-01
Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs
Large deviation function for a driven underdamped particle in a periodic potential
Fischer, Lukas P.; Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo
2018-02-01
Employing large deviation theory, we explore current fluctuations of underdamped Brownian motion for the paradigmatic example of a single particle in a one-dimensional periodic potential. Two different approaches to the large deviation function of the particle current are presented. First, we derive an explicit expression for the large deviation functional of the empirical phase space density, which replaces the level 2.5 functional used for overdamped dynamics. Using this approach, we obtain several bounds on the large deviation function of the particle current. We compare these to bounds for overdamped dynamics that have recently been derived, motivated by the thermodynamic uncertainty relation. Second, we provide a method to calculate the large deviation function via the cumulant generating function. We use this method to assess the tightness of the bounds in a numerical case study for a cosine potential.
Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds
Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.
2006-01-01
Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.
A non-parametric estimator for the doubly-periodic Poisson intensity function
R. Helmers (Roelof); I.W. Mangku (Wayan); R. Zitikis
2007-01-01
textabstractIn a series of papers, J. Garrido and Y. Lu have proposed and investigated a doubly-periodic Poisson model, and then applied it to analyze hurricane data. The authors have suggested several parametric models for the underlying intensity function. In the present paper we construct and
Periodic solutions of delayed predator-prey model with the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huo Haifeng [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China)]. E-mail: hfhuo@lut.cn; Li Wantong [Department of Mathematics, Lanzhou University Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)]. E-mail: wtli@lzu.edu.cn; Nieto, Juan J. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)]. E-mail: amnieto@usc.es
2007-07-15
By using the continuation theorem based on Gaines and Mawhin's coincidence degree, sufficient and realistic conditions are obtained for the global existence of positive periodic solutions for a delayed predator-prey model with the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. Our results are applicable to state dependent and distributed delays.
Teaching a Concept with GeoGebra: Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions
Kepceoglu, Ibrahim; Yavuz, llyas
2016-01-01
Being one of the major subjects in high school mathematics curriculum, trigonometry links algebraic, geometric and graphical reasoning. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of GeoGebra in the teaching of the concept of the periodicity of trigonometric functions. In this study, it is investigated how effective is the dynamic…
Ambient Noise Green's Function Simulation of Long-Period Ground Motions for Reverse Faulting
Miyake, H.; Beroza, G. C.
2009-12-01
Long-time correlation of ambient seismic noise has been demonstrated as a useful tool for strong ground motion prediction [Prieto and Beroza, 2008]. An important advantage of ambient noise Green's functions is that they can be used for ground motion simulation without resorting to either complex 3-D velocity structure to develop theoretical Green’s functions, or aftershock records for empirical Green’s function analysis. The station-to-station approach inherent to ambient noise Green’s functions imposes some limits to its application, since they are band-limited, applied at the surface, and for a single force. We explore the applicability of this method to strong motion prediction using the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw 6.6, depth = 9 km), which excited long-period ground motions in and around the Kanto basin almost 200 km from the epicenter. We test the performance of ambient noise Green's function for long-period ground motion simulation. We use three components of F-net broadband data at KZK station, which is located near the source region, as a virtual source, and three components of six F-net stations in and around the Kanto basin to calculate the response. An advantage to applying this approach in Japan is that ambient-noise sources are active in diverse directions. The dominant period of the ambient noise for the F-net datasets is mostly 7 s over the year, and amplitudes are largest in winter. This period matches the dominant periods of the Kanto and Niigata basins. For the 9 components of the ambient noise Green’s functions, we have confirmed long-period components corresponding to Love wave and Rayleigh waves that can be used for simulation of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki earthquake. The relative amplitudes, phases, and durations of the ambient noise Green’s functions at the F-net stations in and around the Kanto basin respect to F-net KZK station are fairly well matched with those of the observed ground motions for the 2007 Chuetsu
Weakly Interacting Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric States in the Bilayer Systems
Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Tomaka, G.; Ploch, D.
We have studied the parallel magneto-transport in DQW-structures of two different potential shapes: quasi-rectangular and quasi-triangular. The quantum beats effect was observed in Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations for both types of the DQW structures in perpendicular magnetic filed arrangement. We developed a special scheme for the Landau levels energies calculation by means of which we carried out the necessary simulations of beating effect. In order to obtain the agreement between our experimental data and the results of simulations, we introduced two different quasi-Fermi levels which characterize symmetric and anti-symmetric states in DQWs. The existence of two different quasi Fermi-Levels simply means, that one can treat two sub-systems (charge carriers characterized by symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions) as weakly interacting and having their own rate of establishing the equilibrium state.
Fourier inversion on a reductive symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den
1999-01-01
Let X be a semisimple symmetric space. In previous papers, [8] and [9], we have dened an explicit Fourier transform for X and shown that this transform is injective on the space C 1 c (X) ofcompactly supported smooth functions on X. In the present paper, which is a continuation of these papers, we
The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy
2009-01-01
We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.
Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics
Petri, Michael
The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.
Path integral representation of the symmetric Rosen-Morse potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duru, I.H.
1983-09-01
An integral formula for the Green's function of symmetric Rosen-Morse potential is obtained by solving path integrals. The correctly normalized wave functions and bound state energy spectrum are derived. (author)
Periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations in population dynamics
Padhi, Seshadev; Srinivasu, P D N
2014-01-01
This book provides cutting-edge results on the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations. It demonstrates how the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem can be applied to study the existence of two or three positive periodic solutions of functional differential equations with real-world applications, particularly with regard to the Lasota-Wazewska model, the Hematopoiesis model, the Nicholsons Blowflies model, and some models with Allee effects. Many interesting sufficient conditions are given for the dynamics that include nonlinear characteristics exhibited by population models. The last chapter provides results related to the global appeal of solutions to the models considered in the earlier chapters. The techniques used in this book can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of analysis. This book offers a valuable reference guide for students and researchers in the field of differential equations with applications to biology, ecology, a...
Simulations of Coulomb systems confined by polarizable surfaces using periodic Green functions.
Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Girotto, Matheus; Levin, Yan
2017-11-14
We present an efficient approach for simulating Coulomb systems confined by planar polarizable surfaces. The method is based on the solution of the Poisson equation using periodic Green functions. It is shown that the electrostatic energy arising from the surface polarization can be decoupled from the energy due to the direct Coulomb interaction between the ions. This allows us to combine an efficient Ewald summation method, or any other fast method for summing over the replicas, with the polarization contribution calculated using Green function techniques. We apply the method to calculate density profiles of ions confined between the charged dielectric and metal surfaces.
Growth hormone deficiency in the transition period: body composition and gonad function.
Balercia, G; Giovannini, L; Paggi, F; Spaziani, M; Tahani, N; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Radicioni, A
2011-10-01
Recombinant GH therapy is normally administered to GH-deficient children in order to achieve a satisfactory height - the main target during childhood and adolescence. However, the role of GH does not end once final height has been reached, but continues during the so-called transition period. In this phase of life, the body undergoes several changes, both physical and psychological, that culminate in adulthood. During this period, GH has a part in numerous metabolic functions. These include the lipid profile, where it increases HDL and reduces LDL, with the global effect of cardiovascular protection. It also has important effects on body composition (improved muscle strength and lean body mass and reduced body fat), the achievement of proper peak bone density, and gonad maturation. Retesting during the transition period, involving measurement of IGF-I plus a provocative test (insulin tolerance test or GHRH + arginine test), is thus necessary to establish any persistent GH deficiency requiring additional replacement therapy. The close cooperation of the medical professionals involved in the patient's transition from a pediatric to an adult endocrinologist is essential. The aim of this review is to point out the main aspects of GH treatment on body composition, metabolic and gonad functions in the transition period.
Symmetric extendibility of quantum states
Nowakowski, Marcin L.
2015-01-01
Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny
2010-01-01
How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a 'safety valve' that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrument that mitigates only against a price increase. One is that most important examples of price volatility in cap-and-trade programs have occurred not when prices spiked, but instead when allowance prices collapsed. Second, a single-sided safety valve may have unintended consequences for investment. We illustrate that a symmetric safety valve provides environmental and welfare improvements relative to the conventional one-sided approach.
Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Peter Lempel
2006-01-01
In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....
Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos
Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.
2018-05-01
We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.
Functional MRI of motor speech area combined with motor stimulation during resting period
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Yeong Su; Park, Hark Hoon; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Yong; Chon, Su Bin; Kang, Shin Hwa
1999-01-01
To evaluate functional MR imaging of the motor speech area with and without motor stimulation during the rest period. Nine healthy, right-handed volunteers(M:F=7:2, age:21-40years) were included in this study. Brain activity was mapped using a multislice, gradient echo single shot EPI on a 1.5T MR scanner. The paradigm consisted on a series of alternating rest and activation tasks, performed six times. Each volunteer in the first study(group A) was given examples of motor stimulation during the rest period, while each in the second study(group B) was not given examples of a rest period. Motor stimulation in group A was achieved by continuously flexing five fingers of the right hand. In both groups, maximum internal word generation was achieved during the activation period. Using fMRI analysis software(Stimulate 5.0) and a cross-correlation method(backgroud threshold, 200; correlation threshold, 0.3; ceiling, 1.0; floor, 0.3; minimal count, 3), functional images were analysed. After correlating the activated foci and a time-signal intensity curve, the activated brain cortex and number of pixels were analysed and compared between the two tasks. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. In all nine subjects in group A and B, activation was observed in and adjacent to the left Broca's area. The mean number of activated pixels was 31.6 in group A and 27.8 in group B, a difference which was not statistically significant(P>0.1). Activities in and adjacent to the right Broca's area were seen in seven of group A and four of group B. The mean number of activated pixels was 14.9 in group A and 18 in group B. Eight of nine volunteers in group A showed activity in the left primary motor area with negative correlation to the time-signal intensity curve. The mean number of activated pixels for this group was 17.5. In three volonteers, activation in the right primary motor area was also observed, the mean number of activated pixels in these cases was 10.0. During the rest
Kuchment, Peter
2012-06-21
Precise asymptotics known for the Green\\'s function of the Laplace operator have found their analogs for periodic elliptic operators of the second order at and below the bottom of the spectrum. Due to the band-gap structure of the spectra of such operators, the question arises whether similar results can be obtained near or at the edges of spectral gaps. As the result of this work shows, this is possible at a spectral edge when the dimension d ≥ 3. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kuchment, Peter; Raich, Andrew
2012-01-01
Precise asymptotics known for the Green's function of the Laplace operator have found their analogs for periodic elliptic operators of the second order at and below the bottom of the spectrum. Due to the band-gap structure of the spectra of such operators, the question arises whether similar results can be obtained near or at the edges of spectral gaps. As the result of this work shows, this is possible at a spectral edge when the dimension d ≥ 3. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Huangjun, E-mail: hzhu@pitp.ca
2015-11-15
Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg–Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg–Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.
Seth, Sunaina; Lewis, Andrew J; Galbally, Megan
2016-05-31
Perinatal depression has a significant impact on both mother and child. However, the influence of hormonal changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period remains unclear. This article provides a systematic review of studies examining the effects of maternal cortisol function on perinatal depression. A systematic search was conducted of six electronic databases for published research on the relationship between cortisol and perinatal depression. The databases included; MEDLINE complete, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Science Direct and EBSCO, for the years 1960 to May 2015. Risk of bias was assessed and data extraction verified by two investigators. In total, 47 studies met criteria and studies showed considerable variation in terms of methodology including sample size, cortisol assays, cortisol substrates, sampling processes and outcome measures. Those studies identified as higher quality found that the cortisol awakening response is positively associated with momentary mood states but is blunted in cases of major maternal depression. Furthermore, results indicate that hypercortisolemia is linked to transient depressive states while hypocortisolemia is related to chronic postpartum depression. Future research should aim to improve the accuracy of cortisol measurement over time, obtain multiple cortisol samples in a day and utilise diagnostic measures of depression. Future studies should also consider both antenatal and postnatal depression and the differential impact of atypical versus melancholic depression on cortisol levels, as this can help to further clarify the relationship between perinatal depression and maternal cortisol function across pregnancy and the postpartum period.
A Paley-Wiener theorem for reductive symmetric spaces
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
2006-01-01
Let X = G/H be a reductive symmetric space and K a maximal compact subgroup of G. The image under the Fourier transform of the space of K-finite compactly supported smooth functions on X is characterized.
Mesotherapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis.
Hasegawa, Toshio; Matsukura, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Shigaku
2010-04-01
Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung disease, is a rare disorder characterized by fat distribution around the shoulders, arms, and neck in the context of chronic alcoholism. Complete excision of nonencapsulated lipomas is difficult. However, reports describing conservative therapeutic measures for lipomatosis are rare. The authors present the case of a 42-year-old man with a diagnosis of benign symmetric lipomatosis who had multiple, large, symmetrical masses in his neck. Multiple phosphatidylcholine injections in the neck were administered 4 weeks apart, a total of seven times to achieve lipolysis. The patient's lipomatosis improved in response to the injections, and he achieved good cosmetic results. Intralesional injection, termed mesotherapy, using phosphatidylcholine is a potentially effective therapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis that should be reconsidered as a therapeutic option for this disease.
Spherically symmetric charged compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2015-08-15
In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano
2010-01-01
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, William H.; Cotton, Stephen J.
2016-01-01
It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory—e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states—and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.
Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J
2016-08-28
It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory-e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states-and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, William H., E-mail: millerwh@berkeley.edu; Cotton, Stephen J., E-mail: StephenJCotton47@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, University of California, and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2016-08-28
It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory—e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states—and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.
The discrete dynamics of symmetric competition in the plane.
Jiang, H; Rogers, T D
1987-01-01
We consider the generalized Lotka-Volterra two-species system xn + 1 = xn exp(r1(1 - xn) - s1yn) yn + 1 = yn exp(r2(1 - yn) - s2xn) originally proposed by R. M. May as a model for competitive interaction. In the symmetric case that r1 = r2 and s1 = s2, a region of ultimate confinement is found and the dynamics therein are described in some detail. The bifurcations of periodic points of low period are studied, and a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations is indicated. Within the confinement region, a parameter region is determined for the stable Hopf bifurcation of a pair of symmetrically placed period-two points, which imposes a second component of oscillation near the stable cycles. It is suggested that the symmetric competitive model contains much of the dynamical complexity to be expected in any discrete two-dimensional competitive model.
Coalescence and 2.7 K black body distorsion in baryon symmetric Big Bang Cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramani, A.; Puget, J.L.
1976-01-01
We discuss here the efficiency of coalescence during the late phases of a baryon symmetric Big Bang Cosmology. We show that during the radiative period, coalescence cannot be as efficient as it was stated in a previous paper. During the matter dominated period, matter and antimatter might be separated on the scale of clusters of galaxies, but only at the expense of substantive distorsions of the 2.7 K black body background radiation. We compute lower limits to these distorsions as functions of the density of matter in the universe and show that only in the case of a very dilute universe can these values be reconciled with experimental results. (orig.) [de
Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.
2014-01-01
The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.
Onozuka, Takashi; Niizeki, Komajiro
2000-04-01
Variation of the lattice-modulation period p a of the`incommensurate' phase Bi2Sr2(Ca1-xPrx)Cu2O8+δ(0≦x≦0.72) with Pr-concentration x was examinedby electron diffraction, and the domain configuration byhigh-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The plotof p a versus x exhibits roughly a linear decreasebut it has a staircase structure. The period of each stair,p a, agrees with a value expected for a commensuratestructure. We observed nine stairs which are symmetricallyarranged; the central stair corresponds to the primary structurewith a simple modulation, and a stair on the left (or right) isassociated with an advanced (or delayed) discommensuration. On theother hand, the number of domain configurations i.e. commensuratestructures observed by HRTEM is seventeen. The observed staircasestructure covers a full range of commensurate structures predictedtheoretically. The pattern observed in the plot of p aversus x is consistent with the simulation based on theFrenkel-Kontrova model and an inhomogeneity hypothesis.
Filtering microfluidic bubble trains at a symmetric junction.
Parthiban, Pravien; Khan, Saif A
2012-02-07
We report how a nominally symmetric microfluidic junction can be used to sort all bubbles of an incoming train exclusively into one of its arms. The existence of this "filter" regime is unexpected, given that the junction is symmetric. We analyze this behavior by quantifying how bubbles modulate the hydrodynamic resistance in microchannels and show how speeding up a bubble train whilst preserving its spatial periodicity can lead to filtering at a nominally symmetric junction. We further show how such an asymmetric traffic of bubble trains can be triggered in symmetric geometries by identifying conditions wherein the resistance to flow decreases with an increase in the number of bubbles in the microchannel and derive an exact criterion to predict the same.
Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment
Benschop, N. F.
2001-01-01
Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...
symmetrically deformed integrable systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
plex Liouville theory, a rigorous proof for the reality of the spectrum was found by Faddeev and .... to use non-rational potentials? Can one have more .... The freedom in the choice of the functions R(ϵ),I(ϵ) may then be used to satisfy the ...
Tiratricol-induced periodic paralysis: a review of nutraceuticals affecting thyroid function.
Cohen-Lehman, Janna; Charitou, Marina M; Klein, Irwin
2011-01-01
To review the potential adverse effects of thyroid hormone-based nutraceuticals and describe a case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) after abuse of a dietary supplement containing 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (tiratricol). We review the literature on potential dangers and therapeutic misadventures of thyroid hormone-based nutraceuticals and present the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data of a bodybuilder in whom hypokalemic TPP developed after use of "Triax Metabolic Accelerator". A 23-year-old white man developed lower extremity paralysis, diaphoresis, and palpitations in the setting of low serum potassium levels. Laboratory results showed suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, low levels of free and total thyroxine, low total triiodothyronine level, and very low 24-hour radioiodine uptake. The patient ultimately admitted to taking a supplement containing tiratricol for approximately 2 months, and hypokalemic TPP was diagnosed. He was treated with potassium supplementation and a β-adrenergic blocking agent, which completely resolved his symptoms. Results of thyroid function tests normalized or approached normal 1 week after hospitalization, and future use of dietary supplements was strongly discouraged. Despite 2 warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration, products containing tiratricol are still available for sale on the Internet. This report illustrates both an unusual adverse effect of a nutraceutical containing tiratricol and the importance of educating our patients about the risks versus benefits of using these widely available but loosely regulated products.
Li, Chun; Di, Bin; Hao, Weiqiang; Yan, Fang; Su, Mengxiang
2011-01-21
A synthetic approach for synthesizing spherical aminopropyl-functionalized ethane-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas (APEPMOs) is reported. The mesoporous material was prepared by a one-step co-condensation of 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using cetyltrimethylammonium chlorine (C(18)TACl) as a template with the aid of a co-solvent (methanol) in basic medium. The APEPMOs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. It was shown that this material exhibited spherical morphology, ordered cubic mesostructure and good mechanical strength. The APEPMOs were tested as a potential stationary phase for liquid chromatography (LC) because the column exhibited reduced back pressure. Moreover, they exhibited good chemical stability in basic mobile phase, which can be ascribed to the ethane groups in the mesoporous framework. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harmonic analysis on symmetric spaces
Terras, Audrey
This text explores the geometry and analysis of higher rank analogues of the symmetric spaces introduced in volume one. To illuminate both the parallels and differences of the higher rank theory, the space of positive matrices is treated in a manner mirroring that of the upper-half space in volume one. This concrete example furnishes motivation for the general theory of noncompact symmetric spaces, which is outlined in the final chapter. The book emphasizes motivation and comprehensibility, concrete examples and explicit computations (by pen and paper, and by computer), history, and, above all, applications in mathematics, statistics, physics, and engineering. The second edition includes new sections on Donald St. P. Richards’s central limit theorem for O(n)-invariant random variables on the symmetric space of GL(n, R), on random matrix theory, and on advances in the theory of automorphic forms on arithmetic groups.
Symmetric spaces and the Kashiwara-Vergne method
Rouvière, François
2014-01-01
Gathering and updating results scattered in journal articles over thirty years, this self-contained monograph gives a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Its goal is to: - motivate and explain the method for general Lie groups, reducing the proof of deep results in invariant analysis to the verification of two formal Lie bracket identities related to the Campbell-Hausdorff formula (the "Kashiwara-Vergne conjecture"); - give a detailed proof of the conjecture for quadratic and solvable Lie algebras, which is relatively elementary; - extend the method to symmetric spaces; here an obstruction appears, embodied in a single remarkable object called an "e-function"; - explain the role of this function in invariant analysis on symmetric spaces, its relation to invariant differential operators, mean value operators and spherical functions; - give an explicit e-function for rank one spaces (the hyperbolic spaces); - construct an e-function for general symmetric spaces, in the spirit of Kashiwara and Vergne's or...
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano
2010-01-01
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.
Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz
2014-01-01
We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus......, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
2010-09-24
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.
Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution
Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.
2004-08-01
We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.
Ansari, Mohd Asif; Mandal, Abhishek; Paretzki, Alexa; Beyer, Katharina; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar
2016-06-06
The dinuclear complexes {(μ-H2L)[Ru(bpy)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([3](ClO4)2), {(μ-H2L)[Ru(pap)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([4](ClO4)2), and the asymmetric [(bpy)2Ru(μ-H2L)Ru(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([5](ClO4)2) were synthesized via the mononuclear species [Ru(H3L)(bpy)2]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) and [Ru(H3L)(pap)2]ClO4 ([2]ClO4), where H4L is the centrosymmetric 1,5-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and pap is 2-phenylazopyridine. Electrochemistry of the structurally characterized [1]ClO4, [2]ClO4, [3](ClO4)2, [4](ClO4)2, and [5](ClO4)2 reveals multistep oxidation and reduction processes, which were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of paramagnetic intermediates and by UV-vis-NIR spectro-electrochemistry. With support by time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations the redox processes could be assigned. Significant results include the dimetal/bridging ligand mixed spin distribution in 3(3+) versus largely bridge-centered spin in 4(3+)-a result of the presence of Ru(II)-stabilizig pap coligands. In addition to the metal/ligand alternative for electron transfer and spin location, the dinuclear systems allow for the observation of ligand/ligand and metal/metal site differentiation within the multistep redox series. DFT-supported EPR and NIR absorption spectroscopy of the latter case revealed class II mixed-valence behavior of the oxidized asymmetric system 5(3+) with about equal contributions from a radical bridge formulation. In comparison to the analogues with the deprotonated 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone isomer the centrosymmetric H2L(2-) bridge shows anodically shifted redox potentials and weaker electronic coupling between the chelate sites.
Bound states for non-symmetric evolution Schroedinger potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotalco, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)). E-mail: ccg@correo.azc.uam.mx
2001-09-14
We consider the spectral problem associated with the evolution Schroedinger equation, (D{sup 2}+ k{sup 2}){phi}=u{phi}, where u is a matrix-square-valued function, with entries in the Schwartz class defined on the real line. The solution {phi}, called the wavefunction, consists of a function of one real variable, matrix-square-valued with entries in the Schwartz class. This problem has been dealt for symmetric potentials u. We found for the present case that the bound states are localized similarly to the scalar and symmetric cases, but by the zeroes of an analytic matrix-valued function. If we add an extra condition to the potential u, we can determine these states by an analytic scalar function. We do this by generalizing the scalar and symmetric cases but without using the fact that the Wronskian of a pair of wavefunction is constant. (author)
Chicken meat quality as a function of fasting period and water spray
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CM Komiyama
2008-09-01
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different fasting periods and water spray during lairage on the quality of chicken meat. A number of 300 male Ross broilers were reared up to 42 days of age, and submitted to four pre-slaughter fasting periods (4, 8, 12, and 16 hours and sprayed with water or not during lairage. Deboned breast meat was submitted to the following analysis: pH, color, drip loss, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05 of fasting period on meat luminosity was significantly different, with the highest value obtained for 4-hour fasting, whereas no difference was found among the other fasting periods. Meat pH values were different among fasting periods when birds received water spray, with birds fasted for 4, 8, and 12 hours of fasting presenting lower meat pH values (5.87, 5.87, and 6.04, respectively. The interaction between fasting period and water spray influenced meat drip loss and cooking loss, with birds fasted for 16h and not receiving water spray presenting higher drip loss (4.88 and higher cooking loss (28.24 as compared to the other birds. Fasting period affects meat quality, and very short periods (4h impair meat quality.
Symmetric relations of finite negativity
Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H
2006-01-01
We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.
Tilting-connected symmetric algebras
Aihara, Takuma
2010-01-01
The notion of silting mutation was introduced by Iyama and the author. In this paper we mainly study silting mutation for self-injective algebras and prove that any representation-finite symmetric algebra is tilting-connected. Moreover we give some sufficient conditions for a Bongartz-type Lemma to hold for silting objects.
Symmetric group representations and Z
Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander
2017-01-01
We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.
Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited
Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.
2004-01-01
Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area
Quantum systems and symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.
1978-01-01
Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained
The symmetric longest queue system
van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, Ivo; van der Wal, Jan
1997-01-01
We derive the performance of the exponential symmetric longest queue system from two variants: a longest queue system with Threshold Rejection of jobs and one with Threshold Addition of jobs. It is shown that these two systems provide lower and upper bounds for the performance of the longest queue
Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zlatareva, D.
2015-01-01
Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in
Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M
2016-05-05
A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism.
Tourist Demand Reactions: Symmetric or Asymmetric across the Business Cycle?
Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert
2017-09-01
Economizing and spending priorities on different types of vacations are investigated during two periods: an economic downturn and returning prosperity. Two nation-wide samples of vacationers are used: one during a downturn, the other one at the start of the recovery period. Through comparing the results, conclusions can be drawn about symmetric or asymmetric tourist demand across the business cycle. The main summer holiday has an asymmetric profile: being fairly crisis-resistant during a recession and showing considerable growth during an expansion. This does not apply to short vacations and day trips, each having a symmetric profile: during a recession they experience substantial reductions and during expansion comparable growth. So when talking about tourist demand in general , one cannot say that it is symmetric or asymmetric across the business cycle: it depends on the type of vacation. Differences in tourist demand are best explained by the role of Quality-of-Life for vacationers.
New strategy for surface functionalization of periodic mesoporous silica based on meso-HSiO1.5.
Xie, Zhuoying; Bai, Ling; Huang, Suwen; Zhu, Cun; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhong-Ze
2014-01-29
Organic functionalization of periodic mesoporous silicas (PMSs) offers a way to improve their excellent properties and wide applications owing to their structural superiority. In this study, a new strategy for organic functionalization of PMSs is demonstrated by hydrosilylation of the recently discovered "impossible" periodic mesoporous hydridosilica, meso-HSiO1.5. This method overcomes the disadvantages of present pathways for organic functionalization of PMSs with organosilica. Moreover, compared to the traditional functionalization on the surface of porous silicon by hydrosilylation, the template-synthesized meso-HSiO1.5 is more flexible to access functional-groups-loaded PMSs with adjustable microstructures. The new method and materials will have wider applications based on both the structure and surface superiorities.
Yıldız, Hatice
2015-01-01
This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Beatty, Millard F; Young, Todd R
2012-03-01
The undamped, finite amplitude horizontal motion of a load supported symmetrically between identical incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic springs, each subjected to an initial finite uniaxial static stretch, is formulated in general terms. The small amplitude motion of the load about the deformed static state is discussed; and the periodicity of the arbitrary finite amplitude motion is established for all such elastic materials for which certain conditions on the engineering stress and the strain energy function hold. The exact solution for the finite vibration of the load is then derived for the classical neo-Hookean model. The vibrational period is obtained in terms of the complete Heuman lambda-function whose properties are well-known. Dependence of the period and hence the frequency on the physical parameters of the system is investigated and the results are displayed graphically.
Hintze, Beata; Borkowska, Alina
2011-01-01
The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the level of working memory and executive functions impairment in schizophrenic subjects in their partial remission period and the intensity of psychopathological symptoms measured by PANSS scale. 45 patients with schizophrenia were included in the study (28 male and 17 female), aged 18-46 (mean 27 +/- 7) years during partial remission of psychopathological symptoms (PANSS partial remission period, the significant dysfunctions of working memory and executive functions show association with negative (not positive) schizophrenic symptoms.
Kim, Daekeun; Cai, Zhangli; Sorial, George A
2005-02-01
Trickle-bed air biofilters (TBABs) are suitable for treating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a significantly high practical loading because of their controlled environmental conditions. The application of TBAB for treating styrene-contaminated air under periodic backwashing and cyclical nonuse periods at a styrene loading of 0.64-3.17 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3 x day was the main focus of this study. Consistent long-term efficient performance of TBAB strongly depended on biomass control. A periodic in situ upflow with nutrient solution under media fluidization, that is, backwashing, was approached in this study. Two different nonuse periods were employed to simulate a shutdown for equipment repair or during weekends and holidays. The first is a starvation period without styrene loading, and the second is a stagnant period, which reflects no flow passing through the biofilter. For styrene loadings up to 1.9 kg COD/m3 x day, removal efficiencies consistently above 99% were achieved by conducting a coordinated biomass control strategy, that is, backwashing for 1 hr once per week. Under cyclical nonuse periods for styrene loadings up to 1.27 kg COD/m3 x day, stable long-term performance of the biofilter was maintained at more than 99% removal without employing backwashing. No substantial impact of nonuse periods on the biofilter performance was revealed. However, a coordinated biomass control by backwashing subsequently was unavoidable for attaining consistently high removal efficiency at a styrene loading of 3.17 kg COD/m3 x day. As styrene loading was increased, reacclimation of the biofilter to reach the 99% removal efficiency following backwashing or the nonuse periods was delayed. After the non-use periods, the response of the biofilter was a strong function of the biomass in the bed. No significant difference between the effects of the two different nonuse periods on TBAB performance was observed during the study period.
Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A
2013-01-01
The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''
Chicken meat quality as a function of fasting period and water spray
Komiyama, CM; Mendes, AA; Takahashi, SE; Moreira, J; Garcia, RG; Sanfelice, C; Borba, HS; Leonel, FR; Almeida Paz, ICL; Balog, A
2008-01-01
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different fasting periods and water spray during lairage on the quality of chicken meat. A number of 300 male Ross broilers were reared up to 42 days of age, and submitted to four pre-slaughter fasting periods (4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) and sprayed with water or not during lairage. Deboned breast meat was submitted to the following analysis: pH, color, drip loss, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. There was a significant effect ...
A summary view of the symmetric cosmological model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldrovandi, R.
1975-01-01
A brief analysis of cosmological models is done, beginning with the standard model and following with the symmetric model of Omnes. Some attempts have been made for the phase transition in thermal radiation at high temperatures, to the annihilation period and to coalescence. One model with equal amounts of matter and antimatter seems to be reasonable [pt
Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.
1998-08-01
In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)
de Hoop, Maarten V.; Ilmavirta, Joonas
2017-12-01
We study ray transforms on spherically symmetric manifolds with a piecewise C1, 1 metric. Assuming the Herglotz condition, the x-ray transform is injective on the space of L 2 functions on such manifolds. We also prove injectivity results for broken ray transforms (with and without periodicity) on such manifolds with a C1, 1 metric. To make these problems tractable in low regularity, we introduce and study a class of generalized Abel transforms and study their properties. This low regularity setting is relevant for geophysical applications.
Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.
Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing
2017-09-29
Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.
2012-01-01
We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....
Characterization of Generalized Young Measures Generated by Symmetric Gradients
De Philippis, Guido; Rindler, Filip
2017-06-01
This work establishes a characterization theorem for (generalized) Young measures generated by symmetric derivatives of functions of bounded deformation (BD) in the spirit of the classical Kinderlehrer-Pedregal theorem. Our result places such Young measures in duality with symmetric-quasiconvex functions with linear growth. The "local" proof strategy combines blow-up arguments with the singular structure theorem in BD (the analogue of Alberti's rank-one theorem in BV), which was recently proved by the authors. As an application of our characterization theorem we show how an atomic part in a BD-Young measure can be split off in generating sequences.
On symmetric structures of order two
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Bousquet
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Let (ω n 0 < n be the sequence known as Integer Sequence A047749 http://www.research.att.com/ njas/sequences/A047749 In this paper, we show that the integer ω n enumerates various kinds of symmetric structures of order two. We first consider ternary trees having a reflexive symmetry and we relate all symmetric combinatorial objects by means of bijection. We then generalize the symmetric structures and correspondences to an infinite family of symmetric objects.
Analytical Study on Propagation Dynamics of Optical Beam in Parity-Time Symmetric Optical Couplers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Zheng; Zhang Li-Juan; Zhu Bo
2015-01-01
We present exact analytical solutions to parity-time (PT) symmetric optical system describing light transport in PT-symmetric optical couplers. We show that light intensity oscillates periodically between two waveguides for unbroken PT-symmetric phase, whereas light always leaves the system from the waveguide experiencing gain when light is initially input at either waveguide experiencing gain or waveguide experiencing loss for broken PT-symmetric phase. These analytical results agree with the recent experimental observation reported by Rüter et al. [Nat. Phys. 6 (2010) 192]. Besides, we present a scheme for manipulating PT symmetry by applying a periodic modulation. Our results provide an efficient way to control light propagation in periodically modulated PT-symmetric system by tuning the modulation amplitude and frequency. (paper)
Determination of symmetrical index for 3H in river waters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jankovic, M.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, B.; Nikolic, J.; Sarap, N.
2011-01-01
The paper presents the results of determining the symmetric index, which describes the magnitude of the tritium content changes with time, for samples of Sava and Danube river waters and Mlaka creek water. The results cover the period from 2003 to 2008. It was shown that the value of the symmetric index is the highest for Mlaka samples, which is in accordance with the fact that in these samples the highest concentration of tritium was found in comparison with samples of the Sava and Danube. [sr
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian
2016-01-01
The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...
Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate
2012-01-01
Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…
Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures.
Müller, Frank A; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan
2016-06-15
Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.
Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank A. Müller
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS. In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.
Periodic density functional and FTIR spectroscopic studies on CO adsorption on the zeolite Na-FER
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nachtigall, Petr; Rodríguez Delgado, M.; Frolich, K.; Bulánek, R.; Turnes Palomino, G.; López Bauca, C.; Otero Areán, C.
2007-01-01
Roč. 106, 1/3 (2007), s. 162-173 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR KJB4040402 Grant - others:UIB(ES) MAT2005-05350 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : CO adsorption * dual cation site * Na- FER * periodic DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.210, year: 2007
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilov, G.S.
1994-01-01
It is shown that matrices of periods characterizing complex (1|1) supermanifolds of genus n > 1 depend on a spinor structure. This dependence manifests itself in terms proportional to odd moduli. Properties of matrices of periods exert a strong influence on the holomorphic structure of multiloop amplitudes in superstring theory. The supersymmetric analog of the Belavin-Knizhnik theorem is obtained by taking into account the above dependence on odd moduli. Superconformal versions of the Schottky group are used to study matrices of periods. This is essentially the only parametrization in which matrices of periods can be expressed explicitly in terms of even and odd moduli. Superconformal Schottky groups suitable for describing all spinor structures, including the structures for which superfields have branch points, are constructed. A method for calculating vacuum correlation functions of superfields for the above spinor structures is proposed. 18 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitrieva М.К.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Research objective is to determine the influence of adaptation method to periodic pressure chamber hypoxia on dynamics of systolic and diastolic functions of myocardium in patients with early stages of chronic heart failure. Materials and Methods: 100 men with post-infarction cardiosclerosis at the age of 40-65 years with I and IIA stages and l-ll functional classes (NYHA of chronic heart failure have been examined. Results: Positive dynamics of systolic and diastolic cardiac functions and other parameters of echocardioscopy under the influence of the hypoxic therapy in comparison with classical physical rehabilitation have been obtained. Furthermore, a more significant effect has been observed in patients with CHF IIA. Conclusion: Improvement in the geometry of the heart has proved that adaptation method to periodic pressure chamber hypoxia could be recommended for rehabilitation of patients with heart failure of early stages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishtafor A.A.
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Aim of the work – to evaluate the effectiveness of thiocetam as a medicine that prevents cognitive impairments in patients with polytrauma, as well as to compare the scales of cognitive function assessment - MoCA and MMSE. We examined 50 victims with polytrauma without severe intracranial lesions, randomly divided into a control group (26 patients and a main (24 patients group. Patients of the control group received conventional intensive therapy for traumatic illness, patients of the main group in addition to this therapy received thiocetam. The somatic status was assessed according to the generally accepted clinical and laboratory indicators. The level of cognitive functions before the injury was assessed by the CFQ questionnaire for 2-3 days after the injury; The MoCA and MMSE scales were used on the 2nd day, when patients were transferred from the intensive care unit and before the discharge. The severity of injury was assessed by the ISS scale. The severity of the response to traumatic stress was assessed by the IES-R scale. In both groups, the baseline level of cognitive function was within the age range. On the second day after the trauma, significant inhibition of cognitive functions in both groups was noted, but in the main group this decrease was unreliably less. At subsequent stages a gradual increase in both groups was noted, however, in the main group recovery of cognitive functions occurred more rapidly. After 3 months, decrease in cognitive functions preserved at a level when patients were discharged from the hospital. In the main group there were significantly fewer patients whose posttraumatic stress after 3 months increased from minimal to low. When using the MoCA scale, there was a more pronounced decrease in cognitive functions than with the MMSE scale, but it in the less degree consider peculiarities of thinking. Thiocetam prevents the decrease of cognitive functions in patients with polytrauma and, due to that, also
Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... to term pigs. CONCLUSION: Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, while some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 weeks. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal...
Symmetric co-movement between Malaysia and Japan stock markets
Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura
2017-04-01
The copula approach is a flexible tool known to capture linear, nonlinear, symmetric and asymmetric dependence between two or more random variables. It is often used as a co-movement measure between stock market returns. The information obtained from copulas such as the level of association of financial market during normal and bullish and bearish markets phases are useful for investment strategies and risk management. However, the study of co-movement between Malaysia and Japan markets are limited, especially using copulas. Hence, we aim to investigate the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan capital markets for the period spanning from 2000 to 2012. In this study, we showed that the bivariate normal distribution is not suitable as the bivariate distribution or to present the dependence between Malaysia and Japan markets. Instead, Gaussian or normal copula was found a good fit to represent the dependence. From our findings, it can be concluded that simple distribution fitting such as bivariate normal distribution does not suit financial time series data, whose characteristics are often leptokurtic. The nature of the data is treated by ARMA-GARCH with heavy tail distributions and these can be associated with copula functions. Regarding the dependence structure between Malaysia and Japan markets, the findings suggest that both markets co-move concurrently during normal periods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fusun Terzioglu
2011-03-01
Full Text Available World Health Organization describes health as the state of being completely fine corporally, socially and psychologically. The state of being completely fine which is indicated in this description of health has been criticised by many scientists and with the idea that noone shall ever realise tha state of being completely fine corporally and psychologically, it was emphasized that individuals could be evaluated to be “healthy” as long as they are productive. Starting from the intrauterine period, woman passes through different periods such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, elderliness and she experiences some physical, psychological and social differences in each of these periods within the frame of life cycle. While these differences influence productivities and life qualities of women negatively, they also make them more inclined to psychiatric illnesses. Therefore, psychological problems are more common among women and they last longer. Considering the fact that among the medical personnel, it is the nurses who spend time with patients during the phases of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation the most, it could be said that nurses have a significant role in intervening in problems that affect the psychological health of woman. The nurse has responsibilities such as determining the problem the woman goes through, providing protective care, getting an early diagnosis, making the convenient remedial intervention and consigning, when necessary. In this article, significant woman health problems that could be experienced starting from the intrauterine life until the end of life by woman, the effects of this problem to the psychological health of the woman and nursing approaches in view of these problems are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuanlong Fan
2008-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider first-order neutral differential equations with a parameter and impulse in the form of $$displaylines{ frac{d}{dt}[x(t-c x(t-gamma]=-a(tg(x(h_1(tx(t+lambda b(t fig(x(h_2(tig,quad t eq t_j;cr Delta ig[x(t-c x(t-gammaig]=I_jig(x(tig,quad t=t_j,; jinmathbb{Z}^+. }$$ Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem, we prove the existence of three positive periodic solutions.
Functioning of obese individuals in pre- and postoperative periods of bariatric surgery.
Vargas, C B; Picolli, F; Dani, C; Padoin, A V; Mottin, C C
2013-10-01
Obesity is a pathologic condition that causes functional incapacity, with reduction of quality of life and life expectancy and an increase in mortality. Bariatric surgery is indicated to alleviate associated comorbidities and increase physical capacity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the functional capacity of patients with morbid obesity before and after (3 months) bariatric surgery. This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 patients, where 61 were women and six men, with a mean age of 38 ± 10 years and mean BMI of 50.45 ± 8.5 kg/m2. All patients were assessed before surgery and 3 months afterwards. The following assessments were performed: 6-min walk test (6MWT), functional independence measure (FIM), and test for risk of falling and transfer capacity, called the timed up-and-go test. The study demonstrated a reduction in parameters evaluated in 6MWT with a statistically significant difference at two times (rest and final) when evaluated before and after bariatric surgery (p < 0.001). In relation to the FIM and timed up-and-go test, the patients showed a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) for both when comparing the tasks evaluated at the pre- and postoperative moments. Obesity has an impact on the functioning and quality of life of patients. We observed an improvement in all instruments used for assessment before and after bariatric surgery, where a linear component was demonstrated in relation to diminution of body mass index and functioning.
A symmetric bipolar nebula around MWC 922.
Tuthill, P G; Lloyd, J P
2007-04-13
We report regular and symmetric structure around dust-enshrouded Be star MWC 922 obtained with infrared imaging. Biconical lobes that appear nearly square in aspect, forming this "Red Square" nebula, are crossed by a series of rungs that terminate in bright knots or "vortices," and an equatorial dark band crossing the core delimits twin hyperbolic arcs. The intricate yet cleanly constructed forms that comprise the skeleton of the object argue for minimal perturbation from global turbulent or chaotic effects. We also report the presence of a linear comb structure, which may arise from optically projected shadows of a periodic feature in the inner regions, such as corrugations in the rim of a circumstellar disk. The sequence of nested polar rings draws comparison with the triple-ring system seen around the only naked-eye supernova in recent history: SN1987A.
Tan, Shurun
The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to
Anti-Money Laundry regulation and Crime: A two-period model of money-in-the-utility-function
Fanta, F; Mohsin, H
2010-01-01
The paper presents a two period model with two types of money i.e. dirty and cleans (legal) money in utility function. Clean money is earned from working in legal sector and dirty from illegal sector. Our two-two period model reveals that an increase in labor wage in legal sector unambiguously decease the labor hours allocated for illegal sector by increasing the opportunity cost for illegal activities. However, the crime-reducing impact of anti-money laundry regulation and the probability of...
Wilson, Lorna R M; Hopcraft, Keith I
2017-12-01
The problem of zero crossings is of great historical prevalence and promises extensive application. The challenge is to establish precisely how the autocorrelation function or power spectrum of a one-dimensional continuous random process determines the density function of the intervals between the zero crossings of that process. This paper investigates the case where periodicities are incorporated into the autocorrelation function of a smooth process. Numerical simulations, and statistics about the number of crossings in a fixed interval, reveal that in this case the zero crossings segue between a random and deterministic point process depending on the relative time scales of the periodic and nonperiodic components of the autocorrelation function. By considering the Laplace transform of the density function, we show that incorporating correlation between successive intervals is essential to obtaining accurate results for the interval variance. The same method enables prediction of the density function tail in some regions, and we suggest approaches for extending this to cover all regions. In an ever-more complex world, the potential applications for this scale of regularity in a random process are far reaching and powerful.
Wilson, Lorna R. M.; Hopcraft, Keith I.
2017-12-01
The problem of zero crossings is of great historical prevalence and promises extensive application. The challenge is to establish precisely how the autocorrelation function or power spectrum of a one-dimensional continuous random process determines the density function of the intervals between the zero crossings of that process. This paper investigates the case where periodicities are incorporated into the autocorrelation function of a smooth process. Numerical simulations, and statistics about the number of crossings in a fixed interval, reveal that in this case the zero crossings segue between a random and deterministic point process depending on the relative time scales of the periodic and nonperiodic components of the autocorrelation function. By considering the Laplace transform of the density function, we show that incorporating correlation between successive intervals is essential to obtaining accurate results for the interval variance. The same method enables prediction of the density function tail in some regions, and we suggest approaches for extending this to cover all regions. In an ever-more complex world, the potential applications for this scale of regularity in a random process are far reaching and powerful.
Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F.W.
1978-01-01
It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)
Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purificação Coelho M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.
External Borrowing Framework an Investment Function Model For Turkish Economy (1998-2014 Period
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pelin KARATAY GÖGÜL
2016-12-01
Full Text Available External borrowing comes up as a result of savings-investment deficit. Some of belonging to the state of this debt determines budget deficit, some of belonging to the private sector of this debt determines financing needs of private sector. In terms of contribution of financing needs of private sector to fixed capital formation, external borrowing has a direct impact on economic growth and development is concerned. Borrowing from closing the budget deficit in the classic sense, rather than for Turkey's economy will be decisive in shaping the economic policies in order to finance of investments. This aim, By analyzing the 1998-2014 period for Turkey's economy if external borrowing is selected as a method of financing investment spending is investigated by using Multivariate Cointegration Analysis
Periodicity, duration, and function of occupation at Tauroa Point, Northland, New Zealand
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.S.
2005-01-01
Three coastal sites at Tauroa Point, Northland, New Zealand were explored using varied archaeological techniques. At least seven, and possibly more, distinct occupations were identified, the earliest dating to about the fourteenth century AD. The analysis presented here centres on defining the periodicity, duration, and nature of pre-European Maori activities on this coast over time. Geomorphic evidence, radiocarbon dates, feature characteristics, fauna and artefact assemblages, and wood charcoal data are used in this endeavour. Indications are that the earliest occupation was the most extended, followed by repeated ephemeral visits between AD 1400 and 1650, and intensified but short-term coastal occupations after AD 1650. These occupations all took place within a geomorphically active environment, yet were variably affected by erosion and aggradation; in at least one locality the build-up of dune sands intensified after site abandonment. (author). 54 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs
The inverse spatial Laplacian of spherically symmetric spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandes, Karan; Lahiri, Amitabha
2017-01-01
We derive the inverse spatial Laplacian for static, spherically symmetric backgrounds by solving Poisson’s equation for a point source. This is different from the electrostatic Green function, which is defined on the four dimensional static spacetime, while the equation we consider is defined on the spatial hypersurface of such spacetimes. This Green function is relevant in the Hamiltonian dynamics of theories defined on spherically symmetric backgrounds, and closed form expressions for the solutions we find are absent in the literature. We derive an expression in terms of elementary functions for the Schwarzschild spacetime, and comment on the relation of this solution with the known Green function of the spacetime Laplacian operator. We also find an expression for the Green function on the static pure de-Sitter space in terms of hypergeometric functions. We conclude with a discussion of the constraints of the electromagnetic field. (paper)
Extensions of the Hardy-Littlewood inequalities for Schwarz symmetrization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Hajaiej
2004-01-01
Full Text Available For a class of functions H:(0,∞×ℝ+2→ℝ, including discontinuous functions of Carathéodory type, we establish that ∫ℝNH(|x|,u(x,v(xdx≤∫ℝNH(|x|,u*(x,v*(xdx, where u*(x and v*(x denote the Schwarz symmetrizations of nonnegative functions u and v.
On the axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1975-01-01
The axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma is reconsidered, with the special purpose of studying high-beta schemes with a purely poloidal magnetic field. A number of special solutions of the pressure and magnetic flux functions are shown to exist, the obtained results may form starting-points in a further analysis of physically relevant configurations. (Auth.)
Symmetric structures of coherent states in superfluid helium-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, M.
1981-02-01
Coherent States in superfluid helium-4 are discussed and symmetric structures are assigned to these states. Discrete and continuous series functions are exhibited for such states. Coherent State structure has been assigned to oscillating condensed bosons and their inter-relations and their effects on the superfluid system are analysed. (author)
Integrability and symmetric spaces. II- The coset spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.A.
1987-01-01
It shown that a sufficient condition for a model describing the motion of a particle on a coset space to possess a fundamental Poisson bracket relation, and consequently charges involution, is that it must be a symmetric space. The conditions a hamiltonian, or any function of the canonical variables, has to satisfy in order to commute with these charges are studied. It is shown that, for the case of non compact symmetric space, these conditions lead to an algebraic structure which plays an important role in the construction of conserved quantities. (author) [pt
Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara
2015-12-01
The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waszczak, Adam [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chang, Chan-Kao; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kinoshita, Daisuke [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, Frank; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas, E-mail: waszczak@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2015-09-15
We fit 54,296 sparsely sampled asteroid light curves in the Palomar Transient Factory survey to a combined rotation plus phase-function model. Each light curve consists of 20 or more observations acquired in a single opposition. Using 805 asteroids in our sample that have reference periods in the literature, we find that the reliability of our fitted periods is a complicated function of the period, amplitude, apparent magnitude, and other light-curve attributes. Using the 805-asteroid ground-truth sample, we train an automated classifier to estimate (along with manual inspection) the validity of the remaining ∼53,000 fitted periods. By this method we find that 9033 of our light curves (of ∼8300 unique asteroids) have “reliable” periods. Subsequent consideration of asteroids with multiple light-curve fits indicates a 4% contamination in these “reliable” periods. For 3902 light curves with sufficient phase-angle coverage and either a reliable fit period or low amplitude, we examine the distribution of several phase-function parameters, none of which are bimodal though all correlate with the bond albedo and with visible-band colors. Comparing the theoretical maximal spin rate of a fluid body with our amplitude versus spin-rate distribution suggests that, if held together only by self-gravity, most asteroids are in general less dense than ∼2 g cm{sup −3}, while C types have a lower limit of between 1 and 2 g cm{sup −3}. These results are in agreement with previous density estimates. For 5–20 km diameters, S types rotate faster and have lower amplitudes than C types. If both populations share the same angular momentum, this may indicate the two types’ differing ability to deform under rotational stress. Lastly, we compare our absolute magnitudes (and apparent-magnitude residuals) to those of the Minor Planet Center’s nominal (G = 0.15, rotation-neglecting) model; our phase-function plus Fourier-series fitting reduces asteroid photometric rms
The effect of noise exposure during the developmental period on the function of the auditory system.
Bureš, Zbyněk; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef
2017-09-01
Recently, there has been growing evidence that development and maturation of the auditory system depends substantially on the afferent activity supplying inputs to the developing centers. In cases when this activity is altered during early ontogeny as a consequence of, e.g., an unnatural acoustic environment or acoustic trauma, the structure and function of the auditory system may be severely affected. Pathological alterations may be found in populations of ribbon synapses of the inner hair cells, in the structure and function of neuronal circuits, or in auditory driven behavioral and psychophysical performance. Three characteristics of the developmental impairment are of key importance: first, they often persist to adulthood, permanently influencing the quality of life of the subject; second, their manifestations are different and sometimes even contradictory to the impairments induced by noise trauma in adulthood; third, they may be 'hidden' and difficult to diagnose by standard audiometric procedures used in clinical practice. This paper reviews the effects of early interventions to the auditory system, in particular, of sound exposure during ontogeny. We summarize the results of recent morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral experiments, discuss the putative mechanisms and hypotheses, and draw possible consequences for human neonatal medicine and noise health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations
Soury, Hamza; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-01-01
The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF
Simulation on control of beam halo-chaos by power function in the hackle periodic-focusing channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The K-V beam through a hackle periodic-focusing magnetic field is studied using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and a power function controller is proposed based on mechanism of halo formation and strategy of controlling halo-chaos. Multiparticle simulation was performed to control the halo by using the power function control method. The results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively. We also find that the radial particle density evolvement is of uniformity at the beam's centre as long as appropriate paramours are chosen.
Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2018-04-01
In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.
Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo
2012-01-01
We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green’s function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1–9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126–140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farid Ljuca
2009-05-01
Full Text Available All conventional immunosuppressive tree drugs-protocols are based on Cyclosporine; consisting of low doses of Cyclosporine (CsA, Azathioprine (AZA or Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF and Prednisolone, AZA has been used in clinical transplantation for more than 30 years and was the first immunosuppres-sive agent to achieve widespread use in organ transplantation. MMF was introduced in clinical practice in 1995 after several clinical trials proved that it was more efficient than AZA for prevention of acute rejection episodes. Our aim was to evaluate influence of AZA and MMF on renal graft function in early post-transplant stage. Study recruited 74 patients who underwent kidney transplantation in University Clinical Centre Tuzla. All patients received CsA and corticosteroid-based immunosuppression, as a part of triple immunosuppressive regiment, 40 patients received AZA and 34 MMF. In order to assess renal graft function, following parameters were evaluated: glomerular filtration rate GFR (ml/min creatinine clearance (CrCl (ml/min, 24 h urine output (ml/day, and from the serum potassium, sodium, urea and creatinine (mmol/dm3. Significantly higher average values of 24 hour urine output were recorded during first seven postoperative days in patients receiving MMF compared to those treated with AZA. Serum creatinine values showed statistically significant decrease, starting with the second postoperative day, in MMF vs. AZA group (168,7±70,5 vs. 119,9±42,6; p<0,0007. GFR was significantly higher in MMF compared to the AZA group of patients. On the first post-transplant day CrCl was higher in AZA group (24,3±10 vs. 17,5±7,3; p=0,01, next six days situation is reversed CrCl is significantly higher in the MMF group (43,7±15 vs. 53, 4±22, 8 p=0,006. MMF vs. AZA therapy was associated with protective effect against worsening of renal function in first seven post-transplant days.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr S. Il'kiv
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We study a problem with integral boundary conditions in the time coordinate for a system of Lame equations of dynamic elasticity theory of an arbitrary dimension. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solution in the class of almost periodic functions in the spatial variables. To solve the problem of small denominators arising while constructing solutions, we use the metric approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahl, Björn; Söhler, Theo; Hennen, Maike; Bardow, André, E-mail: andre.bardow@ltt.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)
2018-01-08
Two-stage synthesis problems simultaneously consider here-and-now decisions (e.g., optimal investment) and wait-and-see decisions (e.g., optimal operation). The optimal synthesis of energy systems reveals such a two-stage character. The synthesis of energy systems involves multiple large time series such as energy demands and energy prices. Since problem size increases with the size of the time series, synthesis of energy systems leads to complex optimization problems. To reduce the problem size without loosing solution quality, we propose a method for time-series aggregation to identify typical periods. Typical periods retain the chronology of time steps, which enables modeling of energy systems, e.g., with storage units or start-up cost. The aim of the proposed method is to obtain few typical periods with few time steps per period, while accurately representing the objective function of the full time series, e.g., cost. Thus, we determine the error of time-series aggregation as the cost difference between operating the optimal design for the aggregated time series and for the full time series. Thereby, we rigorously bound the maximum performance loss of the optimal energy system design. In an initial step, the proposed method identifies the best length of typical periods by autocorrelation analysis. Subsequently, an adaptive procedure determines aggregated typical periods employing the clustering algorithm k-medoids, which groups similar periods into clusters and selects one representative period per cluster. Moreover, the number of time steps per period is aggregated by a novel clustering algorithm maintaining chronology of the time steps in the periods. The method is iteratively repeated until the error falls below a threshold value. A case study based on a real-world synthesis problem of an energy system shows that time-series aggregation from 8,760 time steps to 2 typical periods with each 2 time steps results in an error smaller than the optimality gap of
Colmenero, Francisco; Cobos, Joaquín; Timón, Vicente
2018-04-16
The structure and Raman spectrum of schoepite mineral, [(UO 2 ) 8 O 2 (OH) 12 ]·12H 2 O, was studied by means of theoretical calculations. The computations were carried out by using density functional theory with plane waves and pseudopotentials. A norm-conserving pseudopotential specific for the U atom developed in a previous work was employed. Because it was not possible to locate H atoms directly from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data by structure refinement in previous experimental studies, all of the positions of the H atoms in the full unit cell were determined theoretically. The structural results, including the lattice parameters, bond lengths, bond angles, and powder XRD pattern, were found to be in good agreement with their experimental counterparts. However, the calculations performed using the unit cell designed by Ostanin and Zeller in 2007, involving half of the atoms of the full unit cell, led to significant errors in the computed powder XRD pattern. Furthermore, Ostanin and Zeller's unit cell contains hydronium ions, H 3 O + , which are incompatible with the experimental information. Therefore, while the use of this schoepite model may be a very useful approximation requiring a much smaller amount of computational effort, the full unit cell should be used to study this mineral accurately. The Raman spectrum was also computed by means of density functional perturbation theory and compared with the experimental spectrum. The results were also in agreement with the experimental data. A normal-mode analysis of the theoretical spectra was performed to assign the main bands of the Raman spectrum. This assignment significantly improved the current empirical assignment of the bands of the Raman spectrum of schoepite mineral. In addition, the equation of state and elastic properties of this mineral were determined. The crystal structure of schoepite was found to be stable mechanically and dynamically. Schoepite can be described as a brittle material exhibiting
Tailoring Spectral Properties of Binary PT-Symmetric Gratings by Duty-Cycle Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lupu, Anatole T.; Benisty, Henri; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2016-01-01
We explore the frequency selective functionalities of a nonuniform PT-symmetric Bragg grating with modulated complex index profile. We start by assessing the possibility to achieve an efficient apodization of the PT-symmetric Bragg grating spectral response by using direct adaptations of the conv...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horst, Eckehard; Seidel, Matthias; Micke, Oliver; Ruebe, Christian; Glashoerster, Marco; Schaefer, Ulrich; Willich, Normann A.
2002-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the functional effects of ionizing radiation in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer in the early period after accelerated radiochemotherapy (ART). Methods and Materials: To analyze the exocrine component, the amino acid consumption test and fecal elastase 1 were performed in 13 patients immediately before and 4-8 weeks after ART. Pancreatic duct morphology was evaluated before therapy. Weight loss and clinical steatorrhea were recorded. Endocrine parameters were examined according to standardized criteria. Results: The relative change of the amino acid consumption test results and the median elastase concentration was 41.2% and 56.4%, respectively. Five patients still had normal test results after ART and 5 patients developed pathologic values. The median relative weight loss of the total body weight was 7.7% ± 4.5%. No steatorrhea occurred. Of the 5 patients with normal values, 3 had a mean organ dose of 41 Gy. The endocrine function measurements remained unchanged. Conclusion: Although a nominal reduction of exocrine function parameters occurred in most patients, ART was not necessarily related to a pathologic level in the early period. Diabetes was not established. The functional impairment that was existent in the patient population presumably contributed to the weight loss. Pancreatic enzyme preparations may also play a role in maintaining an anabolic state during and after radiochemotherapy
Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.
2010-01-01
We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.
Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-09-15
We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.
Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe
2012-01-01
We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)
Reverte, Virginia; Tapia, Antonio; Loria, Analia; Salazar, Francisco; Llinas, M Teresa; Salazar, F Javier
2014-03-01
This study was performed to test the hypothesis that ANG II contributes to the hypertension and renal functional alterations induced by a decrease of COX2 activity during the nephrogenic period. It was also examined whether renal functional reserve and renal response to volume overload and high sodium intake are reduced in 3-4- and 9-11-mo-old male and female rats treated with vehicle or a COX2 inhibitor during nephrogenic period (COX2np). Our data show that this COX2 inhibition induces an ANG II-dependent hypertension that is similar in male and female rats. Renal functional reserve is reduced in COX2np-treated rats since their renal response to an increase in plasma amino acids levels is abolished, and their renal ability to eliminate a sodium load is impaired (P renal excretory ability is similar in both sexes during aging but does not induce the development of a sodium-sensitive hypertension. However, the prolonged high-sodium intake at 9-11 mo of age leads to a greater proteinuria in male than in female (114 ± 12 μg/min vs. 72 ± 8 μg/min; P Renal hemodynamic sensitivity to acute increments in ANG II is unaltered in both sexes and at both ages in COX2np-treated rats. In summary, these results indicate that the reduction of COX2 activity during nephrogenic period programs for the development of an ANG II-dependent hypertension, reduces renal functional reserve to a similar extent in both sexes, and increases proteinuria in males but not in females when there is a prolonged increment in sodium intake.
Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipankar, R.
1977-12-01
Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douvropoulos, Theodosios G
2012-01-01
An approximate formula for the period of pendulum motion beyond the small amplitude regime is obtained based on physical arguments. Two different schemes of different accuracy are developed: in the first less accurate scheme, emphasis is given on the non-quadratic form of the potential in connection to isochronism, and a specific form of a generic formula that is met in many previous works is produced, while the second and main result contains the Struve function which is further approximated by a simple sinusoidal expression based on its maximum value. The accuracy of the final formula gives a relative error of less than 0.2% for angles up to 140°. In addition, a simple relation between the Struve function and the complete elliptic integral of the first kind is produced, since they both constitute solutions of the pendulum period. This relation makes it possible for someone to connect different areas in physics and solve a difficult task by comparison with another much more simple one. As an example, a connection between the pendulum period and the acoustical radiation impedance is proposed through impedance matching and some interesting relations are produced. This paper is intended for undergraduate students to be useful for analysing pendulum experiments in introductory physics labs and it is also believed to offer valuable insight into some properties of the simple pendulum in undergraduate courses on general physics. (paper)
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Sasabe, Tetsuya; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
2011-05-01
When students proceed to junior high school from elementary school, rapid changes in the environment occur, which may cause various behavioral and emotional problems. However, the changes in cognitive functions during this transitional period have rarely been studied. In 158 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 159 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades, we assessed various cognitive functions, including motor processing, spatial construction ability, semantic fluency, immediate memory, delayed memory, spatial and non-spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Our findings showed that performance on spatial and non-spatial working memory, alternative attention, divided attention, and semantic fluency tasks improved from elementary to junior high school. In particular, performance on alternative and divided attention tasks improved during the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Our finding suggests that development of alternative and divided attention is of crucial importance in the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solitons supported by localized nonlinearities in periodic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A.
2011-01-01
Nonlinear periodic systems, such as photonic crystals and Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's) loaded into optical lattices, are often described by the nonlinear Schroedinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a sinusoidal potential. Here, we consider a model based on such a periodic potential, with the nonlinearity (attractive or repulsive) concentrated either at a single point or at a symmetric set of two points, which are represented, respectively, by a single δ function or a combination of two δ functions. With the attractive or repulsive sign of the nonlinearity, this model gives rise to ordinary solitons or gap solitons (GS's), which reside, respectively, in the semi-infinite or finite gaps of the system's linear spectrum, being pinned to the δ functions. Physical realizations of these systems are possible in optics and BEC's, using diverse variants of the nonlinearity management. First, we demonstrate that the single δ function multiplying the nonlinear term supports families of stableregular solitons in the self-attractive case, while a family of solitons supported by the attractive δ function in the absence of the periodic potential is completely unstable. In addition, we show that the δ function can support stable GS's in the first finite band gap in both the self-attractive and repulsive models. The stability analysis for the GS's in the second finite band gap is reported too, for both signs of the nonlinearity. Alongside the numerical analysis, analytical approximations are developed for the solitons in the semi-infinite and first two finite gaps, with the single δ function positioned at a minimum or maximum of the periodic potential. In the model with the symmetric set of two δ functions, we study the effect of the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the pinned solitons. Two configurations are considered, with the δ functions set symmetrically with respect to the minimum or maximum of the underlying potential.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sh. Avrushchenko
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 used to improve the structural and functional state of the brain in the early postresuscitation period. Material and methods. Cardiac arrest was induced in mature male albino rats for 12 minutes, followed by resuscitation. The neurological state of the resuscitated animals was assessed by a scoring scale. On postresuscitation day 7, the density and composition of neuronal populations of Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellar region and pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector were determined by a differential morphometric analysis. The results were statistically processed using the ANOVA method. Results. The use of GK-2 was found to accelerate neurological recovery in the resuscitated animals. On day 7 after 12-minute cardiac arrest, the resuscitated animals showed neuronal dystrophic changes and death in the neuronal populations highly susceptible to ischemia. It was shown that the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 contributed to a reduction in the magnitude and depth of postresuscitation changes in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and prevented dystrophic changes in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1 sector. The findings suggest that GK-2 has a neuroprotective effect in the recovery period after total body ischemia. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the efficiency of the systemic administration of the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2 in improving the brain structural and functional state in the early postresuscitation period. This determines perspectives for the use of GK-2 to prevent and correct posthypoxic encephalopathies. Key words: the nerve growth factor mimetic GK-2, postresuscitation period, neuronal dystrophic changes and death, neurological status.
FFLP problem with symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Daneshrad
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The most popular approach for solving fully fuzzy linear programming (FFLP problems is to convert them into the corresponding deterministic linear programs. Khan et al. (2013 [Khan, I. U., Ahmad, T., & Maan, N. (2013. A simplified novel technique for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 159(2, 536-546.] claimed that there had been no method in the literature to find the fuzzy optimal solution of a FFLP problem without converting it into crisp linear programming problem, and proposed a technique for the same. Others showed that the fuzzy arithmetic operation used by Khan et al. (2013 had some problems in subtraction and division operations, which could lead to misleading results. Recently, Ezzati et al. (2014 [Ezzati, R., Khorram, E., & Enayati, R. (2014. A particular simplex algorithm to solve fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problems and their sensitivity analysis on the priority of the fuzzy objective functions. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 26(5, 2333-2358.] defined a new operation on symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and proposed a new algorithm to find directly a lexicographic/preemptive fuzzy optimal solution of a fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problem by using new fuzzy arithmetic operations, but their model was not fully fuzzy optimization. In this paper, a new method, by using Ezzati et al. (2014’s fuzzy arithmetic operation and a fuzzy version of simplex algorithm, is proposed for solving FFLP problem whose parameters are represented by symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy number without converting the given problem into crisp equivalent problem. By using the proposed method, the fuzzy optimal solution of FFLP problem can be easily obtained. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method.
Facial growth and oral function in a case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during an 8-year period
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreiborg, S; Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S
1990-01-01
The present report is a detailed analysis of facial growth and oral function in a girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis of the temporomandibular joints. She was followed from 9 to 17 years of age prior to and after orthognathic surgery. Facial growth was assessed by facial photographs, dental...... on these observations it is suggested that the conventional treatment strategy with postponement of orthodontic or orthognathic surgical treatment until cessation of growth is abandoned and that early treatment should be undertaken to maintain occlusal stability throughout the growth period....
Comprehensive asynchronous symmetric rendezvous algorithm in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Meenu Chawla
2017-11-10
Nov 10, 2017 ... Simulation results affirm that CASR algorithm performs better in terms of average time-to-rendezvous as compared ... process; neighbour discovery; symmetric rendezvous algorithm. 1. .... dezvous in finite time under the symmetric model. The CH ..... CASR algorithm in Matlab 7.11 and performed several.
Symmetric splitting of very light systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.
1985-01-01
Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marana, Naiara L. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Anderson R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertão Pernambucano, 56400-000 Floresta, PE (Brazil); La Porta, Felipe A. [Chemistry Department, Federal Technological University of Paraná, 86036-370 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Longo, Elson [São Paulo State University, Chemistry Institute, UNESP, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Sambrano, Julio R. [Modeling and Molecular Simulations Group, São Paulo State University, UNESP, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil)
2016-05-15
Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors. - Graphical abstract: DFT/B3LYP were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of SWZnONTs and SWCNTs with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. - Highlights: • The energies of SWZnONTs converge for chirality with diameters up 20 Å. • SWCNTs electronic properties depend on the chirality. • The properties of SWZnONTs are very similar to those of monolayer surface.
Hine, Nicholas D M; Dziedzic, Jacek; Haynes, Peter D; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton
2011-11-28
We present a comparison of methods for treating the electrostatic interactions of finite, isolated systems within periodic boundary conditions (PBCs), within density functional theory (DFT), with particular emphasis on linear-scaling (LS) DFT. Often, PBCs are not physically realistic but are an unavoidable consequence of the choice of basis set and the efficacy of using Fourier transforms to compute the Hartree potential. In such cases the effects of PBCs on the calculations need to be avoided, so that the results obtained represent the open rather than the periodic boundary. The very large systems encountered in LS-DFT make the demands of the supercell approximation for isolated systems more difficult to manage, and we show cases where the open boundary (infinite cell) result cannot be obtained from extrapolation of calculations from periodic cells of increasing size. We discuss, implement, and test three very different approaches for overcoming or circumventing the effects of PBCs: truncation of the Coulomb interaction combined with padding of the simulation cell, approaches based on the minimum image convention, and the explicit use of open boundary conditions (OBCs). We have implemented these approaches in the ONETEP LS-DFT program and applied them to a range of systems, including a polar nanorod and a protein. We compare their accuracy, complexity, and rate of convergence with simulation cell size. We demonstrate that corrective approaches within PBCs can achieve the OBC result more efficiently and accurately than pure OBC approaches.
Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology
Stecker, F. W.
1978-01-01
Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.
Substring-Searchable Symmetric Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chase Melissa
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a setting where a client wants to outsource storage of a large amount of private data and then perform substring search queries on the data – given a data string s and a search string p, find all occurrences of p as a substring of s. First, we formalize an encryption paradigm that we call queryable encryption, which generalizes searchable symmetric encryption (SSE and structured encryption. Then, we construct a queryable encryption scheme for substring queries. Our construction uses suffix trees and achieves asymptotic efficiency comparable to that of unencrypted suffix trees. Encryption of a string of length n takes O(λn time and produces a ciphertext of size O(λn, and querying for a substring of length m that occurs k times takes O(λm+k time and three rounds of communication. Our security definition guarantees correctness of query results and privacy of data and queries against a malicious adversary. Following the line of work started by Curtmola et al. (ACM CCS 2006, in order to construct more efficient schemes we allow the query protocol to leak some limited information that is captured precisely in the definition. We prove security of our substring-searchable encryption scheme against malicious adversaries, where the query protocol leaks limited information about memory access patterns through the suffix tree of the encrypted string.
Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.
2007-11-01
It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.
Confining but chirally symmetric dense and cold matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glozman, L. Ya.
2012-01-01
The possibility for existence of cold, dense chirally symmetric matter with confinement is reviewed. The answer to this question crucially depends on the mechanism of mass generation in QCD and interconnection of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. This question can be clarified from spectroscopy of hadrons and their axial properties. Almost systematical parity doubling of highly excited hadrons suggests that their mass is not related to chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and is approximately chirally symmetric. Then there is a possibility for existence of confining but chirally symmetric matter. We clarify a possible mechanism underlying such a phase at low temperatures and large density. Namely, at large density the Pauli blocking prevents the gap equation to generate a solution with broken chiral symmetry. However, the chirally symmetric part of the quark Green function as well as all color non-singlet quantities are still infrared divergent, meaning that the system is with confinement. A possible phase transition to such a matter is most probably of the first order. This is because there are no chiral partners to the lowest lying hadrons.
Exact quantum solution for some symmetrical two-well potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ley-Koo, E.
1985-01-01
We construct the solutions of the Schroedinger equation for the rectangular-well, harmonic-oscillator and symmetric-linear potentials with a delta-function potential superimposed in their central positions. The odd-parity states are not affected by the presence of the delta-function potential. The even-parity states are determined by the condition that their wave functions have in the central position a fixed logarithmic derivative, which is proportional to the intensity the delta-function potential. (author)
On the axially symmetric non-rotating vacuum solutions of Rosen's equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozhkov, Y.
1990-10-01
It is shown that all axially symmetric nonrotating solutions of Rosen's field equations can be expressed in terms of two harmonic functions. It is also shown that the total energy of Rosen's metric is Mc 2 . (author). 8 refs
The symmetric extendibility of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowakowski, Marcin L
2016-01-01
Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)
Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.
2007-01-01
The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis
Biophysical information in asymmetric and symmetric diurnal bidirectional canopy reflectance
Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Caldwell, William F.; Pettigrew, Rita E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Rousseau, Robert A.; Berger, Kevin M.; Ganapol, B. D.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Clark, Jenny A.
1991-01-01
The authors present a theory for partitioning the information content in diurnal bidirectional reflectance measurements in order to detect differences potentially related to biophysical variables. The theory, which divides the canopy reflectance into asymmetric and symmetric functions of solar azimuth angle, attributes asymmetric variation to diurnal changes in the canopy biphysical properties. The symmetric function is attributed to the effects of sunlight interacting with a hypothetical average canopy which would display the average diurnal properties of the actual canopy. The authors analyzed radiometer data collected diurnally in the Thematic Mapper wavelength bands from two walnut canopies that received differing irrigation treatments. The reflectance of the canopies varied with sun and view angles and across seven bands in the visible, near-infrared, and middle infrared wavelength regions. Although one of the canopies was permanently water stressed and the other was stressed in mid-afternoon each day, no water stress signature was unambiguously evident in the reflectance data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belov, V.E.; Rodygin, L.V.; Fil'chenko, S.E.; Yunakovskii, A.D.
1988-01-01
A method is described for calculating the electrodynamic characteristics of periodically corrugated waveguide systems. This method is based on representing the field as the solution of the Helmholtz vector equation in the form of a simple layer potential, transformed with the use of the Floquet conditions. Systems of compound integral equations based on a weighted vector function of the simple layer potential are derived for waveguides with azimuthally symmetric and helical corrugations. A numerical realization of the Fourier method is cited for seeking the dispersion relation of azimuthally symmetric waves of a circular corrugated waveguide
Effect of exposure to anesthesia on the functions of nervous system of children in the growth period
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei DENG
2015-04-01
Full Text Available With the update of concept of anesthesia and the improvement in anesthesia technology, an increasing number of children received surgical treatment under general anesthesia. Subsequently, the influence of anesthetic agents on the development of nervous system becomes a focused issue. Basic research found that anesthetic agents can lower the synaptic plasticity of nervous system, produce neuronal apoptosis and other neurodegenerative diseases during the vulnerable window period for brain development, thus affect learning and memory function when the children reach adulthood. Since 2007, a number of research centers around the world conducted a large-scale clinical study on this issue, but there are relevant studies showing that there is no direct correlation between the two. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.16
Communication: Symmetrical quasi-classical analysis of linear optical spectroscopy
Provazza, Justin; Coker, David F.
2018-05-01
The symmetrical quasi-classical approach for propagation of a many degree of freedom density matrix is explored in the context of computing linear spectra. Calculations on a simple two state model for which exact results are available suggest that the approach gives a qualitative description of peak positions, relative amplitudes, and line broadening. Short time details in the computed dipole autocorrelation function result in exaggerated tails in the spectrum.
Dp spaces on bounded symmetric domains of Cn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Jihuai.
1989-06-01
In this paper, the space D p (Ω) of functions holomorphic on bounded symmetric domain of C m is defined. We prove that H p (Ω) is contained in D p (Ω) if 0 p (Ω) is contained in H p (Ω) if p ≥2, and both inclusions are proper. Further we find that some theorems on H p (Ω) can be extended to the wider class D p (Ω) for 0 < p ≤ 2. (author). 12 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minji Park
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.
Symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manisa, K.; Bicer, A.; Atav, U.
2010-01-01
The equation of state (EOS) and some properties of symmetric nuclear matter, such as the saturation density, saturation energy and incompressibility, are obtained by using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.
Performance limitations of translationally symmetric nonimaging devices
Bortz, John C.; Shatz, Narkis E.; Winston, Roland
2001-11-01
The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quality, referred to herein as the translational skew invariant, is analogous to the conventional skew invariant, which is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. The invariance of both of these quantities is a consequence of Noether's theorem. We show how performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices can be derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. Examples of computed performance limits are provided. In addition, we show that a numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking surface microstructure can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry. The optimized design provides a 47.4% increase in efficiency and concentration relative to an ideal translationally symmetric concentrator.
Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector
2004-01-01
It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated
Introduction to left-right symmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.
1993-01-01
We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)
A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
German, G.; Ross, G.G.
1986-01-01
Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)
Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare
1977-01-24
A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.
Elliptic Genera of Symmetric Products and Second Quantized Strings
Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman L
1997-01-01
In this note we prove an identity that equates the elliptic genus partition function of a supersymmetric sigma model on the $N$-fold symmetric product $M^N/S_N$ of a manifold $M$ to the partition function of a second quantized string theory on the space $M \\times S^1$. The generating function of these elliptic genera is shown to be (almost) an automorphic form for $O(3,2,\\Z)$. In the context of D-brane dynamics, this result gives a precise computation of the free energy of a gas of D-strings inside a higher-dimensional brane.
Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids
2017-11-29
Charts N/A Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 14 Kamran Ghiassi N/A 1 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids Kevin T. Greeson...NUMBER (Include area code) 29 November 2017 Briefing Charts 01 November 2017 - 30 November 2017 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic ... Liquids K. Greeson, K. Ghiassi, J. Alston, N. Redeker, J. Marcischak, L. Gilmore, A. Guenthner Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRP 9 Antares
The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harbo, Anders La-Cour
2003-01-01
A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, and symmetric transform given as the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generatin...... large sets of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....
The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harbo, Anders La-Cour
2003-01-01
A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, symmetric transform, the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generating large sets...... of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.
1987-09-01
Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.
1988-01-01
Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soo Yeon Lim
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG is rare but devastating complication which is characterized by symmetrical ischemic change of the distal extremities. In this report, we describe our management protocol for SPG, focusing on surgical approaches. Between January 2007 and February 2016, 10 thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP free flaps were performed in 6 patients with SPG. Three patients were male and mean age was 56 (range, 44–69 years. All the patients were in shock. The causes of shock were sepsis in 4 cases, respiratory arrest in 1 case, and hypovolemia in 1 case. Eight transmetatarsal amputations and 2 Lisfranc amputations were performed. Flap sizes ranged from 7 × 11 cm to 25 × 15 cm. There were 3 cases of partial necrosis of the flap: two healed conservatively with dressings and one required skin graft. Three of the patients were later able to walk independently at Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC level 6, one patient could walk independently on level surfaces at FAC level 5, and 2 could walk independently using walking aids, classified at FAC level 4. The average follow-up period was 18 (range, 6–54 months. In patients with SPG, minimal bone amputation and foot salvage with TDAP flaps were successful. Separate reconstruction of bone and soft tissue had good outcomes.
Huang, Claire Yu-Mei; Zhang, Chuansheng; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Burlingame, Alma L; Lalonde, Joshua; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Leterrier, Christophe; Rasband, Matthew N
2017-11-22
Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1 f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711311-12$15.00/0.
PT-symmetric planar devices for field transformation and imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valagiannopoulos, C A; Monticone, F; Alù, A
2016-01-01
The powerful tools of transformation optics (TO) allow an effective distortion of a region of space by carefully engineering the material inhomogeneity and anisotropy, and have been successfully applied in recent years to control electromagnetic fields in many different scenarios, e.g., to realize invisibility cloaks and planar lenses. For various field transformations, it is not necessary to use volumetric inhomogeneous materials, and suitably designed ultrathin metasurfaces with tailored spatial or spectral responses may be able to realize similar functionalities within smaller footprints and more robust mechanisms. Here, inspired by the concept of metamaterial TO lenses, we discuss field transformations enabled by parity-time (PT) symmetric metasurfaces, which can emulate negative refraction. We first analyze a simple realization based on homogeneous and local metasurfaces to achieve negative refraction and imaging, and we then extend our results to arbitrary PT-symmetric two-port networks to realize aberration-free planar imaging. (paper)
Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru
2009-01-01
We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D≥5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.
Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Alessio, Maristella; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Peintinger, Michael F; Bredow, Thomas; Grimme, Stefan
2013-09-26
We extend the previously developed geometrical correction for the inter- and intramolecular basis set superposition error (gCP) to periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We report gCP results compared to those from the standard Boys-Bernardi counterpoise correction scheme and large basis set calculations. The applicability of the method to molecular crystals as the main target is tested for the benchmark set X23. It consists of 23 noncovalently bound crystals as introduced by Johnson et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 137, 054103) and refined by Tkatchenko et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 024705). In order to accurately describe long-range electron correlation effects, we use the standard atom-pairwise dispersion correction scheme DFT-D3. We show that a combination of DFT energies with small atom-centered basis sets, the D3 dispersion correction, and the gCP correction can accurately describe van der Waals and hydrogen-bonded crystals. Mean absolute deviations of the X23 sublimation energies can be reduced by more than 70% and 80% for the standard functionals PBE and B3LYP, respectively, to small residual mean absolute deviations of about 2 kcal/mol (corresponding to 13% of the average sublimation energy). As a further test, we compute the interlayer interaction of graphite for varying distances and obtain a good equilibrium distance and interaction energy of 6.75 Å and -43.0 meV/atom at the PBE-D3-gCP/SVP level. We fit the gCP scheme for a recently developed pob-TZVP solid-state basis set and obtain reasonable results for the X23 benchmark set and the potential energy curve for water adsorption on a nickel (110) surface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged PMOs. • Phosphonic acid loaded PMOs as adsorbent for cationic and anionic dyes. • Due to electrostatic interaction the adsorbent has high dye adsorption capacity. • π–π stacking interaction between benzene and dye enhances adsorption capacity. • Intraparticle diffusion played a dominant role in the adsorption process. - Abstract: Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved π–π stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles
Li, Guixia; Zhao, Lianming; Zhu, Houyu; Liu, Xiuping; Ma, Huifang; Yu, Yanchen; Guo, Wenyue
2017-07-05
The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene on clean and S-modified MoP(010) is investigated to understand the HDS mechanism as well as the surface sulfur (S) atom effect using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The results show that thiophene prefers strongly flat adsorption on both the clean and S-modified surfaces, in either the molecular state or the dissociative state breaking simultaneously one C-S bond, and the adsorption of thiophene can be slightly weakened by the surface S atom. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis indicates that the HDS of thiophene in both the molecular and dissociative adsorption states prefers to take place along the direct desulfurization (DDS) pathway rather than hydrogenation on both the clean and S-modified MoP(010) surfaces. Surface S shows a promotion effect on the HDS catalytic activity of MoP(010), because the energy barrier/rate constant of the rate-determining step on the DDS pathway is decreased/enlarged under the S modification. Compared with the situation of MoP(001), MoP(010) should have relatively low HDS activity, since a higher energy barrier as well as weaker exothermicity is involved in the reaction on the latter surface.
Mao, Yu; Li, Jin Jun; Liu, Yuan; Dong, Wei; Pang, Pei; Deng, Zhi Bang
2017-03-01
Porcine circovirus type 2- (PCV2-) associated reproductive disorders and enteritis have commonly been observed on PCV2-contaminated pig farms in recent years. In order to investigate disorders of intestinal immunity in piglets infected by PCV2 during the fetal period, 9 PCV2b-infected piglets and 6 non-infected piglets at one day of age were selected and euthanised prior to suckling. Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and duodena were collected to investigate factors related to intestinal immunity and to detect lymphocytic apoptosis. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the PCV2b-infected piglets but IFN-γ levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) and IL-4 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in infected piglets than in the controls. Furthermore, lymphocytic apoptosis increased in PCV2b-infected piglets and CD4+ to CD8+ ratios were lower in these piglets than in the controls. These findings suggest vertical transmission of PCV2b to fetuses, leading to an imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets.
Complex {PT}-symmetric extensions of the nonlinear ultra-short light pulse model
Yan, Zhenya
2012-11-01
The short pulse equation u_{xt}=u+\\frac{1}{2}(u^2u_x)_x is PT symmetric, which arises in nonlinear optics for the ultra-short pulse case. We present a family of new complex PT-symmetric extensions of the short pulse equation, i[(iu_x)^{\\sigma }]_t=au+bu^m+ic[u^n(iu_x)^{\\epsilon }]_x \\,\\, (\\sigma ,\\, \\epsilon ,\\,a,\\,b,\\,c,\\,m,\\,n \\in {R}), based on the complex PT-symmetric extension principle. Some properties of these equations with some chosen parameters are studied including the Hamiltonian structures and exact solutions such as solitary wave solutions, doubly periodic wave solutions and compacton solutions. Our results may be useful to understand complex PT-symmetric nonlinear physical models. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Caceres Marzal, D.; Bland, C.J.
1994-01-01
A pulse-height spectrum of alpha-particle emissions at discrete energies can be fitted by the peak-shape functions generated by combining asymmetric truncated exponential functions with a symmetric Gaussian distribution. These functions have been applied successfully by several workers. A correlation was previously found between the variance of the symmetric Gaussian portion of the fitting function, and the parameter characterising the principal exponential tailing function. The results of a more detailed experimental study are reported, which involve varying the angle and the distance between the source and the detector. This analysis shows that the parameters of the symmetric and asymmetric parts of the fitted functions seem to depend on either the detector or the source. These parameters are influenced by the energy loss suffered by the alpha-particles as well as by the efficiency of charge collection in the solid-state detector. (orig.)
Dispersion in a bent-solenoid channel with symmetric focusing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Chun-xi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2001-08-21
Longitudinal ionization cooling of a muon beam is essential for muon colliders and will be useful for neutrino factories. Bent-solenoid channels with symmetric focusing has been considered for beam focusing and for generating the required dispersion in the ``emittance exchange'' scheme of longitudinal cooling. In this paper, we derive the Hamiltonian that governs the linear beam dynamics of a bent-solenoid channel, solve the single-particle dynamics, and give equations for determining the lattice functions, in particular, the dispersion functions.
A Derandomized Algorithm for RP-ADMM with Symmetric Gauss-Seidel Method
Xu, Jinchao; Xu, Kailai; Ye, Yinyu
2017-01-01
For multi-block alternating direction method of multipliers(ADMM), where the objective function can be decomposed into multiple block components, we show that with block symmetric Gauss-Seidel iteration, the algorithm will converge quickly. The method will apply a block symmetric Gauss-Seidel iteration in the primal update and a linear correction that can be derived in view of Richard iteration. We also establish the linear convergence rate for linear systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faryad, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.faryad@lums.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792 (Pakistan); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2017-02-19
Mathematical statements of the Huygens principle relate the electric and magnetic field phasors at an arbitrary location in a source-free region enclosed by a surface to the tangential components of the electric and magnetic field phasors over that surface, via the dyadic Green functions applicable to the linear homogeneous medium occupying that region. We have mathematically formulated the Huygens principle for the electric and magnetic field phasors when the permittivity and permeability dyadics of the medium are symmetric, the symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics of the medium are negative of each other, and both magnetoelectric dyadics also contain anti-symmetric terms. We have also formulated the Huygens principle for the electric (resp. magnetic) field phasor in a medium whose permittivity (resp. permeability) is scalar, the permeability (resp. permittivity) is symmetric, the symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics reduce to dissimilar scalars, and anti-symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics are identical. - Highlights: • The Huygens principle was formulated for bianistropic mediums when the permittivity and permeability dyadics of the medium are symmetric. • The formulation covers isotropic, biisotropic, and gyrotropic-like uniaxial mediums for which the Huygens principle is already available. • The formulation also covers new mediums like biaxial, chiro-omega, pseudo chiral, gyrotropic-like biaxial, and Lorentz reciprocal mediums.
Exact solutions for an oscillator with anti-symmetric quadratic nonlinearity
Beléndez, A.; Martínez, F. J.; Beléndez, T.; Pascual, C.; Alvarez, M. L.; Gimeno, E.; Arribas, E.
2018-04-01
Closed-form exact solutions for an oscillator with anti-symmetric quadratic nonlinearity are derived from the first integral of the nonlinear differential equation governing the behaviour of this oscillator. The mathematical model is an ordinary second order differential equation in which the sign of the quadratic nonlinear term changes. Two parameters characterize this oscillator: the coefficient of the linear term and the coefficient of the quadratic term. Not only the common case in which both coefficients are positive but also all possible combinations of positive and negative signs of these coefficients which provide periodic motions are considered, giving rise to four different cases. Three different periods and solutions are obtained, since the same result is valid in two of these cases. An interesting feature is that oscillatory motions whose equilibrium points are not at x = 0 are also considered. The periods are given in terms of an incomplete or complete elliptic integral of the first kind, and the exact solutions are expressed as functions including Jacobi elliptic cosine or sine functions.
Survival and transmission of symmetrical chromosomal aberrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savage, J.R.K.
1979-01-01
The interaction between the lesions to produce chromosomal structural changes may be either asymmetrical (A) or symmetrical (S). In A, one or more acentric fragments are always produced, and there may also be the mechanical separation problems resulting from bridges at anaphase, while S-changes never produce fragment, and pose no mechanical problem in cell division. If A and S events occur with equal frequency, it might be an indication that they are truly the alternative modes of lesion interaction. Unstimulated lymphocytes were irradiated with 2.68 Gy 250 kV X-ray, and metaphases were sampled at 50 h after the stimulation. Preparations were complete diploid cells, and any obvious second division cells were rejected. So far as dermal repair and fibroblast functions are concerned, aberration burden seems to have little consequence from the view-point of the long-term survival in vivo. Large numbers of aberrations (mainly S translocation and terminal deletion) were found in the samples taken up to 60 years after therapy. Skin biopsies were removed 1 day and 6 months after irradiation and cultured. In irradiated cells, reciprocal translocations dominated, followed by terminal deletions, then inversions, while no chromosome-type aberration was seen in the control cells. a) The relative occurrence of A : S changes, b) long-term survival in vivo, c) the possibility of in vivo repair, and d) some unusual features of translocation found in Syrian hamsters are reviewed. The relevance or importance of major S events is clearly dependent upon the cells, the tissues or the organisms in which they occur. (Yamashita, S.)
Crossing-symmetric solutions to low equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.
1985-01-01
Crossing symmetric models of the pion-nucleon interaction in which crossing symmetry is kept to lowest order in msub(π)/msub(N) are investigated. Two iterative techniques are developed to solve the crossing-symmetric Low equation. The techniques are used to solve the original Chew-Low equations and their generalizations to include the coupling to the pion-production channels. Small changes are found in comparison with earlier results which used an iterative technique proposed by Chew and Low and which did not produce crossing-symmetric results. The iterative technique of Chew and Low is shown to fail because of its inability to produce zeroes in the amplitude at complex energies while physical solutions to the model require such zeroes. We also prove that, within the class of solutions such that phase shifts approach zero for infinite energy, the solution to the Low equation is unique. (orig.)
Revisiting the Optical PT-Symmetric Dimer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Delfino Huerta Morales
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Optics has proved a fertile ground for the experimental simulation of quantum mechanics. Most recently, optical realizations of PT -symmetric quantum mechanics have been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, opening the door to international efforts aiming at the design of practical optical devices exploiting this symmetry. Here, we focus on the optical PT -symmetric dimer, a two-waveguide coupler where the materials show symmetric effective gain and loss, and provide a review of the linear and nonlinear optical realizations from a symmetry-based point of view. We go beyond a simple review of the literature and show that the dimer is just the smallest of a class of planar N-waveguide couplers that are the optical realization of the Lorentz group in 2 + 1 dimensions. Furthermore, we provide a formulation to describe light propagation through waveguide couplers described by non-Hermitian mode coupling matrices based on a non-Hermitian generalization of the Ehrenfest theorem.
Rai, Sandhya; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Annapurna, Kannepalli
2015-01-01
The soil sampled at different growth stages along the cropping period of cotton were analyzed using various molecular tools: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning-sequencing. The cluster analysis of the diazotrophic community structure of early sampled soil (0, 15, and 30 days) was found to be more closely related to each other than the later sampled one. Phylogenetic and diversity analysis of sequences obtained from the first (0 Day; C0) and last soil sample (180 day; C180) confirmed the data. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that C0 was having more unique sequences than C180 (presence of γ-Proteobacteria exclusively in C0). A relatively higher richness of diazotrophic community sequences was observed in C0 (S(ACE) : 30.76; S(Chao1) : 20.94) than C180 (S(ACE) : 18.00; S(Chao1) : 18.00) while the evenness component of Shannon diversity index increased from C0 (0.97) to C180 (1.15). The impact of routine agricultural activities was more evident based on diazotrophic activity (measured by acetylene reduction assay) than its structure and diversity. The nitrogenase activity of C0 (1264.85 ± 35.7 ηmol of ethylene production g(-1) dry soil h(-1) ) was statistically higher when compared to all other values (p structure/diversity and N2 fixation rates. Thus, considerable functional redundancy of nifH was concluded to be existing at the experimental site. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
Symmetry theorems via the continuous steiner symmetrization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Ragoub
2000-06-01
Full Text Available Using a new approach due to F. Brock called the Steiner symmetrization, we show first that if $u$ is a solution of an overdetermined problem in the divergence form satisfying the Neumann and non-constant Dirichlet boundary conditions, then $Omega$ is an N-ball. In addition, we show that we can relax the condition on the value of the Dirichlet boundary condition in the case of superharmonicity. Finally, we give an application to positive solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems in symmetric domains for the divergence case.
Symmetric splitting of very light systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.
1984-01-01
Inclusive and coincidence measurements have been performed to study symmetric products from the reactions 74--186 MeV 12 C+ 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be+ 40 Ca, and 153 MeV 6 Li+ 40 Ca. The binary decay of the composite system has been verified. Energy spectra, angular distributions, and fragment correlations are presented. The total kinetic energies for the symmetric products from these very light composite systems are compared to liquid drop model calculations and fission systematics
Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups
Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.
1992-01-01
In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.
Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Engliš, Miroslav
Roč. 60, č. 12 ( 2015 ), s. 1712-1726 ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.466, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933. 2015 .1043910
Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik
2012-01-01
We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...
Exact solutions of the spherically symmetric multidimensional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The complete orthonormalised energy eigenfunctions and the energy eigenvalues of the spherically symmetric isotropic harmonic oscillator in N dimensions, are obtained through the methods of separation of variables. Also, the degeneracy of the energy levels are examined. KEY WORDS: - Schrödinger Equation, Isotropic ...
Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xin, Y.L.
1994-06-01
A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs
On isotropic cylindrically symmetric stellar models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nolan, Brien C; Nolan, Louise V
2004-01-01
We attempt to match the most general cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetime with a Robertson-Walker interior. The matching conditions show that the interior must be dust filled and that the boundary must be comoving. Further, we show that the vacuum region must be polarized. Imposing the condition that there are no trapped cylinders on an initial time slice, we can apply a result of Thorne's and show that trapped cylinders never evolve. This results in a simplified line element which we prove to be incompatible with the dust interior. This result demonstrates the impossibility of the existence of an isotropic cylindrically symmetric star (or even a star which has a cylindrically symmetric portion). We investigate the problem from a different perspective by looking at the expansion scalars of invariant null geodesic congruences and, applying to the cylindrical case, the result that the product of the signs of the expansion scalars must be continuous across the boundary. The result may also be understood in relation to recent results about the impossibility of the static axially symmetric analogue of the Einstein-Straus model
The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs. Mausumi Bose (nee Sen) obtained her MSc degree in. Statistics from the Calcutta. University and PhD degree from the Indian Statistical. Institute. She is on the faculty of the Indian. Statistical Institute. Her main field of research interest is design and analysis of experiments.
Symmetric intersections of Rauzy fractals | Sellami | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this article we study symmetric subsets of Rauzy fractals of unimodular irreducible Pisot substitutions. The symmetry considered is re ection through the origin. Given an unimodular irreducible Pisot substitution, we consider the intersection of its Rauzy fractal with the Rauzy fractal of the reverse substitution. This set is ...
A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1990-06-01
Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs
Harmonic analysis on reductive symmetric spaces
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
2000-01-01
We give a relatively non-technical survey of some recent advances in the Fourier theory for semisimple symmetric spaces. There are three major results: An inversion formula for the Fourier transform, a Palley-Wiener theorem, which describes the Fourier image of the space of completely supported
Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
1994-01-01
Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation
Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.
1997-01-01
Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation
Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco
2011-01-01
We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).
All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2017-06-15
In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distributions. Considering a new source function ν(r) we find a set of solutions which is physically well behaved and represents compact stellar models. A detailed study specifically shows that the models actually correspond to strange stars in terms of their mass and radius. In this connection we investigate several physical properties like energy conditions, stability, mass-radius ratio, electric charge content, anisotropic nature and surface redshift through graphical plots and mathematical calculations. All the features from these studies are in excellent agreement with the already available evidence in theory as well as observations. (orig.)
Helically symmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and incompressible plasma flow
Evangelias, A.; Kuiroukidis, A.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.
2018-02-01
We derive a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation governing helically symmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and incompressible flow of arbitrary direction. Through the most general linearizing ansatz for the various free surface functions involved therein, we construct equilibrium solutions and study their properties. It turns out that pressure anisotropy can act either paramegnetically or diamagnetically, the parallel flow has a paramagnetic effect, while the non-parallel component of the flow associated with the electric field has a diamagnetic one. Also, pressure anisotropy and flow affect noticeably the helical current density.
A differential equation for Lerch's transcendent and associated symmetric operators in Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplitskii, V M
2014-01-01
The function Ψ(x,y,s)=e iy Φ(−e iy ,s,x), where Φ(z,s,v) is Lerch's transcendent, satisfies the following two-dimensional formally self-adjoint second-order hyperbolic differential equation, where s=1/2+iλ. The corresponding differential expression determines a densely defined symmetric operator (the minimal operator) on the Hilbert space L 2 (Π), where Π=(0,1)×(0,2π). We obtain a description of the domains of definition of some symmetric extensions of the minimal operator. We show that formal solutions of the eigenvalue problem for these symmetric extensions are represented by functional series whose structure resembles that of the Fourier series of Ψ(x,y,s). We discuss sufficient conditions for these formal solutions to be eigenfunctions of the resulting symmetric differential operators. We also demonstrate a close relationship between the spectral properties of these symmetric differential operators and the distribution of the zeros of some special analytic functions analogous to the Riemann zeta function. Bibliography: 15 titles
Undergoing spherically symmetric steady-state accretion stability of white dwarfs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sienkiewicz, R [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. N. Copernicus Astronomical Center
1980-01-01
Thermal and vibrational stabilities of accreting white dwarfs with steady-state nuclear burning were considered, assuming spherically symmetric accretion of the hydrogen-rich matter and using linear stability analysis. Almost all models with masses 0.2 M(sun) - 1.39 M(sun) were found to be unstable in some way. The type of instability expected to dominate is given as a function of the accretion rate. For most accretion rates it is the thermal instability. Oscillation periods are given for the models in which the vibrational instability is the most violent one. These periods are of the order of seconds or minutes. We expect that our stability analysis may suggest the cause of the variabilities of the hot components of some symbiotic stars, for a wide range of the accretion rates. In this case our models may serve as the initial conditions for evolutionary computations. The results predict that short-period oscillations should be observed in some hot nuclei of planetary nebulae.
Velthorst, Eva; Zinberg, Jamie; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Carrión, Ricardo E; Auther, Andrea; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Mathalon, Daniel H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Reichenberg, Abraham; Bearden, Carrie E
2018-02-01
The developmental course of daily functioning prior to first psychosis-onset remains poorly understood. This study explored age-related periods of change in social and role functioning. The longitudinal study included youth (aged 12-23, mean follow-up years = 1.19) at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis (converters [CHR-C], n = 83; nonconverters [CHR-NC], n = 275) and a healthy control group (n = 164). Mixed-model analyses were performed to determine age-related differences in social and role functioning. We limited our analyses to functioning before psychosis conversion; thus, data of CHR-C participants gathered after psychosis onset were excluded. In controls, social and role functioning improved over time. From at least age 12, functioning in CHR was poorer than in controls, and this lag persisted over time. Between ages 15 and 18, social functioning in CHR-C stagnated and diverged from that of CHR-NC, who continued to improve (p = .001). Subsequently, CHR-C lagged behind in improvement between ages 21 and 23, further distinguishing them from CHR-NC (p role functioning, but to a lesser extent (p = .007). The results remained consistent when we accounted for the time to conversion. Our findings suggest that CHR-C start lagging behind CHR-NC in social and role functioning in adolescence, followed by a period of further stagnation in adulthood.
Hoek, van den J.; Roorda, L.D.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Bos, van den G.A.; Hees, van J.; Rupp, I.; Tijhuis, G.; Dekker, J.
2012-01-01
Background Mental functioning is reported as an important outcome measure in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Patients show lower mental functioning scores than the general population (1). A factor that has great impact on the overall health outcomes is comorbidity (2). Both somatic and
Marginal Stability Diagrams for Infinite-n Ballooning Modes in Quasi-symmetric Stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.; Torasso, R.; Ware, A.
2003-01-01
By perturbing the pressure and rotational-transform profiles at a selected surface in a given equilibrium, and by inducing a coordinate variation such that the perturbed state is in equilibrium, a family of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria local to the surface and parameterized by the pressure gradient and shear is constructed for arbitrary stellarator geometry. The geometry of the surface is not changed. The perturbed equilibria are analyzed for infinite-n ballooning stability and marginal stability diagrams are constructed that are analogous to the (s; alpha) diagrams constructed for axi-symmetric configurations. The method describes how pressure and rotational-transform gradients influence the local shear, which in turn influences the ballooning stability. Stability diagrams for the quasi-axially-symmetric NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment), a quasi-poloidally-symmetric configuration and the quasi-helically-symmetric HSX (Helically Symmetric Experiment) are presented. Regions of second-stability are observed in both NCSX and the quasi-poloidal configuration, whereas no second stable region is observed for the quasi-helically symmetric device. To explain the different regions of stability, the curvature and local shear of the quasi-poloidal configuration are analyzed. The results are seemingly consistent with the simple explanation: ballooning instability results when the local shear is small in regions of bad curvature. Examples will be given that show that the structure, and stability, of the ballooning mode is determined by the structure of the potential function arising in the Schroedinger form of the ballooning equation
Symmetric Double Quantum Dot Energy States in a High Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgenstern Horing, Norman J; Sawamura, Makoto
2011-01-01
The dynamical Green's function and energy spectrum of a 2D symmetric quantum double-dot system on a planar host in a normal magnetic field are analyzed here, representing the two dots by Dirac delta function potentials. The proliferation of energy levels due to Landau quantization is examined in detail.
Analytical results for non-Hermitian parity–time-symmetric and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We investigate both the non-Hermitian parity–time-(PT-)symmetric and Hermitian asymmetric volcano potentials, and present the analytical solution in terms of the confluent Heun function. Under certain special conditions, the confluent Heun function can be terminated as a polynomial, thereby leading to certain ...
Kara, Býlge; Yildirim, Yücel; Karadýbak, Dýdem; Acar, Umýt
2006-06-01
A prospective study made into cervical disc hernias. To determine the kinesthetic sense and hand functions, which are important for the patients with cervical disc hernia to return to work life and daily activities that need skill. Neurosurgical department. Data Symptoms in cervical disc hernias and hand functions are affected depending on long-term pain. The evaluation of the hand is essential in assessing the patients' overall recovery and ability to return to daily activities and work life. Thirty-four patients with cervical disc hernia, who were operated on, were included in the study. Eight different test positions in the assessment of the hand's kinesthetic sense and hand function sort (HFS) in the evaluation of the hand function were applied. The disability levels of the patients were determined with The Neck Pain and Disability Scale, on the preoperative and postoperative discharge day and in the postoperative second month. Patients were divided into groups according to the side involved. In the evaluation of the kinesthetic test of the hand, only in the postoperative second month was a significant difference observed between the 1, 2, 3, and 4 test positions of the right side of the groups. On the other hand, no significant difference was found between the groups in the assessment of the hand function. In the measurement of hand functions and disability levels, strong and important correlations were determined. An early assessment of the hand's kinesthetic sense and function is instrumental in the patients' evaluation of recovery and resumption of work.
Capacity Bounds and Mapping Design for Binary Symmetric Relay Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Nasiri Khormuji
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Capacity bounds for a three-node binary symmetric relay channel with orthogonal components at the destination are studied. The cut-set upper bound and the rates achievable using decode-and-forward (DF, partial DF and compress-and-forward (CF relaying are first evaluated. Then relaying strategies with finite memory-length are considered. An efficient algorithm for optimizing the relay functions is presented. The Boolean Fourier transform is then employed to unveil the structure of the optimized mappings. Interestingly, the optimized relay functions exhibit a simple structure. Numerical results illustrate that the rates achieved using the optimized low-dimensional functions are either comparable to those achieved by CF or superior to those achieved by DF relaying. In particular, the optimized low-dimensional relaying scheme can improve on DF relaying when the quality of the source-relay link is worse than or comparable to that of other links.
Probabilities of symmetric and asymmetric fission in the proton bombardment of Th{sup 232}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowles, B J [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Chemistry Div., Harwell (United Kingdom); Brown, F; Butler, J P
1957-08-01
The ratio of symmetric to asymmetric fission in the proton bombardment of Th{sup 232} does not rise steadily with increasing proton energy; a periodic decrease in superposed upon the over-all increase. This is attributed to the changing pattern of various fission reactions, (p,f), (p,nf), etc. (author)
On a kind of symmetric weakly non-linear ordinary differential systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fečkan, M.; Rontó, András; Dilna, N.
2016-01-01
Roč. 140, č. 2 (2016), s. 188-230 ISSN 0007-4497 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : symmetric solution * symmetry * periodic solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007449715000895
Non-integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matinyan, S.G.; Prokhorenko, E.V.; Savvidy, G.K.
1986-01-01
The integrability of time-dependent spherically symmetric Yang-Mills equations is studied using the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam method. The phase space of this system is shown to have no quasi-periodic motion specific for integrable systems. In particular, the well-known Wu-Yang static solution is unstable, so its vicinity in phase is the stochasticity region
Quasi-symmetric Conjugacy of Blaschke Products on the unit Circle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Carsten Lunde
2007-01-01
Let B be a Blaschke product for which the restriction to the unit circle 1 is a degree d > 1 covering. We prove that B is quasi-symmetrically conjugate to z zd on 1, if all its periodic points in 1 are repelling and if 1 does not intersect the -limit set of any recurrent critical point for B....
Representations of the infinite symmetric group
Borodin, Alexei
2016-01-01
Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.
Symmetric configurations highlighted by collective quantum coherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Obster, Dennis [Radboud University, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Sasakura, Naoki [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan)
2017-11-15
Recent developments in quantum gravity have shown the Lorentzian treatment to be a fruitful approach towards the emergence of macroscopic space-times. In this paper, we discuss another related aspect of the Lorentzian treatment: we argue that collective quantum coherence may provide a simple mechanism for highlighting symmetric configurations over generic non-symmetric ones. After presenting the general framework of the mechanism, we show the phenomenon in some concrete simple examples in the randomly connected tensor network, which is tightly related to a certain model of quantum gravity, i.e., the canonical tensor model. We find large peaks at configurations invariant under Lie-group symmetries as well as a preference for charge quantization, even in the Abelian case. In future study, this simple mechanism may provide a way to analyze the emergence of macroscopic space-times with global symmetries as well as various other symmetries existing in nature, which are usually postulated. (orig.)
Overlap-free symmetric D 0 Lwords
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Frid
2001-12-01
Full Text Available A D0L word on an alphabet Σ={0,1,…,q-1} is called symmetric if it is a fixed point w=φ(w of a morphism φ:Σ * → Σ * defined by φ(i= t 1 + i t 2 + i … t m + i for some word t 1 t 2 … t m (equal to φ(0 and every i ∈ Σ; here a means a mod q. We prove a result conjectured by J. Shallit: if all the symbols in φ(0 are distinct (i.e., if t i ≠ t j for i ≠ j, then the symmetric D0L word w is overlap-free, i.e., contains no factor of the form axaxa for any x ∈ Σ * and a ∈ Σ.
Young—Capelli symmetrizers in superalgebras†
Brini, Andrea; Teolis, Antonio G. B.
1989-01-01
Let Supern[U [unk] V] be the nth homogeneous subspace of the supersymmetric algebra of U [unk] V, where U and V are Z2-graded vector spaces over a field K of characteristic zero. The actions of the general linear Lie superalgebras pl(U) and pl(V) span two finite-dimensional K-subalgebras B and [unk] of EndK(Supern[U [unk] V]) that are the centralizers of each other. Young—Capelli symmetrizers and Young—Capelli *-symmetrizers give rise to K-linear bases of B and [unk] containing orthogonal systems of idempotents; thus they yield complete decompositions of B and [unk] into minimal left and right ideals, respectively. PMID:16594014
Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements
Ceylan, Duygu
2012-05-01
We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.
Commutative curvature operators over four-dimensional generalized symmetric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Haji-Badali
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Commutative properties of four-dimensional generalized symmetric pseudo-Riemannian manifolds were considered. Specially, in this paper, we studied Skew-Tsankov and Jacobi-Tsankov conditions in 4-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian generalized symmetric manifolds.
Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Lampreia
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.
A symmetric Roos bound for linear codes
Duursma, I.M.; Pellikaan, G.R.
2006-01-01
The van Lint–Wilson AB-method yields a short proof of the Roos bound for the minimum distance of a cyclic code. We use the AB-method to obtain a different bound for the weights of a linear code. In contrast to the Roos bound, the role of the codes A and B in our bound is symmetric. We use the bound
Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance
Vanelli, J. C.
1978-01-01
Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.
Resistor Networks based on Symmetrical Polytopes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy Moody
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper shows how a method developed by Van Steenwijk can be generalized to calculate the resistance between any two vertices of a symmetrical polytope all of whose edges are identical resistors. The method is applied to a number of cases that have not been studied earlier such as the Archimedean polyhedra and their duals in three dimensions, the regular polytopes in four dimensions and the hypercube in any number of dimensions.
Symmetric vs. asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery
Engel, Christoph; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Yu, Gaoneng
2012-01-01
In major legal orders such as UK, the U.S., Germany, and France, bribers and recipients face equally severe criminal sanctions. In contrast, countries like China, Russia, and Japan treat the briber more mildly. Given these differences between symmetric and asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery, one may wonder which punishment strategy is more effective in curbing corruption. For this purpose, we designed and ran a lab experiment in Bonn (Germany) and Shanghai (China) with exactly the same...
Markov Jump Processes Approximating a Non-Symmetric Generalized Diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Limić, Nedžad
2011-01-01
Consider a non-symmetric generalized diffusion X(⋅) in ℝ d determined by the differential operator A(x) = -Σ ij ∂ i a ij (x)∂ j + Σ i b i (x)∂ i . In this paper the diffusion process is approximated by Markov jump processes X n (⋅), in homogeneous and isotropic grids G n ⊂ℝ d , which converge in distribution in the Skorokhod space D([0,∞),ℝ d ) to the diffusion X(⋅). The generators of X n (⋅) are constructed explicitly. Due to the homogeneity and isotropy of grids, the proposed method for d≥3 can be applied to processes for which the diffusion tensor {a ij (x)} 11 dd fulfills an additional condition. The proposed construction offers a simple method for simulation of sample paths of non-symmetric generalized diffusion. Simulations are carried out in terms of jump processes X n (⋅). For piece-wise constant functions a ij on ℝ d and piece-wise continuous functions a ij on ℝ 2 the construction and principal algorithm are described enabling an easy implementation into a computer code.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Bao Shu
2005-01-01
Full Text Available By means of variational structure and Z2 group index theory, we obtain multiple periodic solutions to a class of second-order mixed-type differential equations x''(t−τ+f(t,x(t,x(t−τ,x(t−2τ=0 and x''(t−τ+λ(tf1(t,x(t,x(t−τ,x(t−2τ=x(t−τ.
Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons
Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.
2016-06-01
Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.
Is the Universe matter-antimatter symmetric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfven, H.
1976-09-01
According to the symmetric cosmology there should be antimatter regions in space which are equally as large as the matter regions. The regions of different kind are separated by Leidenfrost layers, which may be very thin and not observable from a distance. This view has met resistance which in part is based on the old view that the dilute interstellar and intergalactic medium is more or less homogeneous. However, through space research in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space we know that thin layers, dividing space into regions of different magnetisation, exist and based on this it is concluded that space in general has a cellular structure. This result may break down the psychological resistance to the symmetric theory. The possibility that every second star in our galaxy consists of antimatter is discussed, and it is shown that this view is not in conflict with any observations. As most stars are likely to be surrounded by solar systems of a structure like our own, it is concluded that collisions between comets and antistars (or anticomets and stars) would be rather frequent. Such collisions would result in phenomena of the same type as the observed cosmic γ-ray bursts. Another support for the symmetric cosmology is the continuous X-ray background radiation. Also many of the observed large energy releases in cosmos are likely to be due to annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.
1986-01-01
A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself
Time-invariant PT product and phase locking in PT -symmetric lattice models
Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Onanga, Franck Assogba; Harter, Andrew K.
2018-01-01
Over the past decade, non-Hermitian, PT -symmetric Hamiltonians have been investigated as candidates for both a fundamental, unitary, quantum theory and open systems with a nonunitary time evolution. In this paper, we investigate the implications of the former approach in the context of the latter. Motivated by the invariance of the PT (inner) product under time evolution, we discuss the dynamics of wave-function phases in a wide range of PT -symmetric lattice models. In particular, we numerically show that, starting with a random initial state, a universal, gain-site location dependent locking between wave-function phases at adjacent sites occurs in the PT -symmetry-broken region. Our results pave the way towards understanding the physically observable implications of time invariants in the nonunitary dynamics produced by PT -symmetric Hamiltonians.
Dual formulation of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric action of kappa-symmetric D3-brane
Vanichchapongjaroen, Pichet
2018-02-01
We study the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation. Essentially, the construction is the PST-covariantisation and nonlinearisation of Zwanziger action. The covariantisation made use of three auxiliary scalar fields. Apart from these, the construction proceed in a similar way to that of the standard formulation. For example, the theories can be extended to include interactions with external fields, and that the theories possess two local PST symmetries. We then explicitly demonstrate the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation of DBI theory, and D3-brane. For each of these theories, the twisted selfduality condition obtained from duality-symmetric actions are explicitly shown to match with the duality relation between field strength and its dual from the one-potential actions. Their on-shell actions between the duality-symmetric and the one-potential versions are also shown to match. We also explicitly prove kappa-symmetry of the covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric D3-brane action in dual formulation.
Pašti, Igor A.; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Dobrota, Ana S.; Mentus, Slavko V.; Johansson, Börje; Skorodumova, Natalia V.
2018-04-01
The understanding of atomic adsorption on graphene is of high importance for many advanced technologies. Here we present a complete database of the atomic adsorption energies for the elements of the Periodic Table up to the atomic number 86 (excluding lanthanides) on pristine graphene. The energies have been calculated using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method with PBE, long-range dispersion interaction corrected PBE (PBE+D2, PBE+D3) as well as non-local vdW-DF2 approach. The inclusion of dispersion interactions leads to an exothermic adsorption for all the investigated elements. Dispersion interactions are found to be of particular importance for the adsorption of low atomic weight earth alkaline metals, coinage and s-metals (11th and 12th groups), high atomic weight p-elements and noble gases. We discuss the observed adsorption trends along the groups and rows of the Periodic Table as well some computational aspects of modelling atomic adsorption on graphene.
Critical properties of symmetric nanoscale metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yue; Cai, M.Q.; Woo, C.H.
2010-01-01
The size, surface and interface effects on the magnitude and stability of spontaneous polarization in a symmetric nanoscale ferroelectric capacitor were studied by analyzing its evolutionary trajectory based on a thermodynamic model. Analytic expressions of the Curie temperature, spontaneous polarization, critical thickness and the Curie-Weiss relation were derived, taking into account the effects of the depolarization field, built-in electric field, interfaces and surfaces. Our results show that the critical properties are not only functions of the ambient temperature, misfit strain and electromechanical boundary conditions, but also depend on the characteristics of electrodes, surfaces and interfaces, through the incomplete charge compensation, near-surface variation of polarization and work function steps of ferroelectric-electrode interfaces, which are adjustable.
Fine, Leon G
2003-01-01
Charles Edward Isaacs (1811-1860), an anatomist working in New York, undertook a series of studies which attempted to define the microscopic structure of the nephrons in a variety of species. Given that he published his findings 15 years after William Bowman's seminal paper on the subject, he was able to add only a few of the finer details to the picture. He observed the continuity of the epithelium of the glomerular capsule with that of the proximal tubule and he demonstrated that the glomerular tuft is covered by a layer of epithelial cells. In a series of studies on human renal function he erroneously concluded that the glomerulus must have an excretory function in addition to its filtration function and that diuretics act primarily on the glomerlus. The latter conclusion was based upon observations of substances not currently categorized as being diuretic agents. The absence of a major conceptual advance in the writings of Isaacs probably accounts for that fact that his contribution has been largely forgotten.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bäumer, Tobias; Hidding, Ute; Hamel, Wolfgang
2009-01-01
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used and highly effective treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive TMS (rTMS) applied to motor cortical areas has also been shown to improve symptoms in PD and modulate motor cortical...... excitability. Here, we compared clinical and neurophysiological effects of STN stimulation with those of 1 Hz rTMS given to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and those following intake of levodopa in a group of PD patients with advanced disease. Ten PD patients were studied on 2 consecutive days before...... and after surgery. Clinical effects were determined using the UPDRS motor score. Motor thresholds, motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes during slight voluntary contraction, and the cortical silent periods (SP) were measured using TMS. Before surgery effects of levodopa and 1 Hz PMd rTMS and after surgery...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matloka, K.; Sah, A. K.; Peters, M. W.; Srinivasan, P.; Gelis, A. V.; Regalbuto, M.; Scott, M. J.; Univ. of Florida
2007-12-10
Structural modifications of carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CPMO)-functionalized triphenoxymethane platforms are described, and the influence of these changes on the ability of the ligand to extract actinides from simulated acidic nuclear waste streams has been evaluated. The ligand system has been shown to have excellent binding efficiency and a selectivity for An(IV) in comparison to the a simple monomeric CMPO ligand under analogous conditions. Both the extraction efficiency and selectivity are strongly dependent on the flexibility and electronic properties of the ligating units in the triphenoxymethane construct. The Tb(III) and Bi(III) nitrate complexes of tris-CMPO derivatives have been isolated, and their structures were elucidated by NMR, ESI FT-ICR MS, and X-ray analysis, providing information on the interactions between metal ions and the tris-CMPO molecules.
The theory of spherically symmetric thin shells in conformal gravity
Berezin, Victor; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav; Eroshenko, Yury
The spherically symmetric thin shells are the nearest generalizations of the point-like particles. Moreover, they serve as the simple sources of the gravitational fields both in General Relativity and much more complex quadratic gravity theories. We are interested in the special and physically important case when all the quadratic in curvature tensor (Riemann tensor) and its contractions (Ricci tensor and scalar curvature) terms are present in the form of the square of Weyl tensor. By definition, the energy-momentum tensor of the thin shell is proportional to Diracs delta-function. We constructed the theory of the spherically symmetric thin shells for three types of gravitational theories with the shell: (1) General Relativity; (2) Pure conformal (Weyl) gravity where the gravitational part of the total Lagrangian is just the square of the Weyl tensor; (3) Weyl-Einstein gravity. The results are compared with these in General Relativity (Israel equations). We considered in detail the shells immersed in the vacuum. Some peculiar properties of such shells are found. In particular, for the traceless ( = massless) shell, it is shown that their dynamics cannot be derived from the matching conditions and, thus, is completely arbitrary. On the contrary, in the case of the Weyl-Einstein gravity, the trajectory of the same type of shell is completely restored even without knowledge of the outside solution.
Spherically symmetric solutions of general second-order gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitt, B.
1988-01-01
The general second-order gravity theory, whose Lagrangian includes higher powers of the curvature, is considered in arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that spherically symmetric solutions are static, except in certain, special, unphysical cases. Spherically symmetric solutions are found and classified. Each theory's solutions fall into a number of distinct branches, which may represent finite space with two singular boundaries, or an asymptotically either flat or (anti--)de Sitter space with one singular boundary. A theory may contain at most one branch of solutions in which all singularities are hidden by event horizons. Such horizons generally emit Hawking radiation, though in certain cases the horizon may have zero temperature. Black holes do not necessarily radiate away all their mass: they may terminate in a zero-temperature black hole, a naked singularity, or a hot black hole in equilibrium with a ''cosmological'' event horizon. The thermodynamics of black-hole solutions is discussed; entropy is found to be an increasing function of horizon area, and the first law is shown to hold
Quantum effects in non-maximally symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, T.C.
1985-01-01
Non-Maximally symmetric spaces provide a more general background to explore the relation between the geometry of the manifold and the quantum fields defined in the manifold than those with maximally symmetric spaces. A static Taub universe is used to study the effect of curvature anisotropy on the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a self-interacting scalar field. The one-loop effective potential on a λphi 4 field with arbitrary coupling xi is computed by zeta function regularization. For massless minimal coupled scalar fields, first order phase transitions can occur. Keeping the shape invariant but decreasing the curvature radius of the universe induces symmetry breaking. If the curvature radius is held constant, increasing deformation can restore the symmetry. Studies on the higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theories are also focused on the deformation effect. Using the dimensional regularization, the effective potential of the free scalar fields in M 4 x T/sup N/ and M 4 x (Taub) 3 spaces are obtained. The stability criterions for the static solutions of the self-consistent Einstein equations are derived. Stable solutions of the M 4 x S/sup N/ topology do not exist. With the Taub space as the internal space, the gauge coupling constants of SU(2), and U(1) can be determined geometrically. The weak angle is therefore predicted by geometry in this model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin
2017-01-01
the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up......-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual...... analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3...
Mondal, Anirban; Balasubramanian, Sundaram
2015-02-05
Hydrogen bonding in alkylammonium based protic ionic liquids was studied using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Normal-mode analysis within the harmonic approximation and power spectra of velocity autocorrelation functions were used as tools to obtain the vibrational spectra in both the gas phase and the crystalline phases of these protic ionic liquids. The hydrogen bond vibrational modes were identified in the 150-240 cm(-1) region of the far-infrared (far-IR) spectra. A blue shift in the far-IR mode was observed with an increasing number of hydrogen-bonding sites on the cation; the exact peak position is modulated by the cation-anion hydrogen bond strength. Sub-100 cm(-1) bands in the far-IR spectrum are assigned to the rattling motion of the anions. Calculated NMR chemical shifts of the acidic protons in the crystalline phase of these salts also exhibit the signature of cation-anion hydrogen bonding.
Spherically symmetric self-similar universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyer, C C [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada)
1979-10-01
A spherically symmetric self-similar dust-filled universe is considered as a simple model of a hierarchical universe. Observable differences between the model in parabolic expansion and the corresponding homogeneous Einstein-de Sitter model are considered in detail. It is found that an observer at the centre of the distribution has a maximum observable redshift and can in principle see arbitrarily large blueshifts. It is found to yield an observed density-distance law different from that suggested by the observations of de Vaucouleurs. The use of these solutions as central objects for Swiss-cheese vacuoles is discussed.
Dijet rates with symmetric Et cuts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banfi, Andrea; Dasgupta, Mrinal
2004-01-01
We consider dijet production in the region where symmetric cuts on the transverse energy, E t , are applied to the jets. In this region next-to-leading order calculations are unreliable and an all-order resummation of soft gluon effects is needed, which we carry out. Although, for illustrative purposes, we choose dijets produced in deep inelastic scattering, our general ideas apply additionally to dijets produced in photoproduction or gamma-gamma processes and should be relevant also to the study of prompt di-photon E t spectra in association with a recoiling jet, in hadron-hadron processes. (author)
Covariant, chirally symmetric, confining model of mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.; Milana, J.
1991-01-01
We introduce a new model of mesons as quark-antiquark bound states. The model is covariant, confining, and chirally symmetric. Our equations give an analytic solution for a zero-mass pseudoscalar bound state in the case of exact chiral symmetry, and also reduce to the familiar, highly successful nonrelativistic linear potential models in the limit of heavy-quark mass and lightly bound systems. In this fashion we are constructing a unified description of all the mesons from the π through the Υ. Numerical solutions for other cases are also presented
Elastic energy for reflection-symmetric topologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, A; Robbins, J M; Zyskin, M
2006-01-01
Nematic liquid crystals in a polyhedral domain, a prototype for bistable displays, may be described by a unit-vector field subject to tangent boundary conditions. Here we consider the case of a rectangular prism. For configurations with reflection-symmetric topologies, we derive a new lower bound for the one-constant elastic energy. For certain topologies, called conformal and anticonformal, the lower bound agrees with a previous result. For the remaining topologies, called nonconformal, the new bound is an improvement. For nonconformal topologies we derive an upper bound, which differs from the lower bound by a factor depending only on the aspect ratios of the prism
Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinji Yamada
2010-03-01
Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.
Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Marais, Laurette
2016-07-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 796 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 18th... International Workshop on Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems, 5 - 8 July 2016, Bucharest, Romania Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata Laurette Marais1,2 and Lynette van Zijl1(B) 1 Department of Computer Science, Stellenbosch...
Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, L.; Dimmock, M.R.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Nolan, P.J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.
2007-01-01
The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A 137 Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented
How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg
2014-01-01
We develop the case for symmetrical assumptions in strategic management theory. Assumptional symmetry obtains when assumptions made about certain actors and their interactions in one of the application domains of a theory are also made about this set of actors and their interactions in other...... application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...
Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ln@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mrd@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajb@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)
2007-04-01
The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A {sup 137}Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented.
Soft theorems for shift-symmetric cosmologies
Finelli, Bernardo; Goon, Garrett; Pajer, Enrico; Santoni, Luca
2018-03-01
We derive soft theorems for single-clock cosmologies that enjoy a shift symmetry. These so-called consistency conditions arise from a combination of a large diffeomorphism and the internal shift symmetry and fix the squeezed limit of all correlators with a soft scalar mode. As an application, we show that our results reproduce the squeezed bispectrum for ultra-slow-roll inflation, a particular shift-symmetric, nonattractor model which is known to violate Maldacena's consistency relation. Similar results have been previously obtained by Mooij and Palma using background-wave methods. Our results shed new light on the infrared structure of single-clock cosmological spacetimes.
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamsunnahar, T.; Saha, S.; Kabir, K.; Nath, L.M.
1991-01-01
We have investigated the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter using a model of pion-nucleon interaction based essentially on chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. We have found that pion condensation is not possible for any finite value of the density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is likely to be seen in pion-nucleus scattering nor is it likely to be possible to explain the EMC effect in terms of an increased number of pions in the nucleus. (author)
Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stecker, F.W.
1978-04-01
The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation.
Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F.W.
1978-04-01
The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation
Geometrodynamics of spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunstatter, Gabor; Taves, Tim; Maeda, Hideki
2012-01-01
We derive the Hamiltonian for spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity using the geometrodynamics approach pioneered by Kuchar (1994 Phys. Rev. D 50 3961) in the context of four-dimensional general relativity. When written in terms of the areal radius, the generalized Misner-Sharp mass and their conjugate momenta, the generic Lovelock action and Hamiltonian take on precisely the same simple forms as in general relativity. This result supports the interpretation of Lovelock gravity as the natural higher dimensional extension of general relativity. It also provides an important first step towards the study of the quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian thermodynamics and formation of generic Lovelock black holes. (fast track communication)
Park, Junehyeong; Sung, Jang Hyun; Lim, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Hyun-Suk
2018-05-01
The widely used meteorological drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), basically assumes stationarity, but recent changes in the climate have led to a need to review this hypothesis. In this study, a new non-stationary SPI that considers not only the modified probability distribution parameter but also the return period under the non-stationary process was proposed. The results were evaluated for two severe drought cases during the last 10 years in South Korea. As a result, SPIs considered that the non-stationary hypothesis underestimated the drought severity than the stationary SPI despite that these past two droughts were recognized as significantly severe droughts. It may be caused by that the variances of summer and autumn precipitation become larger over time then it can make the probability distribution wider than before. This implies that drought expressions by statistical index such as SPI can be distorted by stationary assumption and cautious approach is needed when deciding drought level considering climate changes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petar Namicev
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The highest developed form of a spatial concept of ainn in the urban area of the Ottoman period is the rectangular form of the spatial organization of the hans from the 15th and the 16th centuries. The most important examples are Kurshumlihan, Sulihan and Kapan han in the old bazaar in Skopje, which are part of a complex spatial system of the historical part of the city. According to the urban concept of the Ottoman builders, a group of public buildings has been formed, where mosque, bedesten, hamam, etc. appear beside another. Spatial analysis of auxiliary rooms and overnight accommodation, or open spaces (atrium, porch has a certain specific ratio. The experience of the organization from historical buildings is a valuable experience in terms of balancing different contents of the used space, its purpose and adjustment to the current needs of the object. The experiences from the study of certain spatial elements of the hans and from the analysis of the current tourism development in which they are included, can be applied in the concept of modern tourist objects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatoliy Klimyk
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper, properties of orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Orbit functions on the Euclidean space E_n are symmetrized exponential functions. The symmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions will be described. An orbit function is the contribution to an irreducible character of a compact semisimple Lie group G of rank n from one of its Weyl group orbits. It is shown that values of orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain F of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space E_n. Orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in E_n, satisfying the Neumann condition on the boundary of F. Orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform and a transform on a finite set of points.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. L. Lovat
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim was to assess the efficacy of mitochondriatargeted antioxidant SkQ1 in prevention of structural and functional abnormalities of brain postresuscitation after cardiac arrest.Materials and methods. Adult male Wistar rats (n=19 underwent cardiac arrest for 7 minutes followed by resuscitation. Nine rats were administered with 500 nmol/kg SkQ1 per os with water for 2 weeks (1 week before and 1 week after resuscitation. A control group consisted of shamoperated animals (n=10. At days 4—6 post operation locomotor activity and anxiety («elevated plus maze» test and sensorimotor function of limbs («beam walking» test were examined. Total numbers of neurons per 1 mm of their layer length in vulnerable neuronal populations (cerebellar Purkinje cells and piramidal neurons of hippocampus fields CA1 and CA4 were estimated by histological analysis of the specimens stained with cresyl violet on day 7 postresuscitation. To identify possible mechanisms of SkQ1 action, the immunohistochemical study of a glialderived neurotrophic factor (GDNF expression in piramidal neurons of hippocampus was performed by indirect peroxidaseantiperoxidase method and antiGDNF primary polyclonal antibodies.Results. Ischemiareperfusion resulted in neuronal loss in all studied brain areas followed by reduction in locomotor activity and development of sensorimotor deficit. SkQ1 prevented development of postresuscitative locomotor and sensorimotor irregularities, significantly reduced Purkinje cells loss, prevented death of piramidal neurons in hippocampal field CA4, but not in CA1. Data demonstrated, that iIn Purkinje cells from resuscitated rats treated with SkQ1 there was a significant increase in number of GDNFpositive neurons, which were more resistant to ischemia (transition of GDNFnegative cells toward the category of cells actively expressing this factor that promoted their survival postresuscitation.Conclusion. Data confirm the positive effects of SkQ1
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马金全; 葛临东; 童莉
2014-01-01
脉冲噪声环境下波达方向( DOA)估计是阵列信号处理领域一个新兴研究方向。针对α稳定分布噪声环境下经典MUSIC算法性能退化的问题,提出了一种新的基于非线性压缩核函数( NCCF)的DOA估计算法。该算法利用基于NCCF的有界矩阵代替了MUSIC的协方差矩阵,通过对有界矩阵进行特征分解确定信号子空间和噪声子空间,借用MUSIC谱估计公式进行谱峰搜索,得到DOA的估计值。仿真结果表明,NCCF-MUSIC算法运算复杂度较低,相比于基于分数低阶统计量( FLOS)的MUSIC方法和基于广义类相关熵( GCAS)的MUSIC算法,该方法具有更好的准确度和稳定性。%Direction of arrival ( DOA) estimation in the impulse noise environment is a new research direc-tion in the array signal processing field. To solve the problem of performance degradation when applying classic MUSIC algorithm for DOA estimation in the α-stable distribution noise environment,a novel DOA estimation algorithm based on a nonlinear compress core function ( NCCF ) is provided and named as the NCCF-MUSIC. To obtain a DOA estimation,the NCCF-MUSIC method replaces the covariance matrix in MUSIC by a bounded matrix based on the NCCF,and then determines the signal subspace and the noise subspace by feature decomposition, and finally, introduces the MUSIC spectrum estimation algorithm to make a spectral peak searching. Simulation results show that the new NCCF-MUSIC method with a lower computation cost has the higher performance in accuracy and validity than the MUSIC methods based on fractional lower order statistics ( FLOS) or based on generalized correntropy-analogous statistics ( GCAS) .
On the Decay of Correlations in Non-Analytic SO(n)-Symmetric Models
Naddaf, Ali
We extend the method of complex translations which was originally employed by McBryan-Spencer [2] to obtain a decay rate for the two point function in two-dimensional SO(n)-symmetric models with non-analytic Hamiltonians for $.
The symmetric = ω -semi-classical orthogonal polynomials of class one
Maroni, P.; Mejri, M.
2008-12-01
We give the system of Laguerre-Freud equations associated with the = ω -semi-classical functionals of class one, where = ω is the divided difference operator. This system is solved in the symmetric case. There are essentially two canonical cases. The corresponding integral representations are given.
Azizov, Tomas; Ćurgus, Branko; Dijksma, Aad
2003-01-01
Certain meromorphic matrix valued functions on C\\R, the so-called boundary coefficients, are characterized in terms of a standard symmetric operator S in a Pontryagin space with finite (not necessarily equal) defect numbers, a meromorphic mapping into the defect subspaces of S, and a boundary
The general class of the vacuum spherically symmetric equations of the general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karbanovski, V. V.; Sorokin, O. M.; Nesterova, M. I.; Bolotnyaya, V. A.; Markov, V. N.; Kairov, T. V.; Lyash, A. A.; Tarasyuk, O. R.
2012-01-01
The system of the spherical-symmetric vacuum equations of the General Relativity Theory is considered. The general solution to a problem representing two classes of line elements with arbitrary functions g 00 and g 22 is obtained. The properties of the found solutions are analyzed.
Morse potential, symmetric Morse potential and bracketed bound-state energies
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 14 (2016), s. 1650088 ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum bound states * special functions * Morse potential * symmetrized Morse potential * upper and lower energy estimates * computer-assisted symbolic manipulations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2016
Askari, V R; Alavinezhad, A; Boskabady, M H
2016-01-01
There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effect of fasting on different features in asthmatic patients. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting in asthmatic patients and healthy control was studied. Haematological indices, inflammatory mediators, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 15 asthmatic patients compared to 14 healthy matched control group before and after the one-month fasting period in Ramadan. The change in each parameter from the beginning to the end of Ramadan was calculated and referred to as "variation during Ramadan". The values of MCH, MCHC in both groups and monocyte counts in asthmatic patients, were significantly increased but platelet count was reduced in asthmatic and controls respectively compared to pre-Ramadan fasting period (Pfasting month (Pfasting month in both groups were non-significantly higher compared to pre-fasting values except FVC. Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients were non-significantly but wheeze-o was significantly reduced after Ramadan fasting period in asthma group (Pfasting period between two groups, although reduction of hs-CRP in asthmatic group was non-significantly higher than control group. These results show that Ramadan fasting period has no negative impact on asthma and may have some positive effect on asthma severity with regard to reduction of hs-CRP concentration and chest wheeze. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Iterative methods for symmetric ill-conditioned Toeplitz matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huckle, T. [Institut fuer Informatik, Muenchen (Germany)
1996-12-31
We consider ill-conditioned symmetric positive definite, Toeplitz systems T{sub n}x = b. If we want to solve such a system iteratively with the conjugate gradient method, we can use band-Toeplitz-preconditioners or Sine-Transform-peconditioners M = S{sub n}{Lambda}S{sub n}, S{sub n} the Sine-Transform-matrix and {Lambda} a diagonal matrix. A Toeplitz matrix T{sub n} = (t{sub i-j)}{sub i}{sup n},{sub j=1} is often related to an underlying function f defined by the coefficients t{sub j}, j = -{infinity},..,-1,0, 1,.., {infinity}. There are four cases, for which we want to determine a preconditioner M: - T{sub n} is related to an underlying function which is given explicitly; - T{sub n} is related to an underlying function that is given by its Fourier coefficients; - T{sub n} is related to an underlying function that is unknown; - T{sub n} is not related to an underlying function. Especially for the first three cases we show how positive definite and effective preconditioners based on the Sine-Transform can be defined for general nonnegative underlying function f. To define M, we evaluate or estimate the values of f at certain positions, and build a Sine-transform matrix with these values as eigenvalues. Then, the spectrum of the preconditioned system is bounded from above and away from zero.
Wu, Jiaye; Yang, Xiangbo
2017-10-30
In this paper, we construct a 1D PT-symmetric Thue-Morse aperiodic optical waveguide network (PTSTMAOWN) and mainly investigate the ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection. We propose an approach to study the photonic modes and solve the problem of calculating photonic modes distributions in aperiodic networks due to the lack of dispersion functions and find that in a PTSTMAOWN there exist more photonic modes and more spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking points, which are quite different from other reported PT-symmetric optical systems. Additionally, we develop a method to sort spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking point zones to seek the strongest extraordinary point and obtain that at this point the strongest extraordinary transmission and reflection arrive at 2.96316 × 10 5 and 1.32761 × 10 5 , respectively, due to the PT-symmetric coupling resonance and the special symmetry pattern of TM networks. These enormous gains are several orders of magnitude larger than the previous results. This optical system may possess potential in designing optical amplifier, optical logic elements in photon computers and ultrasensitive optical switches with ultrahigh monochromatity.
Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin
2013-03-01
We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helama, S.; Holopainen, J.; Eronen, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, (Finland); Makarenko, N.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory; Karimova, L.M.; Kruglun, O.A. [Institute of Mathematics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit (Finland); Merilaeinen, J. [SAIMA Unit of the Savonlinna Department of Teacher Education, University of Joensuu (Finland)
2009-07-01
Tree-rings tell of past climates. To do so, tree-ring chronologies comprising numerous climate-sensitive living-tree and subfossil time-series need to be 'transferred' into palaeoclimate estimates using transfer functions. The purpose of this study is to compare different types of transfer functions, especially linear and nonlinear algorithms. Accordingly, multiple linear regression (MLR), linear scaling (LSC) and artificial neural networks (ANN, nonlinear algorithm) were compared. Transfer functions were built using a regional tree-ring chronology and instrumental temperature observations from Lapland (northern Finland and Sweden). In addition, conventional MLR was compared with a hybrid model whereby climate was reconstructed separately for short- and long-period timescales prior to combining the bands of timescales into a single hybrid model. The fidelity of the different reconstructions was validated against instrumental climate data. The reconstructions by MLR and ANN showed reliable reconstruction capabilities over the instrumental period (AD 1802-1998). LCS failed to reach reasonable verification statistics and did not qualify as a reliable reconstruction: this was due mainly to exaggeration of the low-frequency climatic variance. Over this instrumental period, the reconstructed low-frequency amplitudes of climate variability were rather similar by MLR and ANN. Notably greater differences between the models were found over the actual reconstruction period (AD 802-1801). A marked temperature decline, as reconstructed by MLR, from the Medieval Warm Period (AD 931-1180) to the Little Ice Age (AD 1601-1850), was evident in all the models. This decline was approx. 0.5 C as reconstructed by MLR. Different ANN based palaeotemperatures showed simultaneous cooling of 0.2 to 0.5 C, depending on algorithm. The hybrid MLR did not seem to provide further benefit above conventional MLR in our sample. The robustness of the conventional MLR over the calibration
Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Peh, Chao Xu; Poon, Lye Yin; Rao, Sujatha; Verma, Swapna; Subramaniam, Mythily
2017-01-01
Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP) and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period. Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling. Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory) were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders. The results confirm that the symptoms trajectories among
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edimansyah Abdin
Full Text Available Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period.Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling.Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders.The results confirm that the symptoms
Parametric amplification and bidirectional invisibility in PT -symmetric time-Floquet systems
Koutserimpas, Theodoros T.; Alù, Andrea; Fleury, Romain
2018-01-01
Parity-time (PT )-symmetric wave devices, which exploit balanced interactions between material gain and loss, exhibit extraordinary properties, including lasing and flux-conserving scattering processes. In a seemingly different research field, periodically driven systems, also known as time-Floquet systems, have been widely studied as a relevant platform for reconfigurable active wave control and manipulation. In this article, we explore the connection between PT -symmetry and parametric time-Floquet systems. Instead of relying on material gain, we use parametric amplification by considering a time-periodic modulation of the refractive index at a frequency equal to twice the incident signal frequency. We show that the scattering from a simple parametric slab, whose dynamics follows the Mathieu equation, can be described by a PT -symmetric scattering matrix, whose PT -breaking threshold corresponds to the Mathieu instability threshold. By combining different parametric slabs modulated out of phase, we create PT -symmetric time-Floquet systems that feature exceptional scattering properties, such as coherent perfect absorption (CPA)-laser operation and bidirectional invisibility. These bidirectional properties, rare for regular PT -symmetric systems, are related to a compensation of parametric amplification due to multiple scattering between two parametric systems modulated with a phase difference.
Serafin, R. A.; Wnuk, E.
The relative accuracy of ordinary and symmetric difference quotients for elementary functions employed in orbit corrections is investigated analytically. The theoretical results of Serafin (1982) are applied to numerical computations in rectangular coordinates, and results for a number of generalized and practical problems are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. The numerical results confirm that symmetric difference quotients give significantly more accurate predictions than ordinary difference quotients.
Statistical properties of anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnishi, A.; Randrup, J.
1993-01-01
We study the statistical equilibrium properties of the recently developed anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics model for heavy-ion reactions. We consider A non-interacting fermions in one dimension, either bound in a common harmonic potential or moving freely within an interval, and perform a Metropolis sampling of the corresponding parameter space. Generally the average excitation and the specific heat, considered as functions of the imposed temperature, behave in a classical manner when the canonical weight is calculated in the mean-field approximation. However, it is possible to obtain results that are much closer to the quantal behavior by modifying the weight to take approximate account of the energy fluctuations within the individual wave packets. (orig.)
Symmetric coupling of angular momenta, quadratic algebras and discrete polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aquilanti, V; Marinelli, D; Marzuoli, A
2014-01-01
Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the volume operator, associated with the symmetric coupling of three SU(2) angular momentum operators, can be analyzed on the basis of a discrete Schrödinger–like equation which provides a semiclassical Hamiltonian picture of the evolution of a 'quantum of space', as shown by the authors in [1]. Emphasis is given here to the formalization in terms of a quadratic symmetry algebra and its automorphism group. This view is related to the Askey scheme, the hierarchical structure which includes all hypergeometric polynomials of one (discrete or continuous) variable. Key tool for this comparative analysis is the duality operation defined on the generators of the quadratic algebra and suitably extended to the various families of overlap functions (generalized recoupling coefficients). These families, recognized as lying at the top level of the Askey scheme, are classified and a few limiting cases are addressed
Strain gradient elasticity within the symmetric BEM formulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Terravecchia,
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method is used to address a class of strain gradient elastic materials featured by a free energy function of the (classical strain and of its (first gradient. With respect to the classical elasticity, additional response variables intervene, such as the normal derivative of the displacements on the boundary, and the work-coniugate double tractions. The fundamental solutions - featuring a fourth order partial differential equations (PDEs system - exhibit singularities which in 2D may be of the order 1/ r 4 . New techniques are developed, which allow the elimination of most of the latter singularities. The present paper has to be intended as a research communication wherein some results, being elaborated within a more general paper [1], are reported.
3He/4He production ratios by tetrahedral symmetric condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Akito
2006-01-01
The present paper treats application of the Electronic Quasi-Particle Expansion Theory (EQPET) model for Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) of H/D mixed systems for Pd host metal. Production ratios of 3 He/ 4 He for multi-body fusion reactions in H/D mixed TSC systems are calculated as a function of H/D mixing ratio. The model is further extended to treat direct nuclear interactions between host-metal nucleus and TSC of pure four protons (or four deuterons), since TSC can become very small (far less than 1 pm radius) charge-neutral pseudo-particle. Results for the case of Ni + 4p/TSC are discussed with Ni + p capture reactions and Ni + 4p fission reactions. (authors)
Generation of spherically symmetric metrics in f(R) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amirabi, Z.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S.H. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)
2016-06-15
In D-dimensional spherically symmetric f(R) gravity there are three unknown functions to be determined from the fourth order differential equations. It is shown that the system remarkably may be integrated to relate two functions through the third one to provide a reduction to second order equations accompanied with a large class of potential solutions. The third function, which acts as the generator of the process, is F(R) = (df(R))/(dR). We recall that our generating function has been employed as a scalar field with an accompanying self-interacting potential previously, which is entirely different from our approach. Reduction of f(R) theory into a system of equations seems to be efficient enough to generate a solution corresponding to each generating function. As particular examples, besides the known ones, we obtain new black hole solutions in any dimension D. We further extend our analysis to cover non-zero energy-momentum tensors. Global monopole and Maxwell sources are given as examples. (orig.)
Morton, Russell A; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Valenzuela, C Fernando
2015-01-01
Alterations in the development of the serotonin system can have prolonged effects, including depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Serotonin axonal projections from the dorsal raphe undergo extensive refinement during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). However, little is known about the functional properties of serotonin and GABA neurons in the dorsal raphe during this critical developmental period. We assessed the functional properties and synaptic connectivity of putative serotoninergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe during early [postnatal day (P) P5-P7] and late (P15-P17) stages of the third trimester equivalent period using electrophysiology. Our studies demonstrate that GABAergic neurons are hyperexcitable at P5-P7 relative to P15-P17. Furthermore, putative serotonin neurons exhibit an increase in both excitatory and GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents during this developmental period. Our data suggest that GABAergic neurons and putative serotonin neurons undergo significant electrophysiological changes during neonatal development.
On the Relations between the Attacks on Symmetric Homomorphic Encryption over the Residue Ring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alina V. Trepacheva
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the security of symmetric homomorphic cryptosystems (HC over the residue ring. The main task is to establish an equivalence between ciphertexts only attack (COA and known plaintexts attack (KPA for HC. The notion of reducibility between attacks and sufficient condition of reducibility from COA to KPA are given for this purpose. The main idea is: to prove reducibility from COA to KPA we need to find a function over residue ring being efficiently computable and having a small image size comparing with the size of residue ring. The study of reducibility existence is important since it allows to understand better the security level of symmetric HC proposed in literature. A vulnerability against KPA has been already found for the majority of these HC. Thus the reducibility presence can demonstrate that cryptosystems under the study are not secure even against COA, and therefore they are totally insecure and shouldn’t be used in practice. We give an example of reducibility from COA to KPA for residue ring being a simple field. Based on this example we show an efficient COA on one symmetric HC for small field. Also we separately consider the case of residue ring composed using number n being hard-to-factor. For such n an efficient algorithm to construct an efficiently computable function with small image is unknown so far. So further work related to cryptanalysis of existing symmetric HC will be directed into study of functions properties over residue rings modulo numbers hard for factorization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farivar, Faezeh; Aliyari Shoorehdeli, Mahdi; Nekoui, Mohammad Ali; Teshnehlab, Mohammad
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A systematic procedure for GPS of unknown heavy chaotic gyroscope systems. ► Proposed methods are based on Lyapunov stability theory. ► Without calculating Lyapunov exponents and Eigen values of the Jacobian matrix. ► Capable to extend for a variety of chaotic systems. ► Useful for practical applications in the future. - Abstract: This paper proposes the chaos control and the generalized projective synchronization methods for heavy symmetric gyroscope systems via Gaussian radial basis adaptive variable structure control. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits chaotic motions. Occasionally, the extreme sensitivity to initial states in a system operating in chaotic mode can be very destructive to the system because of unpredictable behavior. In order to improve the performance of a dynamic system or avoid the chaotic phenomena, it is necessary to control a chaotic system with a periodic motion beneficial for working with a particular condition. As chaotic signals are usually broadband and noise like, synchronized chaotic systems can be used as cipher generators for secure communication. This paper presents chaos synchronization of two identical chaotic motions of symmetric gyroscopes. In this paper, the switching surfaces are adopted to ensure the stability of the error dynamics in variable structure control. Using the neural variable structure control technique, control laws are established which guarantees the chaos control and the generalized projective synchronization of unknown gyroscope systems. In the neural variable structure control, Gaussian radial basis functions are utilized to on-line estimate the system dynamic functions. Also, the adaptation laws of the on-line estimator are derived in the sense of Lyapunov function. Thus, the unknown gyro systems can be guaranteed to be asymptotically stable. Also, the proposed method can achieve the control objectives. Numerical simulations are presented to
Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dain, Sergio
2012-01-01
A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)
Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.
Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa
2015-09-18
We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.
Design and Analysis of Symmetric Primitives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Martin Mehl
. In the second part, we delve into the matter of the various aspects of designing a symmetric cryptographic primitive. We start by considering generalizations of the widely acclaimed Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher. In particular, our focus is on a component operation in the cipher which permutes...... analyze and implement modes recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as well as authenticated encryption modes from the CAESAR competition, when instantiated with the AES. The data processed in our benchmarking has sizes representative to that of typical Internet traffic...... linear cryptanalysis. We apply this model to the standardized block cipher PRESENT. Finally, we present very generic attacks on two authenticated encryption schemes, AVALANCHE and RBS, by pointing out severe design flaws that can be leveraged to fully recover the secret key with very low complexity...
Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation
Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.
1985-12-01
We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.
Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)
2011-08-21
We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.
Polyhomogeneous expansions from time symmetric initial data
Gasperín, E.; Valiente Kroon, J. A.
2017-10-01
We make use of Friedrich’s construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity to relate the logarithmic terms appearing in asymptotic expansions of components of the Weyl tensor to the freely specifiable parts of time symmetric initial data sets for the Einstein field equations. Our analysis is based on the assumption that a particular type of formal expansions near the cylinder at spatial infinity corresponds to the leading terms of actual solutions to the Einstein field equations. In particular, we show that if the Bach tensor of the initial conformal metric does not vanish at the point at infinity then the most singular component of the Weyl tensor decays near null infinity as O(\\tilde{r}-3\\ln \\tilde{r}) so that spacetime will not peel. We also provide necessary conditions on the initial data which should lead to a peeling spacetime. Finally, we show how to construct global spacetimes which are candidates for non-peeling (polyhomogeneous) asymptotics.
From Symmetric Glycerol Derivatives to Dissymmetric Chlorohydrins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gemma Villorbina
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The anticipated worldwide increase in biodiesel production will result in an accumulation of glycerol for which there are insufficient conventional uses. The surplus of this by-product has increased rapidly during the last decade, prompting a search for new glycerol applications. We describe here the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters from symmetric 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl esters obtained from glycerol. We studied the influence of two solvents: 1,4-dioxane and 1-butanol and two bases: sodium carbonate and 1-butylimidazole, on the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters. In addition, we studied the influence of other bases (potassium and lithium carbonates in the reaction using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent. The highest yield was obtained using 1,4-dioxane and sodium carbonate.
Bidding behavior in a symmetric Chinese auction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Benegas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper purposes a symmetric all-pay auction where the bidders compete neither for an object nor the object itself but for a lottery on receive. That lottery is determined endogenously through the bids. This auction is known as chance auction or more popularly as Chinese auction. The model considers the possibility that for some bidders the optimal strategy is to bid zero and to rely on luck. It showed that bidders become less aggressive when the lottery satisfies a variational condition. It was also shown that luck factor is decisive to determine if the expected payoff in Chinese auction is bigger or smaller than expected payoff in standard all-pay auction.
Cryptanalysis of Some Lightweight Symmetric Ciphers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed Awadelkareem Mohamed Ahmed
In recent years, the need for lightweight encryption systems has been increasing as many applications use RFID and sensor networks which have a very low computational power and thus incapable of performing standard cryptographic operations. In response to this problem, the cryptographic community...... on a variant of PRESENT with identical round keys. We propose a new attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack that was specifically mounted against the lightweight block cipher PRINTcipher. Furthermore, we mount several attacks on a recently proposed stream cipher called A2U2....... of the international standards in lightweight cryptography. This thesis aims at analyzing and evaluating the security of some the recently proposed lightweight symmetric ciphers with a focus on PRESENT-like ciphers, namely, the block cipher PRESENT and the block cipher PRINTcipher. We provide an approach to estimate...
Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology
Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.
1982-01-01
The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.
Symmetric Topological Phases and Tensor Network States
Jiang, Shenghan
Classification and simulation of quantum phases are one of main themes in condensed matter physics. Quantum phases can be distinguished by their symmetrical and topological properties. The interplay between symmetry and topology in condensed matter physics often leads to exotic quantum phases and rich phase diagrams. Famous examples include quantum Hall phases, spin liquids and topological insulators. In this thesis, I present our works toward a more systematically understanding of symmetric topological quantum phases in bosonic systems. In the absence of global symmetries, gapped quantum phases are characterized by topological orders. Topological orders in 2+1D are well studied, while a systematically understanding of topological orders in 3+1D is still lacking. By studying a family of exact solvable models, we find at least some topological orders in 3+1D can be distinguished by braiding phases of loop excitations. In the presence of both global symmetries and topological orders, the interplay between them leads to new phases termed as symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. We develop a framework to classify a large class of SET phases using tensor networks. For each tensor class, we can write down generic variational wavefunctions. We apply our method to study gapped spin liquids on the kagome lattice, which can be viewed as SET phases of on-site symmetries as well as lattice symmetries. In the absence of topological order, symmetry could protect different topological phases, which are often referred to as symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. We present systematic constructions of tensor network wavefunctions for bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases respecting both onsite and spatial symmetries.
The radiation chemistry of symmetric aliphatic polyesters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babanalbandi, A.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.
1996-01-01
Full text: Naturally occurring, symmetric polyesters, including polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrate, have found biomedical applications in areas as diverse as the controlled release of pharmaceuticals and the manufacture of surgical sutures. As biomedical products, the materials require sterilization by high energy radiation. This has provided the motivation for the present work. D'Alelio et al. have reported that linear, asymmetric polyesters undergo scission on irradiation, but that branched polyesters containing a methyl group in the diol segments undergo crosslinking. However, for the symmetric polyhydroxybutyrate, Carswell-Pomerantz et al. have reported that only scission occurs on radiolysis, with the evolution of CO and CO 2 as a result of the loss of ester linkages. These workers also found that G(CO + CO 2 ) was approximately equal to G(S) for this polyester. By contrast, Collett et al. have reported that G(S) = 1.26 and G(X) = 0.53 for polylactic acid, which indicates that the polymer undergoes nett crosslinking on radiolysis to form a gel. They have also reported that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) should form a gel on radiolysis, since G(S) = 1.66 and G(X) = 0.65 for a 1:1 copolymer composition. In the present work the radiolysis of polylactic acid and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) have been reinvestigated in order to resolve the differences between the work of Collett et al. and that of Carswell-Pomerantz et al. In these studies, ESR has been used to study the radicals formed, GPC has been used to investigate scission and crosslinking, GC has been used to study the small molecule volatile products and NMR spectroscopy has been used to identify and measure the new chemical structures formed in the polymers
Axially symmetric Lorentzian wormholes in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schein, F.
1997-11-01
The field equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity, being local, do not fix the global structure of space-time. They admit topologically non-trivial solutions, including spatially closed universes and the amazing possibility of shortcuts for travel between distant regions in space and time - so-called Lorentzian wormholes. The aim of this thesis is to (mathematically) construct space-times which contain traversal wormholes connecting arbitrary distant regions of an asymptotically flat or asymptotically de Sitter universe. Since the wormhole mouths appear as two separate masses in the exterior space, space-time can at best be axially symmetric. We eliminate the non-staticity caused by the gravitational attraction of the mouths by anchoring them by strings held at infinity or, alternatively, by electric repulsion. The space-times are obtained by surgically grafting together well-known solutions of Einstein's equations along timelike hypersurfaces. This surgery naturally concentrates a non-zero stress-energy tensor on the boundary between the two space-times which can be investigated by using the standard thin shell formalism. It turns out that, when using charged black holes, the provided constructions are possible without violation of any of the energy conditions. In general, observers living in the axially symmetric, asymptotically flat (respectively asymptotically de Sitter) region axe able to send causal signals through the topologically non-trivial region. However, the wormhole space-times contain closed timelike curves. Because of this explicit violation of global hyperbolicity these models do not serve as counterexamples to known topological censorship theorems. (author)
On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations
Soury, Hamza
2016-12-24
The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF and the cumulative distribution function of the symmetric stable distribution can be expressed in terms of the Fox H function as closed-form. As an application, the probability of error of single input single output communication systems using different modulation schemes with an α-stable perturbation is studied. In more details, a generic formula is derived for generalized fading distribution, such as the extended generalized-k distribution. Later, simpler expressions of these error rates are deduced for some selected special cases and compact approximations are derived using asymptotic expansions.
Ivanova, N B
2011-01-01
The present study of the functional state of the cadiorespiratory system included athletes engaged in cyclic team sports. The state of the cardiorespiratory system was estimated from the measurement of central hemodynamics and cardiac rhythm variability, results of electrocardiography, spirography, and pneumotachography performed during the preparatory period for the training cycle. It was shown that the cardiovascular and respiratory systems as well as vegetative regulation of the cardiac rhythm of the athletes under examination underwent differently directed structural modification depending on the specific patterns of muscular activity.
All static spherically symmetric perfect-fluid solutions of Einstein's equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lake, Kayll
2003-01-01
An algorithm based on the choice of a single monotone function (subject to boundary conditions) is presented which generates all regular static spherically symmetric perfect-fluid solutions of Einstein's equations. For physically relevant solutions the generating functions must be restricted by nontrivial integral-differential inequalities. Nonetheless, the algorithm is demonstrated here by the construction of an infinite number of previously unknown physically interesting exact solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Pullepu, Babuji [S R M University, Chennai (India)
2015-05-15
Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Z. A.; Javed, Saira; Yaacob, Y.; Pullepu, Babuji
2015-01-01
Free vibration of symmetric angle-ply laminated truncated conical shell is analyzed to determine the effects of frequency parameter and angular frequencies under different boundary condition, ply angles, different material properties and other parameters. The governing equations of motion for truncated conical shell are obtained in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by cubic and quintic splines resulting into a generalized eigenvalue problem. The parametric studies have been made and discussed.
Magnetospectroscopy of symmetric and anti-symmetric states in double quantum wells
Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Ploch, D.; Tomaka, G.; Furdak, M.; Kolek, A.; Stadler, A.; Mleczko, K.; Zak, D.; Strupinski, W.; Jasik, A.; Jakiela, R.
2008-02-01
The experimental results obtained for magnetotransport in the InGaAs/InAlAs double quantum well (DQW) structures of two different shapes of wells are reported. A beating effect occurring in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations was observed for both types of structures at low temperatures in the parallel transport when the magnetic field was perpendicular to the layers. An approach for the calculation of the Landau level energies for DQW structures was developed and then applied to the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data related to the beating effect. We also argue that in order to account for the observed magnetotransport phenomena (SdH and integer quantum Hall effect), one should introduce two different quasi-Fermi levels characterizing two electron subsystems regarding the symmetry properties of their states, symmetric and anti-symmetric ones, which are not mixed by electron-electron interaction.
Bagherinia, Marzieh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Shafaie, Fahimeh Sehhatie
2017-10-01
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a training package on functional status and self-confidence of primiparous women in the postpartum period. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 136 primiparous women who were referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran, for their second postpartum care (10-15 days after delivery). These women were randomly assigned to education (n= 68) and control (n = 68) groups. The education group was provided with a face-to-face training session, three phone sessions, and a booklet. The control group received the routine postpartum care on days 1-3, 10-15 and 42-60. Participants completed the functional status and maternal self-confidence questionnaires before the interventio n and eight weeks postpartum. Independent t, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, except for infant's gender (p > .05). At six weeks after the intervention and by adjusting for baseline scores and infant's sex, mean scores of functional status (adjusted mean difference: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.03, p education group than in the control group. This study showed that training women has a positive effect in increasing their self-confidence and improving their functional status.
On eigenvalues of a PT-symmetric operator in a thin layer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Borisov, D. I.; Znojil, Miloslav
2017-01-01
Roč. 208, č. 2 (2017), s. 173-199 ISSN 1064-5616 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : thin domain * pT-symmetric operator * edge of a gap * asymptotics * periodic operator Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 0.721, year: 2016
Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme
2016-08-01
The problem of determination of nuclear surface energy is addressed within the framework of the extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We propose an analytical model for the density profiles with variationally determined diffuseness parameters. In this first paper, we consider the case of symmetric nuclei. In this situation, the ETF functional can be exactly integrated, leading to an analytical formula expressing the surface energy as a function of the couplings of the energy functional. The importance of non-local terms is stressed and it is shown that they cannot be deduced simply from the local part of the functional, as it was suggested in previous works.
Entangling capabilities of symmetric two-qubit gates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Com- putational investigation of entanglement of such ensembles is therefore impractical for ... the computational complexity. Pairs of spin-1 ... tensor operators which can also provide different symmetric logic gates for quantum pro- ... that five of the eight, two-qubit symmetric quantum gates expressed in terms of our newly.
SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
symmetric double well potential barrier we have obtained a class of exactly solvable potentials subject to moving boundary condition. The eigenstates are also obtained by the same technique. Keywords. SUSY; moving boundary condition; exactly solvable; symmetric double well; NH3 molecule. PACS Nos 02.30.Ik; 03.50.
A New Formulation for Symmetric Implicit Runge-Kutta-Nystrom ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we derive symmetric stable Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method for the Integration of General Second Order ODEs by using the collocation approach.The block hybrid method obtained by the evaluation of the continuous interpolant at different nodes of the polynomial is symmetric and suitable for stiff intial ...
Crossing symmetric solution of the Chew-Low equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.
1982-01-01
An N/D dispersion theory is developed which solves crossing symmetric Low equations. The method is used to generate crossing symmetric solutions to the Chew-Low model. We show why the technique originally proposed by Chew and Low was incapable of producing solutions. (orig.)
Sparse symmetric preconditioners for dense linear systems in electromagnetism
Carpentieri, Bruno; Duff, Iain S.; Giraud, Luc; Monga Made, M. Magolu
2004-01-01
We consider symmetric preconditioning strategies for the iterative solution of dense complex symmetric non-Hermitian systems arising in computational electromagnetics. In particular, we report on the numerical behaviour of the classical incomplete Cholesky factorization as well as some of its recent
Stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells and wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll
2002-01-01
The stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells (and wormholes) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is examined. This work generalizes and systematizes previous studies and explores the consequences of including the cosmological constant. The approach shows how the existence (or not) of a domain wall dominates the landscape of possible equilibrium configurations
Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The dilaton black hole solutions have attracted considerable attention for the ... theory and study the corresponding cylindrically symmetric spacetime, where .... where Йm and Йe are integration constants to be interpreted later as the ..... feature is apparent for the cylindrically symmetric spacetime in the presence of the dila-.
Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces: support theorems
Kuit, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313872589
2011-01-01
In this thesis we introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and study some of their properties. In particular we obtain a generalization of Helgason's support theorem for the horospherical transform on a Riemannian symmetric space.
New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we present a method to solve fully fuzzy linear systems with symmetric coefﬁcient matrix. The symmetric coefﬁcient matrix is decomposed into two systems of equations by using Cholesky method and then a solution can be obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our method.
Synthesis & Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Full Title: Synthesis and Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl, Terepthaloyl, Chiral Diimido-di-L-alanine Diesters and Chiral Phthaloyl-L-alanine Ester of Tripropoxy p-tert-Butyl Calix[4]arene and Study of Their Hosting Ability for Alanine and Na+. Bis-symmetrical tripropoxy p-tert-butyl calix[4]arene esters were ...
FACES WITH LARGE DIAMETER ON THE SYMMETRICAL TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE
SIERKSMA, G; TIJSSEN, GA
This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nava Pat
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC and augmented RIC (aRIC models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B and post- bronchodilation (post-B conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI. The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp and peripheral resistance (Rp tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle" showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In
Perturbation theory of a symmetric center within Liénard equations
Françoise, Jean-Pierre; Xiao, Dongmei
2015-09-01
In this article, we introduce the use of Lambert function to develop further the global perturbation theory of an integrable Liénard equation which displays a symmetric center. We prove a global Morse lemma for the first integral and deduce the existence of an associated Picard-Fuchs system. We revisit previous contributions to first-order perturbation theory with the help of these new analytic techniques and in particular, we check that the fundamental integrals are linearly independent. The Lambert function allows to find an expansion formula for these integrals. We also study the possibility to develop a higher-order perturbation theory. The algorithm of the successive derivatives works in general in the class of analytic functions on the domain D where the level sets of the first integral are ovals. We end the article with some results on the first integral of a symmetric Liénard equation deduced from the algorithm of successive derivatives.
Born, Dennis-Peter; Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy
2017-01-01
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90–95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70–75% of maximum heart rate for 60–80 min. The psycho-immunological stress-response was investigated with a full daily profile of salivary cortisol and immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate along with the mood state on a baseline day, the first and last day of training and at follow-up 4 days after the last day of training. Before and after the training period, each athlete's running performance and peak oxygen uptake (V·O2peak) was determined with an incremental exercise test. Results: The HIIT resulted in a longer time-to-exhaustion (P = 0.02) and increased V·O2peak compared to LSD (P = 0.01). The circadian variation of sIgA secretion rate showed highest values in the morning immediately after waking up followed by a decrease throughout the day in both groups (P HIIT, the wake-up response of sIgA secretion rate was higher on the last day of training (P HIIT and LSD (P HIIT indicates no compromised mucosal immune function compared to LSD and shows the functional adaptation of the mucosal immune system in response to the increased stress and training load of nine sessions of HIIT. PMID:28744226
Symmetric metamaterials based on flower-shaped structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuong, P.V.; Park, J.W.; Rhee, J.Y.; Kim, K.W.; Cheong, H.; Jang, W.H.; Lee, Y.P.
2013-01-01
We proposed new models of metamaterials (MMs) based on a flower-shaped structure (FSS), whose “meta-atoms” consist of two flower-shaped metallic parts separated by a dielectric layer. Like the non-symmetric MMs based on cut-wire-pairs or electric ring resonators, the symmetrical FSS demonstrates the negative permeability at GHz frequencies. Employing the results, we designed a symmetric negative-refractive-index MM [a symmetric combined structure (SCS)], which is composed of FSSs and cross continuous wires. The MM properties of the FSS and the SCS are presented numerically and experimentally. - Highlights: • A new designed of sub-wavelength metamaterial, flower-shaped structure was proposed. • Flower-shaped meta-atom illustrated effective negative permeability. • Based on the meta-atom, negative refractive index was conventionally gained. • Negative refractive index was demonstrated with symmetric properties for electromagnetic wave. • Dimensional parameters were studied under normal electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo
2000-01-01
We have examined the utility of 99m Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices for assessing renal graft function in early post-transplantation period. Our study included 80 renal transplant recipients (48 men and 32 women, mean age:40.3 years). Diagnosis was based on biopsy, laboratory data and clinical course. Renal scintigraphy (RS) was obtained using 100 MBq of 99m Tc-MAG3 from 11 days to 23 days of kidney transplantation. We measured 5 indices in whole-kidney (WK) and cortical (C) renograms; Hilson's perfusion index (PI), transplant perfusion index (TP) and transplant function index (TF) as perfusion parameter, and the time to peak activity (Tmax) and the ratio of renal counts at 20 min to that at 3 min (K20/3) as functional parameter. The diagnoses at the day of RS were normal graft (NG) in 44, acute rejection (AR) in 14, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in 10, and Cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity (CsA) in 12. TP and TF were significantly decreased in AR, ATN and CsA, compared to those in NG. K20/3 of AR and ATN were significantly greater than that of NG. WK-Tmax of AR was significantly longer than than that of NG. K20.3 of AR and C-K20/3 of ATN were significantly prolonged relative to those of CsA. There were no statistically significant perfusion indices among complication groups. TP and TF reflecting microperfusion and initial tubular extraction are reliable in assessing graft function. However, it is required to correlate perfusion indices with functional indices and clinical course in differentiating from one another among complication groups
Badmos, Abdulyezir A.; Sun, Qizhen; Sun, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Junxi; Yan, Zhijun; Lutsyk, Petro; Rozhin, Alex; Zhang, Lin
2017-02-01
Enzyme-functionalized dual-peak long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed in 80-μm-cladding B/Ge codoped single-mode fiber is presented for sugar-level and specific glucose detection. Before enzyme functionalization, the dual-peak LPFG was employed for refractive index sensing and sugar-level detection and high sensitivities of ˜4298.20 nm/RIU and 4.6696 nm/% were obtained, respectively. Glucose detection probe was attained by surface functionalization of the dual-peak LPFG via covalent binding with aminopropyl triethoxysilane used as a binding site. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of enzyme. The surface-functionalized dual-peak LPFG was tested with D-(+)-glucose solution of different concentrations. While the peak 2 at the longer wavelength was suitable only to measure lower glucose concentration (0.1 to 1.6 mg/ml) recording a high sensitivity of 12.21±0.19 nm/(mg/ml), the peak 1 at the shorter wavelength was able to measure a wider range of glucose concentrations (0.1 to 3.2 mg/ml) exhibiting a maximum resonance wavelength shift of 7.12±0.12 nm/mg/ml. The enzyme-functionalized dual-peak LPFG has the advantage of direct inscription of highly sensitive grating structures in thin-cladding fibre without etching, and most significantly, its sensitivity improvement of approximately one order of magnitude higher than previously reported LPFG and excessively tilted fibre grating (Ex-TFG) for glucose detection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2000-12-01
We have examined the utility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices for assessing renal graft function in early post-transplantation period. Our study included 80 renal transplant recipients (48 men and 32 women, mean age:40.3 years). Diagnosis was based on biopsy, laboratory data and clinical course. Renal scintigraphy (RS) was obtained using 100 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 from 11 days to 23 days of kidney transplantation. We measured 5 indices in whole-kidney (WK) and cortical (C) renograms; Hilson's perfusion index (PI), transplant perfusion index (TP) and transplant function index (TF) as perfusion parameter, and the time to peak activity (Tmax) and the ratio of renal counts at 20 min to that at 3 min (K20/3) as functional parameter. The diagnoses at the day of RS were normal graft (NG) in 44, acute rejection (AR) in 14, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in 10, and Cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity (CsA) in 12. TP and TF were significantly decreased in AR, ATN and CsA, compared to those in NG. K20/3 of AR and ATN were significantly greater than that of NG. WK-Tmax of AR was significantly longer than than that of NG. K20.3 of AR and C-K20/3 of ATN were significantly prolonged relative to those of CsA. There were no statistically significant perfusion indices among complication groups. TP and TF reflecting microperfusion and initial tubular extraction are reliable in assessing graft function. However, it is required to correlate perfusion indices with functional indices and clinical course in differentiating from one another among complication groups.
Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes
Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao
2016-03-01
Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.
Skyrmions and vector mesons: a symmetric approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldi, D.G.
1984-01-01
We propose an extension of the effective, low-energy chiral Lagrangian known as the Skyrme model, to one formulated by a non-linear sigma model generalized to include vector mesons in a symmetric way. The model is based on chiral SU(6) x SU(6) symmetry spontaneously broken to static SU(6). The rho and other vector mesons are dormant Goldstone bosons since they are in the same SU(6) multiplet as the pion and other pseudoscalars. Hence the manifold of our generalized non-linear sigma model is the coset space (SU(6) x SU(6))/Su(6). Relativistic effects, via a spin-dependent mass term, break the static SU(6) and give the vectors a mass. The model can then be fully relativistic and covariant. The lowest-lying Skyrmion in this model is the whole baryonic 56-plet, which splits into the octet and decuplet in the presence of relativistic SU(6)-breaking. Due to the built-in SU(6) and the presence of vector mesons, the model is expected to have better phenomenological results, as well as providing a conceptually more unified picture of mesons and baryons. 29 references
Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganographic System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viswanathan Perumal
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The image fusion steganographic system embeds encrypted messages in decomposed multimedia carriers using a pseudorandom generator but it fails to evaluate the contents of the cover image. This results in the secret data being embedded in smooth regions, which leads to visible distortion that affects the imperceptibility and confidentiality. To solve this issue, as well as to improve the quality and robustness of the system, the Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganography System is proposed in this study. It comprises three-subsystem bitwise encryption, spatial fusion, and bitwise embedding. First, bitwise encryption encrypts the message using bitwise operation to improve the confidentiality. Then, spatial fusion decomposes and evaluates the region of embedding on the basis of sharp intensity and capacity. This restricts the visibility of distortion and provides a high embedding capacity. Finally, the bitwise embedding system embeds the encrypted message through differencing the pixels in the region by 1, checking even or odd options and not equal to zero constraints. This reduces the modification rate to avoid distortion. The proposed heuristic algorithm is implemented in the blue channel, to which the human visual system is less sensitive. It was tested using standard IST natural images with steganalysis algorithms and resulted in better quality, imperceptibility, embedding capacity and invulnerability to various attacks compared to other steganographic systems.
Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security
Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.
2017-11-01
As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.
Experimental pseudo-symmetric trap EPSILON
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skovoroda, A.A.; Arsenin, V.V.; Dlougach, E.D.; Kulygin, V.M.; Kuyanov, A.Yu.; Timofeev, A.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zvonkov, A.V.
2001-01-01
Within the framework of the conceptual project 'Adaptive Plasma EXperiment' a trap with the closed magnetic field lines 'Experimental Pseudo-Symmetric trap' is examined. The project APEX is directed at the theoretical and experimental development of physical foundations for stationary thermonuclear reactor on the basis of an alternative magnetic trap with tokamak-level confinement of high β plasma. The fundamental principle of magnetic field pseudosymmetry that should be satisfied for plasma to have tokamak-like confinement is discussed. The calculated in paraxial approximation examples of pseudosymmetric curvilinear elements with poloidal direction of B isolines are adduced. The EPSILON trap consisting of two straight axisymmetric mirrors linked by two curvilinear pseudosymmetric elements is considered. The plasma currents are short-circuited within the curvilinear element what increases the equilibrium β. The untraditional scheme of MHD stabilization of a trap with the closed field lines by the use of divertor inserted into axisymmetric mirror is analyzed. The experimental installation EPSILON-OME that is under construction for experimental check of divertor stabilization is discussed. The possibility of ECR plasma production in EPSILON-OME under conditions of high density and small magnetic field is examined. (author)
Left-right symmetric superstring supergravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burova, M.V.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.E.
1988-01-01
A left-right (L-R) symmetric model of four-dimensional supergravitation with a SO(10) gauge group obtained as the low-energy limit is superstring theory is considered. The spectrum of the gauge fields and their interactions are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam theory. In addition, the model includes heavy W R ± and Z μ ' bosons. Beside the N g =3 generations of the 16-plets the SO(10) model includes the fragments of such generations which play the role of Higgs particles and also scalar chiral filds, the number of which exceeds by one the number of generations. As a result the neutrinos of each generation obtain a stable small Majorana mass. It is shown that the scalar field potential leads to spontaneous violation of the SU(2) R group and L-R symmetry and at low energies the standard Weinberg-Salam theory appears. However, reasonable values of X bosons masses M x and sun 2 Θ W (Θ W is the Weinberg angle) can be obtained in the model only in the case of high mass scale M R ∼10 10 -10 12 GeV of the right group SU(2) R violation
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi
1995-03-01
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d 3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ( 4 I 9/2 ) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10 -15 cm 2 ) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ion. Charge transfer cross section between U + in the first excited state (289 cm -1 ) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andon Majhoshev
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this Paper we will try to analyze the communication and functioning of tripartities social dialogue, or Economic Social Council in Republic of Macedona in the period of 1997 – 2012 from practical aspect. Also, we would like to reserch the efects, functions and meaning of the tripartities social dilaogue between Government, Trade Union and Assotiation of Employer as a very important assumption for building of a social harmony and industrial peace in every democratic society. In this context, we will try to analyze the impact of internal and external factors of the efective functioning of the tripartities social dialogue, or Economic Social Council. The basic assumption from which we started in our reseraching was that the Economic Social Council can to contrbuted for social dialogue in Republic of Macedonia only if he produced according attitudes of the social parthners in the process of the making decision of Laws from economic-social spheres. As relevant assumptions which will be analized are: national legal framework, representation of the social partners, capacity of bargaining, organization and tehnical condition. As external assumption we will analized only ideology of the government (left or right ideology of the Government.
... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...
Entropy production and energy dissipation in symmetric redox supercapacitors
Palma-Aramburu, N.; Santamaría-Holek, I.
2017-08-01
In this work we propose a theoretical model that accounts for the main features of the loading-unloading process of a symmetric redox MnO2-based supercapacitor dominated by fast electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. The model is formulated on the basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamics from which we are able to deduce generalized expressions for the electrochemical affinity, the load-voltage and the current-voltage equations that constitute generalizations of the current-overpotential and Butler-Volmer equations, and that are used to describe experimental voltagram data with good agreement. These equations allowed us to derive the behavior of the energy dissipated per cycle showing that it has a nonmonotonic behavior and that in the operation regime it follows a power-law behavior as a function of the frequency. The existence of a maximum for the energy dissipated as a function of the frequency suggests the that the corresponding optimal operation frequency should be similar in value to ωmax.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. P. Rebrov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: to assess liver function changes in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA taking NSAIDs regularly over a long period.Patients and methods. The data obtained during a 10-year PROGRESS prospective single-center cohort study of functional status, activity, and comorbidity (including gastrointestinal tract diseases in patients with SpA were analyzed. The data of 363 SpA patients receiving NSAIDs regularly over a long period and followed up for 10 years were also explored. The changes that had occurred over a decade in the liver enzyme levels, the number of discontinued NSAID treatments because of a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels, and the number of prescriptions of hepatoprotective agents were analyzed.Results. For 10 years, 18 patients with SpA discontinued their NSAID intake due to elevated liver enzyme levels (≥3 times greater than the reference value; during that time, the same increase in enzyme levels was observed in 2 healthy individuals (χ2 =1.39; p=0.2. In the patients with SpA as compared to the healthy individuals, the relative risk of abnormal liver function was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.009–1.405; odds ratio was 2.9 (95% CI, 0.65–12.95. There was no increased risk for discontinuation of some NSAIDs, including nimesulide (χ2 =0.03, p=0.85, the frequency of using hepatoprotective drugs was proved to be highest for diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, nimesulide, and ketoprofen.Conclusion. The regular long-term (as long as 10 years use of NSAIDs to treat SpA is associated with treatment discontinuation because of elevated enzyme levels in every 10 patients. The maximum rate of discontinuation of NSAIDs due to a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels is observed 6–8 years after their regular use, so long-term NSAID therapy requires continuous monitoring of hepatic safety. The longterm intake of nimesulide, as compared with other NSAIDs, is shown to be unassociated with the higher rate of its discontinuation because of
Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Juńczyk, Tomasz; Pawełczak-Barszczowska, Adrianna; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona
2017-10-06
The analysis of the relationship between stress at work and results of cognitive functions amongst women, at peri- and post-menopausal age, performing intellectual work. The study group included women, aged 45-66 years old, employed as intellectual workers. Research instruments were: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; computer tests of the CNS Vital Signs; the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, and a questionnaire designed by the author. The results were statistically analyzed. Nearly a half of respondents experienced high stress at the place of work; 1/3 - on the average level, on a low level - every fifth. The largest number of respondents experienced stress caused by social contacts. Among a half of the women, stress was caused by the lack of awards at work, followed by the lack of support. Slightly fewer of them experienced stress caused by the feeling of psychological load related to the complexity of work or the feeling of uncertainty caused by the organization of work. Every third woman experienced stress due to the sense of responsibility or the lack of control. The smallest number experienced stress caused by physical arduousness, the sense of threat and unpleasant working conditions. The examined women obtained the best results with respect to simple attention, the worst results - with respect to the reaction time. The results concerning the remaining 9 cognitive functions were ranked in the middle of the aforementioned results. The intensity of stress at work and factors which caused this stress, negatively correlated with simple attention of women in the early peri-menopausal period, while positively correlating with the psychomotor and processing speed of women in the late peri-menopausal period. Among the post-menopausal women, negative correlations were observed between the majority of cognitive functions and the intensity of stress at work, and the majority of factors which caused this stress. Cognitive functions of the examined women
Jesus, Danilo A; Iskander, D Robert
2015-12-01
Ray tracing is a powerful technique to understand the light behavior through an intricate optical system such as that of a human eye. The prediction of visual acuity can be achieved through characteristics of an optical system such as the geometrical point spread function. In general, its precision depends on the number of discrete rays and the accurate surface representation of each eye's components. Recently, a method that simplifies calculation of the geometrical point spread function has been proposed for circularly symmetric systems [Appl. Opt.53, 4784 (2014)]. An extension of this method to 2D noncircularly symmetric systems is proposed. In this method, a two-dimensional ray tracing procedure for an arbitrary number of surfaces and arbitrary surface shapes has been developed where surfaces, rays, and refractive indices are all represented in functional forms being approximated by Chebyshev polynomials. The Liou and Brennan anatomically accurate eye model has been adapted and used for evaluating the method. Further, real measurements of the anterior corneal surface of normal, astigmatic, and keratoconic eyes were substituted for the first surface in the model. The results have shown that performing ray tracing, utilizing the two-dimensional Chebyshev function approximation, is possible for noncircularly symmetric models, and that such calculation can be performed with a newly created Chebfun toolbox.
Rai, Durgesh K.; Beaucage, Gregory; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Beaucage, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramnath; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos
2015-01-01
Star polymers provide model architectures to understand the dynamic and rheological effects of chain confinement for a range of complex topological structures like branched polymers, colloids, and micelles. It is important to describe the structure of such macromolecular topologies using small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering to facilitate understanding of their structure-property relationships. Modeling of scattering from linear, Gaussian polymers, such as in the melt, has applied the random phase approximation using the Debye polymer scattering function. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter can be obtained using neutron scattering by this method. Gaussian scaling no longer applies for more complicated chain topologies or when chains are in good solvents. For symmetric star polymers, chain scaling can differ from ν=0.5(df=2) due to excluded volume, steric interaction between arms, and enhanced density due to branching. Further, correlation between arms in a symmetric star leads to an interference term in the scattering function first described by Benoit for Gaussian chains. In this work, a scattering function is derived which accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers as well as the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension using a hybrid Unified scattering function. The approach is demonstrated for linear, four-arm and eight-arm polyisoprene stars in deuterated p-xylene.
Rai, Durgesh K.
2015-07-15
Star polymers provide model architectures to understand the dynamic and rheological effects of chain confinement for a range of complex topological structures like branched polymers, colloids, and micelles. It is important to describe the structure of such macromolecular topologies using small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering to facilitate understanding of their structure-property relationships. Modeling of scattering from linear, Gaussian polymers, such as in the melt, has applied the random phase approximation using the Debye polymer scattering function. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter can be obtained using neutron scattering by this method. Gaussian scaling no longer applies for more complicated chain topologies or when chains are in good solvents. For symmetric star polymers, chain scaling can differ from ν=0.5(df=2) due to excluded volume, steric interaction between arms, and enhanced density due to branching. Further, correlation between arms in a symmetric star leads to an interference term in the scattering function first described by Benoit for Gaussian chains. In this work, a scattering function is derived which accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers as well as the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension using a hybrid Unified scattering function. The approach is demonstrated for linear, four-arm and eight-arm polyisoprene stars in deuterated p-xylene.
Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H
2014-10-01
The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ≥7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (Pllama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belkina, L M; Usacheva, M A; Popkova, E V; Smirnova, E A; Matsievskiĭ, D D; Sazontova, T G; Anchishkina, N A; Kruglov, S V; Terekhina, O L
2009-01-01
Heart function was studied in the August rats with innate raised sympathetic-adrenal system and in the Wistar rats through the period of 3 month after myocardial infarction. The sizes of the postinfarction scars were similar in the rats under comparison (56-62%) but end-diastolic pressure in Wistar rats and in August rats was 18.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg and 11.8 +/- 0.7 mm Hg. Under the maximum isometric load induced by the aorta coarctation, the work efficiency of the heart in the August rats was greater than in the Wistar rats. During the postinfarction period, plasma catecholamine (CA) in August rats was higher than in Wistar rats. In the adrenal glands, the CA contents in August rats increased and in Wistar rats decreased. The activity of CA resynthes in the adrenal glands and in the hypothalamus in August rats did not change and in Wistar rats increased. The blood contents of nitrate and nitrite and hemine oxygenase-1 level in the myocardium of August rats were increased in contrast to Wistar rats. the higher viability of the myocardium in August rats with long existing postinfarction cardiasclerosis is to a considerable extent associated with lowered activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system under more expressing activation of NO-system and antioxidant protection.
Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.
Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N
2014-09-15
We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Presently, clinic memory scale is used to evaluate learning memory ability in most studies,and the influence of difference in measurement condition of individuals exists.OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) perfusion and learning memory function in special brain regions of patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period,and to try to find out a method which can quantitatively evaluate learning ability.DESIGN: Case observation, and correlation analysis.SETTINGS: Shandong Institute for Behavioral Medicine; the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 70 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to Departtment of Neurology, Jining Medical College between January 2004 and December 2005 were involved. The involved patients, 58 male and 12 female, were averaged (52±3) years, and they were all right handed. They all met the diagnosis criteria instituted by the Fourth National Conference on Cerebrovascular Disease, and were confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT or MRI. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the patients and relatives.METHODS: When the patients were at convalescent period, their learning and memory ability were measured with" clinic memory scale (set A)". The 18 patients whose total mark over 100 were regarded as good learning memory function group; The 23 cases whose total mark less than 70 were regarded as poor learning memory function group. RCBF of hippocampus, nucleus amygdalae, temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe of patients between two groups were measured and compared by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The total scores of the 18 good learning memory patients and 23 poor learning memory patients were taken as dependent variable Y, and their rCBFs of hippocampus, nucleus amygdale,temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe respectively as independent variable X for linear correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces:Support theorems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuit, Job Jacob
2013-01-01
We introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and derive support theorems for these transforms. A reductive symmetric space is a homogeneous space G/H for a reductive Lie group G of the Harish-Chandra class, where H is an open sub...... is based on the relation between the Radon transform and the Fourier transform on G/H, and a Paley–Wiener-shift type argument. Our results generalize the support theorem of Helgason for the Radon transform on a Riemannian symmetric space....
Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, Heiko; De Graaf, Willem A.; Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario
2017-01-01
In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL 2 (R)) 4 acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL 2 (R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Color symmetrical superconductivity in a schematic nuclear quark model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, C.; da Providencia, J.
2010-01-01
In this letter, a novel BCS-type formalism is constructed in the framework of a schematic QCD inspired quark model, having in mind the description of color symmetrical superconducting states. In the usual approach to color superconductivity, the pairing correlations affect only the quasi-particle...... states of two colors, the single-particle states of the third color remaining unaffected by the pairing correlations. In the theory of color symmetrical superconductivity here proposed, the pairing correlations affect symmetrically the quasi-particle states of the three colors and vanishing net color...
Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.
Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying
2012-07-30
We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.
Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong
2009-01-01
The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.
Mixed problems for linear symmetric hyperbolic systems with characteristic boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Secchi, P.
1994-01-01
We consider the initial-boundary value problem for symmetric hyperbolic systems with characteristic boundary of constant multiplicity. In the linear case we give some results about the existence of regular solutions in suitable functions spaces which take in account the loss of regularity in the normal direction to the characteristic boundary. We also consider the equations of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics under perfectly conducting wall boundary conditions and give some results about the solvability of such mixed problem. (author). 16 refs
Li, Guohui; Zhang, Songling; Yang, Hong
2017-01-01
Aiming at the irregularity of nonlinear signal and its predicting difficulty, a deep learning prediction model based on extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD) and clustering analysis is proposed. Firstly, the original data is decomposed by ESMD to obtain the finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and residuals. Secondly, the fuzzy c-means is used to cluster the decomposed components, and then the deep belief network (DBN) is used to predict it. Finally, the reconstructed ...
Optical detection of symmetric and antisymmetric states in double quantum wells at room temperature
Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Marcelli, A.; Piccinini, M.; Cebulski, J.
2009-09-01
We studied the optical reflectivity of a specially grown double quantum well (DQW) structure characterized by a rectangular shape and a high electron density at room temperature. Assuming that the QWs depth is known, reflectivity spectra in the mid-IR range allow to carry out the precise measurements of the SAS-gap values (the energy gap between the symmetric and anti-symmetric states) and the absolute energies of both symmetric and antisymmetric electron states. The results of our experiments are in favor of the existence of the SAS splitting in the DQWs at room temperature. Here we have shown that the SAS gap increases proportionally to the subband quantum number and the optical electron transitions between symmetric and antisymmetric states belonging to different subbands are allowed. These results were used for interpretation of the beating effect in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations at low temperatures (0.6 and 4.2 K). The approach to the calculation of the Landau-levels energies for DQW structures developed earlier [D. Ploch , Phys. Rev. B 79, 195434 (2009)] is used for the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data related to the beating effect. We also argue that in order to explain the beating effect in the SdH oscillations, one should introduce two different quasi-Fermi levels characterizing the two electron subsystems regarding symmetry properties of their wave functions, symmetric and antisymmetric ones. These states are not mixed neither by electron-electron interaction nor probably by electron-phonon interaction.
Marden, Jessica R; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M Maria
2017-10-01
Both early life and adult socioeconomic status (SES) predict late-life level of memory; however, evidence is mixed on the relationship between SES and rate of memory decline. Further, the relative importance of different life-course periods for rate of late-life memory decline has not been evaluated. We examined associations between life-course SES and late-life memory function and decline. Health and Retirement Study participants (n = 10,781) were interviewed biennially from 1998-2012 (United States). SES measurements for childhood (composite score including parents' educational attainment), early adulthood (high-school or college completion), and older adulthood (income, mean age 66 years) were all dichotomized. Word-list memory was modeled via inverse-probability weighted longitudinal models accounting for differential attrition, survival, and time-varying confounding, with nonrespondents retained via proxy assessments. Compared to low SES at all 3 points (referent), stable, high SES predicted the best memory function and slowest decline. High-school completion had the largest estimated effect on memory (β = 0.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.22), but high late-life income had the largest estimated benefit for slowing declines (for 10-year memory change, β = 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.46). Both early and late-life interventions are potentially relevant for reducing dementia risk by improving memory function or slowing decline. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Symmetric tandem mirror program. Annual progress report, period ending October 1980
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-10-01
A technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the diamagnetism of the energetic electron plasma was developed. Using this technique, it was determined that high-β plasmas (β approx. 50%) are indeed produced with their pressure peak near the second harmonic locations in the plane midway between the mirror coils. Measurements of the cold plasma properties (Te, n/sub e/) led to deeper understanding of the plasma equilibrium. It was found that the electron temperature is controlled by adjustment of the neutral density (10 < Te < 50 eV). The cold plasma density is determined by the applied power. It was found that the minimum ratio of cold to hot electron density for which stable equilibria exist is approximately unity
Manufacturing of azimuthally symmetric long-period fibre gratings using a CO2 laser
2012-01-01
M.Ing. The development of fibre optic technology as we know it today, has taken a giant leap forward since the introduction of Internet technology and other telecommunication devices. More recently, the need exists to retrieve and send huge amounts of data fast and efficiently by using fibre optic cable in computer networks, without the need of expensive equipment. Due to the large amounts of data (like video and audio) that has to be sent and received across a computer network at large di...
Long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber by symmetric CO2 laser irradiation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tian, F.; Kaňka, Jiří; Zou, B.; Chiang, K.S.; Du, H.
2013-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 11 (2013), s. 13208-13218 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11038 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : REFRACTIVE-INDEX * FABRICATION * SENSORS Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.525, year: 2013
Asymptotic behaviour in polarized and half-polarized U(1) symmetric vacuum spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isenberg, James; Moncrief, Vincent
2002-01-01
We use the Fuchsian algorithm to study the behaviour near the singularity of certain families of U(1) symmetric solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations (with the U(1) isometry group acting spatially). We consider an analytic family of polarized solutions with the maximum number of arbitrary functions consistent with the polarization condition (one of the 'gravitational degrees of freedom' is turned off) and show that all members of this family are asymptotically velocity term dominated (AVTD) as one approaches the singularity. We show that the same AVTD behaviour holds for a family of 'half-polarized' solutions, which is defined by adding one extra arbitrary function to those characterizing the polarized solutions. (The full set of nonpolarized solutions involves two extra arbitrary functions.) Using SL(2, R) Geroch transformations, we produce a further class of U(1) symmetric solutions with AVTD behaviour. We begin to address the issue of whether AVTD behaviour is independent of the choice of time foliation by showing that indeed AVTD behaviour is seen for a wide class of choices of harmonic time in the polarized and half-polarized (U(1) symmetric vacuum) solutions discussed here
Sucharitha, G.; Sreenadh, S.; Lakshminarayana, P.; Sushma, K.
2017-11-01
The slip and heat transfer effects on MHD peristaltic transport of a nanofluid in a non-uniform symmetric/asymmetric channel have studied under the assumptions of elongated wave length and negligible Reynolds number. From the simplified governing equations, the closed form solutions for velocity, stream function, temperature and concentrations are obtained. Also dual solutions are discussed for symmetric and asymmetric channel cases. The effects of important physical parameters are explained graphically. The slip parameter decreases the fluid velocity in middle of the channel whereas it increases the velocity at the channel walls. Temperature and concentration are decreasing and increasing functions of radiation parameter respectively. Moreover, velocity, temperature and concentrations are high in symmetric channel when compared with asymmetric channel.
Global existence of periodic solutions on a simplified BAM neural network model with delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Baodong; Zhang Yazhuo; Zhang Chunrui
2008-01-01
A simplified n-dimensional BAM neural network model with delays is considered. Some results of Hopf bifurcations occurring at the zero equilibrium as the delay increases are exhibited. Global existence of periodic solutions are established using a global Hopf bifurcation result of Wu [Wu J. Symmetric functional-differential equations and neural networks with memory. Trans Am Math Soc 1998;350:4799-838], and a Bendixson criterion for higher dimensional ordinary differential equations due to Li and Muldowney [Li MY, Muldowney J. On Bendixson's criterion. J Differ Equations 1994;106:27-39]. Finally, computer simulations are performed to illustrate the analytical results found
The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.
1975-01-01
The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...
Symmetric Pin Diversion Detection using a Partial Defect Detector (PDET)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitaraman, S.; Ham, Y.S.
2009-01-01
Since the signature from the Partial Defect Detector (PDET) is principally dependent on the geometric layout of the guide tube locations, the capability of the technique in detecting symmetric diversion of pins needs to be determined. The Monte Carlo simulation study consisted of cases where pins were removed in a symmetric manner and the resulting signatures were examined. In addition to the normalized gamma-to-neutron ratios, the neutron and gamma signatures normalized to their maximum values, were also examined. Examination of the shape of the three curves as well as of the peak-to-valley differences in excess of the maximum expected in intact assemblies, indicated pin diversion. A set of simulations with various symmetric patterns of diversion were examined. The results from these studies indicated that symmetric diversions as low as twelve percent could be detected by this methodology
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
retical arguments together with some numerical evidence. The evolution of the orbits is studied, as mass is transported from the disk to the nucleus. ... galaxies and non-axially symmetric quasar models (see Papadopoulos & Caranicolas.
Symmetrization of mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander M. Blokhin
2002-11-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors is considered. The model is a quasilinear system of differential equations. A problem of finding an additional entropy conservation law and system symmetrization are solved.
An algebraic approach to the non-symmetric Macdonald polynomial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, Akinori; Ujino, Hideaki; Wadati, Miki
1999-01-01
In terms of the raising and lowering operators, we algebraically construct the non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials which are simultaneous eigenfunctions of the commuting Cherednik operators. We also calculate Cherednik's scalar product of them
Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2012-01-01
This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations
Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models, a Symmetrical Air Pollution. Model ... process is in compliance with air pollution regula- ..... Ground simulation is achieved through MATLAB package which is based on least-.
Hardware Realization of Chaos-based Symmetric Video Encryption
Ibrahim, Mohamad A.
2013-01-01
This thesis reports original work on hardware realization of symmetric video encryption using chaos-based continuous systems as pseudo-random number generators. The thesis also presents some of the serious degradations caused by digitally
Extended Thermodynamics: a Theory of Symmetric Hyperbolic Field Equations
Müller, Ingo
2008-12-01
Extended thermodynamics is based on a set of equations of balance which are supplemented by local and instantaneous constitutive equations so that the field equations are quasi-linear first order differential equations. If the constitutive functions are subject to the requirements of the entropy principle, one may write them in symmetric hyperbolic form by a suitable choice of fields. The kinetic theory of gases, or the moment theories based on the Boltzmann equation provide an explicit example for extended thermodynamics. The theory proves its usefulness and practicality in the successful treatment of light scattering in rarefied gases. This presentation is based upon the book [1] of which the author of this paper is a co-author. For more details about the motivation and exploitation of the basic principles the interested reader is referred to that reference. It would seem that extended thermodynamics is worthy of the attention of mathematicians. It may offer them a non-trivial field of study concerning hyperbolic equations, if ever they get tired of the Burgers equation. Physicists may prefer to appreciate the success of extended thermodynamics in light scattering and to work on the open problems concerning the modification of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory in rarefied gases as predicted by extended thermodynamics of 13, 14, and more moments.
Crosstalk properties of 36-fold segmented symmetric hexagonal HPGe detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Wiens, Andreas; Eberth, Juergen; Hess, Herbert; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Warr, Nigel; Weisshaar, Dirk
2009-01-01
Crosstalk properties of three 36-fold segmented, symmetric, large volume, HPGe detectors from the AGATA Collaboration were deduced from coincidence measurements performed with digitized segment and core signals after interaction of γ rays with energies of 1.33 MeV. The mean energy values measured by the core signal fluctuate for γ-ray interactions with energy deposited in two segments. A regular pattern is observed depending on the hit segment combinations. The core energy shifts deviate 0.03-0.06% from the average energy calibration. The segment-sum energy is reduced with respect to the core energy as a function of the decoupling capacitance and the segment multiplicity. The deviation of the segment-sum energies from multiplicity two events fluctuates within an interval of less than 0.1% depending on the different segment combinations. The energy shifts caused by crosstalk for the core and segment signals are comparable for all three detectors. A linear electronic model of the detector and preamplifier assembly was developed to evaluate the results. The fold-dependent energy shifts of the segment-sum energies are reproduced. The model yields a constant shift in all segments, proportional to the core signal. The measured crosstalk pattern and its intensity variation in the segments agree well with the calculated values. The regular variation observed in the core energies cannot be directly related to crosstalk and may be caused by other effects like electron trapping.
Mechanisms and Management of Diabetic Painful Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy
Tesfaye, Solomon; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Dickenson, Anthony H.
2013-01-01
Although a number of the diabetic neuropathies may result in painful symptomatology, this review focuses on the most common: chronic sensorimotor distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN). It is estimated that 15–20% of diabetic patients may have painful DSPN, but not all of these will require therapy. In practice, the diagnosis of DSPN is a clinical one, whereas for longitudinal studies and clinical trials, quantitative sensory testing and electrophysiological assessment are usually necessary. A number of simple numeric rating scales are available to assess the frequency and severity of neuropathic pain. Although the exact pathophysiological processes that result in diabetic neuropathic pain remain enigmatic, both peripheral and central mechanisms have been implicated, and extend from altered channel function in peripheral nerve through enhanced spinal processing and changes in many higher centers. A number of pharmacological agents have proven efficacy in painful DSPN, but all are prone to side effects, and none impact the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities because they are only symptomatic therapy. The two first-line therapies approved by regulatory authorities for painful neuropathy are duloxetine and pregabalin. α-Lipoic acid, an antioxidant and pathogenic therapy, has evidence of efficacy but is not licensed in the U.S. and several European countries. All patients with DSPN are at increased risk of foot ulceration and require foot care, education, and if possible, regular podiatry assessment. PMID:23970715
High precision electrostatic potential calculations for cylindrically symmetric lenses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, David Jr.
2007-01-01
A method is developed for a potential calculation within cylindrically symmetric electrostatic lenses using mesh relaxation techniques, and it is capable of considerably higher accuracies than currently available. The method involves (i) creating very high order algorithms (orders of 6, 8, and 10) for determining the potentials at points in the net using surrounding point values, (ii) eliminating the effect of the large errors caused by singular points, and (iii) reducing gradients in the high gradient regions of the geometry, thereby allowing the algorithms used in these regions to achieve greater precisions--(ii) and (iii) achieved by the use of telescopic multiregions. In addition, an algorithm for points one unit from a metal surface is developed, allowing general mesh point algorithms to be used in these situations, thereby taking advantage of the enhanced precision of the latter. A maximum error function dependent on a sixth order gradient of the potential is defined. With this the single point algorithmic errors are able to be viewed over the entire net. Finally, it is demonstrated that by utilizing the above concepts and procedures, the potential of a point in a reasonably high gradient region of a test geometry can realize a precision of less than 10 -10