WorldWideScience

Sample records for periodic manual stirring

  1. Formation mechanisms of periodic longitudinal microstructure and texture patterns in friction stir welded magnesium AZ80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscocks, J., E-mail: j.hiscocks@queensu.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Diak, B.J. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Gerlich, A.P. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Waterloo University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Daymond, M.R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Many studies of friction stir welding have shown that periodicity of metal flow around the tool pin may result in the formation of periodic differences in microstructure and texture in the weld nugget area correlated with the weld pitch. The current work investigates the periodicity of magnesium weld microtexture in the nugget region and its association with material flow using optical and electron microscopy. Two welds created in AZ80 at different processing conditions are presented in detail, one illustrating periodic longitudinal texture change, and one showing for the first time that periodic variations in texture, grain size, or composition are not defining features of periodic nugget flow. While nugget texture is dominated by shear deformation, it was found here to be affected to a lesser degree by compaction of material behind the welding tool, which led to reduction in intensity of the shear texture fiber. The decreased tendency for magnesium based alloys to form periodic patterns as compared to aluminum based alloys is explained with reference to the shear textures. - Highlights: •It is shown here that periodic material flow in the nugget does not necessitate longitudinal texture patterns. •Longitudinal texture patterns are shown to be present or absent in Mg AZ80 based on processing conditions. •Texture in the nugget is mainly dictated by shear deformation, but has measurable effects from other deformation modes. •Explanation of why longitudinal texture change is frequently reported in aluminum but not magnesium alloys is provided. •A new vector visualization of material flow based on EBSD data analysis is shown.

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Effect on Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride Tool Life During Friction Stir Welding (Dwell Period)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoussawi, M.; Smith, A. J.

    2018-03-01

    Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride (PCBN) tool wear during the friction stir welding of high melting alloys is an obstacle to commercialize the process. This work simulates the friction stir welding process and tool wear during the plunge/dwell period of 14.8 mm EH46 thick plate steel. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was used for simulation and the wear of the tool is estimated from temperatures and shear stress profile on the tool surface. Two sets of tool rotational speeds were applied including 120 and 200 RPM. Seven plunge/dwell samples were prepared using PCBN FSW tool, six thermocouples were also embedded around each plunge/dwell case in order to record the temperatures during the welding process. Infinite focus microscopy technique was used to create macrographs for each case. The CFD result has been shown that a shear layer around the tool shoulder and probe-side denoted as thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) was formed and its size increase with tool rotational speed increase. Maximum peak temperature was also found to increase with tool rotational speed increase. PCBN tool wear under shoulder was found to increase with tool rotational speed increase as a result of tool's binder softening after reaching to a peak temperature exceeds 1250 °C. Tool wear also found to increase at probe-side bottom as a result of high shear stress associated with the decrease in the tool rotational speed. The amount of BN particles revealed by SEM in the TMAZ were compared with the CFD model.

  3. Thermo-Mechanical Effect on Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride Tool Life During Friction Stir Welding (Dwell Period)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoussawi, M.; Smith, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride (PCBN) tool wear during the friction stir welding of high melting alloys is an obstacle to commercialize the process. This work simulates the friction stir welding process and tool wear during the plunge/dwell period of 14.8 mm EH46 thick plate steel. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was used for simulation and the wear of the tool is estimated from temperatures and shear stress profile on the tool surface. Two sets of tool rotational speeds were applied including 120 and 200 RPM. Seven plunge/dwell samples were prepared using PCBN FSW tool, six thermocouples were also embedded around each plunge/dwell case in order to record the temperatures during the welding process. Infinite focus microscopy technique was used to create macrographs for each case. The CFD result has been shown that a shear layer around the tool shoulder and probe-side denoted as thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) was formed and its size increase with tool rotational speed increase. Maximum peak temperature was also found to increase with tool rotational speed increase. PCBN tool wear under shoulder was found to increase with tool rotational speed increase as a result of tool's binder softening after reaching to a peak temperature exceeds 1250 °C. Tool wear also found to increase at probe-side bottom as a result of high shear stress associated with the decrease in the tool rotational speed. The amount of BN particles revealed by SEM in the TMAZ were compared with the CFD model.

  4. Non-Linear Response to Periodic Forcing of Methane-Air Global and Detailed Kinetics in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors Close to Extinction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Saverio Marra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the behavior of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR subject to perturbations of finite amplitude and frequency. Two main objectives are pursued: to determine the extinction line in the equivalence ratio (φ - residence time (τ plane, fixed the thermodynamic state conditions; and to characterize the response of the chemical system to periodic forcing of the residence time. Transient simulations of combustion of methane with air, using both global single-step and detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, have been conducted and the corresponding asymptotic solutions analyzed. Results indicate very different dynamical behaviors, posing the issue of a proper choice of the kinetic scheme for the numerical study of combustion oscillations.

  5. Manual lymphatic drainage and therapeutic ultrasound in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty post-operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. B. Masson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy in the plastic surgery post-operative (PO is essential to provide means for an adequate and fast recovery as it restores function through the use of physiotherapeutic procedures. Aim: The aim of the following study is to verify the effects of the association between the manual lymphatic drainage and the therapeutic ultrasound on pain, oedema and the tissue fibrosis in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty PO. Design: This is a clinical trial prospective. Materials and Methods: Eighteen women aged between 18 and 60 years participated in this study, in the late PO period following lipoabdominoplasty or liposuction in the abdomen, flanks and lower trunk, which showed tissue fibrosis of the flanks and abdomen regions. They were divided into two groups: Liposuction group and lipoabdominoplasty group. A total of twelve sessions of therapeutic ultrasound followed by the manual lymphatic drainage were performed. The patients were assessed with regard to pain, oedema and tissue fibrosis in different moments: Initial assessment, during assessment and final assessment through the application of the protocol of evaluation of cysts fibrosis levels. Statistical Analysis: The test of equality for two proportions and the confidence interval test for mean to evaluate the distribution of variables. The significance level adopted for statistical tests was 5% (P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of pain, swelling and tissue fibrosis in both groups. Conclusion: the association between manual lymphatic drainage and the therapeutic ultrasound reduced the swelling and the tissue fibrosis and made pain disappear in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty PO period.

  6. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  7. Performance Improvement of Friction Stir Welds by Better Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sam; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The as-welded friction stir weld has a cross section that may act as a stress concentrator. The geometry associated with the stress concentration may reduce the weld strength and it makes the weld challenging to inspect with ultrasound. In some cases, the geometry leads to false positive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) indications and, in many cases, it requires manual blending to facilitate the inspection. This study will measure the stress concentration effect and develop an improved phased array ultrasound testing (PAUT) technique for friction stir welding. Post-welding, the friction stir weld (FSW) tool would be fitted with an end mill that would machine the weld smooth, trimmed shaved. This would eliminate the need for manual weld preparation for ultrasonic inspections. Manual surface preparation is a hand operation that varies widely depending on the person preparing the welds. Shaving is a process that can be automated and tightly controlled.

  8. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle,; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy, A [Ammon, ID

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  9. Stirring turbulence with turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.; van de Water, W.

    2015-01-01

    We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the

  10. Numerical optimisation of friction stir welding: review of future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, the combination of increasingly more advanced numerical simulation software with high computational power has resulted in models for friction stir welding (FSW), which have improved the understanding of the determining physical phenomena behind the process substantially....... This has made optimisation of certain process parameters possible and has in turn led to better performing friction stir welded products, thus contributing to a general increase in the popularity of the process and its applications. However, most of these optimisation studies do not go well beyond manual...

  11. Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  12. Understanding Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum explains the friction stir welding process in terms of two basic concepts: the concentration of deformation in a shear surface enveloping the tool and the composition of the overall plastic flow field around the tool from simple flow field components. It is demonstrated how weld structure may be understood and torque, drag, and lateral tool forces may be estimated using these concepts. Some discrepancies between computations and accompanying empirical data are discussed in the text. This work is intended to be helpful to engineers in diagnosing problems and advancing technology.

  13. Stirring by swimming bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Childress, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  14. Calculation of energy costs of composite biomass stirring at biogas stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, D. Yu; Temnikov, D. O.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the equipment to produce biogas fuel from organic wastes. The bioreactor equipped with a combined stirring system ensuring mechanical and bubbling stirring is designed. The method of energy cost calculation of the combined stirring system with original design is suggested. The received expressions were used in the calculation of the stirring system installed in the 10 m3 bioreactor: power consumed by the mixer during the start-up period made Nz =9.03 kW, operating power of the mixer made NE =1.406 kW, compressor power for bubbling stirring made NC =18.5 kW. Taking into account the operating mode of single elements of the stirring system, the energy cost made 4.38% of the total energy received by the biogas station.

  15. Hybrid friction stir welding for dissimilar materials through electro-plastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Lan, Shuhuai; Ni, Jun

    2018-05-29

    A hybrid Friction Stir Welding approach and device for dissimilar materials joining employing Electro-Plastic Effect. The approach and device include an introduction of high density, short period current pulses into traditional friction stir welding process, which therefore can generate a localized softened zone in the workpiece during plastic stirring without significant additional temperature increase. This material softened zone is created by high density current pulses based on Electro-Plastic Effect and will move along with the friction stir welding tool. Smaller downward force, larger processing window and better joint quality for dissimilar materials are expected to be achieved through this hybrid welding technique.

  16. continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the small and large intestines as plug flow reactor (PFR) ... from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of the modeled reactors.

  17. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  18. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  19. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H; Lahtinen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  20. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  1. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  2. Flexible Friction Stir Joining Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, Yong Chae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Murray [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Sanderson, Samuel [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Larsen, Steve [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Steel, Russel [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Fleck, Dale [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Fairchild, Doug P [ExxonMobil, Upstream Research Company (URC), Houston, TX (United States); Wasson, Andrew J [ExxonMobil, Upstream Research Company (URC), Houston, TX (United States); Babb, Jon [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Higgins, Paul [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Reported herein is the final report on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) project with industry cost-share that was jointly carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (ExxonMobil), and MegaStir Technologies (MegaStir). The project was aimed to advance the state of the art of friction stir welding (FSW) technology, a highly energy-efficient solid-state joining process, for field deployable, on-site fabrications of large, complex and thick-sectioned structures of high-performance and high-temperature materials. The technology innovations developed herein attempted to address two fundamental shortcomings of FSW: 1) the inability for on-site welding and 2) the inability to weld thick section steels, both of which have impeded widespread use of FSW in manufacturing. Through this work, major advance has been made toward transforming FSW technology from a “specialty” process to a mainstream materials joining technology to realize its pervasive energy, environmental, and economic benefits across industry.

  3. Biodenitrification of gaseous diffusion plant aqueous wastes: stirred bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 30 kilograms of nitrates per day are discarded in the raffinates (acid wastes) of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's X-705 Uranium Recovery and Decontamination Facility. A biodenitrification process employing continuous-flow, stirred-bed reactors has been successfully used to remove nitrates from similar acid wastes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Laboratory studies have been made at Portsmouth to characterize the X-705 raffinates and to test the stirred-bed biodenitrification process on such raffinates. Raffinates which had been previously characterized were pumped through continuous-flow, stirred-bed, laboratory-scale reactors. Tests were conducted over a period of 146 days and involved variations in composition, mixing requirements, and the fate of several metal ions in the raffinates. Tests results show that 20 weight percent nitrates were reduced to a target nitrate effluent concentration of 100 μg/ml with a 99.64 percent efficiency. However, the average denitrification rate achieved was only 33% of that demonstrated with the Y-12 stirred-bed system. These low rates were probably due to the toxic effects of heavy metal ions on the denitrifying bacteria. Also, most of the uranium in the raffinate feed remained in the biomass and calcite, which collected in the reactor. This could cause criticality problems. For these reasons, it was decided not to make use of the stirred-bed bioreactor at Portsmouth. Instead, the biodenitrification installation now planned will use fluidized bed columns whose performance will be the subject of a subsequent report

  4. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  5. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  6. Manual Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakgüder, Aral; Kokino, Siranuş

    2002-01-01

    Manual therapy has been used in the treatment of pain and dysfunction of spinal and peripheral joints for more than a hundred years. Manual medicine includes manipulation, mobilization, and postisometric relaxation techniques. The aim of manual therapy is to enhance restricted movement caused by blockage of joints keeping postural balance, restore function and maintain optimal body mechanics. Anatomic, biomechanical, and neurophysiological evaluations of the leucomotor system is essential for...

  7. Friction Stir Welding and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.

    2015-05-01

    With nearly twenty years of international research and collaboration in friction stir welding (FSW) and processing industrial applications have spread into nearly every feasible market. Currently applications exist in aerospace, railway, automotive, personal computers, technology, marine, cutlery, construction, as well as several other markets. Implementation of FSW has demonstrated diverse opportunities ranging from enabling new materials to reducing the production costs of current welding technologies by enabling condensed packaging solutions for traditional fabrication and assembly. TMS has sponsored focused instruction and communication in this technology area for more than fifteen years, with leadership from the Shaping and Forming Committee, which organizes a biannual symposium each odd year at the annual meeting. A focused publication produced from each of these symposia now comprises eight volumes detailing the primary research and development activities in this area over the last two decades. The articles assembled herein focus on both recent developments and technology reviews of several key markets from international experts in this area.

  8. Structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This manual was written as a guide for use by design personnel in the Vermont Agency of Transportation Structures Section. This manual covers the design responsibilities of the Section. It does not cover other functions that are a part of the Structu...

  9. Quality Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    The quality manual is the “heart” of every management system related to quality. Quality assurance in analytical laboratories is most frequently linked with ISO/IEC 17025, which lists the standard requirements for a quality manual. In this chapter examples are used to demonstrate, how these requirements can be met. But, certainly, there are many other ways to do this.

  10. Friction Stir Welding Process: A Green Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Esther T. Akinlabi; Stephen A. Akinlabi

    2012-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented and patented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in the United Kingdom in 1991 for butt and lap welding of metals and plastics. This paper highlights the benefits of friction stir welding process as an energy efficient and a green technology process in the field of welding. Compared to the other conventional welding processes, its benefits, typical applications and its use in joining similar and dissimilar materia...

  11. Nonequilibrium chemical instabilities in continuous flow stirred tank reactors: The effect of stirring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsthemke, W.; Hannon, L.

    1984-01-01

    We present a stochastic model for stirred chemical reactors. In the limiting case of practical interest, i.e., fast stirring, we solve for the characteristic function in steady state and derive expressions for the stationary moments through a perturbation expansion. Moments are explicitly calculated for a generic model of bistable behavior. We find that stirring decreases the area of the bistable region essentially by changing the point of transition from the high reaction rate state to the low reaction rate state. This is in remarkable agreement with the experimental findings of Roux, et al. Our results indicate that stirring should not be considered simply as an ''enhanced diffusion'' process and that nucleation plays only a minor role in transitions between multiple steady states in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

  12. Stir zone microstructure of commercial purity titanium friction stir welded using pcBN tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Sato, Yutaka S.; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Park, Seung Hwan C.; Hirano, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, friction stir welding was applied to commercial purity titanium using a polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tool, and microstructure and hardness in the weld were examined. Additionally, the microstructural evolution during friction stir welding was also discussed. The stir zone consisted of fine equiaxed α grains surrounded by serrate grain boundaries, which were produced through the β → α allotropic transformation during the cooling cycle of friction stir welding. The fine α grains caused higher hardness than that in the base material. A lath-shaped α grain structure containing Ti borides and tool debris was observed in the surface region of the stir zone, whose hardness was the highest in the weld

  13. Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert; Lawless, Kirby

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement of tooling for friction stir welding, gimballed shoulders would supplant shoulders that, heretofore, have been fixedly aligned with pins. The proposal is especially relevant to self-reacting friction stir welding. Some definitions of terms, recapitulated from related prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed improvement. In friction stir welding, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a pin that rotates with the shoulder and protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. In conventional friction stir welding, the main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional friction stir welding is augmented with an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or forcecontrol system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding as practiced heretofore, there are two shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. Both shoulders rotate with the pin and remain aligned coaxially with the pin. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft into the friction-stir-welding machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. This concludes the prerequisite definitions of terms.

  14. RELAP-7 Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Ray Alden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, John William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kadioglu, Samet Yucel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document summarizes the physical models and mathematical formulations used in the RELAP-7 code. In summary, the MOOSE based RELAP-7 code development is an ongoing effort. The MOOSE framework enables rapid development of the RELAP-7 code. The developmental efforts and results demonstrate that the RELAP-7 project is on a path to success. This theory manual documents the main features implemented into the RELAP-7 code. Because the code is an ongoing development effort, this RELAP-7 Theory Manual will evolve with periodic updates to keep it current with the state of the development, implementation, and model additions/revisions.

  15. Biosafety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce W.

    2010-05-18

    Work with or potential exposure to biological materials in the course of performing research or other work activities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) must be conducted in a safe, ethical, environmentally sound, and compliant manner. Work must be conducted in accordance with established biosafety standards, the principles and functions of Integrated Safety Management (ISM), this Biosafety Manual, Chapter 26 (Biosafety) of the Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000), and applicable standards and LBNL policies. The purpose of the Biosafety Program is to protect workers, the public, agriculture, and the environment from exposure to biological agents or materials that may cause disease or other detrimental effects in humans, animals, or plants. This manual provides workers; line management; Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division staff; Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) members; and others with a comprehensive overview of biosafety principles, requirements from biosafety standards, and measures needed to control biological risks in work activities and facilities at LBNL.

  16. GRACE manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Kawabata, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Kato, K.; Tanaka, H.

    1993-02-01

    This manual is composed of three kinds of objects, theoretical background for calculating the cross section of elementary process, usage and technical details of the GRACE system. Throughout this manual we take the tree level process e + e - → W + W - γ as an example, including the e ± -scalar boson interactions. The real FORTRAN source code for this process is attached in the relevant sections as well as the results of calculation, which might be a great help for understanding the practical use of the system. (J.P.N.)

  17. Metrication manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, A.F.A.; Digby, R.B.; Thong, S.P.; Lacey, F.

    1978-04-01

    In April 1978 a meeting of senior metrication officers convened by the Commonwealth Science Council of the Commonwealth Secretariat, was held in London. The participants were drawn from Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, Canada, Ghana, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Trinidad and Tobago. Among other things, the meeting resolved to develop a set of guidelines to assist countries to change to SI and to compile such guidelines in the form of a working manual

  18. Stirring the Ashes of Public Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinara, Martha

    Sylvia Plath's confessional poem, "Lady Lazarus" can be used to illustrate a connection between autobiography and social critique. "You poke and stir" among the institutions that form social relations--the educational system, the court system, the economic system--to find individuals whose lives, whose joys and pains, and…

  19. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  20. MSVAT-SPACE-STIR and SEMAC-STIR for Reduction of Metallic Artifacts in 3T Head and Neck MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenfeld, T; Prager, M; Schwindling, F S; Nittka, M; Rammelsberg, P; Bendszus, M; Heiland, S; Juerchott, A

    2018-05-24

    The incidence of metallic dental restorations and implants is increasing, and head and neck MR imaging is becoming challenging regarding artifacts. Our aim was to evaluate whether multiple-slab acquisition with view angle tilting gradient based on a sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolution (MSVAT-SPACE)-STIR and slice-encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC)-STIR are beneficial regarding artifact suppression compared with the SPACE-STIR and TSE-STIR in vitro and in vivo. At 3T, 3D artifacts of 2 dental implants, supporting different single crowns, were evaluated. Image quality was evaluated quantitatively (normalized signal-to-noise ratio) and qualitatively (2 reads by 2 blinded radiologists). Feasibility was tested in vivo in 5 volunteers and 5 patients, respectively. Maximum achievable resolution and the normalized signal-to-noise ratio of MSVAT-SPACE-STIR were higher compared with SEMAC-STIR. Performance in terms of artifact correction was dependent on the material composition. For highly paramagnetic materials, SEMAC-STIR was superior to MSVAT-SPACE-STIR (27.8% smaller artifact volume) and TSE-STIR (93.2% less slice distortion). However, MSVAT-SPACE-STIR reduced the artifact size compared with SPACE-STIR by 71.5%. For low-paramagnetic materials, MSVAT-SPACE-STIR performed as well as SEMAC-STIR. Furthermore, MSVAT-SPACE-STIR decreased artifact volume by 69.5% compared with SPACE-STIR. The image quality of all sequences did not differ systematically. In vivo results were comparable with in vitro results. Regarding susceptibility artifacts and acquisition time, MSVAT-SPACE-STIR might be advantageous over SPACE-STIR for high-resolution and isotropic head and neck imaging. Only for materials with high-susceptibility differences to soft tissue, the use of SEMAC-STIR might be beneficial. Within limited acquisition times, SEMAC-STIR cannot exploit its full advantage over TSE-STIR regarding artifact

  1. Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiuli; Liu, Huijie; Lippold, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2219-T6 was friction stir processed using a novel submerged processing technique to facilitate cooling. Processing was conducted at a constant tool traverse speed of 200 mm/min and spindle rotation speeds in the range from 600 to 800 rpm. The microstructural characteristics of the base metal and processed zone, including grain structure and precipitation behavior, were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness maps were constructed on polished cross sections of as-processed samples. The effect of tool rotation speed on the microstructure and hardness of the stir zone was investigated. The average grain size of the stir zone was much smaller than that of the base metal, but the hardness was also lower due to the formation of equilibrium θ precipitates from the base metal θ′ precipitates. Stir zone hardness was found to decrease with increasing rotation speed (heat input). The effect of processing conditions on strength (hardness) was rationalized based on the competition between grain refinement strengthening and softening due to precipitate overaging. - Highlights: • SZ grain size (∼ 1 μm) is reduced by over one order of magnitude relative to the BM. • Hardness in the SZ is lower than that of the precipitation strengthened BM. • Metastable θ′ in the base metal transforms to equilibrium θ in the stir zone. • Softening in the SZ results from a decrease of precipitation strengthening

  2. Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiuli, E-mail: feng.97@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Huijie, E-mail: liuhj@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lippold, John C., E-mail: lippold.1@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Aluminum alloy 2219-T6 was friction stir processed using a novel submerged processing technique to facilitate cooling. Processing was conducted at a constant tool traverse speed of 200 mm/min and spindle rotation speeds in the range from 600 to 800 rpm. The microstructural characteristics of the base metal and processed zone, including grain structure and precipitation behavior, were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness maps were constructed on polished cross sections of as-processed samples. The effect of tool rotation speed on the microstructure and hardness of the stir zone was investigated. The average grain size of the stir zone was much smaller than that of the base metal, but the hardness was also lower due to the formation of equilibrium θ precipitates from the base metal θ′ precipitates. Stir zone hardness was found to decrease with increasing rotation speed (heat input). The effect of processing conditions on strength (hardness) was rationalized based on the competition between grain refinement strengthening and softening due to precipitate overaging. - Highlights: • SZ grain size (∼ 1 μm) is reduced by over one order of magnitude relative to the BM. • Hardness in the SZ is lower than that of the precipitation strengthened BM. • Metastable θ′ in the base metal transforms to equilibrium θ in the stir zone. • Softening in the SZ results from a decrease of precipitation strengthening.

  3. Thermal modelling of friction stir welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to present the basic elements of the thermal modelling of friction stir welding as well as to clarify some of the uncertainties in the literature regarding the different contributions to the heat generation. Some results from a new thermal pseudomechanical model...... in which the temperature-dependent yield stress of the weld material controls the heat generation are also presented....

  4. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  5. Pdap Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.

    Pdap, Python Data Analysis Program, is a program for post processing, analysis, visualization and presentation of data e.g. simulation results and measurements. It is intended but not limited to the domain of wind turbines. It combines an intuitive graphical user interface with python scripting...... that allows automation and implementation of custom functions. This manual gives a short introduction to the graphical user interface, describes the mathematical background for some of the functions, describes the scripting API and finally a few examples on how automate analysis via scripting is presented....... The newest version, and more documentation and help on how to used, extend and automate Pdap can be found at the webpage www.hawc2.dk...

  6. Electrodeposition of uranium in stirred liquid cadmium cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, T.; Tanaka, H.

    1997-01-01

    The electrodeposition of U in a liquid Cd cathode was known to be hampered by the formation of dendritic U on the Cd surface. Electrotransports of uranium to the stirred liquid Cd cathode were carried out at 773 K for different cathode current densities and different Reynolds number of stirring. The maximum amount of U taken in the liquid Cd cathode without forming dendrites was found to increase with an increasing Reynolds number of stirring and decrease with increasing cathode current density. (orig.)

  7. The inhomogeneous microstructure and deformation of similar and dissimilar Al-Zn containing Mg friction stir welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscocks, Jessica

    The magnesium-based aluminum-zinc alloys have excellent stiffness to weight ratios, and may be combined by friction stir welding to expand the possible applications. The high aluminum alloy AZ80 in particular has the advantage of being relatively stiff but still extrudable. However limited friction stir welding research is available for this alloy and extrapolation from the extensive work in aluminum alloys is impractical due differences in precipitation behaviour, and magnesium's high plastic anisotropy and tendency to form strong textures during friction stir welding. This work investigates the correlations between local friction stir welded microstructures, textures, residual strains, and the local deformation behaviour based on strain mapping during tensile tests. Covering bead-on-plate and butt configurations, joining of similar and dissimilar materials, and a range of processing conditions, many findings of interest for deformation modelling and industrial applications are presented. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of an entire friction stir weld was used to determine texture, residual strain and dislocation density data from a single experiment. A number of unique findings were made, mainly related to the asymmetric distribution of properties both between sides of the weld and through the depth. Particularly in the case of strain measurements, features not detectable at coarser measurement spacing or by line scan are presented and compared for multiple processing conditions. Investigation of the longitudinal material flow during welding showed that even when periodicity in grain size, precipitate distribution, or texture was not observed, periodic changes in texture intensity resulting from compaction of material behind the tool were present, providing evidence that movement of nugget material remained periodic. Strain localisation and fracture behaviour were found to be completely different between good quality similar and dissimilar friction stir welds

  8. Caltrans : construction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Caltrans intends this manual as a resource for all personnel engaged in contract administration. The manual establishes policies and procedures for the construction phase of Caltrans projects. However, this manual is not a contract document. It impos...

  9. Engineered Alloy Structures by Friction Stir Reaction Processing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort examines the feasibility of an innovative surface modification technology incorporating friction stir reaction processing for producing...

  10. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  11. Study of optimal operation for producing onion vinegar using two continuously stirred tank reactors

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 秀彰; 山口, 文; 富田, 弘毅; 管野, 亨; 小林, 正義; KOBAYASHI, Hideaki; YAMAGUCHI, Kazaru; TOMITA, Koki; KANNO, Tohru; KOBAYASHI, Masayoshi

    1997-01-01

     Onion vinegar was produced using a 2-stage continuously stirred tank reactor. Regarding the alcohol fermentation and the acetic acid fermentation examined in this study, the immobilized cells on porous ceramics offered stable production of alcohol and acetic acid for long periods of 300 and 700 days, respectively. Compared with the steady-state operation method, the temperature-change forced-cyclic operation method increased ethanol yield of alcohol fermentation by a maximum of 15%. Acetic a...

  12. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  13. Friction stir welding of 6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, M.A.M.S.

    2009-01-01

    6061 AA (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance such as marine frames, pipelines, storage tanks, and aircraft components [1]. It is also used for the manufacturing of fuel elements in the nuclear research reactors. Compared to many of the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural alloys, friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded is not melted and recast [2]. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding traverse speed, and tool profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. Several FSW tools (differ from each other in pin angle, shoulder diameter, and shoulder concavity) have been used to fabricate a number of joints in order to obtain a tool with which a sound weld can be produced. It was found that the FSW tool with tapered cone pin, concave shoulder, and shoulder diameter equal to four times the welded plate thickness is suitable to produce a sound weld. The effect of the traverse speed on the global and local tensile properties of friction stir welded joints has been investigated in the 6061-T6 AA. The global tensile properties of the FSW joints were improved with increasing the traverse speed at constant rotation rate. It is found that the global tensile strength of the FSW joint is limited by the local tensile strength of the nearest region to the weld center at which the cross section is composed mainly of the HAZ. The effect of the initial butt surface on the formation of the zigzag line on the tensile properties of the welds was examined by using three types of welding samples differ in the preparation of the initial butt surface. The first type of samples welded without removing the oxide layer from the initial butt surface (uncleaned butt surfaces joint). In the second type of samples the oxide layer was removed from

  14. Friction stir method for forming structures and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Frederick, David Alan

    2011-11-22

    Processes for forming an enhanced material or structure are disclosed. The structure typically includes a preform that has a first common surface and a recess below the first common surface. A filler is added to the recess and seams are friction stir welded, and materials may be stir mixed.

  15. Damage Tolerance Behavior of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of various aerospace structures. Self-reacting and conventional friction stir welding are variations of the friction stir weld process employed in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks which are classified as pressurized structure in many spaceflight vehicle architectures. In order to address damage tolerance behavior associated with friction stir welds in these safety critical structures, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data describing fracture behavior, residual strength capability, and cyclic mission life capability of friction stir welds at ambient and cryogenic temperatures have been generated and will be presented in this paper. Fracture behavior will include fracture toughness and tearing (R-curve) response of the friction stir welds. Residual strength behavior will include an evaluation of the effects of lack of penetration on conventional friction stir welds, the effects of internal defects (wormholes) on self-reacting friction stir welds, and an evaluation of the effects of fatigue cycled surface cracks on both conventional and selfreacting welds. Cyclic mission life capability will demonstrate the effects of surface crack defects on service load cycle capability. The fracture data will be used to evaluate nondestructive inspection and proof test requirements for the welds.

  16. Effect of Stirring and Seeding on Whey Protein Fibril Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Venema, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of stirring and seeding on the formation of fibrils in whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied. More fibrils of a similar length are formed when WPI is stirred during heating at pH 2 and 80 C compared to samples that were heated at rest. Addition of seeds did not show an

  17. Optimizing the stirring strategy for the vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Serra, Ramiro; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the definition, application and assessment of a factorial plan with the aim of gaining insight on what kind of stirring strategy could work the best in a vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber. Three different stirring strategies were defined as factors of a factorial

  18. Steady shear viscosity of stirred yoghurts with varying ropiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, M.E.; van Marle, M.E.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; de Kruif, C.G.; de Kruif, C.G.; Mellema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Stirred yogurt was viewed as a concentrated dispersion of aggregates consisting of protein particles. The steady-shear behavior of three types of stirred yogurt with varying ropiness was investigated experimentally. To describe the shear-dependent viscosity, a microrheological model was used which

  19. A Rotating Plug Model of Friction Stir Welding Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghulapadu J. K.; Peddieson, J.; Buchanan, G. R.; Nunes, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    A simplified rotating plug model is employed to study the heat transfer phenomena associated with the fiction stir welding process. An approximate analytical solution is obtained based on this idealized model and used both to demonstrate the qualitative influence of process parameters on predictions and to estimate temperatures produced in typical fiction stir welding situations.

  20. Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

    2013-10-01

    Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

  1. High-Powered, Ultrasonically Assisted Thermal Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This method is a solid-state weld process capable of joining metallic alloys without melting. The weld workpieces to be joined by thermal stir welding (TSW) are drawn, by heavy forces, between containment plates past the TSW stir tool that then causes joining of the weld workpiece. TSW is similar to friction stir welding (FSW) in that material is heated into a plastic state (not melted) and stirred using a stir rod. The FSW pin tool is an integrated geometrical structure consisting of a large-diameter shoulder, and a smaller-diameter stir pin protruding from the shoulder. When the pin is plunged into a weld workpiece, the shoulder spins on the surface of the weld workpiece, thus inducing frictional heat into the part. The pin stirs the fraying surfaces of the weld joint, thus joining the weld workpiece into one structure. The shoulder and stir pin of the FSW pin tool must rotate together at a desired rotational speed. The induced frictional energy control and stir pin control of the pin tool cannot be de-coupled. The two work as one integrated unit. TSW, on the other hand, de-couples the heating and stirring of FSW, and allows for independent control of each process element. A uniquely designed induction coil heats the weld workpiece to a desired temperature, and once heated, the part moves into a stir rod whose RPM is also independently controlled. As the weld workpiece moves into the stir rod, the piece is positioned, or sandwiched, between upper and lower containment plates. The plate squeezes together, thus compressing the upper and lower surfaces of the weld workpiece. This compressive force, also called consolidation force, consolidates the plastic material within the weld nugget material as it is being stirred by the stir rod. The stir rod is positioned through the center of the top containment plate and protrudes midway through the opposite lower containment plate where it is mechanically captured. The upper and lower containment plates are separated by a

  2. Noise-sustained and controlled synchronization of stirred excitable media by external forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changsong; Kurths, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Most of the previous studies on constructive effects of noise in spatially extended systems have focused on static media, e.g., of the reaction-diffusion type. Because many active chemical or biological processes occur in a fluid environment with mixing, we investigate here the interplay among noise, excitability, mixing and external forcing in excitable media advected by a chaotic flow, in a two-dimensional FitzHugh-Nagumo model described by a set of reaction-advection-diffusion equations. In the absence of external forcing, noise may generate sustained coherent oscillations of the media in a range of noise intensities and stirring rates. We find that these noise-sustained oscillations can be synchronized by external periodic signals much smaller than the threshold. Analysis of the locking regions in the parameter space of the signal period, stirring rate and noise intensity reveals that the mechanism underlying the synchronization behaviour is a matching between the time scales of the forcing signal and the noise-sustained oscillations. The results demonstrate that, in the presence of a suitable level of noise, the stirred excitable media act as self-sustained oscillatory systems and become much easier to be entrained by weak external forcing. Our results may be verified in experiments and are useful to understand the synchronization of population dynamics of oceanic ecological systems by annual cycles

  3. Noise-sustained and controlled synchronization of stirred excitable media by external forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Changsong; Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, PF 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Most of the previous studies on constructive effects of noise in spatially extended systems have focused on static media, e.g., of the reaction-diffusion type. Because many active chemical or biological processes occur in a fluid environment with mixing, we investigate here the interplay among noise, excitability, mixing and external forcing in excitable media advected by a chaotic flow, in a two-dimensional FitzHugh-Nagumo model described by a set of reaction-advection-diffusion equations. In the absence of external forcing, noise may generate sustained coherent oscillations of the media in a range of noise intensities and stirring rates. We find that these noise-sustained oscillations can be synchronized by external periodic signals much smaller than the threshold. Analysis of the locking regions in the parameter space of the signal period, stirring rate and noise intensity reveals that the mechanism underlying the synchronization behaviour is a matching between the time scales of the forcing signal and the noise-sustained oscillations. The results demonstrate that, in the presence of a suitable level of noise, the stirred excitable media act as self-sustained oscillatory systems and become much easier to be entrained by weak external forcing. Our results may be verified in experiments and are useful to understand the synchronization of population dynamics of oceanic ecological systems by annual cycles.

  4. A dense cell retention culture system using stirred ceramic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Sato, T; Kominami, M

    1994-11-20

    A novel reactor design incorporating porous ceramic tubes into a stirred jar fermentor was developed. The stirred ceramic membrane reactor has two ceramic tubular membrane units inside the vessel and maintains high filtration flux by alternating use for filtering and recovering from clogging. Each filter unit was linked for both extraction of culture broth and gas sparging. High permeability was maintained for long periods by applying the periodical control between filtering and air sparging during the stirred retention culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ceramic filter aeration system increased the k(L)a to about five times that of ordinary gas sparing. Using the automatic feeding and filtering system, cell mass concentration reached 207 g/L in a short time, while it was 64 g/L in a fed-batch culture. More than 99% of the growing cells were retained in the fermentor by the filtering culture. Both yield and productivity of cells were also increased by controlling the feeding of fresh medium and filtering the supernatant of the dense cells culture. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Friction stir welding of dissimilar AA2024 and AA7075 aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodir, Saad Ahmed; Shibayanagi, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints of 2024-T3 Al alloy to 7075-T6 Al alloy produced by friction stir welding. Effects of welding speed and fixed location of base metals on microstructures, hardness distributions, and tensile properties of the welded joints were investigated. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the stir zone contains a mixed structure and onion ring pattern with a periodic change of grain size as well as a heterogeneous distribution of alloying elements. The maximum tensile strength of 423.0 MPa was achieved for the joint produced at welding speed of 1.67 mm/s when 2024 Al alloy was located on the advancing side

  6. Thermomechanical Modelling of Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2009-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a fully coupled thermomechanical process and should in general be modelled as such. Basically, there are two major application areas of thermomechanical models in the investigation of the FSW process: i) Analysis of the thermomechanical conditions such as e.g. heat...... generation and local material deformation (often referred to as flow) during the welding process itself. ii) Prediction of the residual stresses that will be present in the joint structure post to welding. While the former in general will call for a fully-coupled thermomechanical procedure, however...... for the FSW process at hand, the heat generation must either be prescribed analytically or based on a fully coupled analysis of the welding process itself. Along this line, a recently proposed thermal-pseudo-mechanical model is presented in which the temperature dependent yield stress of the weld material...

  7. Ultrasonically-assisted Thermal Stir Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A welding head assembly has a work piece disposed between its containment plates' opposing surfaces with the work piece being maintained in a plastic state thereof at least in a vicinity of the welding head assembly's stir rod as the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The welding head assembly and the work piece experience relative movement there between in a direction perpendicular to the rod's longitudinal axis as the work piece is subjected to a compressive force applied by the containment plates. A first source coupled to the first containment plate applies a first ultrasonic wave thereto such that the first ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement. A second source coupled to the second containment plate applies a second ultrasonic wave thereto such that the second ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.

  8. Unstable Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Aziz Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the friction stir welding process, a nonuniform and high generated temperature is undesirable. Unstable temperature and distribution affect thermal and residual stresses along the welding line, thus necessitating mitigation. This paper presents a simple method to prevent significant temperature difference along the welding line and also to help nullifying some defect types associated with this welding, such as end-hole, initial unwelded line, and deformed areas. In the experimental investigation, a heat and force thermocouple and dynamometer were utilized while couple-field thermomechanical models were used to evaluate temperature and its distribution, plastic strain, and material displacement. The suggested method generated uniform temperature distributions. Measurement results are discussed, showing a good correlation with predictions.

  9. Friction stir welding sets sail in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Guohong

    2007-01-01

    Today, Friction Stir Welding has set sail in China. As the pioneer of FSW development in the China territory, China FSW Centre hes made outstanding achievements in FSW technique development, FSW engineering, FSW equipment and FSW product. But the real industrial applications of FSW in China are just begining. With the planned national long-term development programmes and huge market requirement in aerospace, aviation, shipbuilding, railway, power and energy industries, FSW will continue to develop rapidly in the next 10 years. FSW will continue to develop rapidly in the next 10 years. FSW not only raises the level of joining techniques in Chinese industrial companies, but also increase the competitive ability of the industrial products made in china

  10. Orbital friction stir welding of aluminium pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, G.; Hillers, T.

    2002-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was originally developed for flat plates. This contribution shows how it can be applied to the welding of aluminium pipes. Pipes made of AlMG 3 (EN5754), AlMg 4.5Mn (EN5083) and AlMgSi 0.5 (EN6106) with dimensions of Da 600 and 520 x 10-8 mm were welded. The FSW orbital system comprises an annular cage with integrated FSW head, a hydraulic system, and a control unit. The welds were tested successfully according to EN 288. The mechanical and technical properties of the welds were somewhat better than with the TIG orbital process, and welding times were about 40 percent shorter [de

  11. Metal Flow in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The plastic deformation field in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is compared to that in metal cutting. A shear surface around the FSW tool analogous to the metal cutting shear plane is identified and comprises the basis of the "rotating plug" flow field model and the "wiping" model of tool interaction with weld metal. Within the context of these models: The FSW shear rate is estimated to be comparable to metal cutting shear rates. The effect of tool geometry on the FSW shear surface is discussed and related to published torque measurements. Various FS W structural features are explained, including a difference in structure of bimetallic welds when alloys on the advancing and retreating sides of the weld seam are exchanged. The joining mechanism and critical parameters of the FSW process are made clear.

  12. Quicklime treatment and stirring of different poultry litter substrates for reducing pathogenic bacteria counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M; Roll, V F B; Leite, F L; Dai Prá, M A; Xavier, E G; Heres, T; Valente, B S

    2013-03-01

    Testing different management practices can help to identify conditions that decrease or even eliminate pathogenic bacteria in poultry litter. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily manual stirring (rotation of the litter with a pitchfork) for the first 14 d of a bird's life (WDR), in 3 types of poultry litter substrates and quicklime treatment (CaO) during layout time between flocks on pathogenic bacteria occurrence (cfu). A total of 216 male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted to 18 pens with new litter (experimental unit). A split-plot design, with 6 treatments allotted to the main plots, was used: 1) wood shavings (WS) + WDR, 2) WS without stirring up to 14 d (WODR), 3) rice hulls (RIH) + WDR, 4) RIH + WODR, 5) mixture of 50% RIH and WS + WDR, and 6) mixture of 50% RIH and WS + WODR. Two treatments were allotted to the subplots: 0 and 300 g of CaO•m(-2) litter. After depopulation, litter samples were collected, and CaO was incorporated into the litter in the designated half of each pen. The cfu from litter samples after 7 d of the quicklime treatment were counted on Chapman agar, brain heart infusion media, and MacConkey agar. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the means were compared by least squares means (P litter efficiently reduced the cfu observed on brain heart infusion, Chapman agar, and MacConkey agar media by 57.2, 66.9, and 92.1%, respectively, compared with control (6.4, 17.9, and 46.1%; P litter reduces the cfu, regardless of the substrate and stirring performed.

  13. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, A. G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  14. Applications of Friction Stir Processing during Engraving of Soft Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kočović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing has extensive application in many technological operations. Application area of friction stir processing can be extended to the processing of non-metallic materials, such as wood. The paper examines the friction stir processing contact between a specially designed hard and temperature-resistant rotating tool and workpiece which is made of wood. Interval of speed slip and temperature level under which the combustion occurs and carbonization layer of soft material was determined. The results of the research can be applied in technological process of wood engraving operations which may have significant technological and aesthetic effects.

  15. A Manual of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This "Manual of Style" is offered as a guide to assist Nebraska State employees in producing quality written communications and in presenting a consistently professional image of government documents. The manual is not designed to be all-inclusive. Sections of the manual discuss formatting documents, memorandums, letters, mailing…

  16. Reconstruction of Clear-PEM data with STIR

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M V; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A; Oliveira, N; Correia, M; Cordeiro, H; Ferreira, N C; Varela, J; Almeida, P

    2006-01-01

    The Clear-PEM scanner is a device based on planar detectors that is currently under development within the Crystal Clear Collaboration, at CERN. The basis for 3D image reconstruction in Clear-PEM is the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR). STIR is an open source object-oriented library that efficiently deals with the 3D positron emission tomography data sets. This library was originally designed for the traditional cylindrical scanners. In order to make its use compatible with planar scanner data, new functionalities were introduced into the library's framework. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the Clear-PEM scanner acquisitions were used as input for image reconstruction with the 3D OSEM algorithm available in STIR. The results presented indicate that dual plate PEM data can be accurately reconstructed using the enhanced STIR framework.

  17. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  18. Torque Control of Friction Stir Welding, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Longhurst Engineering, PLC and Vanderbilt University propose the innovation of torque control of friction stir welding (FSW) as a replacement to force control of...

  19. Automatic Gap Detection in Friction Stir Welding Processes (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Yu; Kalya, Prabhanjana; Landers, Robert G; Krishnamurthy, K

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper develops a monitoring algorithm to detect gaps in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes. Experimental studies are conducted to determine how the process parameters and the gap width affect the welding process...

  20. Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Z.; Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Ruan, S.; Doan, N. A K; Roberts, William L.; Swaminathan, N.

    2016-01-01

    A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used

  1. In-Space Friction Stir Welding Machine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Longhurst Engineering, PLC, and Vanderbilt University propose an in-space friction stir welding (FSW) machine for joining complex structural aluminum components. The...

  2. Low temperature friction stir welding of P91 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Rao Kalvala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bead-on-plate friction stir welds were made on P91 alloy with low and high rotational speeds (100 and 1000 RPM to study their effects on weld microstructural changes and impression creep behavior. Temperatures experienced by the stir zone were recorded at the weld tool tip. Different zones of welds were characterized for their microstructural changes, hardness and creep behavior (by impression creep tests. The results were compared with submerged arc fusion weld. Studies revealed that the stir zone temperature with 100 RPM was well below Ac1 temperature of P91 steel while it was above Ac3 with 1000 RPM. The results suggest that the microstructural degradation in P91 welds can be controlled by low temperature friction stir welding technique.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF STIRRING SPEED AND STIRRING TIME TOWARD NANOPARTICLE SIZE OF CHITOSAN-SIAM CITRUS PEEL (Citrus nobilis L.var Microcarpa 70% ETHANOL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wintari Taurina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Siam citrus peel (Citrus nobilis L. var. Microcarpa is a plant derived from Sambas Regency, West Kalimantan Province. Bioavailability of herbal active compounds can be enhanced by formulating extract into nanoparticle. The polymer used was chitosan with crosslinker Na-TPP. Stirring speed and stirring time play an important role to produce small particle size in forming nanoparticle using ionic gelation method. Enhancement of stirring speed and stirring time could reduce particle size. Nanoparticles were prepared using ionic gelation method by mixing Na-TPP, extract and chitosan (1:1:6 with varying the stirring speed 500 rpm, 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm and stirring time 1 hrs, 2 hrs, 3 hrs. The particle size of nanoparticle was found to be 85.3 nm at 1000 rpm of stirring speed and 3 hrs of stirring times, with polidispersity index 0.287, zeta potential +32.37 mV and entrapment efficiency 87.12 %.

  4. STIR: Microwave Response of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Nanocomposite Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    STIR: RDRL-ROE-M: Microwave Response of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Nanocomposite Welds Thrust 1 of the STIR project examines the heat response of...polymer composites loaded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to microwave irradiation. This involves (1) a study of how CNT loading affects dielectric...properties of polymer composites and (2) a study of how CNT loading affects the heating response to microwave radiation. Our hypothesis is that the

  5. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Sterling, R.J. Steel, C.-O. Pettersson. “Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel.” Mater...MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FRICTION STIR WELDED ALUMINUM-STEEL JOINTS By ERIN ELIZABETH PATTERSON A thesis submitted in...for his work producing the dissimilar weld samples used in this study. Without his work, this project would not have been possible. I would also

  6. Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Bucher, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A mechanism has been designed to apply the loads (the stirring and the resection forces and torques) in self-reacted friction stir welding. This mechanism differs somewhat from mechanisms used in conventional friction stir welding, as described below. The tooling needed to apply the large reaction loads in conventional friction stir welding can be complex. Self-reacted friction stir welding has become popular in the solid-state welding community as a means of reducing the complexity of tooling and to reduce costs. The main problems inherent in self-reacted friction stir welding originate in the high stresses encountered by the pin-and-shoulder assembly that produces the weld. The design of the present mechanism solves the problems. The mechanism includes a redesigned pin-and-shoulder assembly. The welding torque is transmitted into the welding pin by a square pin that fits into a square bushing with set-screws. The opposite or back shoulder is held in place by a Woodruff key and high-strength nut on a threaded shaft. The Woodruff key reacts the torque, while the nut reacts the tensile load on the shaft.

  7. Effects of tool speeds and corresponding torque/energy on stir zone formation during friction stir welding/processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, S; Chen, Z W

    2009-01-01

    The way processing parameters and the measurable thermomechanical responses relate to the individual and combined flows forming the different processed zones during friction stir welding/processing has been studied. Experimentally, a cast Al-7Si-0.3Mg alloy was used to provide readily identifiable processed zones. A series of friction stir experiments covering a wide range of tool forward and rotation speeds were conducted followed by the measurement of individual and combined stir areas. It has been found that the basic modes of material flow did not change but the relative volume of each flow depended on both forward and rotation speeds. The trends observed in the present data explain how pin rotation relates to the material transportation mechanism and the associated torque required. This data also explains how forward speed, not rotation speed, relates to specific energy and the volume of the total stir zone.

  8. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam T. Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Impeller submergence governs the performance of mixing tanks employed in oxygen transfer operation. Present work experimentally investigates the effect of impeller submergence depths on oxygen transfer and corresponding power consumption. It has been found that at higher range of impeller submergence, mixing tanks consume less power and gives higher values of oxygen transfer coefficient. Optimal range of submergence depth is 0.7 to 0.9 times the impeller diameter. Copyright ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 4th March 2011; Revised: 12nd July 2011; Accepted: 14th July 2011[How to Cite: T.T. Devi, A.P. Sinha, M. Thakre, and B. Kumar. (2011. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 123-128. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/826] | View in 

  9. Plankton bloom controlled by horizontal stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W.; Neufeld, Z.; Scheuring, I.

    2009-10-01

    Here we show a simple mechanism in which changes in the rate of horizontal stirring by mesoscale ocean eddies can trigger or suppress plankton blooms and can lead to an abrupt change in the average plankton density. We consider a single species phytoplankton model with logistic growth, grazing and a spatially non-uniform carrying capacity. The local dynamics have multiple steady states for some values of the carrying capacity that can lead to localized blooms as fluid moves across the regions with different properties. We show that for this model even small changes in the ratio of biological timescales relative to the flow timescales can greatly enhance or reduce the global plankton productivity. Thus, this may be a possible mechanism in which changes in horizontal mixing can trigger plankton blooms or cause regime shifts in some oceanic regions. Comparison between the spatially distributed model and Lagrangian simulations considering temporal fluctuations along fluid trajectories, demonstrates that small scale transport processes also play an important role in the development of plankton blooms with a significant influence on global biomass.

  10. Inspecting Friction Stir Welding using Electromagnetic Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the use of advanced electromagnetic probes to measure the dimensions, the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, and related other properties of friction stir welds (FSWs) between parts made of the same or different aluminum alloy(s). The probes are of the type described in in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: A probe of this type is essentially an eddy-current probe that includes a primary (driver) winding that meanders and multiple secondary (sensing) windings that meander along the primary winding. Electrical conductivity is commonly used as a measure of heat treatment and tempering of aluminum alloys, but prior to the development of these probes, the inadequate sensitivity and limited accuracy of electrical-conductivity probes precluded such use on FSWs between different aluminum alloys, and the resolution of those probes was inadequate for measurement of FSW dimensions with positions and metallurgical properties. In contrast, the present probes afford adequate accuracy and spatial resolution for the purposes of measuring the dimensions of FSW welds and correlating spatially varying electrical conductivities with metallurgical properties, including surface defects.

  11. The Plunge Phase of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, John C.

    2005-01-01

    The many advantages of Friction Stir Welding have led to a relatively rapid acceptance in the often conservative welding community. Because the process is so different from traditional fusion welding, with which most investigators are most familiar, there remain many aspects of FSW for which there is no clear consensus. For example, the well known onion rings seen in transverse sections have been variously interpreted as grain size variations, variation in density of second phase particles and parts of the carousel of material rotating with the pin that have been shed from the carousel. Using Orientation Imaging Microscopy, Schneider has recently noted that the onion rings have a different orientation (and hence etch differently) than the surrounding material, and this orientation is consistent with slip plane orientations at the edge of the carousel. Likewise, the forces and torque exerted by the FSW tool on the work piece largely remain unaccounted for. Although these forces are routinely measured by investigators with commercial instrumented welders, they are rarely reported or even qualitatively analyzed. This paper will introduce a model based on a carousel or disk of material that rotates with the tool to estimate the torque and plunge force required to plunge a tool into the work piece. A stationary tool is modeled rather than the moving tool because effects such as thermal transients and metallurgical changes in the sample (primarily aging in aluminum) can be more easily accounted for. It is believed, however, that with some modifications the model should be applicable to a moving tool also.

  12. Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Sabina Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Casavola, Caterina; Moramarco, Vincenzo

    2013-12-18

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e. , no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the weld. In this work FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 6 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in butt joint configuration. LAFSW is studied firstly to demonstrate the weldability of aluminum alloy using that technique. Secondly, process parameters, such as laser power and temperature gradient are investigated in order to evaluate changes in microstructure, micro-hardness, residual stress, and tensile properties. Once the possibility to achieve sound weld using LAFSW is demonstrated, it will be possible to explore the benefits for tool wear, higher welding speeds, and lower clamping force.

  13. Thermal Stir Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Solid state welding processes have become the focus of welding process development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike fusion weld processes such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA), electron beam (EB), etc., solid state welding processes do not melt the material during welding. The resultant microstructure can be characterized as a dynamically recrystallized morphology much different than the casted, dentritic structure typical of fusion weld processes. The primary benefits of solid state processes over fusion weld processes include superior mechanic properties and the elimination of thermal distortion and residual stresses. These solid state processes attributes have profoundly influenced the direction of advanced welding research and development within the NASA agency. Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) is a new solid state welding process being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the weld process can be decoupled for independent control. An induction coil induces energy into a workpiece to attain a desired plastic temperature. An independently controlled stir rod, captured within non-rotating containment plates, then stirs the plasticized material followed by forging plates/rollers that work the stirred weld joint. The independent control (decoupling) of heating, stirring and forging allows, theoretically, for the precision control of microstructure morphology. The TSW process is being used to evaluate the solid state joining of Haynes 230 for ARES J-2X applications. It is also being developed for 500-in (12.5 mm) thick commercially pure grade 2 titanium for navy applications. Other interests include Inconel 718 and stainless steel. This presentation will provide metallurgical and mechanical property data for these high melting temperature alloys.

  14. Triangular fibrocartilage lesions: comparison STIR sequence versus arthroscopy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi; Meng; Xianghong; Wang Linsen; Suo Yongmei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of short TI inversion recovery (STIR) sequence in evaluating triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) lesions, and to compare the findings with the arthroscopy findings. Materials and Methods: Wrist joint MR examination using STIR sequence and arthroscopy were performed in 56 patients with TFC lesions. The parameters of STIR sequence were: TR: 1164 ms, TE: 16 ms, and TI: 90 ms. The sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in the diagnosis of TFC lesions with STIR sequence were calculated, using arthroscopy as the standard. Results: (1) STIR manifested 10 patients with normal TFC; 6 with small edema or mucous degeneration in the body portion but not involving joint surface edge; 6 with horizontal avulsion in the body portion, but not involving joint surface edge; 6 with avulsion involving joint surface edge; 11 with perforation in central portion; 6 with avulsion in radial attached end; 5 with avulsion in ulnar attached end; 3 with avulsion in both radial and ulnar attached ends; 3 with irregular shape and thin on the whole TFC. (2) Arthroscopy manifested 21 patients with normal TFC; 8 with avulsion involving joint surface edge; 10 with perforation in central portion; 7 with avulsion in radial attached end; 5 with avulsion in ulnar attached end; 2 with avulsion in both radial and ulnar attached ends; 3 with irregular shape on the whole TFC. Using STIR sequence, the sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value. and accuracy were 85.7%, 23.8%, 65.2%, 50%, and 62.5%, respectively, in detection of TFC lesions, with arthroscopy as the standard. Conclusion: STIR sequence has high diagnostic value in detection of TFC lesions. (authors)

  15. Microstructure and microtexture studies of a friction stir welded Al 6061 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbhar, N.T.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Samajdar, I.

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state joining technique used extensively for the joining of various metals and alloys and also has been applied to the joining of steels. The friction stir welding of Al and its alloys has been extensively delt with over a period exceeding the last decade and a half due to its numerous advantages over other conventional fusion welding techniques in terms of weld quality, efficiency, cost effectiveness etc. to name a few. This technique is being increasingly seeked by industries in mass production/engineering such as the railways, marine and aerospace industries. The friction stir welding of a precipitation hardened Al 6061 alloy plates of 6 mm. thickness was performed at various tool rotation speeds and tool traverse speeds with a constant tilt of 3 deg using a high strength steel (HSS) tool of appropriate dimensions. The cross section of the weld perpendicular to the welding direction was analyzed for a detailed microstructural investigation using electron probe microanalysis, orientation imaging microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Various microstructural changes are observed in the various regions of the friction stir welded AA 6061. The nugget region which is highly deformed is characterized by the dissolution and reprecipitation of the coarse precipitates, grain size refinement and recrystallization. The adjoining regions near the nugget viz the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and the heat affected zone (HAZ) also show heterogeneous microstructure in terms of grain size and precipitation which is mainly attributed to the heating cycle experienced during welding. This heterogeneity is also evident from the plot of microhardness distribution across the cross section of the weld region. However, the electron probe microanalysis studies do not show any significant pickup of oxygen in the weld interior as compared to a little oxygen pickup upto 30 μm from the top surface. Further, using orientation imaging

  16. Axillary Hodgkin's disease in manual workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, J M; Weh, H J; Teillet, F; Asselain, B

    1979-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1974, 16 patients were clinically staged as having unique axillary localizations of Hodgkin's disease. Sex ratio (4.3), mean age (40.8 years) and professional occupations (12 out of the 16 patients were engaged in manual work) were significantly different from that of all patients observed during the same period. These facts lead us to suppose the existence of a link between manual work and initial axillary localizations.

  17. CSTEM User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  18. Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  19. EMSL Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.

    2009-06-18

    This manual is a general resource tool to assist EMSL users and Laboratory staff within EMSL locate official policy, practice and subject matter experts. It is not intended to replace or amend any formal Battelle policy or practice. Users of this manual should rely only on Battelle’s Standard Based Management System (SBMS) for official policy. No contractual commitment or right of any kind is created by this manual. Battelle management reserves the right to alter, change, or delete any information contained within this manual without prior notice.

  20. EMSL Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.

    2009-03-25

    This manual is a general resource tool to assist EMSL users and Laboratory staff within EMSL locate official policy, practice and subject matter experts. It is not intended to replace or amend any formal Battelle policy or practice. Users of this manual should rely only on Battelle’s Standard Based Management System (SBMS) for official policy. No contractual commitment or right of any kind is created by this manual. Battelle management reserves the right to alter, change, or delete any information contained within this manual without prior notice.

  1. Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records

  2. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1977-08-01

    Additions and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: General, Sampling, Field Measurements; General Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Procedures, Data Section, and Specifications

  3. PCs The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2005-01-01

    Your vacuum comes with one. Even your blender comes with one. But your PC--something that costs a whole lot more and is likely to be used daily and for tasks of far greater importance and complexity--doesn't come with a printed manual. Thankfully, that's not a problem any longer: PCs: The Missing Manual explains everything you need to know about PCs, both inside and out, and how to keep them running smoothly and working the way you want them to work. A complete PC manual for both beginners and power users, PCs: The Missing Manual has something for everyone. PC novices will appreciate the una

  4. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the ma...... electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lap-shear tensile tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds.......In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...

  5. Impact of fluidic agitation on human pluripotent stem cells in stirred suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampe, Daniel; Joshi, Ronak; Keller, Kevin; Zur Nieden, Nicole I; Tsutsui, Hideaki

    2017-09-01

    The success of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of future cell therapies hinges, in part, on the availability of a robust and scalable culture system that can readily produce a clinically relevant number of cells and their derivatives. Stirred suspension culture has been identified as one such promising platform due to its ease of use, scalability, and widespread use in the pharmaceutical industry (e.g., CHO cell-based production of therapeutic proteins) among others. However, culture of undifferentiated hPSCs in stirred suspension is a relatively new development within the past several years, and little is known beyond empirically optimized culture parameters. In particular, detailed characterizations of different agitation rates and their influence on the propagation of hPSCs are often not reported in the literature. In the current study, we systematically investigated various agitation rates to characterize their impact on cell yield, viability, and the maintenance of pluripotency. Additionally, we closely examined the distribution of cell aggregates and how the observed culture outcomes are attributed to their size distribution. Overall, our results showed that moderate agitation maximized the propagation of hPSCs to approximately 38-fold over 7 days by keeping the cell aggregates below the critical size, beyond which the cells are impacted by the diffusion limit, while limiting cell death caused by excessive fluidic forces. Furthermore, we observed that fluidic agitation could regulate not only cell aggregation, but also expression of some key signaling proteins in hPSCs. This indicates a new possibility to guide stem cell fate determination by fluidic agitation in stirred suspension cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2109-2120. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Weld Nugget Temperature Control in Thermal Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A control system for a thermal stir welding system is provided. The control system includes a sensor and a controller. The sensor is coupled to the welding system's containment plate assembly and generates signals indicative of temperature of a region adjacent and parallel to the welding system's stir rod. The controller is coupled to the sensor and generates at least one control signal using the sensor signals indicative of temperature. The controller is also coupled to the welding system such that at least one of rotational speed of the stir rod, heat supplied by the welding system's induction heater, and feed speed of the welding system's weld material feeder are controlled based on the control signal(s).

  7. Friction stir welding process to repair voids in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Charles D. (Inventor); Litwinski, Edward (Inventor); Valdez, Juan M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an in-process method to repair voids in an aluminum alloy, particularly a friction stir weld in an aluminum alloy. For repairing a circular void or an in-process exit hole in a weld, the method includes the steps of fabricating filler material of the same composition or compatible with the parent material into a plug form to be fitted into the void, positioning the plug in the void, and friction stir welding over and through the plug. For repairing a longitudinal void (30), the method includes machining the void area to provide a trough (34) that subsumes the void, fabricating filler metal into a strip form (36) to be fitted into the trough, positioning the strip in the trough, and rewelding the void area by traversing a friction stir welding tool longitudinally through the strip. The method is also applicable for repairing welds made by a fusing welding process or voids in aluminum alloy workpieces themselves.

  8. Program plan: DWPF/HLWDP stirred Melter Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) have been developed in the United States, Europe, and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The newest design, the stirred melter, combines the high production rates and high glass quality features of the Joule-heated melters with the low-cost, compact, simple maintenance features of the pot melters. However, further engineering design and demonstrations are needed to operate the stirred melter on a large scale. This document outlines the program which develops a full scale stirred melter for the DWPF (240 pph), and provides a basis which will allow further scale-up of the technology for use in the Hanford High Level Waste Disposal Program (HLWDP) for up to four times the reference capacity

  9. The Effect of Stirring on the Morphology of Birnessite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Cheney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stirring on the morphology of hexagonal layer-structure birnessite nanoparticles produced from decomposition of KMnO4 in dilute aqueous H2SO4 is investigated, with characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and N2 adsorption (BET. Mechanical stirring during an initial stage of synthesis is shown to produce black birnessite containing nanofibers, whereas granular particulates of brown birnessite are produced without stirring. This is the first reduction synthesis of black birnessite nanoparticles with dendritic morphology without any use of organic reductant, and suggests that a particular morphology can arise from structural preferences of Mn in acidic conditions rather than particular organic reactants. These results enlighten the possibility of synthesizing nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology.

  10. A Brief Introduction to the Theory of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and is already an important welding process for the aerospace industry, where welds of optimal quality are demanded. The structure of welds determines weld properties. The structure of friction stir welds is determined by the flow field in the weld metal in the vicinity of the weld tool. A simple kinematic model of the FSW flow field developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, which enables the basic features of FSW microstructure to be understood and related to weld process parameters and tool design, is explained.

  11. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  12. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  13. Eco-Innovation Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hare, Jamie Alexander; McAloone, Tim C.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi

    Aim of this manual is to introduce a methodology for the implementation of eco‐innovation within small and medium sized companies in developing and emerging economies. The intended audience of this manual is organizations that provide professional services to guide and support manufacturing compa...... companies to improve their sustainability performance....

  14. Marketing Research. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    Prepared for the Administrative Management Course Program, this instructor's manual was developed to serve small-business management needs. The sections of the manual are as follows: (1) Lesson Plan--an outline of material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: the presentation, and a step-by-step indication of…

  15. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  16. GERTS GQ User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Y.; And Others

    This user's manual for the simulation program Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) GQ contains sections on nodes, branches, program input description and format, and program output, as well as examples. Also included is a programmer's manual which contains information on scheduling, subroutine descriptions, COMMON Variables, and…

  17. CRISP instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknall, D.G.; Langridge, Sean

    1997-05-01

    This document is a user manual for CRISP, one of the two neutron reflectomers at ISIS. CRISP is highly automated allowing precision reproducible measurements. The manual provides detailed instructions for the setting-up and running of the instrument and advice on data analysis. (UK)

  18. Process Model for Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn

    1996-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new process being applied for joining of metal alloys. The process was initially developed by The Welding Institute (TWI) in Cambridge, UK. The FSW process is being investigated at NASA/MSEC as a repair/initial weld procedure for fabrication of the super-light-weight aluminum-lithium shuttle external tank. The FSW investigations at MSFC were conducted on a horizontal mill to produce butt welds of flat plate material. The weldment plates are butted together and fixed to a backing plate on the mill bed. A pin tool is placed into the tool holder of the mill spindle and rotated at approximately 400 rpm. The pin tool is then plunged into the plates such that the center of the probe lies at, one end of the line of contact, between the plates and the shoulder of the pin tool penetrates the top surface of the weldment. The weld is produced by traversing the tool along the line of contact between the plates. A lead angle allows the leading edge of the shoulder to remain above the top surface of the plate. The work presented here is the first attempt at modeling a complex phenomenon. The mechanical aspects of conducting the weld process are easily defined and the process itself is controlled by relatively few input parameters. However, in the region of the weld, plasticizing and forging of the parent material occurs. These are difficult processes to model. The model presented here addresses only variations in the radial dimension outward from the pin tool axis. Examinations of the grain structure of the weld reveal that a considerable amount of material deformation also occurs in the direction parallel to the pin tool axis of rotation, through the material thickness. In addition, measurements of the axial load on the pin tool demonstrate that the forging affect of the pin tool shoulder is an important process phenomenon. Therefore, the model needs to be expanded to account for the deformations through the material thickness and the

  19. Heat Control via Torque Control in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Colligan, Kevin; Knapp, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a proposed advance in friction stir welding, the torque exerted on the workpiece by the friction stir pin would be measured and controlled in an effort to measure and control the total heat input to the workpiece. The total heat input to the workpiece is an important parameter of any welding process (fusion or friction stir welding). In fusion welding, measurement and control of heat input is a difficult problem. However, in friction stir welding, the basic principle of operation affords the potential of a straightforward solution: Neglecting thermal losses through the pin and the spindle that supports it, the rate of heat input to the workpiece is the product of the torque and the speed of rotation of the friction stir weld pin and, hence, of the spindle. Therefore, if one acquires and suitably processes data on torque and rotation and controls the torque, the rotation, or both, one should be able to control the heat input into the workpiece. In conventional practice in friction stir welding, one uses feedback control of the spindle motor to maintain a constant speed of rotation. According to the proposal, one would not maintain a constant speed of rotation: Instead, one would use feedback control to maintain a constant torque and would measure the speed of rotation while allowing it to vary. The torque exerted on the workpiece would be estimated as the product of (1) the torque-multiplication ratio of the spindle belt and/or gear drive, (2) the force measured by a load cell mechanically coupled to the spindle motor, and (3) the moment arm of the load cell. Hence, the output of the load cell would be used as a feedback signal for controlling the torque (see figure).

  20. Fungi solubilisation of low rank coal: performances of stirred tank, fluidised bed and packed bed reactors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal biosolubilisation was investigated in stirred tank reactor, fluidised bed and fixed bed bioreactors with a view to highlight the advantages and shortcomings of each of these reactor configurations. The stirred aerated bioreactor and fluidised...

  1. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  2. MARS CODE MANUAL VOLUME III - Programmer's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Jae Jun; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Won Jae

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This programmer's manual provides a complete list of overall information of code structure and input/output function of MARS. In addition, brief descriptions for each subroutine and major variables used in MARS are also included in this report, so that this report would be very useful for the code maintenance. The overall structure of the manual is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  3. Egyptian Mythological Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Kristoffer Blach

    From the hands of Greek mythographers a great number of myths have survived along with philosophical discussions of their meaning and relevance for the Greeks. It is little known that something similar existed in ancient Egypt where temple libraries and archives held scholarly literature used...... by the native priesthood, much of which has only been published in recent years. As part of this corpus of texts, the ancient Egyptian mythological manuals offer a unique perspective on how the Egyptian priesthood structured and interpreted Egyptian myths. The thesis looks at the different interpretative...... techniques used in the Tebtunis Mythological Manual (Second century CE) and the Mythological Manual of the Delta (Sixth century BCE) and the place of these manuals within the larger corpus of priestly scholarly literature from ancient Egypt. To organize the wealth of local myths the manuals use model...

  4. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  5. Friction stir weld tools having fine grain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Glenn J.; Frye, John G.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, Kenneth Scott

    2016-03-15

    Tools for friction stir welding can be made with fewer process steps, lower cost techniques, and/or lower cost ingredients than other state-of-the-art processes by utilizing improved compositions and processes of fabrication. Furthermore, the tools resulting from the improved compositions and processes of fabrication can exhibit better distribution and homogeneity of chemical constituents, greater strength, and/or increased durability. In one example, a friction stir weld tool includes tungsten and rhenium and is characterized by carbide and oxide dispersoids, by carbide particulates, and by grains that comprise a solid solution of the tungsten and rhenium. The grains do not exceed 10 micrometers in diameter.

  6. Overview of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of stirred vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rizal Mamat; Azraf Azman; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Noraishah Othman

    2010-01-01

    Stirred vessel is one of many widely used equipment in industrial process and chemical industry. The design of stirred vessel typically follows a certain standard chemical engineering practice that may also involve empirical data acquired from experiments. However the design may still take a different route which is computational engineering simulation and analysis. CFD has been identified as one of the possible tools for such purposes. CFD enables the flow fields variables such as velocity, temperature and pressure in the whole computational domain to be obtained and as such it presents an advantage over the experimental setup. (author)

  7. A Survey on Friction Stir Welding Of Dissimilar Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, M. A.; Raja, Dhas. J. Edwin

    2017-10-01

    There is a consistent demand for superior materials in every industry. The areas on demand are automobile and aerospace sectors in major.. The most commonly used material in these fields is Aluminium.Though it possess all the properties up to some extent constant demand is pushing for alternate materials. Dissimilar alloys have been a relatively new approach towards these fields.. Friction stir welding dissimilar alloys is a big leap in Automobile sector. In this paper a detailed review of Friction stir welding of Dissimilar Magnesium alloys has been done. This work will serve as a reference to subsequent researchers.

  8. Unraveling the Processing Parameters in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is translated along a weld seam, literally stirring the edges of the seam together. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path or paths is required. In this study, various markers are used to trace the flow paths of the metal. X-ray radiographs record the segmentation and position of the wire. Several variations in the trajectories can be differentiated within the weld zone.

  9. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  10. Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE), a novel extraction technique for aqueous samples: theory and principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, H.A.; Sandra, P.J.F.; David, F.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The theory and practice of a novel approach for sample enrichment, namely the application of stir bars coated with the sorbent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and referred to as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) are presented. Stir bars with a length of 10 and 40 mm coated with 55 and 219 L of PDMS

  11. Chaotic characteristics enhanced by impeller of perturbed six-bent-bladed turbine in stirred tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Luan

    Full Text Available The fundamental way of improving the mixing efficiency is to induce the chaotic flow in a stirred vessel. The impeller form plays an important role for changing the structure of flow field and realizing chaotic mixing. Based on the velocity time series acquired by the experiment of particle image velocimetry (PIV, with the software Matlab, the macro-instability (MI, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE, and Kolmogorov entropy in the water stirred tank is investigated respectively with the impeller of perturbed six-bent-bladed turbine (6PBT. The results show that the MI characteristics are obvious and two peak values of MI frequency are observed at the speed N = 60 rpm. With the increasing speed (more than 100 rpm, the peak characteristics of MI frequency disappear and a multi-scale wavelet structure of characterizing the chaotic flow field appears. Moreover, under the speed N = 60 rpm, the LLE is less than 0 and Kolmogorov entropy is 0, which means that the flow field is in the periodic moving state. As the speed is increased to more than 100 rpm, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy are all more than 0, which indicates that the flow field goes into the chaotic mixing. When the speed reaches up to about 210 rpm, both of the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy achieve the optimum values, which will result in an excellent chaos with the highest mixing efficient. So it is feasible that the MI frequency, the LLE and the Kolmogorov entropy can be used to analyze the flow field characteristics in a stirred tank. The research results promote the understanding of the chaotic mixing mechanism and provide a theoretical reference for the development of new type impeller. Keywords: Macro-instability, The largest Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropy, The impeller of perturbed six-bent-bladed turbine, Chaotic mixing, PIV

  12. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  13. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  14. Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to a new version of the “Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases.” Unlike the previous printed versions of this publication, this new version is being developed as a “living“ electronic publication. Content will periodically be added and (or) updated as warranted, and it will always be reviewed by scientific experts (“peer reviewed”) before it is released. Thus, this publication will never be completed, and readers should download revised versions of specific chapters, glossaries, and the appendixes whenever they visit the publication Web site.

  15. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...

  16. Defect Detectability Improvement for Conventional Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of defect detectability via phased array ultrasound technology in conventional friction stir welds by comparing conventionally prepped post weld surfaces to a machined surface finish. A machined surface is hypothesized to improve defect detectability and increase material strength.

  17. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  18. Role of friction stir processing parameters on microstructure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The life of compo- nents depends on surface properties in many applications. ... The modified surface layer is called as surface composite (Attia. 2001). Friction stir .... The optical photomicrograph of as received copper plate is shown in figure 1a. ... It is essential to obtain a smooth crown appearance owing to the fact that ...

  19. Analysis of lime-slurry stirred tank carbonation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAleese, J.P.; Belt, B.A.; Datesh, J.R.; Shaeffer, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Gas residence time distributions were determined for a stirred tank carbonation reactor. Empirical correlations for the first and second moments of the residence time distribution (RTD) curves as functions of flow rates and impeller speeds were obtained. Decontamination factors for 85 Kr were measured

  20. Effect of stirring on striae in glass melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Chemical striae have often negative effect on the glass properties, and hence, elimination of striae has been a key issue in glass science and technology. To produce highly homogeneous glasses, it is necessary to stir melts during the melting process. To explore the physical origin of the stria...

  1. Calibration and performance of a stirred benthic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz-ten Brink, M. R.; Gust, G.; Chavis, D.

    1989-07-01

    The physical and chemical boundary layer parameters characteristic for a benthic chamber were cross-calibrated by the use of two methods in the laboratory: (1) flush-mounted hot-film sensors, which measure the friction velocity u ∗, and (2) the alabaster dissolution technique, which measures the equivalent film thickness z. Tests of five stirring devices were made, using both techniques, to improve the stirring mechanism in the MANOP Lander flux chambers. The stirring device that was finally implemented consisted of four rods and produced spatially averaged friction velocities u ∗ ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 cm s -1 (i.e. mean film thickness z from 500 to 180 μm) when running at speeds from 3 to 9 rpm. The friction velocity field at the sediment surface is related to the rpm of the stirring device and the penetration depth of the chamber into the sediments; combinations of both can create z and u ∗ inside the chamber that duplicate those of many natural environments. The log-log calibration relationship found between u ∗ and transfer coefficients K' also provides a means to predict the mass-transfer resistance of solutes at the sediment-water interface from measurements of mean bottom stress.

  2. Stirring by blinking rotlets in a bounded Stokes flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der D.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Meleshko, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    A blinking rotlet model is used for the analysis of stirring in a Stokes flow in a rectangular domain. After the two-dimensional biharmonic equation is solved analytically, the associated velocity field of a pair of blinking rotlets positioned symmetrically on the y -axis, is used studying the

  3. A compact active grid for stirring pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.A.; Pos, R.C.; Stoffels, G.G.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Meer, van der Th.

    2013-01-01

    A compact active grid is developed with which a pipe flow can be stirred in order to enhance the turbulence. The active grid is composed of a stationary and a rotating disk with characteristic hole patterns. This active grid is placed inside the pipe, allowing flow to pass through it. With only one

  4. A compact active grid for stirring pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Antonie Alex; Pos, R.C.; Stoffels, Genie G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    A compact active grid is developed with which a pipe flow can be stirred in order to enhance the turbulence. The active grid is composed of a stationary and a rotating disk with characteristic hole patterns. This active grid is placed inside the pipe, allowing flow to pass through it. With only one

  5. MR imaging in shoulder trauma. Value of STIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, T.; Trattnig, S.; Haller, J.; Imhof, H.; Nguyen, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the adequacy of MR standard protocols by analyzing conventional T1- and T2-weighted SE sequences, and to evaluate the usefulness of additional fat-suppressed (STIR) images in shoulder trauma. Material and Methods: Paracoronal T1-weighted, T2-weighted SE, and STIR images were obtained on a 0.5 T superconductive system in 25 patients with shoulder trauma. In a separate evaluation of T1/T2 images and a combined evaluation of T1/T2 SE- and STIR images, we compared the number of patients with evidence of Hill-Sachs lesions, bone bruises, and/or rotator-cuff lesions. Results: Compared to the combined evaluation of T1/T2 and STIR images, the separate evaluation of T1/T2 SE images revealed identical results for rotator-cuff lesions and Hill-Sachs lesions, but different results for the bone bruises in the area of the major tubercle. Conclusion: Occult fractures of the major tubercle, indicated by areas of bone bruising, might be missed with MR using conventional SE images. We recommend the use of additional paracoronal fat-suppressed sequences in patients with clinically suspected lesions and equivocal findings on plain radiographs and on standard SE sequences. (orig.)

  6. Cladding of Advanced Al Alloys Employing Friction Stir Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, A.A.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Akkerman, Remko; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an advanced solid state cladding process, based on Friction Stir Welding, is presented. The Friction Surface Cladding (FSC) technology enables the deposition of a solid-state coating using filler material on a substrate with good metallurgical bonding. A relatively soft AA1050 filler

  7. Recent developments in Micro Friction Stir Welding: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithole, Keydon; Rao, Veeredhi Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    The advent of friction stir welding (FSW) in 1991 has been evolutionary in the joining of metals and related materials. Friction stir welding has enabled the joining of metals that could not be joined by other welding processes. Research has shown that dissimilar materials with very different properties, plastics, composites and even wood can be joined by FSW. Recent activities in the application of FSW has seen the development of micro friction stir welding (μFSW), which is the FSW of very thin sections of thickness 1000 μm (1 mm) or less. Micro friction stir welding further extends the applications of FSW to areas such as copper electrical contacts, tailor-welded blanks, wood. Though μFSW is relatively new development significant work has been done to date with interesting research findings being reported. This paper aims to review developments in μFSW to date. The focus of the paper will be on problems peculiar to μFSW due to downscaling to the micro scale and other practical considerations. (paper)

  8. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    Addition and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: Table of Contents; Bibliography; Fallout Collection Methods; Wet/Dry Fallout Collection; Fluoride in Soil and Sediment; Strontium-90; Natural Series; Alpha Emitters; and Gamma Emitters

  9. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  10. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  11. Geochemical engineering reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Michels, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are included in this manual: physical and chemical properties of geothermal brine and steam, scale and solids control, processing spent brine for reinjection, control of noncondensable gas emissions, and goethermal mineral recovery. (MHR)

  12. NCDC Archive Documentation Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Climatic Data Center Tape Deck Documentation library is a collection of over 400 manuals describing NCDC's digital holdings (both historic and current)....

  13. EMAP Users Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Arnold; Redondo, Rory

    Presented is the user's manual for the Educational Manpower Information Sources Project (EMAP), an information file containing approximately 325 document abstracts related to the field of educational planning. (The EMAP file is described in document SP 006 747.) (JB)

  14. FINAS. Example manual. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Ueno, Mutsuo

    2003-12-01

    FINAS is a general purpose structural analysis computer program which was developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute for the analysis of static, dynamic and thermal responses of elastic and inelastic structures by the finite element method. This manual contains typical analysis examples that illustrate applications of FINAS to a variety of structural engineering problems. The first part of this manual presents fundamental examples in which numerical solutions by FINAS are compared with some analytical reference solutions, and the second part of this manual presents more complex examples intended for practical application. All the input data images and principal results for each problem are included in this manual for beginners' convenience. All the analyses are performed by using the FINAS Version 13.0. (author)

  15. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.; Sato, Y.S.; Sekio, Y.; Ohtsuka, S.; Kaito, T.; Ogawa, R.; Kokawa, H.

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir welding was applied to the wrapper tube materials, 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel, designed for fast reactors and defect-free welds were successfully produced. The mechanical and microstructural properties of the friction stir welded steel were subsequently investigated. The hardness values of the stir zone were approximately 550 Hv (5.4 GPa) with minimal dependence on the rotational speed, even though they were much higher than those of the base material. However, tensile strengths and elongations of the stir zones were high at 298 K, compared to those of the base material. The excellent tensile properties are attributable to the fine grain formation during friction stir welding

  16. Microstructural evolution in friction stir welding of nanostructured ODS alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-L.; Tatlock, G.J.; Jones, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-based alloys manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) are generally considered to be promising candidate materials for high-temperature applications up to at least 1100 o C because of their excellent creep strength and good oxidation resistance. However, a key issue with these alloys is the difficulty in using fusion welding techniques to join components due to oxide particle agglomeration and loss in the weld zone and the disruption and discontinuity in the grain structure introduced at the bond. In this study, the evolution of microstructure has been comprehensively studied in friction stir welds in a ferritic ODS alloy. Initially, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the grain orientation, the grain boundary geometries and recrystallization behaviour. It suggested that deformation heterogeneities were introduced during the friction stirring process which facilitated the onset of recrystallization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to observe the effects of the friction stir welding (FSW) process on the grain structure and the distribution of Y 2 O 3 and other particles in the metal substrates in the FSW and adjacent regions, after the alloys had been recrystallized at temperatures up to 1380 o C for 1 h in air. The results show that fine-equiaxed grains and a uniform distribution of oxide particles were present in the friction stirred region but that the grain boundaries in the parent metal were pinned by particles. Friction stirring appeared to release these boundaries and allowed secondary recrystallization to occur after further heat treatment. The FSW process appears to be a promising technique for joining ferritic ODS alloys in the form of sheet and tube.

  17. Peace Corps Aquaculture Training Manual. Training Manual T0057.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…

  18. FAMIAS User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    The excitation of pulsation modes in Beta Cephei and Slowly Pulsating B stars is known to be very sensitive to opacity changes in the stellar interior where T ~ 2 x 10E5 K. In this region differences in opacity up to ~ 50% can be induced by the choice between OPAL and OP opacity tables, and between two different metal mixtures (Grevesse & Noels 1993 and Asplund et al. 2005). We have extended the non-adiabatic computations presented in Miglio et al. (2007) towards models of higher mass and pulsation modes of degree l = 3, and we present here the instability domains in the HR- and log P-log Teff diagrams resulting from different choices of opacity tables, and for three different metallicities. FAMIAS (Frequency Analysis and Mode Identification for AsteroSeismology) is a collection of state-of-the-art software tools for the analysis of photometric and spectroscopic time series data. It is one of the deliverables of the Work Package NA5: Asteroseismology of the European Coordination Action in Helio-and Asteroseismology (HELAS). Two main sets of tools are incorporated in FAMIAS. The first set allows to search for periodicities in the data using Fourier and non-linear least-squares fitting algorithms. The other set allows to carry out a mode identification for the detected pulsation frequencies to determine their pulsational quantum numbers, the harmonic degree, m. The types of stars to which famias is applicable are main-sequence pulsators hotter than the Sun. This includes the Gamma Dor stars, Delta Sct stars, the slowly pulsating B stars and the Beta Cep stars - basically all pulsating main-sequence stars, for which empirical mode identification is required to successfully carry out asteroseismology. This user manual describes how to use the different features of FAMIAS and provides two tutorials that demonstrate the usage of FAMIAS for spectroscopic and photometric mode identification.

  19. SAM Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The System Analysis Module (SAM) is an advanced and modern system analysis tool being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SAM development aims for advances in physical modeling, numerical methods, and software engineering to enhance its user experience and usability for reactor transient analyses. To facilitate the code development, SAM utilizes an object-oriented application framework (MOOSE), and its underlying meshing and finite-element library (libMesh) and linear and non-linear solvers (PETSc), to leverage modern advanced software environments and numerical methods. SAM focuses on modeling advanced reactor concepts such as SFRs (sodium fast reactors), LFRs (lead-cooled fast reactors), and FHRs (fluoride-salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or MSRs (molten salt reactors). These advanced concepts are distinguished from light-water reactors in their use of single-phase, low-pressure, high-temperature, and low Prandtl number (sodium and lead) coolants. As a new code development, the initial effort has been focused on modeling and simulation capabilities of heat transfer and single-phase fluid dynamics responses in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) systems. The system-level simulation capabilities of fluid flow and heat transfer in general engineering systems and typical SFRs have been verified and validated. This document provides the theoretical and technical basis of the code to help users understand the underlying physical models (such as governing equations, closure models, and component models), system modeling approaches, numerical discretization and solution methods, and the overall capabilities in SAM. As the code is still under ongoing development, this SAM Theory Manual will be updated periodically to keep it consistent with the state of the development.

  20. Batch leachate treatment using stirred electrocoagulation reactor with variation of residence time and stirring rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, I. S.; Astono, W.; Iswanto, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reduce pollutant levels of the leachate by electrocoagulation method using a stirred electrocoagulation reactor as the electrochemical water treatment. The release of active coagulants as metallic ions took place in the anode, while in the cathode, the electrolysis reaction in the form of hydrogen gas dischargeoccurred. The source of wastewater is Waste Water Treatment Plant inlet III of Bantar Gebang, Bekasi. Some parameters were analyzed in this research, i.e., Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3, NO3 -, NO2 -, N-total, and organic substances as well as the microorganism growth before and after electrocoagulation, with variations of detention time (seconds) of 10, 20, 120, 600 and rapid mixing conditions (rpm) of 60, 100 and 200. The results show that the greater the rapid mixing speed and the detention time of electrolysis, the higher the removal of contaminants in liquid waste. The optimum condition of electrocoagulation was encountered at 200 rpm rapid mixing with 600 seconds of processing time. The removal efficiencies of electrocoagulation method for each parameter are TSS of 46.80%, BOD5 of 71.33%, COD of 73.77%, Pb of 62.5%,and NH3-N of 57.92%,whereas the pH value has been increased from 8.03 to 8.95. The electrocoagulation method can reduce levels of pollutants, complying with the environmental standards.

  1. [Optimization of stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix by orthogonal test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dianhua; Su, Benzheng; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Jun; Qu, Yongsheng

    2011-05-01

    To optimize the stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix. The intrinsic quality (the content of Curcumin) and traditional outward appearance were chosen as indexes. The best technology was determined by orthogonal test L9 (3(4)). The factors of the moistening time, stir-baking temperature and stir-baking time were investigated. The optimal technology was as follows: the quantity of vinegar was 10%, the moistening time was 10 min, the stir-baking temperature was 130 degrees C and the stir-baking time was 10 min. The optimal stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix is reasonable, which can be used to guide the standardized production of Curcumae Radix stir-baked with vinegar.

  2. Generated forces and heat during the critical stages of friction stir welding and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Sadiq Aziz; Tahir, Abd Salam Md; Izamshah, R. [University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malacca (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    The solid-state behavior of friction stir welding process results in violent mechanical forces that should be mitigated, if not eliminated. Plunging and dwell time are the two critical stages of this welding process in terms of the generated forces and the related heat. In this study, several combinations of pre-decided penetration speeds, rotational speeds, tool designs, and dwell time periods were used to investigate these two critical stages. Moreover, a coupled-field thermal-structural finite element model was developed to validate the experimental results and the induced stresses. The experimental results revealed the relatively large changes in force and temperature during the first two stages compared with those during the translational tool movement stage. An important procedure to mitigate the undesired forces was then suggested. The model prediction of temperature values and their distribution were in good agreement with the experimental prediction. Therefore, the thermal history of this non-uniform heat distribution was used to estimate the induced thermal stresses. Despite the 37% increase in these stresses when 40 s dwell time was used instead of 5 s, these stresses showed no effect on the axial force values because of the soft material incidence and stir effects.

  3. Generated forces and heat during the critical stages of friction stir welding and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Sadiq Aziz; Tahir, Abd Salam Md; Izamshah, R.

    2015-01-01

    The solid-state behavior of friction stir welding process results in violent mechanical forces that should be mitigated, if not eliminated. Plunging and dwell time are the two critical stages of this welding process in terms of the generated forces and the related heat. In this study, several combinations of pre-decided penetration speeds, rotational speeds, tool designs, and dwell time periods were used to investigate these two critical stages. Moreover, a coupled-field thermal-structural finite element model was developed to validate the experimental results and the induced stresses. The experimental results revealed the relatively large changes in force and temperature during the first two stages compared with those during the translational tool movement stage. An important procedure to mitigate the undesired forces was then suggested. The model prediction of temperature values and their distribution were in good agreement with the experimental prediction. Therefore, the thermal history of this non-uniform heat distribution was used to estimate the induced thermal stresses. Despite the 37% increase in these stresses when 40 s dwell time was used instead of 5 s, these stresses showed no effect on the axial force values because of the soft material incidence and stir effects

  4. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chu, Deqiang; Huang, Juan; Yu, Zhanchun; Dai, Gance; Bao, Jie

    2010-03-01

    The higher ethanol titer inevitably requires higher solids loading during the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as the feedstock. The mixing between the solid lignocellulose and the liquid enzyme is crucially important. In this study, a bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was designed and applied to the SSF operation of the steam explosion pretreated corn stover under different solids loadings and different enzyme dosages. The performances using the helical impeller and the common Rushton impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties and the mixing energy consumption. The results showed that the new designed stirring system had better performances in the saccharification yield, ethanol titer, and energy cost than those of the Rushton impeller stirring. The mixing energy consumption under different solids loadings and enzyme dosages during SSF operation were analyzed and compared to the thermal energy in the ethanol produced. A balance for achieving the optimal energy cost between the increased mixing energy cost and the reduced distillation energy cost at the high solids loading should be made. The potentials of the new bioreactor were tested under various SSF conditions for obtaining optimal ethanol yield and titer. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Etched poly(ether ether ketone) jacket stir bar with detachable dumbbell-shaped structure for stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Chenlu; Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Zilin

    2018-06-08

    Development of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) device with high stability and extraction efficiency is critical and challenging by date. In this work, etched poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube with high mechanical strength and large specific surface area was used as jacket for SBSE device. By etching with concentrated sulfuric acid, the smooth outer surface of PEEK become porous with plenty of micro holes, which was beneficial for coating of sorbents and significantly improved the extraction performance. After functionalized by bio-polydopamine method, strong hydrophobic p-naphtholbenzein molecular was immobilized onto the chemical resistant PEEK surface (PNB@E-PEEK) as stationary phase. We also firstly developed a simple detachable dumbbell-shaped structure for improving the workability of PEEK jacket stir bar. The dumbbell-shaped construction can eliminate the friction between stir bar and container, and the design of detachable structure make elution can be accomplished easier with small amount of organic solvent. It was interesting that the developed detachable dumbbell-shaped PNB@E-PEEK stir bar showed exceptional stability and extraction efficiency for SBSE enrichment of multiple analytes including several Sudan dyes, triazines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkaloids and flavonoid. By coupling with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), PNB@E-PEEK stir bar based SBSE-HPLC-UV method was applied for the analysis of common Sudan dye pollutants. The method showed low limits of detection (0.02-0.03 ng/mL), good linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.9979) and good reproducibility (relative standard deviation ≤ 7.96%). It has been successfully applied to determine three dye pollutants in tap and lake water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SHARP User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rahaman, Ronald O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  7. SHARP User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. Q.; Shemon, E. R.; Thomas, J. W.; Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Rahaman, Ronald O.; Solberg, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  8. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  9. EML procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1982-01-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used currently by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. In addition a number of analytical methods from other laboratories have been included. These were tested for reliability at the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the AEC. These methods are clearly distinguished. The manual is prepared in loose leaf form to facilitate revision of the procedures and inclusion of additional procedures or data sheets. Anyone receiving the manual through EML should receive this additional material automatically. The contents are as follows: (1) general; (2) sampling; (3) field measurements; (4) general analytical chemistry; (5) chemical procedures; (6) data section; (7) specifications

  10. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  11. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  12. Nuclear material operations manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  13. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.; Gassman, L.D.

    1978-04-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations--management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of ''play-scripts'' in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  14. Friction stir welding of Aluminium matrix composites – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanya Prabhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is established as one of the prominent welding techniques to join aluminium matrix composites (AMCs. It is a solid state welding process, takes place well below the melting temperature of the material, eliminates the detrimental effects of conventional fusion welding process. Although the process is capable to join AMCs, challenges are still open that need to be fulfill to widen its applications. This paper gives the outline of the friction stir welding technique used to join AMCs. Effect of process variables on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints, behavior of reinforcing materials during welding, effect of tool profiles on the joint strength are discussed in detail. Few improvements and direction for future research are also proposed.

  15. Multiaxial fatigue of aluminium friction stir welded joints: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Hattingh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to check the accuracy of the Modified Wöhler Curve Method (MWCM in estimating the fatigue strength of friction stir (FS welded tubular joints of Al 6082-T6 subjected to in-phase and out-of-phase multiaxial fatigue loading. The welded samples being investigated were manufactured by equipping an MTS I-STIR process development system with a retracting tool that was specifically designed and optimised for this purpose. These specimens were tested under proportional and non-proportional tension and torsion, the effect of non-zero mean stresses being also investigated. The validation exercise carried out by using the generated experimental results allowed us to prove that the MWCM (applied in terms of nominal stresses is highly accurate in predicting the fatigue strength of the tested FS welded joints, its usage resulting in estimates falling with the uniaxial and torsional calibration scatter bands.

  16. Process optimization of friction stir welding based on thermal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates how to apply optimization methods to numerical models of a friction stir welding process. The work is intended as a proof-of-concept using different methods that are applicable to models of high complexity, possibly with high computational cost, and without the possibility...... information of the high-fidelity model. The optimization schemes are applied to stationary thermal models of differing complexity of the friction stir welding process. The optimization problems considered are based on optimizing the temperature field in the workpiece by finding optimal translational speed....... Also an optimization problem based on a microstructure model is solved, allowing the hardness distribution in the plate to be optimized. The use of purely thermal models represents a simplification of the real process; nonetheless, it shows the applicability of the optimization methods considered...

  17. Enabling Dissimilar Material Joining Using Friction Stir Scribe Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Upadyay, Piyush; Kleinbaum, Sarah; Carlson, Blair; Boettcher, Eric; Ruokolainen, Robert

    2017-04-05

    One challenge in adapting welding processes to dissimilar material joining is the diversity of melting temperatures of the different materials. Although the use of mechanical fasteners and adhesives have mostly paved the way for near-term implementation of dissimilar material systems, these processes only accentuate the need for low-cost welding processes capable of joining dissimilar material components regardless of alloy, properties, or melting temperature. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to overcome the challenges of joining dissimilar material components where melting temperatures vary greatly, and properties and/or chemistry are not compatible with more traditional welding processes. Although the friction stir scribe process is capable of joining dissimilar metals and metal/polymer systems, a more detailed evaluation of several aluminum/steel joints is presented herein to demonstrate the ability to both chemically and mechanically join dissimilar materials.

  18. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  19. Chemical reactions in the presence of surface modulation and stirring

    OpenAIRE

    Kamhawi, Khalid; Náraigh, Lennon Ó

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamics of simple reactions where the chemical species are confined on a general, time-modulated surface, and subjected to externally-imposed stirring. The study of these inhomogeneous effects requires a model based on a reaction-advection-diffusion equation, which we derive. We use homogenization methods to show that up to second order in a small scaling parameter, the modulation effects on the concentration field are asymptotically equivalent for systems with or without stirri...

  20. Adaptive Controller Design for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    K. Prabhu; V. Murali Bhaskaran

    2014-01-01

    Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is an important issue in chemical process and a wide range of research in the area of chemical engineering. Temperature Control of CSTR has been an issue in the chemical control engineering since it has highly non-linear complex equations. This study presents problem of temperature control of CSTR with the adaptive Controller. The Simulation is done in MATLAB and result shows that adaptive controller is an efficient controller for temperature control of C...

  1. Terminal sliding mode control for continuous stirred tank reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, D.; Zhu, Q.; Dubbeldam, J.

    2015-01-01

    A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is a typical example of chemical industrial equipment, whose dynamics represent an extensive class of second order nonlinear systems. It has been witnessed that designing a good control algorithm for the CSTR is very challenging due to the high complexity. The two difficult issues in CSTR control are state estimation and external disturbance attenuation. In general, in industrial process control a fast and robust response is essential. Driven by these ...

  2. Optic nerve injury demonstrated by MRI with STIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Uemura, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokuyama, T.; Satoh, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied nine patients with optic nerve injury associated with closed head trauma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on 11 occasions from 4 days to 14 years after the injury: three studies were within 17 days and eight over 4 months to 14 years. MRI revealed abnormal high signal in 10 of the 11 injured nerves. MRI 4 days after the injury showed no abnormality. (orig.)

  3. Structure formation of 5083 alloy during friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikina, A. A.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.; Ivanov, K. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of structures obtained by friction stir welding and sliding friction of 5083 Al alloy. Optical and electron microscopy reveals identical fine-grained structures with a grain size of ˜5 µm both in the weld nugget zone and subsurface layer in friction independently of the initial grain size of the alloy. It has been suggested that the grain boundary sliding is responsible for the specific material flow pattern in both techniques considered.

  4. MANUAL LOGIC CONTROLLER (MLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Ziad Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...

  5. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fourth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on any aspect beyond...... the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  6. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  7. TRUBA User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshchenko, M. A.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.

    2008-04-25

    The TRUBA (pipeline in Russian) code is a computational tool for studying the propagation of Gaussian-shaped microwave beams in a prescribed equilibrium plasma. This manual covers the basic material handed to use the implementation of TRUBA (version 3,4) interfaced with the numerical library of the TJ-II stellarator. The manual provides a concise theoretical background of the problem, specifications for setting up the input files and interpreting the output of the code, and some information useful in modifying TRUBA. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. TRUBA User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, M. A.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.

    2008-01-01

    The TRUBA (pipeline in Russian) code is a computational tool for studying the propagation of Gaussian-shaped microwave beams in a prescribed equilibrium plasma. This manual covers the basic material handed to use the implementation of TRUBA (version 3,4) interfaced with the numerical library of the TJ-II stellarator. The manual provides a concise theoretical background of the problem, specifications for setting up the input files and interpreting the output of the code, and some information useful in modifying TRUBA. (Author) 13 refs

  9. Netbooks The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J

    2009-01-01

    Netbooks are the hot new thing in PCs -- small, inexpensive laptops designed for web browsing, email, and working with web-based programs. But chances are you don't know how to choose a netbook, let alone use one. Not to worry: with this Missing Manual, you'll learn which netbook is right for you and how to set it up and use it for everything from spreadsheets for work to hobbies like gaming and photo sharing. Netbooks: The Missing Manual provides easy-to-follow instructions and lots of advice to help you: Learn the basics for using a Windows- or Linux-based netbookConnect speakers, printe

  10. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  11. A Review of Permanent Magnet Stirring During Metal Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Chen, Weiqing; Yang, Yindong; Mclean, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Rather than using conventional electromagnetic stirring (EMS) with three-phase alternating current, permanent magnet stirring (PMS), based on the use of sintered NdFeB material which has excellent magnetic characteristics, can be employed to generate a magnetic field for the stirring of liquid metal during solidification. Recent experience with steel casting indicates that PMS requires less than 20 pct of the total energy compared with EMS. Despite the excellent magnetic density properties and low power consumption, this relatively new technology has received comparatively little attention by the metal casting community. This paper reviews simulation modeling, experimental studies, and industrial trials of PMS conducted during recent years. With the development of magnetic simulation software, the magnetic field and associated flow patterns generated by PMS have been evaluated. Based on the results obtained from laboratory experiments, the effects of PMS on metal solidification structures and typical defects such as surface pinholes and center cavities are summarized. The significance of findings obtained from trials of PMS within the metals processing sector, including the continuous casting of steel, are discussed with the aim of providing an overview of the relevant parameters that are of importance for further development and industrial application of this innovative technology.

  12. Friction stir spot welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been proposed as an effective technology to spot weld the so-called “difficult to be welded” metal alloys such as thin sheets aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials. FSSW is derived from friction stir welding technology, its principle benefit being low cost joining, lower welding temperature and shorter welding time than conventional welding methods. In this study, dissimilar AlMg 3 and AlCu 4 Mg 1 aluminium alloy plates were FSSWed by offsetting the low strength sheet on upper side of the weld. The effects of tool rotation speed on the microstructure, lap shear fracture load (LSFL), microhardness and fracture features of the weld are investigated by constant welding parameters. The maximum LSFL was obtained by increasing the tool rotational speed. However, the joints exhibited pull-out nugget fracture mode under lap shear tensile testing conditions. The largest completely bonded zone was observed as 5.86 mm which was narrower at the opposite position of the joint. Key words: friction stir spot welding, aluminium alloys, mechanical properties, dissimilar joint, welding parameters

  13. Sustainability of Welding Process through Bobbin Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sued, M. K.; Samsuri, S. S. M.; Kassim, M. K. A. M.; Nasir, S. N. N. M.

    2018-03-01

    Welding process is in high demand, which required a competitive technology to be adopted. This is important for sustaining the needs of the joining industries without ignoring the impact of the process to the environment. Friction stir welding (FSW) is stated to be benefitting the environment through low energy consumption, which cannot be achieved through traditional arc welding. However, this is not well documented, especially for bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW). Therefore, an investigation is conducted by measuring current consumption of the machine during the BFSW process. From the measurement, different phases of BFSW welding process and its electrical demand are presented. It is found that in general total energy in BFSW is about 130kW inclusive of all identified process phases. The phase that utilise for joint formation is in weld phase that used the highest total energy of 120kWs. The recorded total energy is still far below the traditional welding technology and the conventional friction stir welding (CFSW) energy demand. This indicates that BFSW technology with its vast benefit able to sustain the joining technology in near future.

  14. New Materials Design Through Friction Stir Processing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, G.; Fratini, L.; Shivpuri, R.

    2007-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has reached a large interest in the scientific community and in the last years also in the industrial environment, due to the advantages of such solid state welding process with respect to the classic ones. The complex material flow occurring during the process plays a fundamental role in such solid state welding process, since it determines dramatic changes in the material microstructure of the so called weld nugget, which affects the effectiveness of the joints. What is more, Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is mainly being considered for producing high-strain-rate-superplastic (HSRS) microstructure in commercial aluminum alloys. The aim of the present research is the development of a locally composite material through the Friction Stir Processing (FSP) of two AA7075-T6 blanks and a different material insert. The results of a preliminary experimental campaign, carried out at the varying of the additional material placed at the sheets interface under different conditions, are presented. Micro and macro observation of the such obtained joints permitted to investigate the effects of such process on the overall joint performance

  15. Modelling of the temperature field that accompanies friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal modelling of the Friction Stir Welding process allows for better recognition and understanding of phenomena occurring during the joining process of different materials. It is of particular importance considering the possibilities of process technology parameters, optimization and the mechanical properties of the joint. This work demonstrates the numerical modelling of temperature distribution accompanying the process of friction stir welding. The axisymmetric problem described by Fourier’s type equation with internal heat source is considered. In order to solve the diffusive initial value problem a fully implicit scheme of the finite difference method is applied. The example under consideration deals with the friction stir welding of a plate (0.7 cm thick made of Al 6082-T6 by use of a tool made of tungsten alloy, whereas the material subjected to welding was TiC powder. Obtained results confirm both quantitatively and qualitatively experimental observations that the superior temperature corresponds to the zone where the pin joints the shoulder.

  16. Anodising and corrosion resistance of AA 7050 friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atz Dick, Pedro; Knörnschild, Gerhard H.; Dick, Luís F.P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulphuric Anodizing films of AA7050 friction stir welds are 25% thinner on the nugget zone. • Semicoherent MgZn_2 precipitates locally pin the formation of anodic oxide film. • Coarse Al_7Cu_2Fe precipitates anodize irregularly and produces locally thicker films. • Localized corrosion occurs preferentially on the nugget zone and is related to the thinner oxide film and irregular anodizing on stirring voids. - Abstract: The influence of friction stir welding on the sulphuric anodising and corrosion of AA7050 was studied in 0.1 M NaCl by the scanning vibrating electrode technique under simultaneous polarization. The oxide films obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porous oxide films are up to 25% thicker on the thermomechanically and heat affected zones and 25% thinner on the nugget. This thinner defective oxide film explains the lower pitting resistance of the nugget zone. Individual pit current transients were indirectly determined from current maps. However, the calculated values are lower than expected, due to underestimation of electrolyte conductivity near pits.

  17. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  18. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required

  19. Oscillations in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in a stirred flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Orbán, Miklós

    2013-09-19

    Oscillatory behavior is reported in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in the presence of Na2HPO4 in a stirred flow reactor. In near-neutral solutions, long-period sustained oscillations were recorded in the potential of a Pt electrode and in the light absorbance measured at λ = 418 and 545 nm, characteristic wavelengths for following the evolution of the intermediate [Mn(IV)] and reagent [MnO4(-) ] during the course of the reaction. No evidence of bistability was found. The chemical and physical backgrounds of the oscillatory phenomenon are discussed. In the oscillatory cycle, the positive feedback is attributed to the autocatalytic formation of a soluble Mn(IV) species, whereas the negative feedback arises from its removal from the solution in the form of solid MnO2. A simple model is suggested that qualitatively simulates the experimental observations in batch runs and the dynamics that appears in the flow system.

  20. Biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firozjaee Taghizade Tahere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (ACSTR with consortium of mixed culture was operated continuously for a period of 110 days. The experiments were performed with three different hydraulic retention times and by varying initial phenol concentrations between 100 to 1000 mg/L. A maximum phenol removal was observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 4 days, with an organic loading rate (OLR of 170.86 mg/L.d. At this condition, phenol removal rate of 89% was achieved. In addition, the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal corresponds to phenol removal. Additional operating parameters such as pH, MLSS and biogas production rate of the effluents were also measured. The present study provides valuable information to design an anaerobic ACSTR reactor for the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater.

  1. Biohydrogen production from waste bread in a continuous stirred tank reactor: A techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yun Yi; Li, Shi Yi; Li, Fei Fei; Tang, Jun Hong

    2016-12-01

    Biohydrogen production from waste bread in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was techno-economically assessed. The treating capacity of the H 2 -producing plant was assumed to be 2 ton waste bread per day with lifetime of 10years. Aspen Plus was used to simulate the mass and energy balance of the plant. The total capital investment (TCI), total annual production cost (TAPC) and annual revenue of the plant were USD931020, USD299746/year and USD639920/year, respectively. The unit hydrogen production cost was USD1.34/m 3 H 2 (or USD14.89/kg H 2 ). The payback period and net present value (NPV) of the plant were 4.8years and USD1266654, respectively. Hydrogen price and operators cost were the most important variables on the NPV. It was concluded that biohydrogen production from waste bread in the CSTR was feasible for practical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-02-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  3. Nuclear electronics laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual is a joint product of several electronics experts who have been associated with IAEA activity in this field for many years. The manual does not include experiments of a basic nature, such as characteristics of different active electronics components. It starts by introducing small electronics blocks, employing one or more active components. The most demanding exercises instruct a student in the design and construction of complete circuits, as used in commercial nuclear instruments. It is expected that a student who completes all the experiments in the manual should be in a position to design nuclear electronics units and also to understand the functions of advanced commercial instruments which need to be repaired or maintained. The future tasks of nuclear electronics engineers will be increasingly oriented towards designing and building the interfaces between a nuclear experiment and a computer. The manual pays tribute to this development by introducing a number of experiments which illustrate the principles and the technology of interfacing

  4. General Drafting. Technical Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    The manual provides instructional guidance and reference material in the principles and procedures of general drafting and constitutes the primary study text for personnel in drafting as a military occupational specialty. Included is information on drafting equipment and its use; line weights, conventions and formats; lettering; engineering charts…

  5. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  6. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  7. IAEA safeguards technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The necessity for statistical inference procedures arises because of time and cost limitations imposed on inspection activities, and also because of inherent limitations of inspection measurement instruments and techniques. This manual produces statistical concepts and techniques in the field of nuclear material control

  8. Tokai densitometer manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Hsue, S.T.; Junck, K.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, the Tokai densitometer was installed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Tokai, Japan. It uses a nondestructive active technique (K-edge absorption densitometry) to assay solutions for plutonium content. The original hardware was upgraded in 1984 and 1985. This manual describes the instrument's operation after the upgrade. 2 refs

  9. Political Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Written to help Hispanics understand the electoral process more thoroughly and to encourage them to participate more actively in the political arena, this manual begins by describing the present status of the Hispanic electorate and then explains how laws are made, how Hispanics can influence legislation, and how to organize a voter registration…

  10. Coulometer operator's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criscuolo, A.L.

    1977-07-01

    The coulometer control system automates the titration of uranium and plutonium as performed by the CMB-1 group. The system consists of a printer, microcontroller, and coulometer, all of which are controlled by an algorithm stored in the microcontroller read-only memory. This manual describes the titration procedure using the coulometer control system, its theory and maintenance

  11. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  12. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Lydia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  13. ABCC publication manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-01-01

    The reporting policy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission is described in detail in this manual. Specific topics covered are: research project register; research publication policy; USA publication procedures; Japan publication procedures, report preparation instructions; and a glossary of institutions terms, phrases, and symbols. 15 figures. (DMC)

  14. Matematica 3. Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alu, Maria Jose Miranda de Sousa

    This teachers manual accompanies a mathematics textbook, written in Portuguese, for third graders. It closely follows the objectives and methodology of the major curricula used throughout the schools in the United States. The 11 chapters deal with: numeration (0-999,999); addition with and without regrouping; subtraction with and without…

  15. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  16. Idaho Safety Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This manual is intended to help teachers, administrators, and local school boards develop and institute effective safety education as a part of all vocational instruction in the public schools of Idaho. This guide is organized in 13 sections that cover the following topics: introduction to safety education, legislation, levels of responsibility,…

  17. Functional Assessment Inventory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Nancy M.; Athelstan, Gary T.

    This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…

  18. Manual Hydraulic Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.F.; Voorendt, M.Z.

    This manual is the result of group work and origins in Dutch lecture notes that have been used since long time. Amongst the employees of the Hydraulic Engineering Department that contributed to this work are dr.ir. S. van Baars, ir.K.G.Bezuijen, ir.G.P.Bourguignon, prof.ir.A.Glerum,

  19. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  20. Sexism in Parenting Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Parental roles, as delineated in many of the popular parenting manuals on the market, are reviewed and assessed. It is concluded that the vast majority of authors of child-rearing guides implicity or explicitly endorse the traditional roles of father as the dominant breadwinner and mother as the nurturant caretaker. (Author)

  1. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  2. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  3. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  4. Southern Ductile Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This instructor's manual contains the materials required to conduct the competency-based workplace literacy program that was developed to help employees at a foundry that has evolved from a small, family-owned business into a major foundry group with several automated production systems. The workplace literacy program consists of 24 lessons in…

  5. NDS EXFOR Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1979-06-01

    This manual contains the coding rules and formats and NDS internal compilation rules for the exchange format (EXFOR) for the transmission of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centres, and for the data storage and retrieval system of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

  6. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  7. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  8. Default Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Richard A.

    This manual is designed to instruct administrators of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program in how to take every step possible to administer the program effectively and to minimize the program costs of serving the high risk student. It shows schools how to work with students throughout their time in school, create ownership of the loan(s) by…

  9. RRFC hardware operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the 235 U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the 235 U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics

  10. CANAL user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, A.; Wolf, L.; Todreas, N.

    1979-11-01

    CANAL is a subchannel computer program for the steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR fuel rod bundles. The purpose of this manual is to introduce the user into the mechanism of running the code by providing information about the input data and options

  11. AELIB user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.E.; Klawitter, G.L.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an updatable manual for users of AELIB, the AECL Library of FORTRAN-callable routines for the CRNL CDC 6600/CYBER 170 system. It provides general advice on the use of this library and detailed information on the selection and usage of particular library routines

  12. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  13. Numerical Simulation of Mechanical Property of Post Friction Stir Weld Artificial Ageing of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN Zhenyu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available KWN model was used to establish the precipitation evolution model of friction stir welding of Al-Mg-Si alloy. The yield strength was divided into three parts:the contribution from grain size, the contribution from solid solution and the contribution from the precipitations. Based on this model, the yield strength and hardness of friction stir weld was predicted. The effect of post weld artificial ageing on mechanical properties of friction stir weld was further investigated. The results indicate that longer holding time can be beneficial to the recovery of mechanical properties in the stirring zone. Higher temperature can lead to quick recovery of mechanical properties in the stirring zone, but when the holding temperature is higher than 200℃, longer holding time can lead the base metal softened, which is harmful to the service of friction stir welds. The mechanical property in the heat affected zone cannot be improved by post weld artificial ageing.

  14. Shear rate analysis of water dynamic in the continuous stirred tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulus; Mardiningsih; Sawaluddin; Sitompul, O. S.; Ihsan, A. K. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Analysis of mixture in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is an important part in some process of biogas production. This paper is a preliminary study of fluid dynamic phenomenon in a continuous stirred tank numerically. The tank is designed in the form of cylindrical tank equipped with a stirrer. In this study, it is considered that the tank is filled with water. Stirring is done with a stirring speed of 10rpm, 15rpm, 20rpm, and 25rpm. Mathematical modeling of stirred tank is derived. The model is calculated by using the finite element method that are calculated using CFD software. The result shows that the shear rate is high on the front end portion of the stirrer. The maximum shear rate tend to a stable behaviour after the stirring time of 2 second. The relation between the speed and the maximum shear rate is in the form of linear equation.

  15. Azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-11-01

    Present investigation involves hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor under optimized culture conditions for maximum volumetric productivity of azadirachtin. The selected hairy root line (Az-35) was induced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 920-mediated transformation of A. indica leaf explants (Coimbatore variety, India). Liquid culture of the hairy roots was developed in a modified Murashige and Skoog medium (MM2). To further enhance the productivity of azadirachtin, selected growth regulators (1.0 mg/l IAA and 0.025 mg/l GA(3)), permeabilizing agent (0.5 % v/v DNBP), a biotic elicitor (1 % v/v Curvularia (culture filtrate)) and an indirectly linked biosynthetic precursor (50 mg/l cholesterol) were added in the growth medium on 15th day of the hairy root cultivation period in shake flask. Highest azadirachtin production (113 mg/l) was obtained on 25th day of the growth cycle with a biomass of 21 g/l DW. Further, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in a novel liquid-phase bioreactor configuration (modified stirred tank reactor with polyurethane foam as root support) to investigate the possible scale-up of the established A. indica hairy root culture. A biomass production of 15.2 g/l with azadirachtin accumulation in the hairy roots of 6.4 mg/g (97.28 mg/l) could be achieved after 25 days of the batch cultivation period, which was ~27 and ~14 % less biomass and azadirachtin concentration obtained respectively, in shake flasks. An overall volumetric productivity of 3.89 mg/(l day) of azadirachtin was obtained in the bioreactor.

  16. The improvement of ultrasonic characteristics in weld metal of austenitic stainless steel using magnetic stirring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, T.; Tomisawa, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic stirring welding process was tested to save the difficulty of ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel overlayed welds, due to grain refinement of weld solidification structure. The testing involved stirring the molten pool with Lorenz force induced by the interaction of welding current and alternative magnetic field applied from the outside magnetic coil. This report summarizes improvement of ultrasonic characteristic in austenitic stainless steel overlayed welds caused by magnetic stirring welding process

  17. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high...mechanisms, friction stir welding M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, A. Arakere, C-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of Sponsored Programs 300

  18. Missouri Highway Safety Manual Recalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a national manual for analyzing the highway safety of various facilities, including rural roads, urban arterials, freeways, and intersections. The HSM was first published in 2010, and a 2014 supplement addressed fre...

  19. Developing a Pupil Transportation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dave

    1987-01-01

    District-level pupil transportation manuals that contain clear, concise information about objectives, policies, and regulations are a must. These manuals should also specify procedures concerning evaluation processes, personnel recruitment and selection, and the driver training program. (MLH)

  20. Microstructure and properties of friction stir butt-welded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xunhong; Wang Kuaishe

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for magnesium and aluminum alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. In this paper, an excellent friction stir weld of AZ31 magnesium alloy was obtained at proper parameter. In the friction stir zone (FSZ), the microstructure of the base material (BM) is replaced by fine grains and small particles of intermetallic compounds. The average microhardness of the friction stir zone is higher than that of the base material. The maximum tensile strength of joint can reach 93% that of the base material. And the failure locations are almost at the heating affected zone

  1. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  2. NDS EXFOR manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the transmission of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The IAEA Nuclear Data Section uses the EXFOR system not only for the center-to-center data exchange but also as its data storage and retrieval system. This NDS EXFOR MANUAL therefore contains the agreed EXFOR coding rules and format, supplemented by NDS internal compilation rules. The EXFOR system and the EXFOR nuclear data library with several million data records originate from the cooperation of an increasing number of data centers whose names and addresses can be found inside the Manual. Their contributions and cooperative efforts are gratefully acknowledged. (author)

  3. Radiation protection manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang, A.

    1983-01-01

    According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, radiation protection experts directing or supervising the handling of radioactive materials must have expert knowledge. The concept of expert knowledge has been clearly defined by the Fachverband e.V. in a catalogue of instruction goals. The manual follows the principles of this catalogue; it presents the expert knowledge required in a total of 15 subject groups. There is an index which helps the reader to find his specific subject group and the knowledge required of him in this subject group. However, the manual gives only an outline of the subject matter in many instances and should therefore not be regarded as a textbook in the proper sense. (orig./HP) [de

  4. REBA experimenters' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    The REBA is a high-energy, pulsed electron beam or bremsstrahlung x-ray generator whose operational purpose is to provide an energy source of short duration for conducting experiments, primarily to determine material responses to rapid surface and in-depth deposition of energy. The purpose of this manual is to serve as a basic source of information for prospective users of REBA. Included is a brief discussion of the design and operation of the facility as well as a summary of output characteristics for electron beam modes and environmental data for x-ray operation. The manual also contains a description of the REBA experimental facilities, including geometry of the test cell, instrumentation and data collection capabilities, and services and support available to experimenters

  5. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  6. NDS EXFOR manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1985-08-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the transmission of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The IAEA Nuclear Data Section uses the EXFOR system not only for the center-to-center data exchange but also as its data storage and retrieval system. This NDS EXFOR MANUAL therefore contains the agreed EXFOR coding rules and format, supplemented by NDS internal compilation rules. The EXFOR system and the EXFOR nuclear data library with several million data records originate from the cooperation of an increasing number of data centers whose names and addresses can be found inside the Manual. Their contributions and cooperative efforts are gratefully acknowledged. (author)

  7. MINTEQ user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Hostetler, C.J.; Deutsch, W.J.; Cowan, C.E.

    1987-02-01

    This manual will aid the user in applying the MINTEQ geochemical computer code to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. The manual will provide a basic understanding of how the MINTEQ computer code operates and the important principles that are incorporated into the code and instruct a user of the MINTEQ code on how to create input files to simulate a variety of geochemical problems. Chapters 2 through 8 are for the user who has some experience with or wishes to review the principles important to geochemical computer codes. These chapters include information on the methodology MINTEQ uses to incorporate these principles into the code. Chapters 9 through 11 are for the user who wants to know how to create input data files to model various types of problems. 35 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  9. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-07-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  10. Laboratory biosafety manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This book is in three sections; basic standards of laboratory design and equipment; procedures for safe laboratory practice; and the selection and use of essential biosafety equipment. The intention is that the guidance given in the book should have a broad basis and international application, and that it should be a source from which manuals applicable to local and special conditions can be usefully derived.

  11. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  12. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  13. IAC user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Gregg, J.

    1984-01-01

    The User Manual for the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) Level 1 system is presented. The IAC system currently supports the thermal, structures, controls and system dynamics technologies, and its development is influenced by the requirements for design/analysis of large space systems. The system has many features which make it applicable to general problems in engineering, and to management of data and software. Information includes basic IAC operation, executive commands, modules, solution paths, data organization and storage, IAC utilities, and module implementation.

  14. Program Management System manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Program Management System (PMS), as detailed in this manual, consists of all the plans, policies, procedure, systems, and processes that, taken together, serve as a mechanism for managing the various subprograms and program elements in a cohesive, cost-effective manner. The PMS is consistent with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the ''Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program'' (DOE/RW-0005). It is based on, but goes beyond, the Department of Energy (DOE) management policies and procedures applicable to all DOE programs by adapting these directives to the specific needs of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management program. This PMS Manual describes the hierarchy of plans required to develop and maintain the cost, schedule, and technical baselines at the various organizational levels of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It also establishes the management policies and procedures used in the implementation of the Program. These include requirements for internal reports, data, and other information; systems engineering management; regulatory compliance; safety; quality assurance; and institutional affairs. Although expanded versions of many of these plans, policies, and procedures are found in separate documents, they are an integral part of this manual. The PMS provides the basis for the effective management that is needed to ensure that the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program fulfills the mandate of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. ETAP user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Higuchi, Suminori.

    1990-11-01

    The event tree analysis technique has been used in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for LWRs to delineate various accident scenarios leading to core melt or containment failure and to evaluate their frequencies. This technique often requires manual preparation of event trees with iterative process and time-consuming work in data handling. For the purpose of reducing manual efforts in event tree analysis, we developed a new software package named ETAP (Event Tree Analysis Supporting Program) for event tree analysis. ETAP is an interactive PC-based program which has the ability to construct, update, document, and quantify event trees. Because of its fast running capability to quantify event trees, use of the EATP program can make it easy to perform the sensitivity studies on a variety of system/containment performance issues. This report provides a user's manual for ETAP, which describes the structure, installation, and use of EATP. This software runs on NEC/PC-9800 or compatible PCs that have a 640 KB memory and MS-DOS 2.11 or higher. (author)

  16. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  17. OASIS User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bojtar, L

    2009-01-01

    The OASIS system has been operational for years now. After a long development the project has reached a state where the number of features it provides exceeds largely what most of its users knows about. The author felt it was time to write a user manual explaining all the functionality of the viewer application. This document is a user manual, concentrating on the functionality of the viewer from the user’s point of view. There are already documents available on the project’s web site about the technical aspects at http://project-oasis.web.cern.ch/project-oasis/presentations.htm . There was an attempt to produce a tutorial on the viewer, but it didn’t get much further than the table of contents, that however is well thought. The structure of this user manual follows the same principle, the basic and most often used features are grouped together. Advanced or less often used features are described in a separate chapter. There is a second organizational principle, features belong to different levels: chann...

  18. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  19. Controlling Force and Depth in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn; Loftus, Zachary; McCormac, Nathan; Venable, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control of the penetration force applied to a pin tool in friction stir welding has been found to be a robust and reliable means for controlling the depth of penetration of the tool. This discovery has made it possible to simplify depth control and to weld with greater repeatability, even on workpieces with long weld joints. Prior to this discovery, depths of penetration in friction stir welding were controlled by hard-tooled roller assemblies or by depth actuators controlled by feedback from such external sensors as linear variable-differential transformers or laser-based devices. These means of control are limited: A hard-tooled roller assembly confines a pin tool to a preset depth that cannot be changed easily during the welding process. A measurement by an external sensor is only an indirect indicative of the depth of penetration, and computations to correlate such a measurement with a depth of penetration are vulnerable to error. The present force-feedback approach exploits the proportionality between the depth and the force of penetration Unlike a depth measurement taken by an external sensor, a force measurement can be direct because it can be taken by a sensor coupled directly to the pin tool. The reading can be processed through a modern electronic servo control system to control an actuator to keep the applied penetration force at the desired level. In comparison with the older depth-control methods described above, this method offers greater sensitivity to plasticizing of the workpiece metal and is less sensitive to process noise, resulting in a more consistent process. In an experiment, a tapered panel was friction stir welded while controlling the force of penetration according to this method. The figure is a plot of measurements taken during the experiment, showing that force was controlled with a variation of 200 lb (890 N), resulting in control of the depth of penetration with a variation of 0.004 in. (0.1 mm).

  20. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  1. Dry grinding of talc in a stirred ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayirli Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate micro fine size dry grindability of talc in a stirred ball mill. The effects of various parameters such as grinding time, stirrer speed, powder filling ratio and ball filling ratio were investigated. Alumina balls were used as grinding media. Experiments were carried out using the 24 full factorial design. The main and interaction effects were evaluated using the Yates method. Test results were evaluated on the basis of product size and surface area.

  2. Magnetic stirring welding method applied to nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kenji; Watando, Masayuki; Morishige, Norio; Enoo, Kazuhide; Yasuda, Yuuji

    2002-01-01

    In construction of a new nuclear power plant, carbon steel and stainless steel are used as base materials for the bottom linear plate of Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) to achieve maintenance-free requirement, securing sufficient strength of structure. However, welding such different metals is difficult by ordinary method. To overcome the difficulty, the automated Magnetic Stirring Welding (MSW) method that can demonstrate good welding performance was studied for practical use, and weldability tests showed the good results. Based on the study, a new welding device for the MSW method was developed to apply it weld joints of different materials, and it practically used in part of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. Emergence of Multiscaling in a Random-Force Stirred Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor; Donzis, Diego

    2017-07-01

    We consider the transition to strong turbulence in an infinite fluid stirred by a Gaussian random force. The transition is defined as a first appearance of anomalous scaling of normalized moments of velocity derivatives (dissipation rates) emerging from the low-Reynolds-number Gaussian background. It is shown that, due to multiscaling, strongly intermittent rare events can be quantitatively described in terms of an infinite number of different "Reynolds numbers" reflecting a multitude of anomalous scaling exponents. The theoretically predicted transition disappears at Rλ≤3 . The developed theory is in quantitative agreement with the outcome of large-scale numerical simulations.

  4. Friction Stir Processing of ODS and FM Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Young Bum; Noh, Sang Hoon; Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In ODS steels, it is well known that uniform nano-oxide dispersoids act as pinning points to obstruct dislocation and grain boundary motion, however, those advantages will be disappeared while the material is subjected to the high temperature of conventional fusion welding. Rotary friction welding, also referred to as friction stir welding (FSW), has shown great promise as a method for welding traditionally difficult to weld materials such as aluminum alloys. This relatively new technology has more recently been applied to higher melting temperature alloys such as steels, nickel-based and titanium alloys. Friction stir processing (FSP) is a method of changing the properties of a metal through intense, localized plastic deformation. FSW is the precursor of the FSP technique. When ideally implemented, this process mixes the material without changing the phase and creates a microstructure with fine, equiaxed grains. This homogeneous grain structure, separated by high-angle boundaries, allows some alloys to take on superplastic properties. In this study, FSW is used as a substitutive welding process between FMS tube and ODS parts. The dimension of tube is 7.0 OD, 0.5 T. During the FSW, dynamic-recrystallized grains are developed; the uniform oxides dispersion is preserved in the metal matrix. The microstructure and microtexture of the material near the stir zone is found to be influenced by the rotational behavior of the tool. The additive effect from FSP on sample surface is considered. Since the mechanical alloying (MA) and FSP commonly apply extreme shear deformation on materials, the dispersion of oxide particle in ODS steels is very active during both processes. Friction stir welding appears to be a very promising technique for the welding of FMS and ODS steels in the form of sheet and tube. FSW could successfully produce defect-free welds on FMS tubes and ODS ring assembly. FSW produces a fine grain structure consisting of ferrite and martensite, and the oxide

  5. Friction Stir Processing of ODS and FM Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Young Bum; Noh, Sang Hoon; Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2013-01-01

    In ODS steels, it is well known that uniform nano-oxide dispersoids act as pinning points to obstruct dislocation and grain boundary motion, however, those advantages will be disappeared while the material is subjected to the high temperature of conventional fusion welding. Rotary friction welding, also referred to as friction stir welding (FSW), has shown great promise as a method for welding traditionally difficult to weld materials such as aluminum alloys. This relatively new technology has more recently been applied to higher melting temperature alloys such as steels, nickel-based and titanium alloys. Friction stir processing (FSP) is a method of changing the properties of a metal through intense, localized plastic deformation. FSW is the precursor of the FSP technique. When ideally implemented, this process mixes the material without changing the phase and creates a microstructure with fine, equiaxed grains. This homogeneous grain structure, separated by high-angle boundaries, allows some alloys to take on superplastic properties. In this study, FSW is used as a substitutive welding process between FMS tube and ODS parts. The dimension of tube is 7.0 OD, 0.5 T. During the FSW, dynamic-recrystallized grains are developed; the uniform oxides dispersion is preserved in the metal matrix. The microstructure and microtexture of the material near the stir zone is found to be influenced by the rotational behavior of the tool. The additive effect from FSP on sample surface is considered. Since the mechanical alloying (MA) and FSP commonly apply extreme shear deformation on materials, the dispersion of oxide particle in ODS steels is very active during both processes. Friction stir welding appears to be a very promising technique for the welding of FMS and ODS steels in the form of sheet and tube. FSW could successfully produce defect-free welds on FMS tubes and ODS ring assembly. FSW produces a fine grain structure consisting of ferrite and martensite, and the oxide

  6. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  7. In-syringe-stirring: A novel approach for magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Suárez, Ruth; Solich, Petr; Cerdà, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We propose a new automatic magnetic stirring assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. •It allows the extraction of aluminum from seawater and freshwater samples within less than 4 min. •The method was applicable to the natural samples. -- Abstract: For the first time, the use of a magnetic stirrer within the syringe of an automated syringe pump and the resulting possible analytical applications are described. A simple instrumentation following roughly the one from sequential injection analyzer systems is used in combination with an adaptor, which is placed onto the barrel of a glass syringe. Swirling around the longitudinal axis of the syringe and holding two strong neodymium magnets, it causes a rotating magnetic field and serves as driver for a magnetic stirring bar placed inside of the syringe. In a first study it was shown that this approach leads to a sealed but also automatically adaptable reaction vessel, the syringe, in which rapid and homogeneous mixing of sample with the required reagents within short time can be carried out. In a second study in-a-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (MSA-DLLME) was demonstrated by the application of the analyzer system to fluorimetric determination of aluminum in seawater samples using lumogallion. A linear working range up to 1.1 μmol L −1 and a limit of detection of 6.1 nmol L −1 were found. An average recovery of 106.0% was achieved for coastal seawaters with a reproducibility of 4.4%. The procedure lasted 210 s including syringe cleaning and only 150 μL of hexanol and 4.1 mL of sample were required

  8. Colosed-Loop Control of the Thermal Stir Welding Process to Enable Rapid Process/Ppart Qualification, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) provides advancement over the more conventional Friction Stir Welding (C-FSW) process because it separates the primary processes variables...

  9. Closed-Loop Control of the Thermal Stir Welding Process to Enable Rapid Process/Part Qualification, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) provides advancement over the more conventional Friction Stir Welding (C-FSW) process because it separates the primary processes variables...

  10. The Concept of Electrically Assisted Friction Stir Welding (EAFSW) and Application to the Processing of Various Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrando, William A

    2008-01-01

    This report introduces a novel variant of conventional friction stir welding (FSW). Since 1991, friction stir welding provides an alternative to arc welding as a metal joining method in numerous applications...

  11. Stir-Frying of Chinese Cabbage and Pakchoi Retains Health-Promoting Glucosinolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y.; Oliviero, Teresa; Heising, Jenneke K.; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Stir-frying is a cooking method, originating from Asia, in which food is fried in small amount of very hot oil. Nowadays in many other parts of the world stir-frying is a very popular method to prepare vegetables, because it is fast and fried vegetables are tasty. However, the retention of

  12. Reverberation chambers a la carte: an overview of the different mode-stirring techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Marvin, A.C.; Moglie, F.; Mariani Primiani, V.; Cozza, A.; Arnaut, L.R.; Huang, Y.; Hatfield, M.O.; Klingler, M.; Leferink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC), a name inspired in room acoustics, are also known in literature as reverberating, reverb, mode-stirred or mode-tuned chambers. In their basic form, they consist of a shielded metallic enclosure, forming a cavity resonator, together with some mode-stirring mechanism. The

  13. Reverberation Chambers à La Carte : An Overview of the Different Mode-Stirring Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Marvin, Andy C.; Moglie, Franco; Mariani Primiani, Valter; Cozza, Andrea; Arnaut, Luk R.; Huang, Yi; Hatfield, Michael O.; Klingler, Marco; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Reverberation chambers (RC), a name inspired in room acoustics, are also known in literature as reverberating, reverb, mode-stirred or mode-tuned chambers. In their basic form, they consist of a shielded metallic enclosure, forming a cavity resonator, together with some mode-stirring mechanism. The

  14. Gas-solid hydroxyethylation of potato starch in a stirred vibrating fluidized bed reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Stamhuis, Eize; Beenackers, A.A C M

    A novel reactor for modifying cohesive C-powders such as in the gas-solid hydroxyethylation of semidry potato starch is characterized, the so-called stirred vibrating fluidized bed reactor. Good fluidization characteristics are obtained in this reactor for certain combinations of stirring and

  15. The value of STIR sequence in the characterization of mediastinal lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Okur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To investigate availability of Short Time Inversion Recovery Turbo Spin Echo Magnetic Resonance imaging (STIR TSE MRI in the detection of mediastinal lymph nodes and in the distinguishing malign and benign lymph nodes detected in cases with pulmonary lesions. METHODS: Overall, 46 patients having mediastinal lymph nodes with confirmed or suspected lung cancer were included to the study. All patients underwent STIR TSE MR imaging before mediastinoscopy. Lymph nodes were assessed by signal characteristics on STIR TSE MRI. The results of histopathological evaluation and STIR TSE MRI were compared after mediastinoscopy. As data were qualitative, distributions were expressed as percentage and chi-square test was used to determine the difference between variables. RESULTS: Overall, 92 lymph nodes were analyzed. When a comparison was made between malign and benign lymph nodes, a significant difference was found between STIR MRI signal properties of lymph nodes and lymph node size. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of STIR TSE MRI were estimated as 75.0%, 75.0%, 61.5% and 83.3%, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Although the negative predictive value is high in STIR TSE MRI, it has a low positive predictive value. Thus, the case may directly undergo surgery without performing mediastinoscopy when no malign lymph node is detected in STIR TSE MRI, while mediastinoscopy is warranted when a malign lymph node is detected.

  16. Fatigue and Damage Tolerance of Friction Stir Welded Joints for Aerospace Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, H.J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a young welding process with high potential to replace riveted joints in aerospace structures like the fuselage. Friction stir welding is a robust process and capable of welding high strength aluminum alloys. Therefore it can lead to both costs and weight savings. To

  17. Effects of Laser Peening, and Shot Peening, on Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Hackel, Lloyd; Rankin, Jon; Truong, Chanh; Walter, Matt

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the effects of laser peening and shot peening on friction stir welding is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Friction Stir Welding (FSW); 3) Microstructure; 4) Laser & Shot Peening; 5) Residual Stresses; 6) Tensile Behavior; 7) Fatigue Life & Surface Roughness; 8) Crack Growth; and 9) Benefits.

  18. Friction Stir Weld Restart+Reweld Repair Allowables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A friction stir weld (FSW) repair method has been developed and successfully implemented on Al 2195 plate material for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank (ET). The method includes restarting the friction stir weld in the termination hole of the original weld followed by two reweld passes. Room temperature and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties exceeded minimum FSW design strength and compared well with the development data. Simulated service test results also compared closely to historical data for initial FSW, confirming no change to the critical flaw size or inspection requirements for the repaired weld. Testing of VPPA fusion/FSW intersection weld specimens exhibited acceptable strength and exceeded the minimum design value. Porosity, when present at the intersection was on the root side toe of the fusion weld, the "worst case" being 0.7 inch long. While such porosity may be removed by sanding, this "worst case" porosity condition was tested "as is" and demonstrated that porosity did not negatively affect the strength of the intersection weld. Large, 15-inch "wide panels" FSW repair welds were tested to demonstrate strength and evaluate residual stresses using photo stress analysis. All results exceeded design minimums, and photo stress analysis showed no significant stress gradients due to the presence of the restart and multi-pass FSW repair weld.

  19. Manufacturing of aluminum composite material using stir casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Panhwar, M.I.; Unar, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7 xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles in 7 xxx aluminum matrix. The 7 xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg; Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles reinforced in aluminum matrix. (author)

  20. Improving friction stir welding of blanks of different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratini, L. [Dipartimento di Tecnologia Meccanica, Produzione e Ingegneria Gestionale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: abaqus@dtpm.unipa.it; Buffa, G. [Dipartimento di Tecnologia Meccanica, Produzione e Ingegneria Gestionale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Shivpuri, R. [Ohio State University, Department of Industrial, Welding and Systems Engineering, 1971 Neil Avenue, 210 Baker Systems, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2007-06-25

    Friction stir welding (FSW) appears to be a promising process even in the welding of blanks of different thicknesses. Actually, such particular tailor welded blanks (TWBs) are usually characterized by a reduction in ductility due to the utilized fusion welding process. In this paper the authors, starting from a preliminary feasibility study, investigate the possibility to improve the mechanical performances of friction stir welded blanks of aluminum alloy with different thicknesses. Both experiments and a FE analyses are developed for a few case studies with different thickness ratios between the blanks. The numerical investigations are performed with the aim to highlight the material temperature distribution during the process in order to determine process conditions for which an almost symmetric thermal flow is obtained in the two blanks of the joint. In this way, a few simple process design rules are derived and verified through experiments. In particular a thickness ratio up to 2 was considered and a joint resistance of about the 80% of the parent material ultimate tensile strength was observed.

  1. Improving friction stir welding of blanks of different thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, L.; Buffa, G.; Shivpuri, R.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) appears to be a promising process even in the welding of blanks of different thicknesses. Actually, such particular tailor welded blanks (TWBs) are usually characterized by a reduction in ductility due to the utilized fusion welding process. In this paper the authors, starting from a preliminary feasibility study, investigate the possibility to improve the mechanical performances of friction stir welded blanks of aluminum alloy with different thicknesses. Both experiments and a FE analyses are developed for a few case studies with different thickness ratios between the blanks. The numerical investigations are performed with the aim to highlight the material temperature distribution during the process in order to determine process conditions for which an almost symmetric thermal flow is obtained in the two blanks of the joint. In this way, a few simple process design rules are derived and verified through experiments. In particular a thickness ratio up to 2 was considered and a joint resistance of about the 80% of the parent material ultimate tensile strength was observed

  2. Modified Mathematical Model For Neutralization System In Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed Saadi Ibrehem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified model for the neutralization process of Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR reactor is presented in this study. The model accounts for the effect of strong acid [HCL] flowrate and strong base [NaOH] flowrate with the ionic concentrations of [Cl-] and [Na+] on the Ph of the system. In this work, the effect of important reactor parameters such as ionic concentrations and acid and base flowrates on the dynamic behavior of the CSTR is investigated and the behavior of mathematical model is compared with the reported models for the McAvoy model and Jutila model. Moreover, the results of the model are compared with the experimental data in terms of pH dynamic study. A good agreement is observed between our model prediction and the actual plant data. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 1st March 2011, Revised: 28th March 2011; Accepted: 7th April 2011[How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem. (2011. Modified Mathematical Model For Neutralization System In Stirred Tank Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 47-52. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.825.47-52][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.825.47-52 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/825 ] | View in 

  3. Effects of mixing and stirring on the critical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, N V; Hnatich, Michal; Honkonen, Juha

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics of a nonconserved scalar order parameter near its critical point, subject to random stirring and mixing, is studied using the field-theoretic renormalization group. The stirring and mixing are modelled by a random external Gaussian noise with the correlation function ∼δ(t - t')k 4-d-y and the divergence-free (due to incompressibility) velocity field, governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with a random Gaussian force with the correlation function ∝ δ(t-t')k 4-d-y' . Depending on the relations between the exponents y and y' and the space dimensionality d, the model reveals several types of scaling regimes. Some of them are well known (model A of equilibrium critical dynamics and linear passive scalar field advected by a random turbulent flow), but there are three new non-equilibrium regimes (universality classes) associated with new nontrivial fixed points of the renormalization group equations. The corresponding critical dimensions are calculated in the two-loop approximation (second order of the triple expansion in y, y' and ε = 4 - d)

  4. Parametric study of the Incompletely Stirred Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobini, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran); Bilger, R.W. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    The Incompletely Stirred Reactor (ISR) is a generalization of the widely-used Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) model and allows for incomplete mixing within the reactor. Its formulation is based on the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) method. This model is applicable to nonpremixed combustion with strong recirculation such as in a gas turbine combustor primary zone. The model uses the simplifying assumptions that the conditionally-averaged reactive-scalar concentrations are independent of position in the reactor: this results in ordinary differential equations in mixture fraction space. The simplicity of the model permits the use of very complex chemical mechanisms. The effects of the detailed chemistry can be found while still including the effects of micromixing. A parametric study is performed here on an ISR for combustion of methane at overall stoichiometric conditions to investigate the sensitivity of the model to different parameters. The focus here is on emissions of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is shown that the most important parameters in the ISR model are reactor residence time, the chemical mechanism and the core-averaged Probability Density Function (PDF). Using several different shapes for the core-averaged PDF, it is shown that use of a bimodal PDF with a low minimum at stoichiometric mixture fraction and a large variance leads to lower nitric oxide formation. The 'rich-plus-lean' mixing or staged combustion strategy for combustion is thus supported. (author)

  5. Grain refinement of Aluminium alloys using friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khraisheh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is a new advanced material processing technique used to refine and homogenize the microstructure of sheet metals. FSP is a solid state processing technique that uses a rapidly rotating non-consumable high strength tool steel pin that extends from a cylindrical shoulder. The rotating pin is forced with a predetermined load into the work piece and moved along with the work pieces, while the rotating pin deforms and stirs the locally heated material. It is a hot working process in which a large amount of deformation is imparted to the sheet. FS processed zone is characterized by dynamic recrystallization which results in grain refinement . this promising emerging process needs further investigations to develop optimum process parameters to produce the desired microstructure. In this work, we present preliminary results on the effects of rotational and translational speeds on grain refinement of AA5052. Under certain processing conditions, sub-micron grain structure was produced using this technique

  6. Manufacturing of Aluminum Composite Material Using Stir Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hayat Jokhio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of \\"Al2O3\\" particles in 7xxx aluminum matrix. The 7xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg. Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha \\"Al2O3\\" particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% \\"Al2O3\\" particles reinforced in aluminum matrix.

  7. JOINING DISSIMILAR MATERIALS USING FRICTION STIR SCRIBE TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Hovanski, Yuri; Jana, Saumyadeep; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2016-09-01

    Development of robust and cost effective method of joining dissimilar materials can provide a critical pathway to enable widespread use of multi-material design and components in mainstream industrial applications. The use of multi-material components such as Steel-Aluminum, Aluminum-Polymer allows design engineers to optimize material utilization based on service requirements and often lead weight and cost reductions. However producing an effective joint between materials with vastly different thermal, microstructural and deformation response is highly problematic using conventional joining and /or fastening methods. This is especially challenging in cost sensitive high volume markets that largely rely on low–cost joining solutions. Friction Stir Scribe technology was developed to meet the demands of joining materials with drastically different properties and melting regimes. The process enables joining of light metals like Magnesium and Aluminum to high temperature materials like Steels and Titanium. Additionally viable joints between polymer composites and metal can also be made using this method. This paper will present state of the art, progress made and challenges associated with this innovative derivative of Friction Stir welding in reference to joining dissimilar metals and polymer/metal combinations.

  8. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  9. Simulation of Friction Stir Processing in 304L Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major dilemma facing the nuclear industry is repair or replacement of stainless steel reactor components that have been exposed to neutron irradiation. When conventional fusion welding is used for weld repair, the high temperatures and thermal stresses inherent in the process enhance the growth of helium bubbles, causing intergranular cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ. Friction stir processing (FSP has potential as a weld repair technique for irradiated stainless steel, because it operates at much lower temperatures than fusion welding, and is therefore less likely to cause cracking in the HAZ. Numerical simulation of the FSP process in 304L stainless steel was performed using an Eulerian finite element approach. Model input required flow stresses for the large range of strain rates and temperatures inherent in the FSP process. Temperature predictions in three locations adjacent to the stir zone were accurate to within 4% of experimentally measure values. Prediction of recrystallized grain size at a location about 6mm behind the tool center was less accurate, because the empirical model employed for the prediction did not account for grain growth that occurred after deformation in the experiment was halted.

  10. Joining Dissimilar Materials Using Friction Stir Scribe Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Piyush [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland 99352, WA e-mail: piyush.upadhyay@pnnl.gov; Hovanski, Yuri [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland 99352, WA; Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland 99352, WA; Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland 99352, WA

    2016-10-03

    Development of a robust and cost-effective method of joining dissimilar materials could provide a critical pathway to enable widespread use of multi-material designs and components in mainstream industrial applications. The use of multi-material components such as steel-aluminum and aluminum-polymer would allow design engineers to optimize material utilization based on service requirements and could often lead to weight and cost reductions. However, producing an effective joint between materials with vastly different thermal, microstructural, and deformation responses is highly problematic using conventional joining and/or fastening methods. This is especially challenging in cost sensitive, high volume markets that largely rely on low cost joining solutions. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to meet the demands of joining materials with drastically different properties and melting regimes. The process enables joining of light metals like magnesium and aluminum to high temperature materials like steel and titanium. Viable joints between polymer composites and metal can also be made using this method. This paper will present the state of the art, progress made, and challenges associated with this innovative derivative of friction stir welding in reference to joining dissimilar metals and polymer/metal combinations.

  11. Effect of welding speed on microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Inconel 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.H.; Fujii, H.; Nakata, K.

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the properties of a friction stir welded Ni base alloy, Inconel 600 (single phase type) was selected. Sound friction stir welds without weld defect were obtained at 150 and 200 mm/min in welding speed, however, a groove like defect occurred at 250 mm/min. The electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) method was used to analyze the grain boundary character distribution. As a result, dynamic recrystallization was observed at all conditions, and the grain refinement was achieved in the stir zone, and it was gradually accelerated from 19 μm in average grain size of the base material to 3.4 μm in the stir zone with increasing the welding speed. It also has an effect on the mechanical properties so that friction stir welded zone showed 20% higher microhardness and 10% higher tensile strength than those of base material.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.S.; Nelson, T.W.; Sterling, C.J.; Steel, R.J.; Pettersson, C.-O.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir (FS) welded SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel were examined. High-quality, full-penetration welds were successfully produced in the super duplex stainless steel by friction stir welding (FSW) using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tool. The base material had a microstructure consisting of the ferrite matrix with austenite islands, but FSW refined grains of the ferrite and austenite phases in the stir zone through dynamic recrystallisation. Ferrite content was held between 50 and 60% throughout the weld. The smaller grain sizes of the ferrite and austenite phases caused increase in hardness and strength within the stir zone. Welded transverse tensile specimen failed near the border between the stir zone and TMAZ at the retreating side as the weld had roughly the same strengths as the base material

  13. INIS: Database manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the INIS Reference Series. It is intended for users of INIS (International Nuclear Information System) output data on various media (FTP file, CD-ROM, e-mail file, earlier magnetic tape, cartridge, etc.). This manual provides a description of each data element including information on contents, structure and usage as well as historical overview of additions, deletions and changes of data elements and their contents that have taken place over the years. Each record contains certain control data fields (001-009), one, two or three bibliographic levels, a set of descriptors, and zero, one or more abstracts, one in English and optionally one or more in another language. In order to facilitate the description of the system, the sequence of data elements is based on the input or, as it is internally called, worksheet format which differs from the exchange format described in the manual IAEA-INIS-7. A separate section is devoted to each data element and deviations from the exchange format are indicated whenever present. As the Record Leader and the Directory are sufficiently explained in Chapter 3.1 of IAEA-INIS-7, the contents of this manual are limited to control fields and data fields; the detailed explanations are intended to supplement the basic information given in Chapter 3.2 of IAEA-INIS-7. Bibliographic levels are used to identify component parts of a publication, i.e. chapters in a book, articles in a journal issue, conference papers in a proceedings volume. All bibliographic levels contained in a record are given in a control data field. Each bibliographic level identifier appears in the subdirectory with a pointer to its position in the record

  14. MAP user's manual copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations

  15. The Effect of Premixed Al-Cu Powder on the Stir Zone in Friction Stir Welding of AA3003-H18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnar, B.; Kazeminezhad, M.; Kokabi, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    In this research, 3-mm-thick AA3003-H18 non-heat-treatable aluminum alloy plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). It was performed by adding pure Cu and premixed Cu-Al powders at various rotational speeds of 800, 1000, and 1200 rpm and constant traveling speeds of 100 mm/min. At first, the powder was filled into the gap (0.2 or 0.4 mm) between two aluminum alloy plates, and then the FSW process was performed in two passes. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and formation of intermetallic compounds were investigated in both cases of using pure Cu and premixed Al-Cu powders. The results of using pure Cu and premixed Al-Cu powders were compared in the stir zone at various rotational speeds. The copper particle distribution and formation of Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (Al2Cu and AlCu) in the stir zone were desirable using premixed Al-Cu powder into the gap. The hardness values were significantly increased by formation of Al-Cu intermetallic compounds in the stir zone and it was uniform throughout the stir zone when premixed Al-Cu powder was used. Also, longitudinal tensile strength from the stir zone was higher when premixed Al-Cu powder was used instead of pure Cu powder.

  16. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  17. Manual of Decolonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    During a residency in Bethlehem, Venice-based design and research studio Salottobuono formulated a 'strategy of subversion' for Israeli settlements in the West Bank. From this comes the elegant Manual of Decolonization; a generic but detailed resource for all post-occupation scenarios. Assessing...... how evacuated and imposed structures can be transformed in collaboration with local stakeholders, the book's plans, models and projections are divided into themes like 'De-parcelling', 'Re-combining' and 'Un-roofing'; landscape, nature and materials are considered at length. The outcome is an open...

  18. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  19. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  20. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  1. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  2. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  3. IMAGE User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehfest, E; De Waal, L; Oostenrijk, R.

    2010-09-15

    This user manual contains the basic information for running the simulation model IMAGE ('Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment') of PBL. The motivation for this report was a substantial restructuring of the source code for IMAGE version 2.5. The document gives concise content information about the submodels, tells the user how to install the program, describes the directory structure of the run environment, shows how scenarios have to be prepared and run, and gives insight in the restart functionality.

  4. Radioanalytical methods manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, N.W.; Dean, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This Radioanalytical Methods manual is comprised of 12 chapters. It includes a review of the pertinent literature up to the end of 1982 pertaining to the measurement of the radioactive species listed under the terms of the contract. Included is methodology recommended for the decompositions of soils, tailings, ores, biological samples and air filters. Detailed analytical methodology for the measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, total thorium, radon-222, radon-220 and radon-219 is presented

  5. ASSERT-4 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, R.A.; Tahir, A.; Carver, M.B.; Stewart, D.G.; Thibeault, P.R.; Rowe, D.S.

    1984-09-01

    ASSERT-4 is an advanced subchannel code being developed primarily to model single- and two-phase flow and heat transfer in horizontal rod bundles. This manual is intended to facilitate the application of this code to the analysis of flow in reactor fuel channels. It contains a brief description of the thermalhydraulic model and ASSERT-4 solution scheme, and other information required by users. This other information includes a detailed discussion of input data requirements, a sample problem and solution, and information describing how to access and run ASSERT-4 on the Chalk River computers

  6. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  7. Health and safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices

  8. Astronaut training manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Scientific information from previous space flights, space medicine, exercise physiology, and sports medicine was used to prepare a physical fitness manual suitable for use by members of the NASA astronaut population. A variety of scientifically valid exercise programs and activities suitable for the development of physical fitness are provided. Programs, activities, and supportive scientific data are presented in a concise, easy to read format so as to permit the user to select his or her mode of training with confidence and devote time previously spent experimenting with training routines to preparation for space flight. The programs and activities included were tested and shown to be effective and enjoyable.

  9. RADTRAN 6 Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heames, Terence John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Donnell, Brandon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dennis, Matthew L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  10. RADTRAN 6 technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde; Heames, Terence John; O' Donnell, Brandon M.; Dennis, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  11. FISPACT 97: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-05-01

    FISPACT is the inventory code included in the European Activation System (EASY). A new version of FISPACT: FISPACT-97 has been developed and this report is the User manual for the code. It explains the use of all the code words used in the input file to specify a FISPACT run and describes how all the data files are connected. A series of appendices cover the working of the code and the physical and mathematical details. Background information on the data files and extensive examples of input files suitable for various applications are included. (Author)

  12. Timber designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ozelton, E C

    2008-01-01

    This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including

  13. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  14. Percept User Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennon, Stephen Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This document is the main user guide for the Sierra/Percept capabilities including the mesh_adapt and mesh_transfer tools. Basic capabilities for uniform mesh refinement (UMR) and mesh transfers are discussed. Examples are used to provide illustration. Future versions of this manual will include more advanced features such as geometry and mesh smoothing. Additionally, all the options for the mesh_adapt code will be described in detail. Capabilities for local adaptivity in the context of offline adaptivity will also be included. This page intentionally left blank.

  15. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  16. Geothermal reservoir assessment manual; 1984-1992 nendo chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuhou manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    A geothermal reservoir assessment manual was prepared for the promotion of the development of geothermal power generation, based on the results of the 'geothermal reservoir assessment technique development project' implemented during the fiscal 1984-1992 period and on the results of surveys conducted in Japan and abroad. Of the geothermal systems generally classified into the steam dominant type and the hot water dominant type, encounters with the steam dominant type are but seldom reported. This manual therefore covers the hot water dominant type only. In addition to the explanation of the basic concept and the outline of geothermal reservoirs, the manual carries data necessary for reservoir assessment; geological and geophysical data analyses; geochemistry in reservoir assessment; data of underground logging and of fuming; conceptual models; simulators and models for reservoir simulation; natural-state simulation, history-matching simulation, and reservoir behavior predicting simulation; case history (modeling of a geothermal reservoir prior to exploitation), references, and so forth. (NEDO)

  17. Influence of different functional ingredients on physical properties, rheology, tribology, and oral perceptions of no fat stirred yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sophia Bao Xian; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Bhandari, Bhesh; Prakash, Sangeeta

    2018-06-01

    Effects of adding four functional ingredients: inulin, pectin, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), and beta glucan on physical, rheology, tribology, and sensory characteristics of skim (0.1% fat) stirred yoghurt were studied. Three levels of each ingredient were chosen: inulin (7, 8, and 9%), pectin (0.2, 0.25, and 0.3%), GOS (9.1, 11.3, and 13.6%), and beta glucan (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%). Among the investigated ingredients, inulin and GOS appeared to be preferable choices due to their ability to both reduce syneresis and slightly increase sample lubrication while maintaining texture, rheology, and sensory characteristics of skim yoghurt. Pectin and beta glucan, conversely, increased viscosity and gel strength, slightly increased sample lubrication for the skim yoghurt but created large particles (i.e., greater than 100 μm) in the product body. This led to the increase in lumpiness and residual coating while reducing smoothness and creaminess of the sample. The observed tribology behaviors of the stirred yoghurts were similar to the previous study of pot-set yoghurt whose friction curves comprised four friction zones (Nguyen, Kravchuk, Bhandari, and Prakash). The sensory characteristics of six selected samples for various texture and mouthfeel attributes obtained from a trained panel were in agreement with particle size, rheology, and tribology characteristics of the yoghurt samples. With the increasing demand for low fat and functional food, there is a need to understand the impact of adding functional ingredients in low fat yoghurt to satisfy consumers' requirements. This study investigates the effects of these functional ingredients at different dosages on physical, rheology, tribology, and sensory characteristics of skim (0.1% fat) stirred yoghurt. The results from this study may guide use of functional ingredients in yoghurt production. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Effect of Vibration during Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behavior, Mechanical Properties, and Machining Characteristics of Stir Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Fouladi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Different methods have been applied to refine various characteristics of the zone (or nugget obtained by friction stir welding (FSW. In the current research, joining components are vibrated normal to the weld line during FSW to refine the zone microstructure. This process is described as friction stir vibration welding (FSVW. The effect of FSVW on mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and machining characteristics of the zone are investigated. Al5052 alloy specimens are welded using FSW and FSVW processes and their different characteristics are compared and discussed. The results show that the strength and ductility of the welded parts increase when the vibration is applied. The outcomes also show that corrosion resistance of the nugget for FSV-welded specimens is lower than FS welded samples, and machining force of the former specimens is higher than the latter ones. These are related to smaller grain size in the zone of FSV-welded specimens compared to FS welded parts. Smaller grain size leads to a greater volume fraction of grain boundaries and, correspondingly, higher strength and hardness, as well as lower corrosion resistance.

  19. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP.

  20. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP

  1. BBC users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ltterst, R.F.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; Warshaw, S.I.

    1977-11-01

    BBC is a two-dimensional, multifluid Eulerian hydro-radiation code based on KRAKEN and some subsequent ideas. It was developed in the explosion group in T-Division as a basic two-dimensional code to which various types of physics can be added. For this reason BBC is a FORTRAN (LRLTRAN) code. In order to gain the 2-to-1 to 4-to-1 speed advantage of the STACKLIB software on the 7600's and to be able to execute at high speed on the STAR, the vector extensions of LRLTRAN (STARTRAN) are used throughout the code. Either cylindrical- or slab-type problems can be run on BBC. The grid is bounded by a rectangular band of boundary zones. The interfaces between the regular and boundary zones can be selected to be either rigid or nonrigid. The setup for BBC problems is described in the KEG Manual and LEG Manual. The difference equations are described in BBC Hydrodynamics. Basic input and output for BBC are described

  2. SYVAC3 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes the use and structure of SYVAC3. It is intended for modellers, programmers, operators and reviewers who deal with simulation codes based on SYVAC3. From this manual they can learn how to link a model with SYVAC3, how to set up an input file, and how to extract results from output files. The manual lists the subroutines of SYVAC3 that are available for use by models, and describes their argument lists. It also gives an overview of how routines in the File Reading Package, the Parameter Sampling Package and the Time Series Package can be used by programs outside of SYVAC3. (author)

  3. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Manual is written in a question-and-answer format. The points developed are introduced with a basic question, such as: What do people mean by 'fuels' and 'energy'? What units are used to express oil? How are energy data presented? Answers are given in simple terms and illustrated by graphs, charts and tables. More technical explanations are found in the annexes. The Manual contains seven chapters. The first one presents the fundamentals of energy statistics, five chapters deal with the five different fuels (electricity and heat; natural gas; oil; solid fuels and manufactured gases; renewables and waste) and the last chapter explains the energy balance. Three technical annexes and a glossary are also included. For the five chapters dedicated to the fuels, there are three levels of reading: the first one contains general information on the subject, the second one reviews issues which are specific to the joint IEA/OECD-Eurostat-UNECE questionnaires and the third one focuses on the essential elements of the subject. 43 figs., 22 tabs., 3 annexes.

  4. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  5. CTF Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramova, Maria N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays|Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a thermal/ hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for light water reactor (LWR) vessel analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of 9 conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and had been used and modified by several institutions over the last few decades. COBRA-TF also found use at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, and subsequently re-branded as CTF. As part of the improvement process, it was necessary to generate sufficient documentation for the open-source code which had lacked such material upon being adopted by RDFMG. This document serves mainly as a theory manual for CTF, detailing the many two-phase heat transfer, drag, and important accident scenario models contained in the code as well as the numerical solution process utilized. Coding of the models is also discussed, all with consideration for updates that have been made when transitioning from COBRA-TF to CTF. Further documentation outside of this manual is also available at RDFMG which focus on code input deck generation and source code global variable and module listings.

  6. LCS Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redd, A.J.; Ignat, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) is a computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field. Details of geometry, plasma profiles, and circuit equations are treated. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment. The LSC was originally written to be a module for lower hybrid current drive called by the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), which is a numerical model of an axisymmetric tokamak plasma and the associated control systems. The TSC simulates the time evolution of a free boundary plasma by solving the MHD equations on a rectangular computational grid. The MHD equations are coupled to the external circuits (representing poloidal field coils) through the boundary conditions. The code includes provisions for modeling the control system, external heating, and fusion heating. The LSC module can also be called by the TRANSP code. TRANSP represents the plasma with an axisymmetric, fixed-boundary model and focuses on calculation of plasma transport to determine transport coefficients from data on power inputs and parameters reached. This manual covers the basic material needed to use the LSC. If run in conjunction with TSC, the ''TSC Users Manual'' should be consulted. If run in conjunction with TRANSP, on-line documentation will be helpful. A theoretical background of the governing equations and numerical methods is given. Information on obtaining, compiling, and running the code is also provided

  7. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  8. ARDS User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Personal computers (PCs) are now used extensively for engineering analysis. their capability exceeds that of mainframe computers of only a few years ago. Programs originally written for mainframes have been ported to PCs to make their use easier. One of these programs is ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) which was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) by Nelson et al. to quickly and accurately analyze rotor steady state and transient response using the method of component mode synthesis. The original ARDS program was ported to the PC in 1995. Several extensions were made at ASU to increase the capability of mainframe ARDS. These extensions have also been incorporated into the PC version of ARDS. Each mainframe extension had its own user manual generally covering only that extension. Thus to exploit the full capability of ARDS required a large set of user manuals. Moreover, necessary changes and enhancements for PC ARDS were undocumented. The present document is intended to remedy those problems by combining all pertinent information needed for the use of PC ARDS into one volume.

  9. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  10. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  11. SYVAC3 manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, T.H

    2000-07-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes the use and structure of SYVAC3. It is intended for modellers, programmers, operators and reviewers who deal with simulation codes based on SYVAC3. From this manual they can learn how to link a model with SYVAC3, how to set up an input file, and how to extract results from output files. The manual lists the subroutines of SYVAC3 that are available for use by models, and describes their argument lists. It also gives an overview of how routines in the File Reading Package, the Parameter Sampling Package and the Time Series Package can be used by programs outside of SYVAC3. (author)

  12. Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A tool that would be useable in both conventional and self-reacting friction stir welding (FSW) has been proposed. The tool would embody both a prior tooling concept for self-reacting FSW and an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability developed previously as an augmentation for conventional FSW. Some definitions of terms are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed tool. In conventional FSW, depicted in Figure 1, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a rotating pin that protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. The main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional FSW is augmented with an APT capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or force-control system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding (SR-FSW), there are two rotating shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft, back into the FSW machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. A tool for SRFSW embodying this concept was reported in "Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding" (MFS-31914), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 53. In its outward appearance, the proposed tool (see Figure 2) would fit the above description of an SR

  13. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  14. Ciencias 2. Manual do Professor (Science Teacher's Manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Lucilia

    This is the teacher's manual for Ciencias 2, the second in a series of elementary science textbooks for Portuguese-speaking students. The student textbook contains 10 chapters and 57 activities. The teacher's manual presents an explanation of the educational goals and the organization of the content, Topics included are environment, the human,…

  15. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  16. [Research on change process of nitrosation granular sludge in continuous stirred-tank reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fang-Fang; Liu, Wen-Ru; Wang, Jian-Fang; Wu, Peng; Shen, Yao-Liang

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different types of reactors on the nitrosation granular sludge, a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was studied, using mature nitrosation granular sludge cultivated in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) as seed sludge. Results indicated that the change of reactor type and influent mode could induce part of granules to lose stability with gradual decrease in sludge settling ability during the initial period of operation. However, the flocs in CSTR achieved fast granulation in the following reactor operation. In spite of the changes of particle size distribution, e. g. the decreasing number of granules with diameter larger than 2.5 mm and the increasing number of granules with diameter smaller than 0.3 mm, granular sludge held the absolute predominance of sludge morphology in CSTR during the entire experimental period. Moreover, results showed that the change of reactor type and influent mode didn't affect the nitrite accumulation rate which was still kept at about 85% in effluent. Additionally, the average activity of the sludge in CSTR was stronger than that of the seed sludge, because the newly generated small particles in CSTR had higher specific reactive activity than the larger granules.

  17. Prolegomena to the Study of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The literature contains many approaches toward modeling of the friction stir welding (FSW) process with varying treatments of the weld metal properties. It is worthwhile to consider certain fundamental features of the process before attempting to interpret FSW phenomena: Because of the unique character of metal deformation (as opposed to, say, viscous deformation) a velocity "discontinuity" or shear surface occurs in FSW and determines much of the character of the welding mechanism. A shear surface may not always produce a sound bond. Balancing mechanical power input against conduction and convection heat losses yields a relation, a "temperature index", between spindle speed and travel speed to maintain constant weld temperature. But many process features are only weakly dependent upon temperature. Thus, unlike modeling of metal forming processes, it may be that modeling the FSW process independently of the material conditions has some merit.

  18. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  19. Designing aluminium friction stir welded joints against multiaxial fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Susmel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the accuracy of the Modified Wöhler Curve Method (MWCM in estimating multiaxial fatigue strength of aluminium friction stir (FS welded joints. Having developed a bespoke joining technology, circumferentially FS welded tubular specimens of Al 6082-T6 were tested under proportional and non-proportional tension and torsion, the effect of non-zero mean stresses being also investigated. The validation exercise carried out using the experimental results have demonstrated that the MWCM applied in terms of nominal stresses, notch stresses, and also the Point Method is accurate in predicting the fatigue lifetime of the tested FS welded joints, with its use resulting in life estimates that fall within the uniaxial and torsional calibration scatter bands.

  20. Micro friction stir welding of copper electrical contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of micro friction stir welding (μFSW of electrolytic tough pitch copper (CuETP in a lap and butt joint. Experimental plan was done in order to investigate the influence of tool design and welding parameters on the formation of defect free joints. The experiments were done using universal milling machine where the tool rotation speed varied between 600 and 1 900 rpm, welding speed between 14 and 93 mm/min and tilt angle between 3° and 5°. From the welds samples for analysis of microstructure and samples for tensile tests were prepared. The grain size in the nugget zone was greatly reduced compared to the base metal and the joint tensile strength exceeded the strength of the base metal.

  1. A cubic autocatalytic reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakubu, Aisha Aliyu; Yatim, Yazariah Mohd [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    In the present study, the dynamics of the cubic autocatalytic reaction model in a continuous stirred tank reactor with linear autocatalyst decay is studied. This model describes the behavior of two chemicals (reactant and autocatalyst) flowing into the tank reactor. The behavior of the model is studied analytically and numerically. The steady state solutions are obtained for two cases, i.e. with the presence of an autocatalyst and its absence in the inflow. In the case with an autocatalyst, the model has a stable steady state. While in the case without an autocatalyst, the model exhibits three steady states, where one of the steady state is stable, the second is a saddle point while the last is spiral node. The last steady state losses stability through Hopf bifurcation and the location is determined. The physical interpretations of the results are also presented.

  2. Characteristics of Friction Stir Processed UHMW Polyethylene Based Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, G.; Khan, I.

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) based composites are widely used in biomedical and food industries because of their biocompatibility and enhanced properties. The aim of this study was to fabricate UHMWPE / nHA composite through heat assisted Friction Stir Processing. The rotational speed (ω), feed rate (f), volume fraction of nHA (v) and shoulder temperature (T) were selected as the process parameters. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis revealed that these parameters have significant effects on the distribution of reinforcing material, defects formation and material mixing. Defects were observed especially at low levels of (ω, T) and high levels of (f, v). Low level of v with medium levels of other parameters resulted in better mixing and minimum defects. A 10% increase in strength with only 1% reduction in Percent Elongation was observed at the above set of conditions. Moreover, the resulted hardness of the composite was higher than that of the parent material.

  3. Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Z.

    2016-07-06

    A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used with a presumed joint probability density function (PDF). The jet, in hot and diluted coflow experimental set-up under MILD conditions, is simulated using this reactor model for two oxygen dilution levels. The computed results for mean temperature, major and minor species mass fractions are compared with the experimental data and simulation results obtained recently using a multi-environment transported PDF approach. Overall, a good agreement is observed at three different axial locations for these comparisons despite the over-predicted peak value of CO formation. This suggests that MILD combustion can be effectively modelled by the proposed PSR model with lower computational cost.

  4. Mixing-Structure Relationship in Jet-Stirred Reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ayass, Wassim W.

    2016-05-26

    In this study, measurements were performed to assess the overall mixing in jet-stirred reactors (JSRs) passively agitated by feed nozzles. The reactor diameter, nozzle shape, and nozzle diameter were varied to determine the effects of these geometrical parameters on mixing. The mixing was studied at ambient conditions using laser absorption spectroscopy to follow the exit concentration of a tracer gas, carbon dioxide, after a step change in its input flow. The results indicate that the use of a JSR of diameter D = 40 mm, having inclined or crossed nozzles of diameter d = 1 mm is recommended for low residence times up to 0.4 sec, while at moderate/high residence times 0.5-5 sec the use of a JSR of D = 56 mm and d = 0.3 mm having crossed nozzles is suggested.

  5. Increased performance of continuous stirred tank reactor with calcium supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Zhuliang; Yang, Haijun; Zhi, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), New Materials Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Continuous biohydrogen production with calcium supplementation at low hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was studied to maximize the hydrogen productivity of anaerobic mixed cultures. After stable operations at HRT of 8-4 h, the bioreactor became unstable when the HRT was lowered to 2 h. Supplementation of 100 mg/L calcium at HRT 2 h improved the operation stability through enhancement of cell retention with almost two-fold increase in cell density than that without calcium addition. Hydrogen production rate and hydrogen yield reached 24.5 L/d/L and 3.74 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose, respectively, both of which were the highest values our group have ever achieved. The results showed that calcium supplementation can be an effective way to improve the performance of CSTR at low HRT. (author)

  6. Mathematical identification of homogenisation processes in argon stirred ladle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michalek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models processed results of experimental investigation obtained during ladle gas argon bubbling realized by stir elements situated in the ladle bottom. Exact theoretical description of processes occurring at argon bubbling into steel would be very complex and it would lead to a system of non-linear partial differential equations describing transfer of momentum, heat, components, and with excitation function in the form of equation of so called deterministic chaos (argon bubbling. On the basis of pouring ladle model diagram and concentrations courses, the simplified linear physically adequate model was proposed, which described behavior of steel concentration in pouring ladle during its bubbling. The analysed process was understood in the form of a cybernetic model.

  7. Modelling the Thermomechanical Conditions in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich

    Friction Stir Welding is a solid-state welding process invented by TWI in 1991. The FSW process is unique in the sense that joining of un-weldable alloys readily can be made. The thermomechanical conditions present in the workpiece during the welding process are of great interest since...... these control the properties of the weld. In the present work, a set of experimental, analytical and numerical analyses are carried out in order to evaluate the thermomechanical conditions descriptive for welding of aluminium, in this case AA2024-T3, under a specific set of welding parameters. Despite...... these specific data, the developed models can be applied for other alloys and welding parameters as well. A detailed experiment is carried out which constitutes the basis for the development and validation of the numerical and analytical models presented in this work. The contact condition at the tool...

  8. Joining dissimilar materials using Friction Stir scribe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Hovanski, Yuri; Jana, Saumyadeep; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2016-10-03

    The ability to effectively join materials with vastly different melting points like Aluminum-Steel, Polymer composites - metals has been one of the road blocks in realizing multi-material components for light weighting efforts. Friction stir scribe (FSS) technique is a promising method that produces continuous overlap joint between materials with vastly different melting regimes and high temperature flow characteristics. FSS uses an offset cutting tool at the tip of the FSW pin to create an insitu mechanical interlock between material interfaces. With investments from Vehicle Technology office, US DOE and several automotive manufacturers and suppliers PNNL is developing the FSS process and has demonstrated viability of joining several material combinations. Details of welding trails, unique challenges and mitigation strategies in different material combinations will be discussed. Joint characterization including mechanical tests and joint performances will also be presented.

  9. Friction stir welding (FSW process of copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miličić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the structure of the weld joint of technically pure copper, which is realized using friction stir welding (FSW. The mechanism of thermo-mechanical processes of the FSW method has been identified and a correlation between the weld zone and its microstructure established. Parameters of the FSW welding technology influencing the zone of the seam material and the mechanical properties of the resulting joint were analyzed. The physical joining consists of intense mixing the base material along the joint line in the “doughy” phase. Substantial plastic deformations immediately beneath the frontal surface of tool provide fine-grained structure and a good quality joint. The optimum shape of the tool and the optimum welding regime (pressure force, rotation speed and the traverse speed of the tool in the heat affected zone enable the achievement of the same mechanical properties as those of the basic material, which justifies its use in welding reliable structures.

  10. Additional merit of coronal STIR imaging for MR imaging of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Back pain is a common clinical problem and is the frequent complaint for referral of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Coronal short tau inversion recovery sequence (STIR can provide diagnostically significant information in small percentage of patients. Materials and Methods: MRI examinations of a total of 350 patients were retrospectively included in the study. MR sequences were evaluated in two settings. One radiologist evaluated sagittal and axial images only, while another radiologist evaluated all sequences, including coronal STIR sequence. After recording the diagnoses, we compared the MRI findings in two subsets of patients to evaluate additional merit of coronal STIR imaging. Results: With addition of coronal STIR imaging, significant findings were observed in 24 subjects (6.8%. Twenty-one of these subjects were considered to be normal on other sequences and in three subjects diagnosis was changed with the addition of coronal STIR. Additional diagnoses on STIR included sacroiliitis, sacroiliac joint degenerative disease, sacral stress/insufficiency fracture/Looser′s zones, muscular sprain and atypical appendicitis. Conclusion: Coronal STIR imaging can provide additional diagnoses in a small percentage of patients presenting for lumbar spine MRI for back pain. Therefore, it should be included in the routine protocol for MR imaging of lumbar spine.

  11. Use of limited MR protocol (coronal STIR) in the evaluation of patients with hip pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, N.J.; Birjawi, G.A.; Hourani, M.H.; Chaaya, M.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the role of a limited MR protocol (coronal STIR) as the initial part of the MR examination in patients with hip pain. Eighty-five patients presenting with hip pain, and normal radiographs of the pelvis, and who underwent our full MR protocol for hips were included retrospectively in the study. The full protocol consists of coronal T1-weighted and short tau inversion-recovery (STIR), and axial T2-weighted sequences. Ninety-three MR examinations were performed. Two radiologists interpreted the STIR (limited) examinations and the full studies separately, masked to each other's findings and to the final diagnosis. Comparison between the two protocols was then undertaken. For both readers, all normal MR examinations on the coronal STIR limited protocol were normal on the full protocol, with an interobserver reliability of 0.96. The STIR protocol was able to detect the presence or absence of an abnormality in 100% of cases (sensitivity). The STIR-only protocol provided a specific diagnosis in only 65% of cases (specificity). A normal coronal STIR study of the hips in patients with hip pain and normal radiographs precludes the need for further pelvic MR sequences. Any abnormality detected on this limited protocol should be further assessed by additional MR sequences. (orig.)

  12. STIR imaging of lymphadenopathy: Advantages over conventional spin-echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, B.A.; Neumann, E.B.; Olson, D.O.; Nyberg, D.A.; Teefy, S.A.; Shields, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Spin-echo (SE) imaging of lymphadenopathy has been limited by the high signal of surrounding fat. With short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR), fat is cancelled (black), T1 and T2 contrast are additive, and pathologic nodes are white. STIR images (repetition time, 1,400 - 2,400; echo time, 36 or 40; inversion time, 100 or 125) of 69 patients with malignant adenopathy were compared with T1-weighted spin-echo (T1 SE) or intermediate SE and some T2 SE sequences at 0.15 T. Signal-intensity measurements of nodes versus adjacent tissues were used as a measure of contrast. Ratios of these values ranged from 2.5- to more than 17-fold greater for STIR versus T1 or intermediate SE sequences and to more than 40:1 for STIR versus T2 SE images. Some nodes detected on STIR were only identifiable in retrospection CT or T1 SE. In two cases, STIR detected minimally enlarged nodes not detected on CT; biopsy confirmed malignancy. Normal nodes have lower signal than malignant nodes; inflammatory nodes may mimic neoplasm. The authors replaced T2 SE with a combination of T1 SE and STIR, shortening imaging time and enhancing detection of lymphadenopathy

  13. Recent Developments and Research Progress on Friction Stir Welding of Titanium Alloys: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Sivaji; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Venkateswarulu, D.; Srikanth, V.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are joined by various welding processes. However, Fusion welding of titanium alloys resulted solidification problems like porosity, segregation and columnar grains. The problems occurred in conventional welding processes can be resolved using a solid state welding i.e. friction stir welding. Aluminium and Magnesium alloys were welded by friction stir welding. However alloys used for high temperature applications such as titanium alloys and steels are arduous to weld using friction stir welding process because of tool limitations. Present paper summarises the studies on joining of Titanium alloys using friction stir welding with different tool materials. Selection of tool material and effect of welding conditions on mechanical and microstructure properties of weldments were also reported. Major advantage with friction stir welding is, we can control the welding temperature above or below β-transus temperature by optimizing the process parameters. Stir zone in below beta transus condition consists of bi-modal microstructure and microstructure in above β-transus condition has large prior β- grains and α/β laths present in the grain. Welding experiments conducted below β- transus condition has better mechanical properties than welding at above β-transus condition. Hardness and tensile properties of weldments are correlated with the stir zone microstructure.

  14. Low-field STIR imaging of avascular necrosis, marrow edema, and infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, B.A.; Schwartz, A.N.; Olson, D.O.

    1987-01-01

    Based on 12 months experience with low-field (0.15-T) short-T1 inversion recovery (STIR) imaging, the authors replaced T2-weighted spin echo (T2SE) images with STIR for avascular necrosis (AVN). With STIR (repetition time 1,600 echo time 36, inversion time 100, 2 Avg, 256 x 128), fat is black and edema or joint fluid is bright white; 14 contiguous images take less than 7 minutes and have much greater contrast than T1 or T2 SE images. MR examinations of 36 patients with suspected AVN, marrow edema, or infarction were reviewed. AVN was equally well diagnosed with T1 SE and STIR in 16 of 16 patients. However, small effusions and the extent of marrow edema or infarction were better delineated on STIR. Joints with effusions were almost always symptomatic. Asymptomatic AVN was detected and confirmed by pressure measurements. AVN or asymptomatic marrow infarction was detected in four of six renal transplant patients. Serial STIR imaging may allow clinical monitoring of AVN. STIR improves detection of effusion, permits shorter imaging time, and can replace T2SE for AVN

  15. GANDALF: users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strout, R.E. II; Beach, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The GANDALF computer code was written to calculate neutron dose equivalent given the pulse-height data obtained by using a Linear Energy Transfer (LET) proportional counter. The code also uses pre- and/or post-calibration spectra, from an alpha source, to determine a calibration factor in keV/μ/channel. Output from the code consists of the effective radius of the detection chamber in microns, a calibration factor in keV/μ/channel, and the total dose and dose equivalent in rad or rem between any two LET energies by using the equations by Attix and Roesch [Radiation Dosimetry, 1, 71 (1968)]. This report is a user's manual and is not intended as anything else, and assumes that the user has a basic knowledge of the LLL Octopus timesharing system. However, a very brief description of how the code operates is included

  16. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  17. FRMAC Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, K.

    2010-05-01

    In the event of a major radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) will coordinate the federal agencies that have various statutory responsibilities. The FRMAC is responsible for coordinating all environmental radiological monitoring, sampling, and assessment activities for the response. This manual describes the FRMAC’s response activities in a radiological incident. It also outlines how FRMAC fits in the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under the National Response Framework (NRF) and describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the affected areas. In the event of a potential or existing major radiological incident, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is responsible for establishing and managing the FRMAC during the initial phases.

  18. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  19. CALENDF-2010: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Ribon, Pierre; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille

    2011-09-01

    CALENDF-2010 represents a Fortran-95 update of the 1994, 2001 then 2005 code distribution with emphasise on programming quality and standards, physics and usage improvements. Devised to process multigroup cross-sections it relies on Gauss quadrature mathematical principle and strength. The followings processes can be handled by the code: moment probability table and effective cross-section calculation; pointwise cross section, probability table and effective cross-section regrouping; probability table condensation; probability table mix for several isotopes; probability table interpolation; effective cross section based probability table calculations; probability table calculations from effective cross-sections; cross-section comparison, complete energy pointwise cross-section processing and thickness dependent averaged transmission sample calculation. The CALENDF user manual, after having listed all principal code functions, describes sequentially each of them and gives comments on their associated output streams. Installation procedures, test cases and running time platform comparisons are given in the appendix. (authors)

  20. Google The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Milstein, Sarah; Dornfest, Rael; MacDonald, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Google.com is one of the most popular sites on the Internet and is used around the world by millions of people every day. Sure, you know how to "Google it" when you're searching for something--anything!--on the Web. It's plenty fast and easy to use. But did you know how much more you could achieve with the world's best search engine by clicking beyond the "Google Search" button? While you can interface with Google in 97 languages and glean results in 35, you can't find any kind of instruction manual from Google. Lucky for you, our fully updated and greatly expanded second edition to the best

  1. WISDAAM software programmer's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    The WISDAAM system was developed to provide quality control over test data associated with in situ testing at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Assurance of data quality is of critical importance as these tests supply the information which will be used for development and verification of the technology required for repository implementation. The amount of data collected from the tests, which are some of the largest ever fielded in an underground facility, prompted the undertaking of a major project task to address data processing. The goal was to create a conceptual umbrella under which all of the activities associated with processing WIPP data (i.e., data reduction, archiving, retrieval, etc.) could be grouped. The WISDAAM system was the product of this task. The overall system covers electronic as well as manual data processing; however, this document deals primarily with those operations implemented by software running on a VAX computer

  2. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  3. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  4. STAIRS User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadjokov, V; Dragulev, V; Gove, N; Schmid, H

    1976-10-15

    The STorage And Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) of IBM is described from the user's point of view. The description is based on the experimental use of STAIRS at the IAEA computer, with INIS and AGRIS data bases, from June 1975 to May 1976. Special attention is paid to what may be termed the hierarchical approach to retrieval in STAIRS. Such an approach allows for better use of the intrinsic data-base structure and, hence, contributes to higher recall and/or relevance ratios in retrieval. The functions carried out by STAIRS are explained and the communication language between the user and the system outlined. Details are given of the specific structure of the INIS and AGRIS data bases for STAIRS. The manual should enable an inexperienced user to start his first on-line dialogues by means of a CRT or teletype terminal. (author)

  5. Wikipedia the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Want to be part of the largest group-writing project in human history? Learn how to contribute to Wikipedia, the user-generated online reference for the 21st century. Considered more popular than eBay, Microsoft.com, and Amazon.com, Wikipedia servers respond to approximately 30,000 requests per second, or about 2.5 billion per day. It's become the first point of reference for people the world over who need a fact fast.If you want to jump on board and add to the content, Wikipedia: The Missing Manual is your first-class ticket. Wikipedia has more than 9 million entries in 250 languages, over 2

  6. STAIRS User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjokov, V.; Dragulev, V.; Gove, N.; Schmid, H.

    1976-10-01

    The STorage And Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) of IBM is described from the user's point of view. The description is based on the experimental use of STAIRS at the IAEA computer, with INIS and AGRIS data bases, from June 1975 to May 1976. Special attention is paid to what may be termed the hierarchical approach to retrieval in STAIRS. Such an approach allows for better use of the intrinsic data-base structure and, hence, contributes to higher recall and/or relevance ratios in retrieval. The functions carried out by STAIRS are explained and the communication language between the user and the system outlined. Details are given of the specific structure of the INIS and AGRIS data bases for STAIRS. The manual should enable an inexperienced user to start his first on-line dialogues by means of a CRT or teletype terminal. (author)

  7. GRSAC Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model

  8. GRSAC Users Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  9. Nuclear medicine resources manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    Over the past decade many IAEA programmes have significantly enhanced the capabilities of numerous Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Functional imaging using nuclear medicine procedures has become an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment planning and management of patients. However, due to the heterogeneous growth and development of nuclear medicine in the IAEA's Member States, the operating standards of practice vary considerably from country to country and region to region. This publication is the result of the work of over 30 international professionals who have assisted the IAEA in the process of standardization and harmonization. This manual sets out the prerequisites for the establishment of a nuclear medicine service, including basic infrastructure, suitable premises, reliable supply of electricity, maintenance of a steady temperature, dust exclusion for gamma cameras and radiopharmacy dispensaries. It offers clear guidance on human resources and training needs for medical doctors, technologists, radiopharmaceutical scientists, physicists and specialist nurses in the practice of nuclear medicine. The manual describes the requirements for safe preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, it contains essential requirements for maintenance of facilities and instruments, for radiation hygiene and for optimization of nuclear medicine operational performance with the use of working clinical protocols. The result is a comprehensive guide at an international level that contains practical suggestions based on the experience of professionals around the globe. This publication will be of interest to nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, medical educationalists, diagnostic centre managers, medical physicists, medical technologists, radiopharmacists, specialist nurses, clinical scientists and those engaged in quality assurance and control systems in public health in both developed and developing countries

  10. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  11. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TIDALLY STIRRED DISKY DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Using collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the tidal evolution of late-type, rotationally supported dwarfs inside Milky Way sized host galaxies. Our study focuses on a wide variety of dwarf orbital configurations and initial structures. During the evolution, the disky dwarfs undergo strong mass loss, the stellar disks are transformed into spheroids, and rotation is replaced by random motions of the stars. Thus, the late-type progenitors are transformed into early-type dwarfs as envisioned by the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies in the Local Group. We determine the photometric properties of the dwarfs, including the total visual magnitude, the half-light radius, and the central surface brightness as they would be measured by an observer near the galactic center. Special emphasis is also placed on studying their kinematics and shapes. We demonstrate that the measured values are biased by a number of observational effects including the increasing angle of the observation cone near the orbital pericenter, the fact that away from the pericenter the tidal tails are typically oriented along the line of sight, and the fact that for most of the evolution the stellar components of the dwarfs are triaxial ellipsoids whose major axis tumbles with respect to the line of sight. Finally, we compare the measured properties of the simulated dwarfs to those of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The evolutionary tracks of the dwarfs in different parameter planes and the correlations between their different properties, especially the total magnitude and the surface brightness, strongly suggest that present-day dSph galaxies may have indeed formed from late-type progenitors as proposed by the tidal stirring scenario.

  12. Modeling of bubble break-up in stirred tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrangian code LAG3D for dispersed phase flow modeling was implemented with the introduction of bubble break-up model. The research was restricted on bubbles with diameter less than 2 mm, i.e. bubbles which could be treated as spheres. The model was developed according to the approach of Martinez-Bazan model. It was rearranged and adjusted for the use in the particular problem of flow in stirred tanks. Developed model is stochastic one, based on the assumption that shear in the flow induces the break of the bubble. As a dominant parameter a dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy was used. Computations were performed for two different types of the stirrer: Rushton turbine, and Pitch blade turbine. The geometry of the tank was kept constant (four blades. Two different types of liquids with very big difference in viscosity were used, i.e. silicon oil and dimethylsulfoxide, in order to enable computation of the flow in turbulent regime as well. As a parameter of the flow, the number of rotations of the stirrer was varying. As a result of the computation the fields of velocity of both phases were got, as well as the fields of bubble concentration bubble mean diameter and bubble Sauter diameter. To estimate the influence of the break-up model on the processes in the stirred tank a computations with and without this model were performed and compared. A considerable differences were found not only in the field of bubble diameter, but also in the field of bubble concentration. That confirmed a necessity of the introduction of such model. A comparison with the experiments performed with phase Doppler anemometry technique showed very good agreement in velocity and concentration profiles of the gas phase. The results for the average bubble diameter are qualitatively the same, but in almost all computations about 20% smaller bubble diameter was got than in the measurements.

  13. Delamination of hexagonal boron nitride in a stirred media mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.; Körner, J.; Peukert, W.

    2013-01-01

    A scalable process for delamination of hexagonal boron nitride in an aqueous solution of the non-ionic surfactant TWEEN85 using a stirred media mill is presented. The size of the ZrO 2 beads used as grinding media governs the dimensions of the ground boron nitride particles as atomic force microscopic investigations (AFM) reveal: the mean flakes thickness decreases from 3.5 to 1.5 nm and the ratio between mean flake area and mean flake thickness increases from 2,200 to 5,800 nm if the grinding media size is reduced from 0.8 to 0.1 mm. This result shows that a high number of stress events in combination with low stress energy (small grinding media) facilitate delamination of the layered material whereas at high stress energies in combination with a low number of stress events (large grinding media) breakage of the layers dominates over delamination. The results of particle height analyses by AFM show that few-layer structures have been formed by stirred media milling. This result is in agreement with the layer thickness dependence of the delamination energy for hexagonal boron nitride. The concentration of nanoparticles remaining dispersed after centrifugation of the ground suspension increases with grinding time and with decreasing grinding media size. After 5 h of grinding using 0.1 mm ZrO 2 grinding media the yield of nanoparticle formation is about 5 wt%. The nanoparticles exhibit the typical Raman peak for hexagonal boron nitride at 1,366 cm −1 showing that the in-plane order in the milled platelets is remained.

  14. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  15. Effect of temperature on hydration kinetics and polymerization of tricalcium silicate in stirred suspensions of CaO-saturated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.; Korhonen, Charles J.; Sletten, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate was hydrated at 274, 278, 283, 298, and 313 K in stirred suspensions of saturated CaO solutions under a nitrogen-gas atmosphere until the end of deceleratory period. The suspension conductivities and energy flows were measured continuously. The individual reaction rates for tricalcium silicate dissolution, calcium silicate hydrate precipitation, and calcium hydroxide precipitation were calculated from these measurements. The results suggest that the proportion of tricalcium silicate dissolved was determined by the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution and the time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation. The time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation was more sensitive to changes in temperature than was the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution, so that the proportion of tricalcium silicate hydration dissolved by the deceleratory period increased with decreasing temperature. The average chain length of the calcium silicate hydrate ascertained by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy increased with increasing temperature

  16. Denitrification performance of Pseudomonas denitrificans in a fluidized-bed biofilm reactor and in a stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaneo, C.; Nicolella, C.; Rovatti, M. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2003-04-09

    Denitrification of a synthetic wastewater containing nitrates and methanol as carbon source was carried out in two systems - a fluidized-bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) and a stirred tank reactor (STR) - using Pseudomonas denitrificans over a period of five months. Nitrogen loading was varied during operation of both reactors to assess differences in the response to transient conditions. Experimental data were analyzed to obtain a comparison of denitrification kinetics in biofilm and suspended growth reactors. The comparison showed that the volumetric degradation capacity in the FBBR (5.36 kg {sub N} . m{sup -3} . d{sup -1}) was higher than in the STR, due to higher biomass concentration (10 kg {sub BM} . m{sup -3} vs 1.2 kg {sub BM} m{sup -3}). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Site security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As required by 10 CFR Part 73, this training manual provides guidance to assist licensees in the development of security personnel training and qualifications programs. The information contained in the manual typifies the level and scope of training for personnel assigned to perform security related tasks and job duties associated with the protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors

  18. Kinesiology Workbook and Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth W.

    This manual is written for students in anatomy, kinesiology, or introductory biomechanics courses. The book is divided into two sections, a kinesiology workbook and a laboratory manual. The two sections parallel each other in content and format. Each is divided into three corresponding sections: (1) Anatomical bases for movement description; (2)…

  19. Dental Chairside Technique. Student's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…

  20. Managerial Accounting. Course Administrative Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant. Inst. for Personal and Career Development.

    This manual is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting and intended to aid instructors in helping students to work their way through the self-instructional study guide around which the course is organized. The manual describes the various materials and components used in the self-instructional sequence…

  1. Effects of Fusion Tack Welds on Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Pendleton, M. L.; Brooke, S. A.; Russell, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to know whether fusion tack welds would affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir seam welds in 2195-T87 aluminum alloy, the fracture stresses of 144 tensile test coupons cut from 24 welded panels containing segments of friction stir welds were measured. Each of the panels was welded under unique processing conditions. A measure of the effect of the tack welds for each panel was devised. An analysis of the measures of the tack weld effect supported the hypothesis that fusion tack welds do not affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir welds to a 5% level of confidence.

  2. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Weld Joints of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, T.; Otsuka, M.; Yokota, T.; Ueki, T.

    The applicability of friction stir welding to hot rolled sheet of commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 plates has been investigated. Friction stir weld joint showed mechanical strength comparable to that of base material, though the ductility remained at one half of that of the latter. The results are consistent with the microstructure which is characterized by a fine grained bond layer bounded by-intermediate grained base metals. It is found that both anodizing treatment and insertion of aluminum foil between batting faces do not degrade the joint properties at all. The results suggest that friction stir welding can be potentially applied to magnesium alloy.

  3. Structural Phase Evolution in Ultrasonic-Assisted Friction Stir Welded 2195 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Fortuna, S. V.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Chumaevskii, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The authors examined the structural and phase state of fixed joints produced by method of friction stir welding (FSW) and ultrasonic-assisted friction stir welding (UAFSW) from extruded profile of aluminum alloy AA2195. In order to identify the role of ultrasonic application in the course of welding, such characteristics, as volume fraction and average size of secondary particles are compared in the base material and stir zones of FSW and UAFSW joints. By applying the methods of SEM and TEM analysis, researchers established the complex character of phase transitions as a result of ultrasonic application.

  4. Some microstructural characterisations in a friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, F.; Poissonnet, S.; Bonnaillie, P.; Boulanger, L.; Forest, L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize microstructure of a friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened alloy. The welded material is constituted by two sheets of an yttria-dispersion-strengthened PM 2000 ferritic steel. Different areas of the friction stir welded product were analyzed using field emission gun secondary electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and electron microprobe whereas nanoindentation was used to evaluate mechanical properties. The observed microstructural evolution, including distribution of the yttria dispersoids, after friction stir welding process is discussed and a correlation between the microstructure and the results of nanoindentation tests is established.

  5. The operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, A.; Krotil, H.; Klein, W.

    1976-01-01

    The operating manual is one of many technical documents which the nuclear power plant operator needs for ensuring safe operation. For the operating staff, however, there is only one document, namely the operating manual. The operating manual is an essential element in bringing man and machine in harmony. This is necessary for safe and, as far as possible, uninterrupted operation of the power plant. The operating manual is the only document containing binding instructions for plant operation. All the tasks of plant operation which are carried out by plant staff are described in the operating manual in a form which is as clear and comprehensible as possible. A considerable number of these tasks can only be carried out by man, namely: 1) tasks concerning operational organization, 2) all non-automated areas of plant operation. (orig./TK) [de

  6. Use of Friction Stir Welding and Friction Stir Processing for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Joining Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. I. Cole; J. F. Jue

    2006-01-01

    Application of the latest developments in materials technology may greatly aid in the successful pursuit of next generation reactor and transmutation technologies. One such area where significant progress is needed is joining of advanced fuels and materials. Rotary friction welding, also referred to as friction stir welding (FSW), has shown great promise as a method for joining traditionally difficult to join materials such as aluminum alloys. This relatively new technology, first developed in 1991, has more recently been applied to higher melting temperature alloys such as steels, nickel-based and titanium alloys. An overview of the FSW technology is provided and two specific nuclear fuels and materials applications where the technique may be used to overcome limitations of conventional joining technologies are highlighted

  7. Origin of unusual fracture in stirred zone for friction stir welded 2198-T8 Al-Li alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ni, D.R., E-mail: drni@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiao, B.L.; Ma, Z.Y. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wu, W.; Zhang, R.X. [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Zeng, Y.S., E-mail: yszeng@hotmail.com [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China)

    2017-05-02

    Friction stir welded (FSW) joints of conventional precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys usually fracture in the lowest hardness zone (LHZ) during tension testing. However, all of the FSW joints of a 2198-T8 Al-Li alloy fractured in the stirred zone (SZ) instead of the LHZ with the welding parameters of 800 rpm-200 mm/min and 1600 rpm-200 mm/min under the condition that no welding defects existed in the SZ. The experiment results revealed that lazy S was not the dominant factor resulting in the unusual fracture. The SZ consisted of three subzones, i.e., the shoulder-affected zone, the pin-affected zone, and the transition zone between them. While the former two zones were characterized by fine and equiaxed recrystallized grains, incompletely dynamically recrystallized microstructure containing coarse elongated non-recrystallized grains was observed in the transition zone. The transition zone exhibited the lowest average Taylor factor in the SZ, resulting in a region that was crystallographically weak. Furthermore, obvious lithium segregation at grain boundaries was observed in the transition zone via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis, but not in the shoulder-affected zone or the pin-affected zone. The combined actions of both the two factors resulted in the appearance of preferential intergranular fracture in the transition zone and eventually caused the failure in the SZ. The lithium segregation at grain boundaries in the transition zone was closely associated with both the segregation in the base material and the partially dynamically recrystallized microstructure resulting from the inhomogeneous plastic deformation in the SZ.

  8. Origin of unusual fracture in stirred zone for friction stir welded 2198-T8 Al-Li alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.; Ni, D.R.; Xiao, B.L.; Ma, Z.Y.; Wu, W.; Zhang, R.X.; Zeng, Y.S.

    2017-01-01

    Friction stir welded (FSW) joints of conventional precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys usually fracture in the lowest hardness zone (LHZ) during tension testing. However, all of the FSW joints of a 2198-T8 Al-Li alloy fractured in the stirred zone (SZ) instead of the LHZ with the welding parameters of 800 rpm-200 mm/min and 1600 rpm-200 mm/min under the condition that no welding defects existed in the SZ. The experiment results revealed that lazy S was not the dominant factor resulting in the unusual fracture. The SZ consisted of three subzones, i.e., the shoulder-affected zone, the pin-affected zone, and the transition zone between them. While the former two zones were characterized by fine and equiaxed recrystallized grains, incompletely dynamically recrystallized microstructure containing coarse elongated non-recrystallized grains was observed in the transition zone. The transition zone exhibited the lowest average Taylor factor in the SZ, resulting in a region that was crystallographically weak. Furthermore, obvious lithium segregation at grain boundaries was observed in the transition zone via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis, but not in the shoulder-affected zone or the pin-affected zone. The combined actions of both the two factors resulted in the appearance of preferential intergranular fracture in the transition zone and eventually caused the failure in the SZ. The lithium segregation at grain boundaries in the transition zone was closely associated with both the segregation in the base material and the partially dynamically recrystallized microstructure resulting from the inhomogeneous plastic deformation in the SZ.

  9. Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Tool Advance Speed via Monte-Carlo Simulation of the Friction Stir Welding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kirk A; St-Georges, Lyne; Kiss, Laszlo I

    2014-04-30

    Recognition of the friction stir welding process is growing in the aeronautical and aero-space industries. To make the process more available to the structural fabrication industry (buildings and bridges), being able to model the process to determine the highest speed of advance possible that will not cause unwanted welding defects is desirable. A numerical solution to the transient two-dimensional heat diffusion equation for the friction stir welding process is presented. A non-linear heat generation term based on an arbitrary piecewise linear model of friction as a function of temperature is used. The solution is used to solve for the temperature distribution in the Al 6061-T6 work pieces. The finite difference solution of the non-linear problem is used to perform a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS). A polynomial response surface (maximum welding temperature as a function of advancing and rotational speed) is constructed from the MCS results. The response surface is used to determine the optimum tool speed of advance and rotational speed. The exterior penalty method is used to find the highest speed of advance and the associated rotational speed of the tool for the FSW process considered. We show that good agreement with experimental optimization work is possible with this simplified model. Using our approach an optimal weld pitch of 0.52 mm/rev is obtained for 3.18 mm thick AA6061-T6 plate. Our method provides an estimate of the optimal welding parameters in less than 30 min of calculation time.

  10. Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in water by stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölgyessy, P; Nagyová, S; Sládkovičová, M

    2017-04-21

    A simple, robust, sensitive and environment friendly method for the determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in water using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled to thermal desorption-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed. SBSE was performed using 100mL of water sample, 20mL of methanol as a modifier, and a commercial sorptive stir bar (with 10mm×0.5mm PDMS layer) during extraction period of 16h. After extraction, the sorptive stir bar was thermally desorbed and online analysed by GC-MS/MS. Method performance was evaluated for MilliQ and surface water spiked samples. For both types of matrices, a linear dynamic range of 0.5-3.0μgL -1 with correlation coefficients >0.999 and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative response factors (RRFs) <12% was established. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.06 and 0.08μgL -1 , and the precision (repeatability) of 6.4 and 7.7% (RSDs) were achieved for MilliQ and surface water, respectively. The method also showed good robustness, recovery and accuracy. The obtained performance characteristics indicate that the method is suitable for screening and monitoring and compliance checking with environmental quality standards (EQS, set by the EU) for SCCPs in surface waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Manual on radiation haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    Studies of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have led to the introduction of various measures to protect both the public and personnel engaged in occupations where they could be exposed to such radiations. Many recent studies deal with the basic mechanism of radiation injuries and with their treatment, and some of these investigations have been sponsored by the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fundamental studies of the blood-forming tissue have provided the information necessary for formulating recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Heinecke in 1903 was the first to note damage to the haemato-poietic tissue after whole-body irradiation. Since that time we have learned much of the functions of the various components of the blood. Many studies have been undertaken to understand the proliferative capacities of the various 'stem' cells involved in the haematopoietic processes and the extent to which these processes can be interfered with by ionizing radiations. We now understand which are the reliable criteria by which radiation damage can be assessed from its effects on the haematopoietic system. In addition, much work has been done to determine how radiation injury to the hematopoietic system may be offset by therapy. In developing countries radiation is being increasingly applied in medical work and many other fields, and there is an immediate need to disseminate information relevant to radiation hazards. This Manual on Radiation Haematology is an attempt at a synthesis of much that is relevant to these matters. As the Contents List shows, many experts have contributed to the book. Their styles have been changed as little as possible. A certain amount of duplication of information could not be avoided; where an editorial decision to remove a passage would have resulted in losing the exact concept that the author wished to express, this passage has been retained. Information from

  12. New highway accident location manual for Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Missouri HAL manual is used to identify, analyze, and correct high crash locations, and has not been updated since : 1999. This new edition brings the manual up to date, while incorporating the methodology of the national Highway Safety : Manual ...

  13. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  14. TJ-II Library Manual (Version 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.; Milligen, B. Ph. van; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2001-01-01

    This is a manual of use of the TJ2 Numerical Library that has been developed for making numerical computations of different TJ-II configurations. This manual is a new version of the earlier manual CIEMAT report 806. (Author)

  15. Manual braille writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Lawrence S.; Turner, Joe H.

    1992-01-01

    A manual-type braille writer that provides for both writing and reading in a normal left-to-right manner. In the preferred form, this braille writer has a clip board type base, and in the preferred embodiment a guide plate assembly can be moved to, and releasable fixed at, selected vertical locations along this base. The guide plate assembly is provided with a plurality of character cells uniformly spaced along rows across the guide plate assembly as well as in uniformly spaced rows. This guide plate assembly has a lower portion to be placed under a sheet of paper positioned on the clip board base and an upper portion to be positioned on top of the sheet. This upper portion is hinged with respect to the lower portion. Each character cell is typically made up of six appropriately spaced pins extending up from the lower portion that are aligned with a rosette-shaped cutout in the upper portion. A stylus member is provided that has a distal end to be fitted into the cutout of the character cell so that a recess in the end thereof presses the writing paper over the pin associated with that recess to produce a braille dot at that location. When desired, the upper portion can be lifted up so that the text already written can be read or to determine the place for initiating writing when writing has been interrupted.

  16. Manual braille writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, L.S.; Turner, J.H.

    1992-07-28

    A manual-type braille writer is described that provides for both writing and reading in a normal left-to-right manner. In the preferred form, this braille writer has a clip board type base, and in the preferred embodiment a guide plate assembly can be moved to, and releasable fixed at, selected vertical locations along this base. The guide plate assembly is provided with a plurality of character cells uniformly spaced along rows across the guide plate assembly as well as in uniformly spaced rows. This guide plate assembly has a lower portion to be placed under a sheet of paper positioned on the clip board base and an upper portion to be positioned on top of the sheet. This upper portion is hinged with respect to the lower portion. Each character cell is typically made up of six appropriately spaced pins extending up from the lower portion that are aligned with a rosette-shaped cutout in the upper portion. A stylus member is provided that has a distal end to be fitted into the cutout of the character cell so that a recess in the end thereof presses the writing paper over the pin associated with that recess to produce a braille dot at that location. When desired, the upper portion can be lifted up so that the text already written can be read or to determine the place for initiating writing when writing has been interrupted. 10 figs.

  17. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  18. DIMAC program user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Song, Tae Young

    2003-11-01

    DIMAC (A DIspersion Metallic fuel performance Analysis Code) is a computer program for simulating the behavior of dispersion fuel rods under normal operating conditions of HYPER. It computes the one-dimensional temperature distribution and the thermo-mechanical characteristics of fuel rod under the steady state operation condition, including the swelling and rod deformation. DIMAC was developed based on the experience of research reactor fuel. DIMAC consists of the temperature calculation module, the mechanical swelling calculation module, and the fuel deformation calculation module in order to predict the deformation of a dispersion fuel as a function of power history. Because there are a little of available U-TRU-Zr or TRU-Zr characteristics, the material data of U-Pu-Zr or Pu-Zr are used for those of U-TRU-Zr or TRU-Zr. This report is mainly intended as a user's manual for the DIMAC code. The general description on this code, the description on input parameter, the description on each subroutine, the sample problem and the sample input and partial output are written in this report

  19. DIMAC program user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Song, Tae Young

    2003-11-01

    DIMAC (A DIspersion Metallic fuel performance Analysis Code) is a computer program for simulating the behavior of dispersion fuel rods under normal operating conditions of HYPER. It computes the one-dimensional temperature distribution and the thermo-mechanical characteristics of fuel rod under the steady state operation condition, including the swelling and rod deformation. DIMAC was developed based on the experience of research reactor fuel. DIMAC consists of the temperature calculation module, the mechanical swelling calculation module, and the fuel deformation calculation module in order to predict the deformation of a dispersion fuel as a function of power history. Because there are a little of available U-TRU-Zr or TRU-Zr characteristics, the material data of U-Pu-Zr or Pu-Zr are used for those of U-TRU-Zr or TRU-Zr. This report is mainly intended as a user's manual for the DIMAC code. The general description on this code, the description on input parameter, the description on each subroutine, the sample problem and the sample input and partial output are written in this repo0008.

  20. IAEA safeguards technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Part F of the Safeguards Technical Manual is being issued in three volumes. Volume 1 was published in 1977 and revised slightly in 1979. Volume 1 discusses basic probability concepts, statistical inference, models and measurement errors, estimation of measurement variances, and calibration. These topics of general interest in a number of application areas, are presented with examples drawn from nuclear materials safeguards. The final two chapters in Volume 1 deal with problem areas unique to safeguards: calculating the variance of MUF and of D respectively. Volume 2 continues where Volume 1 left off with a presentation of topics of specific interest to Agency safeguards. These topics include inspection planning from a design and effectiveness evaluation viewpoint, on-facility site inspection activities, variables data analysis as applied to inspection data, preparation of inspection reports with respect to statistical aspects of the inspection, and the distribution of inspection samples to more than one analytical laboratory. Volume 3 covers generally the same material as Volumes 1 and 2 but with much greater unity and cohesiveness. Further, the cook-book style of the previous two volumes has been replaced by one that makes use of equations and formulas as opposed to computational steps, and that also provides the bases for the statistical procedures discussed. Hopefully, this will help minimize the frequency of misapplications of the techniques

  1. Program management system manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    OCRWM has developed a program management system (PMS) to assist in organizing, planning, directing and controlling the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. A well defined management system is necessary because: (1) the Program is a complex technical undertaking with a large number of participants, (2) the disposal and storage facilities to be developed by the Program must be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and hence are subject to rigorous quality assurance (QA) requirements, (3) the legislation mandating the Program creates a dichotomy between demanding schedules of performance and a requirement for close and continuous consultation and cooperation with external entities, (4) the various elements of the Program must be managed as parts of an integrated waste management system, (5) the Program has an estimated total system life cycle cost of over $30 billion, and (6) the Program has a unique fiduciary responsibility to the owners and generators of the nuclear waste for controlling costs and minimizing the user fees paid into the Nuclear Waste Fund. This PMS Manual is designed and structured to facilitate strong, effective Program management by providing policies and requirements for organizing, planning, directing and controlling the major Program functions

  2. Stirling engine design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  3. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Ethyl Levulinate Oxidation in a Jet-Stirred Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jui-Yang

    2017-01-01

    levulinate chemical kinetic model was first developed by Dr. Stephen Dooley, Trinity College Dublin, and simulated under the same conditions, using the Perfect-Stirred Reactor code in Chemkin software. In comparing the simulation results with experimental

  4. Characterization of Microstructure and Microtexture in Longitudinal Sections from Friction Stir Processed Nickel-Aluminum Bronze

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faires, Kenneth B

    2003-01-01

    .... Friction stir processing (FSP) represents a new technology for surface hardening of as-cast NAB by means of severe plastic deformation induced by a rotating tool that is traversed across the surface of a material...

  5. Investigation of the L-Glutamic acid polymorphism: Comparison between stirred and stagnant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Yousra; Gagnière, Emilie; Chabanon, Elodie; Bounahmidi, Tijani; Mangin, Denis

    2016-02-01

    This work highlights the effect of the stirring, the temperature and the supersaturation on the cooling crystallization of L-Glutamic acid (LGlu) polymorphs. First, solubility measurements of the metastable polymorph α and the stable polymorph β were performed. Then, crystallization experiments were carried out in stirred vessel and in stagnant cell. All these experiments were monitored by in situ devices. The effect of the temperature on the LGlu polymorphs was found to be more relevant than the supersaturation in the stirred crystallizer. In the stagnant cell, only the stable form β crystallized regardless of the operating conditions. Moreover, an unexpected and new habit of the β form was discovered and confirmed. These results suggest that the temperature and the stirring can strongly affect the nucleation and the growth kinetics of polymorphic forms.

  6. Hybrid multi-response optimization of friction stir spot welds: failure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O O OJO

    2018-06-08

    Jun 8, 2018 ... Friction stir spot welding; effective bonded size; failure load; expelled flash volume; hybrid multi- response ... eliminated with the application of FSSW process. Conse- ... design of experiment is generally applied in either single.

  7. The role of the STIR sequence in magnetic resonance imaging examination of bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfieri, R.; Baddeley, H.; Pringle, J.S.; Souhami, R.

    1990-01-01

    Sixty patients with primary bone tumours were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.5 T with both conventional spin-echo (SE) and short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The STIR sequence with T 1 of 120-130 ms in all cases suppressed the high signal from fatty bone marrow, giving a clear depiction of tumour extent, in both its intramedullary and soft-tissue components, and is superior to conventional SE images. The high sensitivity (100% of our cases) of this technique is counterbalanced by its lack of specificity: on STIR sequences both tumour and peritumorous oedema give an increase of signal intensity, limiting assessment of tumour extent. Peritumoral oedema, only present in this series in malignant neoplasms, may however be differentiated on the basis of the configuration of the abnormal areas, and by comparing STIR images with short repetition time/echo time sequence results. (author)

  8. Probing weld quality monitoring in friction stir welding through characterization of signals by fractal theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Bipul; Bag, Swarup; Pal, Sukhomay [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2017-05-15

    Providing solutions towards the improvisation of welding technologies is the recent trend in the Friction stir welding (FSW) process. We present a monitoring approach for ultimate tensile strength of the friction stir welded joints based on information extracted from process signals through implementing fractal theory. Higuchi and Katz algorithms were executed on current and tool rotational speed signals acquired during friction stir welding to estimate fractal dimensions. Estimated fractal dimensions when correlated with the ultimate tensile strength of the joints deliver an increasing trend with the increase in joint strength. It is observed that dynamicity of the system strengthens the weld joint, i.e., the greater the fractal dimension, the better will be the quality of the weld. Characterization of signals by fractal theory indicates that the single-valued indicator can be an alternative for effective monitoring of the friction stir welding process.

  9. Effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wentuo; Kimura, Akihiko; Tsuda, Naoto; Serizawa, Hisashi; Chen, Dongsheng; Je, Hwanil; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Ha, Yoosung; Morisada, Yoshiaki; Noto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The weldability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels is a critical obstructive in the development and use of these steels. Friction stir welding has been considered to be a promising way to solve this problem. The main purpose of this work was to reveal the effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded ODS ferritic steel. The grain appearances and the misorientation angles of grain boundaries in different welded zones were investigated by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Results showed that the mechanical force imposed by the stir tool can activate and promote the recrystallization characterized by the transformation of boundaries from LABs to HABs, and contribute to the grain refinement. The type of recrystallization in the stir zone can be classified as the continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX)

  10. Effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Wentuo, E-mail: hanwentuo@hotmail.com [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tsuda, Naoto [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Serizawa, Hisashi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Chen, Dongsheng [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Je, Hwanil [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Fujii, Hidetoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ha, Yoosung [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Morisada, Yoshiaki [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Noto, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The weldability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels is a critical obstructive in the development and use of these steels. Friction stir welding has been considered to be a promising way to solve this problem. The main purpose of this work was to reveal the effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded ODS ferritic steel. The grain appearances and the misorientation angles of grain boundaries in different welded zones were investigated by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Results showed that the mechanical force imposed by the stir tool can activate and promote the recrystallization characterized by the transformation of boundaries from LABs to HABs, and contribute to the grain refinement. The type of recrystallization in the stir zone can be classified as the continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX)

  11. Superplastic forming of 7475 Al sheet after friction stir processing (FSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, M.; Bingel, W.H.; Fuller, C. [Rockwell Scientific Co., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Barnes, A.J. [Superform USA, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since the invention of friction stir welding (FSW) in 1991, an increasing number of successful applications have been found for this unique solid-state welding technique. More recently, attention has been given to utilizing the mechanics of friction stirring to thermo-mechanically modify the microstructure of aluminum alloys to create or enhance superplasticity. Until now, superplasticity induced by friction stir processing (FSP) has only been demonstrated in small samples and evaluated by hot tensile elongation testing. The present work describes what we believe to be the first biaxial testing and full size component superplastic forming of friction stir processed aluminum sheet. The remarkable formability demonstrated in these 'first time' trials is described in detail. (orig.)

  12. Probing weld quality monitoring in friction stir welding through characterization of signals by fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Bipul; Bag, Swarup; Pal, Sukhomay

    2017-01-01

    Providing solutions towards the improvisation of welding technologies is the recent trend in the Friction stir welding (FSW) process. We present a monitoring approach for ultimate tensile strength of the friction stir welded joints based on information extracted from process signals through implementing fractal theory. Higuchi and Katz algorithms were executed on current and tool rotational speed signals acquired during friction stir welding to estimate fractal dimensions. Estimated fractal dimensions when correlated with the ultimate tensile strength of the joints deliver an increasing trend with the increase in joint strength. It is observed that dynamicity of the system strengthens the weld joint, i.e., the greater the fractal dimension, the better will be the quality of the weld. Characterization of signals by fractal theory indicates that the single-valued indicator can be an alternative for effective monitoring of the friction stir welding process.

  13. Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic Method of Friction Stir Weld Assessment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project is demonstration of the feasibility of Friction Stir Weld (FSW) assessment by novel Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) method. Time...

  14. Thermal Stir Welding of High Strength and High Temperature Alloys for Aerospace Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Keystone and MSU team propose to demonstrate the feasibility of solid-state joining high strength and temperature alloys utilizing the Thermal Stir Welding...

  15. Weld defect identification in friction stir welding using power spectral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bipul; Pal, Sukhomay; Bag, Swarup

    2018-04-01

    Power spectral density estimates are powerful in extraction of useful information retained in signal. In the current research work classical periodogram and Welch periodogram algorithms are used for the estimation of power spectral density for vertical force signal and transverse force signal acquired during friction stir welding process. The estimated spectral densities reveal notable insight in identification of defects in friction stir welded samples. It was observed that higher spectral density against each process signals is a key indication in identifying the presence of possible internal defects in the welded samples. The developed methodology can offer preliminary information regarding presence of internal defects in friction stir welded samples can be best accepted as first level of safeguard in monitoring the friction stir welding process.

  16. Improvement of lipase production at different stirring speeds and oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O.M. Alonso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipase production by a Brazilian wild strain of Yarrowia lipolytica at different stirring speeds and air flow rates was studied. The relationship among lipid consumption, cell growth and lipase production by this microorganism is presented. The most pronounced effect of oxygen on lipase production was determined by stirring speed. Maximum lipase activity was detected in the late stationary phase at 200 rpm and an air flow rate of 1-2 dm³/min (0.8-1.7 vvm when the lipid source had been fully consumed. Higher stirring speeds resulted in mechanical and/or oxidative stress, while lower stirring speeds seemed to limit oxygen levels. An increase in the availability of oxygen at higher air flow rates led to faster lipid uptake and anticipation of enzyme release into the culture medium. The highest lipase production was obtained at 200 rpm and 1 dm³/min (0.8 vvm.

  17. Effect of Fluidized Bed Stirring on Drying Process of Adhesive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to optimize fluidized bed drying of wet and adhesive particles (with an initial diameter of about 580 mm with the use of stirring, and discusses the influence of stirring on the total drying time. The goal was to demonstrate the positive effect of stirring a fluidized bed to the drying time, to find the optimal parameters (stirrer design, speed, and size. Experiments were conducted on a drying chamber in batch operation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of stirring on the total drying time. The drying chambers were 85 mm, 100 mm, and 140 mm in diameter. An optimal stirrer shape and speed were specified. Our arrangement of the fluidized bed resulted in a decrease in drying time by up to 40 %.

  18. Immersed friction stir welding of ultrafine grained accumulative roll-bonded Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, M.; Danesh Manesh, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, ultrafine grained strips of commercial pure strain hardenable aluminum (AA1050) were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. These strips were joined by friction stir welding (FSW) in immersed (underwater) and conventional (in-air) conditions to investigate the effect of the immersion method on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint, aiming to reduce the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the joint. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to evaluate the microstructure, showing smaller grains and subgrains in the stir zone of the immersed FSW condition with respect to the conventional FSW method. The hardness and tensile properties of the immersed friction stir welded sample and ARBed base metal show more similarity compared to the conventional friction stir welded sample. Moreover, the aforementioned method can result in the enhancement of the superplasticity tendency of the material.

  19. Counterrotating-Shoulder Mechanism for Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A counterrotating-shoulder mechanism has been proposed as an alternative to the mechanism and fixtures used in conventional friction stir welding. The mechanism would internally react most or all of the forces and torques exerted on the workpiece, making it unnecessary to react the forces and torques through massive external fixtures. In conventional friction stir welding, a rotating pin tool is inserted into, and moved along, a weld seam. As the pin tool moves, it stirs together material from the opposite sides of the seam to form the weld. A large axial plunge force must be exerted upon the workpiece through and by the pin tool and a shoulder attached above the pin tool in order to maintain the pressure necessary for the process. The workpiece is secured on top of an anvil, which supports the workpiece against the axial plunge force and against the torque exerted by the pin tool and shoulder. The anvil and associated fixtures must be made heavy (and, therefore, are expensive) to keep the workpiece stationary. In addition, workpiece geometries must be limited to those that can be accommodated by the fixtures. The predecessor of the proposed counterrotating-shoulder mechanism is a second-generation, self-reacting tool, resembling a bobbin, that makes it possible to dispense with the heavy anvil. This tool consists essentially of a rotating pin tool with opposing shoulders. Although the opposing shoulders maintain the necessary pressure without need to externally apply or react a large plunge force, the torque exerted on the workpiece remains unreacted in the absence of a substantial external fixture. Depending on the RPM and the thickness of the workpiece, the torque can be large. The proposed mechanism (see figure) would include a spindle attached to a pin tool with a lower shoulder. The spindle would be coupled via splines to the upper one of three bevel gears in a differential drive. The middle bevel gear would be the power-input gear and would be coupled to the

  20. STIR-Physics: Cold Atoms and Nanocrystals in Tapered Nanofiber and High-Q Resonator Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    STIR- Physics : Cold Atoms and Nanocrystals in Tapered Nanofiber and High-Q Resonator Potentials We worked on a tapered fiber in cold atomic cloud...reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: STIR- Physics : Cold Atoms and Nanocrystals in Tapered Nanofiber...other than abstracts): Number of Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): Books Number of Manuscripts: 0.00Number of

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Arc Weld and Friction Stir Weld in Al 6061-T6 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Heung Ju; Chang, Woong Seong; Kweon, Young Gak

    2006-01-01

    For the evaluation of corrosion resistance of Al 6061-T6 Alloy, Tafel method and immersion test was performed with Friction Stir Weld(FSW) and Gas Metal Arc Weld(GMAW). The Tafel and immersion test results indicated that GMA weld was severely attacked compared with those of friction stir weld. It may be mainly due to the galvanic corrosion mechanism act on the GMA weld

  2. Effect of process parameters on mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded magnesium to aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.M.; Yuan, W.; Badarinarayan, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lap-shear failure load of ∼2.5 kN was achieved in dissimilar Mg to Al spot welds. • Failure load depends on both welding geometrical features and IMCs formation. • Thin and discontinuous IMCs formed in stir zone are beneficial for weld strength. • Low heat input and good material mixing/interlocking is essential for high strength. - Abstract: Friction stir spot welding was applied to dissimilar cast magnesium (Mg) alloy AM60B and wrought aluminum (Al) alloy 6022-T4 under various welding conditions. The influence of tool rotation rate and shoulder plunge depth on lap-shear failure load was examined. Welds were made at four different tool rotation rates of 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 revolution per minute (rpm) and various tool shoulder plunge depths from 0 mm to 0.9 mm. The cross section of each weld exhibited the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the stir zone. An increase in tool rotation rate decreased the width of the stir zone and resulted in lower lap-shear failure loads. The stir zone width increased and interlocking of IMCs was observed with an increase in tool shoulder plunge depth at 1000 rpm. High lap-shear failure loads were achieved in welds having a large stir zone width with formation of discontinuous IMCs at the tip of the interfacial hook. An average lap-shear failure load of 2.5 kN was achieved for welds made at 1000 rpm and 0.9 mm shoulder plunge. The present study suggests that the mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded dissimilar alloys are greatly influenced by the stir zone width, interfacial hooks and IMCs which are all weld process dependent

  3. Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-07-13

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general

  4. HVAC system operation manual of IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun.

    1997-06-01

    This manual is operation procedures of the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) HVAC(Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) System. General operation procedures and test method of the IMEF HVAC system are described. The manual is as follows; 1. HVAC system operation manual 2. HVAC system management guide 3. HVAC system maintenance manual 4. HVAC system air velocity and flowrate measurement manual 5. HVAC system HEPA filter leak test manual 6. HVAC system charcoal filter leak test manual 7. HVAC system HEPA and charcoal filter exchange manual. (author). 8 tabs

  5. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42ª U mL-1 (W and 42.49 ± 3.91ª U mL-1 (M after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant strain. There is overall increase of 109% (W and 124% (M in the production of extracellular lipases as compared to shake flask. Another significant finding of the present study is that the fermentation period is reduced to 30 h in case of wild and 23 h in case of mutant from 48 h in shake flask studies. The specific productivity of mutant strain (qp = 377.3 U/g cells/h was several folds higher than wild strain. The specific production rate and growth coefficient revealed the hyperproducibility of extracellular lipases using mutant IIB-63NTG-7.

  6. Study of the deoxidation of steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, K.; Jonsson, L.; Sichen, Du; Viswanathan, N. N.

    2001-04-01

    In the present work, the deoxidation of liquid steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle was studied by mathematical modeling using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. This was complemented by an industrial trial study conducted at Uddeholm Tooling AB (Hagfors, Sweden). The results of the industrial trials were found to be in accordance with the results of the model calculation. In order to study the aspect of nucleation of alumina, emphasis was given to the initial period of deoxidation, when aluminum wire was injected into the bath. The concentration distributions of aluminum and oxygen were calculated both by considering and not considering the chemical reaction. Both calculations revealed that the driving force for the nucleation fo Al2O3 was very high in the region near the upper surface of the bath and close to the wire injection. The estimated nucleation rate in the vicinity of the aluminum wire injection point was much higher than the recommended value for spontaneously homogeneous nucleation, 103 nuclei/(cm3/s). The results of the model calculation also showed that the alumina nuclei generated at the vicinity of the wire injection point are transported to other regions by the flow.

  7. Solar Simulation Laboratory Description and Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    2000 was sent back to Cyborg Corp. three times over a five month period for repairs. The solar lab is presently using a loaner from Cyborg Corp. The IBM...PC/XT is connected to the ISAAC 2000 by a RS232 connection. All programs were written in advanced basic ("BASICA"). BASICA was used because Cyborg ...2067 CH/P Temperature.Control Bath TechnicalManual, November. 1980. A 30. Cyborg Corporation, Version 1.2, IS..AC.....Co..mpiut.er.liz e.d Data

  8. Numerical Simulations of Inclusion Behavior in Gas-Stirred Ladles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2013-06-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-population balance model (CFD-PBM) coupled model has been proposed to investigate the bubbly plume flow and inclusion behavior including growth, size distribution, and removal in gas-stirred ladles, and some new and important phenomena and mechanisms were presented. For the bubbly plume flow, a modified k- ɛ model with extra source terms to account for the bubble-induced turbulence was adopted to model the turbulence, and the bubble turbulent dispersion force was taken into account to predict gas volume fraction distribution in the turbulent gas-stirred system. For inclusion behavior, the phenomena of inclusions turbulent random motion, bubbles wake, and slag eye forming on the molten steel surface were considered. In addition, the multiple mechanisms both that promote inclusion growth due to inclusion-inclusion collision caused by turbulent random motion, shear rate in turbulent eddy, and difference inclusion Stokes velocities, and the mechanisms that promote inclusion removal due to bubble-inclusion turbulence random collision, bubble-inclusion turbulent shear collision, bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision, inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface, bubble wake capture, and wall adhesion were investigated. The importance of different mechanisms and total inclusion removal ratio under different conditions, and the distribution of inclusion number densities in ladle, were discussed and clarified. The results show that at a low gas flow rate, the inclusion growth is mainly attributed to both turbulent shear collision and Stokes collision, which is notably affected by the Stokes collision efficiency, and the inclusion removal is mainly attributed to the bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision and inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface. At a higher gas flow rate, the inclusions appear as turbulence random motion in bubbly plume zone, and both the inclusion-inclusion and inclusion-bubble turbulent random collisions become

  9. Study of Low Flow Rate Ladle Bottom Gas Stirring Using Triaxial Vibration Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenus, Jaefer; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dunn, Michelle; Li, Zushu; Goodwin, Tim

    2018-02-01

    Secondary steelmaking plays a great role in enhancing the quality of the final steel product. The metal quality is a function of metal bath stirring in ladles. The metal bath is often stirred by an inert gas to achieve maximum compositional and thermal uniformity throughout the melt. Ladle operators often observe the top surface phenomena, such as level of meniscus disturbance, to evaluate the status of stirring. However, this type of monitoring has significant limitations in assessing the process accurately especially at low gas flow rate bubbling. The present study investigates stirring phenomena using ladle wall triaxial vibration at a low flow rate on a steel-made laboratory model and plant scale for the case of the vacuum tank degasser. Cold model and plant data were successfully modeled by partial least-squares regression to predict the amount of stirring. In the cold model, it was found that the combined vibration signal could predict the stirring power and recirculation speed effectively in specific frequency ranges. Plant trials also revealed that there is a high structure in each data set and in the same frequency ranges at the water model. In the case of industrial data, the degree of linear relationship was strong for data taken from a single heat.

  10. Microstructural characterizations and mechanical properties in underwater friction stir welding of aluminum and magnesium dissimilar alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yong; Lu, Zhengping; Yan, Keng; Huang, Linzhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum and magnesium alloys were joined by underwater friction stir welding. • Underwater FSW was conducted to improve properties of joint with lower heat input. • Microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar joint were investigated. • Intermetallic compounds developed in the fracture interface were analyzed. • Fracture features of the tensile samples were analyzed. - Abstract: Formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of dissimilar welds affects the mechanical properties of the joints significantly. In order to reduce heat input and control the amount and morphological characteristics of brittle intermetallic compounds underwater friction stir welding of 6013 Al alloy and AZ31 Mg alloy was carried out. Microstructures, mechanical properties, elements distribution, and the fracture surface of the joints were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, etc. The result shows that sound dissimilar joint with good mechanical properties can be obtained by underwater friction stir welding. Al and Mg alloys were stirred together and undergone the process of recrystallization, forming complex intercalated flow patterns in the stir zone. Tensile strength of the dissimilar joint was up to 152.3 MPa. Maximum hardness (142HV) appeared in the middle of the centerline of the specimen. Intermetallic compounds layer consisting of Al 3 Mg 2 and Mg 17 Al 12 formed in the Al/Mg interface and resulted in the fracture of the joint

  11. Friction stir welding of F82H steel for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: shnoh@kaeri.re.kr [Fusion Structural Materials Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Fusion Structural Materials Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Fujii, Hidetoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In the present study, friction stir welding was employed to join F82H steels and develop a potential joining technique for a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. The microstructures and mechanical properties on the joint region were investigated to evaluate the applicability of friction stir welding. F82H steel sheets were successfully butt-joined with various welding parameters. In welding conditions, 100 rpm and 100 mm/min, the stirred zone represented a comparable hardness distribution with a base metal. Stirred zone induced by 100 rpm reserved uniformly distributed precipitates and very fine ferritic grains, whereas the base metal showed a typical tempered martensite with precipitates on the prior austenite grain boundary and lath boundary. Although the tensile strength was decreased at 550 °C, the stirred zone treated at 100 rpm showed comparable tensile behavior with base metal up to 500 °C. Therefore, friction stir welding is considered a potential welding method to preserve the precipitates of F82H steel.

  12. Friction stir welding of F82H steel for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Kimura, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, friction stir welding was employed to join F82H steels and develop a potential joining technique for a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. The microstructures and mechanical properties on the joint region were investigated to evaluate the applicability of friction stir welding. F82H steel sheets were successfully butt-joined with various welding parameters. In welding conditions, 100 rpm and 100 mm/min, the stirred zone represented a comparable hardness distribution with a base metal. Stirred zone induced by 100 rpm reserved uniformly distributed precipitates and very fine ferritic grains, whereas the base metal showed a typical tempered martensite with precipitates on the prior austenite grain boundary and lath boundary. Although the tensile strength was decreased at 550 °C, the stirred zone treated at 100 rpm showed comparable tensile behavior with base metal up to 500 °C. Therefore, friction stir welding is considered a potential welding method to preserve the precipitates of F82H steel.

  13. Construction inspection manual of procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides highway construction personnel with relevant, practical information in order to perform accurate inspections and provide relevant construction procedural information for the various roadway and structures items of work. It is the...

  14. Are Manual Typewriters Becoming Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jean

    1976-01-01

    A University of Akron survey of the Akron area revealed that the general trend is for large companies to use manual typewriters in their business offices. Implications for typewriting instruction are discussed. (JT)

  15. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  16. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    1990-02-01

    This manual establishes the procedures for the collection of environmental samples and the performance of radiation surveys and other field measurements. Responsibilities are defined for those personnel directly involved in the collection of samples and the performance of field measurements.

  17. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  18. Transportation security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This volume is the instructor's manual for the training of SNM guards. Covered are: self-defense, arrest authority, civil liability, report writing, stress, tactics, and situational training scenarios

  19. Transportation security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Objective of this manual is to train security personnel to protect special nuclear materials and nuclear facilities against theft and sabotage as required by 10 CFR Part 73. This volume contains the introduction and rationale

  20. The operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Krotil, H.; Stoll, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Operating Manual is one of many technical documents which the nuclear power plant operator needs for ensuring safe operation. For the operating staff, however, there is only one document, namely the Operating Manual. It contains, appropriately arranged, the necessary system and other diagrams, drawings, lists, licensing documents and similar material, which are necessary for understanding the design, for testing, for obtaining the operating licence and for the operation of individual systems and of the entire plant. (orig./RW) [de

  1. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  2. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  3. Fractography of STIR casted Al-ZrO2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghchesara, M. A.; Abdizadeh, H.; Baharvandi, H. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Al-ZrO 2 composites were produced by Vortex method using ZrO 2 powder with 1 micron average diameter as reinforce particles and Al-356 as the matrix metal. The melt composites were stirred for 13 minutes, then casted into a metallic mold. Different samples of 5, 10 and 15 volume percent of ZrO 2 , in different casting temperatures of 750, 850 and 950 d eg C were produced. The latter 2 casting temperatures are not a common practice but were chosen to enhance fluidity. Effects of volume percent of ZrO 2 particles and casting temperature on tensile strength, microstructure, and fracture surfaces of Al-ZrO 2 composites have been investigated. The highest tensile strength was achieved in the specimen containing 15 vol. % ZrO 2 produced at 750 d eg C which shows an increase of 60% in comparison to the Al-356 non-reinforced alloy. Microscopic investigations of fracture surfaces revealed that fracture in a brittle manner with little or no necking happening. By increasing ZrO 2 content and casting temperature, the composites fracture goes in a more severely brittle manner.

  4. CFD simulation of solids suspension in stirred tanks: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Aoyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many chemical reactions are carried out using stirred tanks, and the efficiency of such systems depends on the quality of mixing, which has been a subject of research for many years. For solid-liquid mixing, traditionally the research efforts were geared towards determining mixing features such as off-bottom solid suspension using experimental techniques. In a few studies that focused on the determination of solids concentration distribution, some methods that have been used have not been accurate enough to account for some small scale flow mal-distribution such as the existence of dead zones. The present review shows that computational fluid dynamic (CFD techniques can be used to simulate mixing features such as solids off-bottom suspension, solids concentration and particle size distribution and cloud height. Information on the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on the solids concentration distribution is still scarce. Advancement of the CFD modeling is towards coupling the physical and kinetic data to capture mixing and reaction at meso- and micro-scales. Solids residence time distribution is important for the design; however, the current CFD models do not predict this parameter. Some advances have been made in recent years to apply CFD simulation to systems that involve fermentation and anaerobic processes. In these systems, complex interaction between the biochemical process and the hydrodynamics is still not well understood. This is one of the areas that still need more attention.

  5. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  6. Heat generation during plunge stage in friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat generation in the Al alloy Al2024-T3 plate under different rotating speeds and plunge speeds during the plunge stage of friction stir welding (FSW. A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM is developed in the commercial code ABAQUS/Explicit using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, the Johnson-Cook material law and Coulomb’s Law of friction. The heat generation in FSW can be divided into two parts: frictional heat generated by the tool and heat generated by material deformation near the pin and the tool shoulder region. Numerical results obtained in this work indicate a more prominent influence from the friction-generated heat. The slip rate of the tool relative to the workpiece material is related to this portion of heat. The material velocity, on the other hand, is related to the heat generated by plastic deformation. Increasing the plunging speed of the tool decreases the friction-generated heat and increases the amount of deformation-generated heat, while increasing the tool rotating speed has the opposite influence on both heat portions. Numerical results are compared with the experimental ones, in order to validate the numerical model, and a good agreement is obtained.

  7. Surface modification of hydroturbine steel using friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, H. S.; Arora, H. S.; Singh, H.; Agrawal, A.

    2013-03-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) has proved to be a viable tool for enhancing the mechanical properties of materials, however, the major focus has been upon improving the bulk properties of light metals and their alloys. Hydroturbines are susceptible to damage owing to slurry and cavitation erosion. In this study, FSP of a commonly employed hydroturbine steel, 13Cr4Ni was undertaken. Microstructural characterization of the processed steel was conducted using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. Mechanical characterization of the steel was undertaken in terms of microhardness and resistance to cavitation erosion (CE). FSP resulted in the refinement of the microstructure with reduction in grain size by a factor of 10. EBSD results confirmed the existence of submicron and ultrafine grained microstructure. The microhardness of the steel was found to enhance by 2.6 times after processing. The processed steel also showed 2.4 times higher resistance against cavitation erosion in comparison to unprocessed steel. The primary erosion mechanism for both the steels was identical in nature, with plastic deformation responsible for the loss of material.

  8. EFFECT OF THICKENERS ON THE TEXTURE OF STIRRED YOGURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GONÇALVEZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of the addition of gelatin and starch on the rheological properties of sweetened plain stirred yogurt was studied by manufacturing six samples: two with gelatin (3000 and 6000 ppm, three with starch (1000, 5000, 10000 ppm and a sample without thickener (control. Rheological characterization of the samples was performed using a coaxial cylinder Haake VT500 viscometer. Yield stress ( and hysteresis were also determined. Syneresis (% was measured by centrifugation at 1100 rpm for 10 minutes. Sensory characterization was performed with a panel of trained sensory assessors, who evaluated the following texture attributes: viscosity, ropiness, creaminess and mouthfeel. All samples showed thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. Since the upward curve did not fit a unique model, it was divided in two regions. The first one fitted Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The addition of gelatine decreased flow behaviour index (n, whereas yield stress significantly increased with the addition of both thickeners. Gelatine was more efficient in reducing syneresis than starch. The addition of thickeners significantly increased all the studied sensory texture attributes. Non-oral and oral parameters were highly correlated witch each other and witch rheological parameters. KEYWORDS: Yogurt; texture; thickeners.

  9. Friction stir processing (FSP: refining microstructures and improving properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNelley, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FSP is reviewed as an allied technology of friction stir welding (FSW and additional considerations such as processing pattern and step over distance are introduced. The application of FSP to continuously cast AA5083 material in the as-cast condition is described and the extent of grain refinement and homogenization of microstructure is documented. The FSP-induced superplastic response of this material is compared to the response of conventionally processed AA5083 and the improved ductility of the FSP material is related to grain refinement and microstructure homogenization.

    Se revisa el procesado por fricción batida (FSP como un aliado tecnológico de la soldadura por fricción batida (FSW y se introducen consideraciones adicionales tales como el patrón de procesado y el paso en función de la distancia. Se describe la aplicación de FSP al material AA5083 por colada continua en la condición de colada y se documenta el grado de afino de grano y homogeneización de la microestructura. La respuesta de superplasticidad inducida por FSP se compara con la respuesta de la aleación AA5083 procesada convencionalmente y la mejora de ductilidad del material FSP se relaciona con el afino de grano y la homogeneización de la microestructura.

  10. Friction stir welding (FSW) of AA 6061 T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, Pedro; Monglioni, Alberto; Carella, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The friction-stir process (FSW) developed by England's TWI in the last decade is a new concept in solid phase friction welding that is particularly appropriate for soldering aluminum and its alloys. It offers interesting aspects and can advantageously replace the usual arch processes. It is an automatic process that solders together long pieces by butt or lap welding and, therefore, overcomes the greater limitation of the conventional friction process that can be applied only to pieces with revolution symmetry. FSW is based essentially on the use of a cylindrical tool with a special profile, which is inserted between the surfaces where the materials meet to join them together at a certain rotation speed and under a specific force. The pieces must be rigidly butt bonded or overlapped to prevent movement when the tool moves forward along the joint producing the dispersion of oxides, local plastisizing of the material and the weld. Since its creation FSW has been the subject of many international publications, but until the present work there was no technologically relevant data about tools and procedures. For this reason, when its promising and novel nature was noticed, the CNEA began its own development project in 1997. The main characteristics of the tool are reviewed here and the results of tests carried out to evaluate the influence of the feed velocity on the mechanical properties of the butt joining of a 6.25 mm thick AA6061 T6 plate. Different accumulated aspects of the experience are discussed as well (cw)

  11. Surface hardening of two cast irons by friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hidetoshi; Kikuchi, Toshifumi; Nogi, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yasufumi; Kiguchi, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    The Friction Stir Processing (FSP) was applied to the surface hardening of cast irons. Flake graphite cast iron (FC300) and nodular graphite cast iron (FCD700) were used to investigate the validity of this method. The matrices of the FC300 and FC700 cast irons are pearlite. The rotary tool is a 25mm diameter cylindrical tool, and the travelling speed was varied between 50 and 150mm/min in order to control the heat input at the constant rotation speed of 900rpm. As a result, it has been clarified that a Vickers hardness of about 700HV is obtained for both cast irons. It is considered that a very fine martensite structure is formed because the FSP generates the heat very locally, and a very high cooling rate is constantly obtained. When a tool without an umbo (probe) is used, the domain in which graphite is crushed and striated is minimized. This leads to obtaining a much harder sample. The hardness change depends on the size of the martensite, which can be controlled by the process conditions, such as the tool traveling speed and the load. Based on these results, it was clarified that the FSP has many advantages for cast irons, such as a higher hardness and lower distortion. As a result, no post surface heat treatment and no post machining are required to obtain the required hardness, while these processes are generally required when using the traditional methods.

  12. Design of Friction Stir Welding Tool for Avoiding Root Flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Xing, Jingwei; Yue, Yumei; Ma, Yinan; Zhang, Liguo; Gao, Shuangsheng

    2013-12-12

    In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow velocity is investigated by the software ANSYS FLUENT. Numerical simulation results show that high material flow velocity appears near the rotational tool and material flow velocity rapidly decreases with the increase of distance away from the axis of the tool. Maximum material flow velocity by the tool with the tapered-flute pin appears at the beginning position of flute and the velocity decreases with the increase of flow length in flute. From the view of increasing the flow velocity of material near the bottom of the workpiece or in the middle of workpiece, the tool with the half-screw pin and the tool with the tapered-flute pin are both better than the conventional tool.

  13. Optimal conditions and operational parameters for conversion of Robusta coffee residues in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Msambichaka, B L; Kivaisi, A K; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This experiment studied the possibility of optimizing anaerobic degradation, developing microbial adaptation and establishing long term process stability in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) running on Robusta coffee hulls as feed substrate. Decrease in lag phase and increase in methane production rate in batch culture experiment conducted before and after process stabilization of each operational phase in the CSTR clearly suggested that microbial adaptation to increasing coffee percentage composition was attained. Through gradual increase of coffee percentage composition, from 10% coffee, 2% VS, 20 days HRT and a 1 g VS/1/day loading rate to 80% coffee, 4.5% VS, 12 days HRT and a loading rate of 3 g VS/1/day the CSTR system was optimized at a maximum methane yield of 535 ml/g VS. Again it was possible to attain long term process stability at the above mentioned optimal operational parameters for a further 3 month period. (au)

  14. Optimal conditions and operational parameters for conversion of Robusta coffee residues in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Msambichaka, B.L.; Kivaisi, A.K.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This experiment studied the possibility of optimizing anaerobic degradation, developing microbial adaptation and establishing long term process stability in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) running on Robusta coffee hulls as feed substrate. Decrease in lag phase and increase in methane production rate in batch culture experiment conducted before and after process stabilization of each operational phase in the CSTR clearly suggested that microbial adaptation to increasing coffee percentage composition was attained. Through gradual increase of coffee percentage composition, from 10% coffee, 2% VS, 20 days HRT and a 1 g VS/1/day loading rate to 80% coffee, 4.5% VS, 12 days HRT and a loading rate of 3 g VS/1/day the CSTR system was optimized at a maximum methane yield of 535 ml/g VS. Again it was possible to attain long term process stability at the above mentioned optimal operational parameters for a further 3 month period. (au)

  15. Analysis of Volatile Components of Varietal English Wines Using Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Caven-Quantrill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is an important property of wine and it can be influenced significantly by enological practices. The aim of this work was, by use of stir bar sorptive extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE/GC-MS, to compare semi-quantitative concentrations of the volatile constituents of stainless steel tank-fermented/matured Huxelrebe, Ortega, Schönburger and Siegerrebe varietal wines from a commercial English vineyard, with corresponding wines produced by oak cask (‘barrel’ fermentation/maturation. Aroma profiles of tank and barrel wines were different, with more volatiles detected and net concentrations being higher in barrel wines. Long chain ethyl carboxylate esters were generally more abundant in barrel wines, whereas acetate esters were generally more prominent in tank wines. By conducting a short (~7 month maturation period in secondhand (third or fourth fill casks, it was possible to make wines with more complex aromas, but without obvious oak aroma.

  16. Serial quantitative MR assessment of optic neuritis in a case of neuromyelitis optica, using gadolinium-'enhanced' STIR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; Valk, J.; Waalewijn, C.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Polman, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A patient is presented with neuromyelitis optica. MR imaging, using a short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) technique, clearly depicted the lesion in the left optic nerve. Subsequent serial STIR imaging, with and without Gadolinium-DTPA, allowed quantitative assessment of changes parallel to improved optic nerve function. STIR imaging is a sensitive technique to demonstrate optic nerve lesions, and enables quantitative assessment to be made of the effect of (steroid) medication. (orig.)

  17. Handbook for Classroom Testing in Peace Corps Language Programs. Manual T0068.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil J.

    This manual provides instructors in Peace Corps language training programs with information about two kinds of classroom testing: formative, ongoing testing and summative testing that occurs at the end of an instructional period. The first of the manual's four chapters on the purposes of language testing, discusses language testing within a…

  18. ACT Plan: Technical Manual. 2013/2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This manual contains information about the American College Test (ACT) Plan® program. The principal focus of this manual is to document the Plan program's technical adequacy in light of its intended purposes. This manual supersedes the 2011 edition. The content of this manual responds to requirements of the testing industry as established in the…

  19. User manual of FRAPCON-I computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, C.T.

    1985-11-01

    The manual for using the FRAPCON-I code implanted by Reactor Department of Brazilian-CNEN to convert IBM FORTRAN in FORTRAN 77 of Honeywell Bull computer is presented. The FRAPCON-I code describes the behaviour of fuel rods of PWR type reactors at stationary state during long periods of burnup. (M.C.K.)

  20. Manual Vacuum Aspiration In The Management Of Post Abortal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eleven (11) patients with tetanus were managed by uterine evacuation using the manual vacuum aspiration at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria over a period of ten years. Eight (8) of the patients had uterine evacuation while in coma, while three (3) were conscious but had spasm and features of ...

  1. Biodegradation of phenolic waste liquors in stirred-tank, packed-bed, and fluidized-bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D W; Hancher, G W; Chilcote, D D; Scott, C D

    1978-11-01

    The biological degradation of phenolic scrub liquors similar to those that arise in coal conversion processes was studied for symbiotic bacterial populations contained in a continuously stirred tank bioreactor, a three-phase packed-bed bioreactor, and a three-phase, fluidized-bed bioreactor. The conversions of phenol compounds were comparable in the three-phase, packed-bed bioreactor and the continuously stirred tank bioreactor; however, the packed-bed bioreactor degradation rates were as much as twice those in the continuously stirred tank bioreactor, and packed-bed bioreactor retention times were as low as one- tenth those of the continuously stirred tank bioreactors (minimum time was 12 hours).

  2. Investigation and modelling of friction stir welded copper canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellgren, Therese

    2010-02-15

    This work has been focused on characterisation of FSW joints, and modelling of the process, both analytically and numerically. The Swedish model for final deposit of nuclear fuel waste is based on copper canisters as a corrosion barrier with an inner pressure holding insert of cast iron. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is the method to seal the copper canister, a technique invented by The Welding Institute (TWI). The first simulations were based on Rosenthal's analytical medium plate model. The model is simple to use, but has limitations. Finite element models (FEM) were developed, initially with a two-dimensional geometry. Due to the requirements of describing both the heat flow and the tool movement, three-dimensional models were developed. These models take into account heat transfer, material flow, and continuum mechanics. The geometries of the models are based on the simulation experiments carried out at TWI and at Swedish Nuclear Fuel Waste and Management Co (SKB). Temperature distribution, material flow and their effects on the thermal expansion were predicted for a full-scale canister and lid. The steady state solutions have been compared with temperature measurements, showing good agreement. In order to understand the material flow during welding a marker technique is used, which involves inserting dissimilar material into the weld zone before joining. Different materials are tested showing that brass rods are the most suitable material in these welds. After welding, the weld line is sliced, etched and examined by optical microscope. To understand the material flow further, and in the future predict the flow, a FEM is developed. This model and the etched samples are compared showing similar features. Furthermore, by using this model the area that is recrystallised can be predicted. The predicted area and the grain size and hardness profile agree well

  3. Friction Stir Welding of Copper Canisters for Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellgren, Therese

    2005-07-01

    The Swedish model for final disposal of nuclear fuel waste is based on copper canisters as a corrosion barrier with an inner pressure holding insert of cast iron. One of the methods to seal the copper canister is to use the Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a method invented by The Welding Institute (TWI). This work has been focused on characterisation of the FSW joints, and modelling of the process, both analytically and numerically. The first simulations were based on Rosenthal's analytical medium plate model. The model is simple to use, but has limitations. Finite element models were developed, initially with a two-dimensional geometry. Due to the requirements of describing both the heat flow and the tool movement, three-dimensional models were developed. These models take into account heat transfer, material flow, and continuum mechanics. The geometries of the models are based on the simulation experiments carried out at TWI and at Swedish Nuclear Fuel Waste and Management Co (SKB). Temperature distribution, material flow and their effects on the thermal expansion were predicted for a full-scale canister and lid. The steady state solutions have been compared with temperature measurements, showing good agreement. Microstructure and hardness profiles have been investigated by optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Rockwell hardness measurements. EBSD visualisation has been used to determine the grain size distribution and the appearance of twins and misorientation within grains. The orientation maps show a fine uniform equiaxed grain structure. The root of the weld exhibits the smallest grains and many annealing twins. This may be due to deformation after recrystallisation. The appearance of the nugget and the grain size depends on the position of the weld. A large difference can be seen both in hardness and grain size between the start of the weld and when the steady state is reached.

  4. Mixing In Jet-Stirred Reactors With Different Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Ayass, Wassim W.

    2013-12-01

    This work offers a well-developed understanding of the mixing process inside Jet- Stirred Reactors (JSR’s) with different geometries. Due to the difficulty of manufacturing these JSR’s made in quartz, existing JSR configurations were assessed with certain modifications and optimal operating conditions were suggested for each reactor. The effect of changing the reactor volume, the nozzle diameter and shape on mixing were both studied. Two nozzle geometries were examined in this study, a crossed shape nozzle and an inclined shape nozzle. Overall, six reactor configurations were assessed by conducting tracer experiments - using the state-of-art technologies of high-speed cameras and laser absorption spectroscopy- and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The high-speed camera tracer experiment gives unique qualitative information – not present in the literature – about the actual flow field. On the other hand, when using the laser technique, a more quantitative analysis emerges with determining the experimental residence time distribution (RTD) curves of each reactor. Comparing these RTD curves with the ideal curve helped in eliminating two cases. Finally, the CFD simulations predict the RTD curves as well as the mixing levels of the JSR’s operated at different residence times. All of these performed studies suggested the use of an inclined nozzle configuration with a reactor diameter D of 40mm and a nozzle diameter d of 1mm as the optimal choice for low residence time operation. However, for higher residence times, the crossed configuration reactor with D=56mm and d=0.3mm gave a nearly perfect behavior.

  5. Characterizing the flow of stirred vessels with anchor type impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.C. Peixoto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance in chemical industries, there are few works which studies anchor type impellers and only a fraction of the works investigate these systems under a computational approach. The great majority refers to turbine impellers, specially Rushton turbines, under turbulent flow. Anchor impellers are used specially for highly viscous flow, typical of polymer reactions. The viscosity is normally in the range 1000-10000 cp. Since this range of viscosity describe highly viscous flows, the reactions for anchor agitated systems are normally carried out under laminar flow. This work presents a detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach to study the behaviour of stirred vessels using anchor impellers. The axial plane of the tank, which is being modelled, is divided into small control volumes, which collectively is referred to as the mesh, or grid. In each of these cells the momentum balance, energy and mass conservation, which describes the model, are rewritten algebraically using the finite volumes method to relate such variables as velocity, pressure and temperature to values in neighbouring cells. The equations are then solved numerically, and the results yield the flow corresponding to the model. Since the geometry of a vessel with anchor impellers strictly calls for a three dimensional method, an approximation is made to account for the effect of the blades (Kuncewics, 1992. The main objective of this work is to give a detailed description of the flow generated by this axial impeller with a view to indicate ways in which the design and operation of these systems can be improved.

  6. Deconvoluting the Friction Stir Weld Process for Optimizing Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C.

    2008-01-01

    In the friction stir welding process, the rotating surfaces of the pin and shoulder contact the weld metal and force a rotational flow within the weld metal. Heat, generated by the metal deformation as well as frictional slippage with the contact surface, softens the metal and makes it easier to deform. As in any thermo-mechanical processing of metal, the flow conditions are critical to the quality of the weld. For example, extrusion of metal from under the shoulder of an excessively hot weld may relax local pressure and result in wormhole defects. The trace of the weld joint in the wake of the weld may vary geometrically depending upon the flow streamlines around the tool with some geometry more vulnerable to loss of strength from joint contamination than others. The material flow path around the tool cannot be seen in real time during the weld. By using analytical "tools" based upon the principles of mathematics and physics, a weld model can be created to compute features that can be observed. By comparing the computed observations with actual data, the weld model can be validated or adjusted to get better agreement. Inputs to the model to predict weld structures and properties include: hot working properties ofthe metal, pin tool geometry, travel rate, rotation and plunge force. Since metals record their prior hot working history, the hot working conditions imparted during FSW can be quantified by interpreting the final microstructure. Variations in texture and grain size result from variations in the strain accommodated at a given strain rate and temperature. Microstructural data from a variety of FSWs has been correlated with prior marker studies to contribute to our understanding of the FSW process. Once this stage is reached, the weld modeling process can save significant development costs by reducing costly trial-and-error approaches to obtaining quality welds.

  7. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  8. Methane measurements manual; Handbok metanmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (SP Technical research institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    Emissions to air in different parts of the system may arise in biogas plants, where there is biological treatment of organic matter by anaerobic degradation, and during upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel. There are mainly four reasons why these emissions must be minimized. These are safety, greenhouse gas emissions, economy and smell. This manual gathers experience of several years of work with measurement of methane emissions from biogas and upgrading facilities. This work has been done mainly in the context of Swedish Waste Management's system of voluntary commitment. The purpose of this manual is to standardize methods and procedures when methane measurements are carried out so that the results are comparable between different providers. The main target group of the manual is measurement consultants performing such measurements. Calculation template in Excel is part of the manual, which further contributes to the measurements evaluated in a standardized way. The manual contains several examples which have been calculated in the accompanying Excel template. The handbook also contains a chapter mainly intended for facility staff, in which implementation of accurate leak detection is described, and where there are hints of a system of so-called intermediate inspections to detect leaks in time

  9. Design/CPN. A Reference Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen et. al, Kurt

    /CPN WWW pages. To speed up the access to the Design/CPN manuals we recommend to keep a local copy - which may be shared by all users in your organisation. In this way you do not need to go via our WWW server each time you need to look in a manual. For some of the largest manuals, we also supply files......Note: The manuals are available as PDF files . There are two sets of manuals - one for the Unix platform and another for the Mac platform. Each set of manual consists of: Tutorial (for the Design/CPN editor and simulator) Reference Manual (for the Design/CPN editor and simulator) Programmer......'s Manual (with Design/OA functions and Charts) Occurrence Graph Manual (integrated tutorial and reference manual) OE/OS Graph Manual (integrated tutorial and reference manual) Other Manuals (e.g. a short overview of CPN ML).   The Tutorial, Reference Manual and Programmer's Manual are made for Design...

  10. A fundamental study on the structural integrity of magnesium alloys joined by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harish Mangebettu

    The goal of this research is to study the factors that influence the physical and mechanical properties of lap-shear joints produced using friction stir welding. This study focuses on understanding the effect of tool geometry and weld process parameters including the tool rotation rate, tool plunge depth and dwell time on the mechanical performance of similar magnesium alloy and dissimilar magnesium to aluminum alloy weld joints. A variety of experimental activities were conducted including tensile and fatigue testing, fracture surface and failure analysis, microstructure characterization, hardness measurements and chemical composition analysis. An investigation on the effect of weld process conditions in friction stir spot welding of magnesium to magnesium produced in a manner that had a large effective sheet thickness and smaller interfacial hook height exhibited superior weld strength. Furthermore, in fatigue testing of friction stir spot welded of magnesium to magnesium alloy, lap-shear welds produced using a triangular tool pin profile exhibited better fatigue life properties compared to lap-shear welds produced using a cylindrical tool pin profile. In friction stir spot welding of dissimilar magnesium to aluminum, formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the weld had a dominant effect on the weld strength. Lap-shear dissimilar welds with good material mixture and discontinues intermetallic compounds in the stir zone exhibited superior weld strength compared to lap-shear dissimilar welds with continuous formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone. The weld structural geometry like the interfacial hook, hook orientation and bond width also played a major role in influencing the weld strength of the dissimilar lap-shear friction stir spot welds. A wide scatter in fatigue test results was observed in friction stir linear welds of aluminum to magnesium alloys. Different modes of failure were observed under fatigue loading including crack

  11. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, Tom, E-mail: tompeat12@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); McNutt, Philip [TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Iqbal, Naveed [TWI Technology Centre, Wallis Way, Catcliff, Rotherham, S60 5TZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • WC-CoCr, Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings were cold spray deposited on AA5083 and friction stir processed. • The SprayStirred WC-CoCr demonstrated a hardness increase of 100% over the cold sprayed coating. • As-deposited and SprayStirred coatings were examined under slurry erosion test conditions. • Mass and volume loss was measured following 20-min exposure to the slurry. • The WC-CoCr and Al2O3 demonstrated a reduction in volume loss of approx. 40% over the cold sprayed coating. - Abstract: This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide – cobalt chromium, chromium carbide – nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the

  12. The effect of time and stirring on product white colorant from titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnawati; Linda A; Yoshi; Zaenal K; Andri Y

    2018-01-01

    White Colorant is the main raw material in the paint making process in the depots. It made from TiO 2 pigment. The process of making white colorant requires a great stirring time and energy to mix the materials such as binders, pigments, solvents, and additives. The aim of this study is to get the optimum stirring time and speed from mixing the materials needed to obtain white colorant from TiO 2 pigment that meet the specification desired by paint Factory in Tangerang that is particle size of TiO 2 (10 μm to 30 μm), viscosity 1000 cps to 6000 cps, total solids 79 % to 83 %, DE color is 0.5, and CR is 80 % to 100 %. Variations made were stirring speed (1000, 1100 and 1200) rpm and stirring time(10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) minutes. The optimum results obtained are particle size of 15 μm, viscosity 1900 cps, total solids 81.81 %, color DE 0.49 and color CR 98.12 % at stirring condition 1200 rp min 15 minutes. (author)

  13. Solid state crack repair by friction stir processing in 304L stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Gunter; M.P.Miles; F.C.Liu; T.W Nelson

    2018-01-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was investigated as a method of repairing cracks in 12mm thick 304L stainless steel plate.Healing feasibility was demonstrated by processing a tapered crack using a PCBN/WRe tool with a 25 mm diameter shoulder and a pin length of 6.4 mm.The experiment showed that it was possible to heal a crack that begins narrow and then progressively grows up to a width of 2 mm.Bead on plate experiments were used to find the best parameters for creating a consolidated stir zone with the least amount of hardness difference compared to the base metal.Grain refinement in some specimens resulted in much higher stir zone hardness,compared to base metal.A plot of grain size versus microhardness showed a very strong inverse correlation between grain size and hardness,as expected from the HallPetch relationship.Corrosion testing was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of FSP on potential sensitization of the stir zone.After 1000h of intermittent immersion in 3.5% saline solution at room temperature it was found that no corrosion products formed on the base material controls or on any of the friction stir processed specimens.

  14. The Effect of Rotation Stirring on Macrosegregation in Bi-Sn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaida Yeni Muriani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrosegregation is a defect that difficult to avoid in a metal alloy made by casting method. Macrosegregation can cause decreasing in mechanical properties of casting products. It will reduce their performance in industrial application. Macrosegregation is convinced occur during solidification time in liquid alloy. In the early solidified, The solids move upward/downward in liquid alloy during solidification are considered to contribute on macrosegregation formation. This movement occur due to the density differences between the solid and the surrounding liquid. This research want to observe the effect of stirring on macrosegregation formation for interfering on the movement of initial solidified solid. Stiring with rotation method is applied in this experiment at certain temperature. The temperature and the rotation speed of stirring are varied to observe the effect of rotation stirring on macrosegregation formation. The mold is covered by insulation jacket and kept the bottom part opened in order to obtain the directionally solidification. The result shows that the rotation stirring can change the macrostructure of casting but in case of composition distribution, the macrosegregation still appear. Increasing the rotation stirring will rise solid crystals up and the macrosegregation become more uniform and the treatment is better if conducting at lower temperature.

  15. Mitigating Abnormal Grain Growth for Friction Stir Welded Al-Li 2195 Spun Formed Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Russell, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Formability and abnormal grain growth (AGG) are the two major issues that have been encountered for Al alloy spun formed dome development using friction stir welded blanks. Material properties that have significant influence on the formability include forming range and strain hardening exponent. In this study, tensile tests were performed for two 2195 friction stir weld parameter sets at 400 F to study the effects of post weld anneal on the forming range and strain hardening exponent. It was found that the formability can be enhanced by applying a newly developed post weld anneal to heat treat the friction stir welded panels. This new post weld anneal leads to a higher forming range and much improved strain hardening exponent. AGG in the weld nugget is known to cause a significant reduction of ductility and fracture toughness. This study also investigated how AGG may be influenced by the heating rate to the solution heat treatment temperature. After post-weld annealing, friction stir welds were strained to 15% and 39% by compression at 400 F before they were subjected to SHT at 950 F for 1 hour. Salt bath SHT is very effective in reducing the grain size as it helps arrest the onset of AGG and promote normal recrystallization and grain growth. However, heat treating a 18 ft dome using a salt bath is not practical. Efforts are continuing at Marshall Space Flight Center to identify the welding parameters and heat treating parameters that can help mitigate the AGG in the friction stir welds.

  16. The Effect of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasresfahani, Ali Reza; Soltanipur, Abdol Reza; Farmanesh, Khosro; Ghasemi, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Fusion welding can deteriorate corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, the use of friction stir welding leads to a more appropriate corrosion resistance. In this study, the corrosion resistance of welded zones of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using friction stir welding technique is evaluated. For these purposes, the study of structural characteristics using SEM and FESEM equipped with EDS micro-analyses was conducted. Micro-hardness test was also employed to estimate the hardness of welded zones. Corrosion behavior was investigated by a potentiostat instrument. SEM micrographs, EDS and XRD analyses confirmed non-uniformity of chemical composition within the welded zones. The results reveal that the stir zone contains typical alpha and prior beta phases. Nevertheless, thermomechanical zone included equiaxed and bimodal lamellae structure. Furthermore, the presence of different types of phases and microstructure in the thermomechanical zone led to reduced corrosion resistance. The corresponding values of corrosion current density in the stir zone, thermomechanical zone and base metal were 0.048, 0.55 and 0.032 µA, respectively. Corresponding corrosion potential for these zones was estimated as -207, -110 and -157 mV. Evidently, the results show that corrosion resistance of thermomechanical zone is less than that of the stir zone and both zones have lower value than the base metal.

  17. Effect of electromagnetic stirring on solidification structure of austenitic stainless steel in horizontal continuous casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Shu-cai

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the influence of low frequency rotary electromagnetic stirring on solidification structure of austenitic stainless steel in horizontal continuous casting was experimentally conducted and carried out on an industrial trial basis. The results show that application of appropriate electromagnetic stirring parameters can obviously improve the macrostructure of austenitic stainless steel, in which both columnar and equiaxed grains can be greatly refined and shrinkage porosity or cavity zone along centerline can be remarkably decreased due to eliminating intracrystalline and enlarging equiaxed grains zone. The industrial trials verify that the electromagnetic stirring intensity of austenitic stainless steel should be higher than that of plain carbon steel. Electromagnetic stirring has somewhat affected the macrostructure of austenitic stainless steel even if the magnetic flux density of the electromagnetic stirring reaches 90 mT (amplitude reaches 141 mT in average at frequency f=3-4Hz, which provides a reference for the optimization of design and process parameters when applying the rotary electromagnetic stirrer.

  18. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Weijun, E-mail: weijun.he@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zheng, Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Qing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-02-27

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  19. Mechanical properties and microstructural evaluation of AA1100 to AZ31 dissimilar friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizieh, M., E-mail: azizieh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi Alavijeh, A. [School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, 250-13450 102 Avenue, Surrey, BC V3T 0A3 (Canada); Abbasi, M. [High Temperature Energy Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Balak, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welds of AA1100 and AZ31 were investigated to understand the effects of rotational and travel speed as well as pin position. The tensile results of welded samples revealed that the sound welds were formed when the stirring pin deviated from the centreline to the AZ31 side. The X-ray diffraction shows that Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} and Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} intermetallics formation occurs in the stir zone during the welding process. High hardness of these intermetallic phases increased the hardness of the stir zone to 110 Hv. The best tensile results were obtained in the sample processed in the range of 28–32 (rev/mm) rotational to travel speed ratio. - Highlights: • For Al to Mg friction stir welding, tool offset must be to Mg side. • There is an optimum rotational speed for obtain the highest strength. • Intermetallics form in any welding condition. • The volume fraction of intermetallic is directly related to FSW peak temperature.

  20. The investigation of typical welding defects for 5456 aluminum alloy friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huabin; Yan Keng; Lin Tao; Chen Shanben; Jiang Chengyu; Zhao Yong

    2006-01-01

    The external factors on the friction stir welding defects are so abundant that the experiments of friction stir welding were conducted for 5456 aluminum alloy. With the changes of the tool tilt angle and material condition, defects can be generated. These defects can be conventional ones (lack of penetration or voids), or lazy S, which are unique to friction stir welding. However, the origin of the defects remains an area of uncertainty. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the formation of these defects. The typical welding defects of friction stir welding joint for 5456 aluminum alloy were analyzed and discussed, respectively, by using optical microscopy (OM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microscopic examination of the nugget zone and fracture location of the weld confirms that the tilt angle can change the plastic material flow patterns in the stir zone and accordingly control the weld properties. In addition, the oxide layer from the initial butt surface during FSW is dispersed at the grain boundary. These A1 2 O 3 particles are actually the major cause of failure of the joint

  1. Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.

  2. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weijun; Zheng, Li; Xin, Renlong; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  3. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  4. WAM-E user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayes, L.G.; Riley, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    The WAM-E series of mainframe computer codes have been developed to efficiently analyze the large binary models (e.g., fault trees) used to represent the logic relationships within and between the systems of a nuclear power plant or other large, multisystem entity. These codes have found wide application in reliability and safety studies of nuclear power plant systems. There are now nine codes in the WAM-E series, with six (WAMBAM/WAMTAP, WAMCUT, WAMCUT-II, WAMFM, WAMMRG, and SPASM) classified as Type A Production codes and the other three (WAMFTP, WAMTOP, and WAMCONV) classified as Research codes. This document serves as a combined User's Guide, Programmer's Manual, and Theory Reference for the codes, with emphasis on the Production codes. To that end, the manual is divided into four parts: Part I, Introduction; Part II, Theory and Numerics; Part III, WAM-E User's Guide; and Part IV, WAMMRG Programmer's Manual

  5. ARIES NDA Robot operators' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user's manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery

  6. Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic/dynamic tria......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic...

  7. Manual on decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The manual is intended for those who are responsible for the organization and implementation of decontamination programmes for facilities where radioactive materials are handled mainly on a laboratory scale. It contains information and guidelines on practical methods for decontaminating working spaces, equipment, laboratory benches and protective clothing. Useful information is also provided on the removal of loose skin contamination from personnel by mild, non-medical processes. Methods of removing skin contamination needing medical supervision, or of internal decontamination, which is entirely a medical process, are not covered in this manual. Large-scale decontamination of big nuclear facilities is also considered as outside its scope

  8. Droid X The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Get the most from your Droid X right away with this entertaining Missing Manual. Veteran tech author Preston Gralla offers a guided tour of every feature, with lots of expert tips and tricks along the way. You'll learn how to use calling and texting features, take and share photos, enjoy streaming music and video, and much more. Packed with full-color illustrations, this engaging book covers everything from getting started to advanced features and troubleshooting. Unleash the power of Motorola's hot new device with Droid X: The Missing Manual. Get organized. Import your contacts and sync wit

  9. Motorola Xoom The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Motorola Xoom is the first tablet to rival the iPad, and no wonder with all of the great features packed into this device. But learning how to use everything can be tricky-and Xoom doesn't come with a printed guide. That's where this Missing Manual comes in. Gadget expert Preston Gralla helps you master your Xoom with step-by-step instructions and clear explanations. As with all Missing Manuals, this book offers refreshing, jargon-free prose and informative illustrations. Use your Xoom as an e-book reader, music player, camcorder, and phoneKeep in touch with email, video and text chat, and so

  10. Matematica 2. Manual do Professor (Mathematics 2. Teacher's Manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alu, Maria Jose Miranda de Sousa

    This teacher's manual accompanies a mathematics textbook for second graders, written in Portuguese. Developed from objectives set forth by the National Portuguese Materials Development Center, it follows closely the objectives and methodology of major curricula used in schools of the United States. Consideration was given to the Portuguese child's…

  11. Geothermal reservoir assessment manual; 1984-1992 nendo chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuhou manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    A geothermal reservoir assessment manual was prepared for the promotion of the development of geothermal power generation, based on the results of the 'geothermal reservoir assessment technique development project' implemented during the fiscal 1984-1992 period and on the results of surveys conducted in Japan and abroad. Of the geothermal systems generally classified into the steam dominant type and the hot water dominant type, encounters with the steam dominant type are but seldom reported. This manual therefore covers the hot water dominant type only. In addition to the explanation of the basic concept and the outline of geothermal reservoirs, the manual carries data necessary for reservoir assessment; geological and geophysical data analyses; geochemistry in reservoir assessment; data of underground logging and of fuming; conceptual models; simulators and models for reservoir simulation; natural-state simulation, history-matching simulation, and reservoir behavior predicting simulation; case history (modeling of a geothermal reservoir prior to exploitation), references, and so forth. (NEDO)

  12. Physics-based process model approach for detecting discontinuity during friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Amber; Pfefferkorn, Frank E.; Duffie, Neil A.; Ferrier, Nicola J.; Smith, Christopher B.; Malukhin, Kostya; Zinn, Michael

    2015-02-12

    The goal of this work is to develop a method for detecting the creation of discontinuities during friction stir welding. This in situ weld monitoring method could significantly reduce the need for post-process inspection. A process force model and a discontinuity force model were created based on the state-of-the-art understanding of flow around an friction stir welding (FSW) tool. These models are used to predict the FSW forces and size of discontinuities formed in the weld. Friction stir welds with discontinuities and welds without discontinuities were created, and the differences in force dynamics were observed. In this paper, discontinuities were generated by reducing the tool rotation frequency and increasing the tool traverse speed in order to create "cold" welds. Experimental force data for welds with discontinuities and welds without discontinuities compared favorably with the predicted forces. The model currently overpredicts the discontinuity size.

  13. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  14. Effect of friction stirring on microstructure in equal channel angular pressed aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y.S.; Urata, M.; Kokawa, H.; Ikeda, K. [Dept. of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ., Aoba-yama, Sendai (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was applied to equal channel angular (ECA) pressed aluminum (Al) alloys with high strength and toughness, and the effect of FSW on microstructure and the hardness profile in ECA-pressed alloys was examined. In the weld of ECA-pressed Al alloy 1050 and 5083, the stir zone had roughly the same hardness as the ECA-pressed material, while the hardness was slightly reduced in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The reduction of hardness in the TMAZ was due to dynamic recovery of dislocation cells of the ECA-pressed material. The addition of Zr to Al suppressed the reduction of hardness in the TMAZ. Consequently, friction stir (FS) weld of Al-Zr alloy retained the hardness of the ECA-pressed material throughout the weld. (orig.)

  15. Numerical simulation on stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD commercial software was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. (author)

  16. Mass transfer and power characteristics of stirred tank with Rushton and curved blade impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam Tamphasana Devi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present work compares the mass transfer coefficient (kLa and power draw capability of stirred tank employed with Rushton and curved blade impeller using computational fluid dynamics (CFD techniques in single and double impeller cases. Comparative analysis for different boundary conditions and mass transfer model has been done to assess their suitability. The predicted local kLa has been found higher in curved blade impeller than the Rushton impeller, whereas stirred tank with double impeller does not show variation due to low superficial gas velocity. The global kLa predicted has been found higher in curved blade impeller than the Rushton impeller in double and single cases. Curved blade impeller also exhibits higher power draw capability than the Rushton impeller. Overall, stirred tank with curved blade impeller gives higher efficiency in both single and double cases than the Rushton turbine

  17. Effect of microstructure on properties of friction stir welded Inconel Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.S.; Arkom, P.; Kokawa, H.; Nelson, T.W.; Steel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been widely used to metals with moderate melting temperatures, primarily Al alloys. Recently, tool materials that withstand high stresses and temperatures necessary for FSW of materials with high melting temperatures have been developed. In the present study, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tool was used for partially penetrated FSW of Inconel Alloy 600, and a defect-free weld was successfully produced. Microstructural characteristics, mechanical and corrosion properties in the weld were examined. The weld had better mechanical properties than the base material due to formation of fine grain structure in the stir zone, but exhibited slightly the lower corrosion resistance in a part of the stir zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ)

  18. The Role of Friction Stir Welding in Nuclear Fuel Plate Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkes, D.; Medvedev, P.; Chapple, M.; Amritkar, A.; Wells, P.; Charit, I

    2009-01-01

    The friction bonding process combines desirable attributes of both friction stir welding and friction stir processing. The development of the process is spurred on by the need to fabricate thin, high density, reduced enrichment fuel plates for nuclear research reactors. The work seeks to convert research and test reactors currently operating on highly enriched uranium fuel to operate on low enriched uranium fuel without significant loss in reactor performance, safety characteristics, or significant increase in cost. In doing so, the threat of global nuclear material proliferation will be reduced. Feasibility studies performed on the process show that this is a viable option for mass production of plate-type nuclear fuel. Adapting the friction stir weld process for nuclear fuel fabrication has resulted in the development of several unique ideas and observations. Preliminary results of this adaptation and process model development are discussed

  19. Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Al/Al and Al/Non-Al Alloys: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangbin; Pan, Yi; Lados, Diana A.

    2018-05-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that has many advantages over traditional fusion welding, and has been widely adopted in the aerospace and automotive industries. This article reviews research developments in friction stir welding of dissimilar alloys systems, including combinations of aluminum alloys with Mg alloys, Cu, and steel. Microstructural evolution, hardness, tensile and fatigue properties, residual stresses, and corrosion behavior of dissimilar welds will be reported. The effects of processing parameters such as tool rotation and traverse speeds, tool position, material position, and tool geometry on the weld quality are also presented. Discussions on future research directions in friction stir welding will also be provided in the context of existing literature and future high-integrity applications.

  20. Effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot welding of polypropylene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Bilici

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tool geometry and properties on friction stir spot welding properties of polypropylene sheets were studied. Four different tool pin geometries, with varying pin angles, pin lengths, shoulder diameters and shoulder angles were used for friction stir spot welding. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Lap-shear tensile tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments the effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot weld formation and weld strength were determined. The optimum tool geometry for 4 mm thick polypropylene sheets were determined. The tapered cylindrical pin gave the biggest and the straight cylindrical pin gave the lowest lap-shear fracture load.