WorldWideScience

Sample records for perimeter zone energy

  1. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  2. Perimeter intrusion sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  3. Fragmentation of percolation cluster perimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debierre, Jean-Marc; Bradley, R. Mark

    1996-05-01

    We introduce a model for the fragmentation of porous random solids under the action of an external agent. In our model, the solid is represented by a bond percolation cluster on the square lattice and bonds are removed only at the external perimeter (or `hull') of the cluster. This model is shown to be related to the self-avoiding walk on the Manhattan lattice and to the disconnection events at a diffusion front. These correspondences are used to predict the leading and the first correction-to-scaling exponents for several quantities defined for hull fragmentation. Our numerical results support these predictions. In addition, the algorithm used to construct the perimeters reveals itself to be a very efficient tool for detecting subtle correlations in the pseudo-random number generator used. We present a quantitative test of two generators which supports recent results reported in more systematic studies.

  4. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  5. Integrated multisensor perimeter detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, P. J.; Fretwell, P.; Barrett, D. J.; Faulkner, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    The report describes the results of a multi-year programme of research aimed at the development of an integrated multi-sensor perimeter detection system capable of being deployed at an operational site. The research was driven by end user requirements in protective security, particularly in threat detection and assessment, where effective capability was either not available or prohibitively expensive. Novel video analytics have been designed to provide robust detection of pedestrians in clutter while new radar detection and tracking algorithms provide wide area day/night surveillance. A modular integrated architecture based on commercially available components has been developed. A graphical user interface allows intuitive interaction and visualisation with the sensors. The fusion of video, radar and other sensor data provides the basis of a threat detection capability for real life conditions. The system was designed to be modular and extendable in order to accommodate future and legacy surveillance sensors. The current sensor mix includes stereoscopic video cameras, mmWave ground movement radar, CCTV and a commercially available perimeter detection cable. The paper outlines the development of the system and describes the lessons learnt after deployment in a pilot trial.

  6. Perimeter security for Minnesota correctional facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crist, D. [Minnesota Department of Corrections, St. Paul, MN (United States); Spencer, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    For the past few years, the Minnesota Department of Corrections, assisted by Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a set of standards for perimeter security at medium, close, and maximum custody correctional facilities in the state. During this process, the threat to perimeter security was examined and concepts about correctional perimeter security were developed. This presentation and paper will review the outcomes of this effort, some of the lessons learned, and the concepts developed during this process and in the course of working with architects, engineers and construction firms as the state upgraded perimeter security at some facilities and planned new construction at other facilities.

  7. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-08

    A REZ is a geographical area that enables the development of profitable, cost-effective, grid-connected renewable energy (RE). The REZ Transmission Planning Process is a proactive approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure connecting REZs to the power system which helps to increase the share of solar, wind and other RE resources in the power system while maintaining reliability and economics, and focuses on large-scale wind and solar resources that can be developed in sufficient quantities to warrant transmission system expansion and upgrades.

  8. Historical Fire Perimeters - Southern California [ds384

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF, USDA Forest Service Region 5, BLM, NPS, Contract Counties and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private...

  9. Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias A. Houekpoheha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made ​​by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.

  10. Solar energy demonstration zones in the Dalmatian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrastnik, B. [Energy Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Frankovic, B. [University of Rijeka (Croatia). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-11-01

    The energy consumption in the Dalmatian region was estimated for residential and public sector, tourism, commercial sector and industry. The national energy program for the use of solar energy, SUNEN, assessed solar energy potential in Croatia. Energy from fossil fuels and electricity consumption in the region, which is mostly used in households for preparing hot water and space heating, could be economically substituted by renewable energy. The situation is most promising for the islands of the Adriatic, where solar thermal collectors, PV modules and wind generators could substitute conventional energy sources in satisfying the present thermal and electric demand. The Dalmatian Islands, characterised by a small density of energy consumption, are proposed as unique candidates in Europe for renewable zones, which could demonstrate the full potential of the renewable energy option. As a practical demonstration, the island of Lastovo and the planned tourist village and yacht marina in the Bay of Jurjeva Luka are proposed as a first solar demonstration project on the islands. Technical, economic, legal and institutional barriers, as well as shortages of financing the project identification process produced hereto an adverse environment for solar applications in Croatia. This paper is an initiative for eliminating the barriers and intensify the solar energy use in Croatia providing the clean environment and activation of indigenous energy resources in the region. (author)

  11. Ocean Wave Energy Regimes of the Circumpolar Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean wave activity is a major enviromental forcing agent of the ice-rich sediments that comprise large sections of the arctic coastal margins. While it is instructive to possess information about the wind regimes in these regions, direct application to geomorphological and engineering needs requires knowledge of the resultant wave-energy regimes. Wave energy information has been calculated at the regional scale using adjusted reanalysis model windfield data. Calculations at this scale are not designed to account for local-scale coastline/bathymetric irregularities and variability. Results will be presented for the circumpolar zones specified by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics Project.

  12. 21 CFR 886.1605 - Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perimeter. 886.1605 Section 886.1605 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... or manual device intended to determine the extent of the peripheral visual field of a patient. The...

  13. Computing nonsimple polygons of minimum perimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, S.P.; Haas, A.; Hemmer, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Kostitsyna, I.; Krupke, D.; Maurer, F.; Mitchell, J.S.B.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, C.; Troegel, J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the Minimum Perimeter Polygon Problem (MP3): for a given set V of points in the plane, find a polygon P with holes that has vertex set V , such that the total boundary length is smallest possible. The MP3 can be considered a natural geometric generalization of the Traveling Salesman

  14. Fire Perimeters - Southern California, Fall 2007 [ds385

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Southern Callifornia fire perimeters for the Fall 2007 wildfires. The perimeters were assembled from various sources by California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.307 - Perimeter support piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.307 Perimeter support piers. (a) Piers required at mate-line supports, perimeter piers, and piers at exterior wall...

  16. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Jacobs, J.; McGovern, D.E.

    1977-11-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  17. Double system wave energy converter for the breaker zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Stefano; Negri; Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a particular type of wave energy converter, namely EDS (Energy Double System) is presented. It is a two-body point absorber composed by a heaving float and a surging paddle, mounted on the same structure and aligned along the wave propagation direction. The system is designed for working in the breaker zone, where waves close to breaking can generate a considerable surging force on the paddle. A scale EDS model has been built and tested in the wave flume of the Hydraulics Laboratory of the 'Politecnico' of Milan. The power absorbed by the system, varying its configuration, position and wave, has been measured, and interesting efficiencies have been found.

  18. Energy Zones Study: A Comprehensive Web-Based Mapping Tool to Identify and Analyze Clean Energy Zones in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, Vladimir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kuiper, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunner, Donna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Green, Jr., Herman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makar, Jeffrey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ayers, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Holm, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Simunich, Kathy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shamsuddin, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kavicky, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Portante, Edgar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Molburg, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, Corrie [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Darling, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Braun, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gasper, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Richmond, Pamela [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beardsley, Brett [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fernandez, Steven [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kodysh, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report describes the work conducted in support of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones Study and the development of the Energy Zones Mapping Tool performed by a team of experts from three National Laboratories. The multi-laboratory effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  19. RE Data Explorer: Supporting Renewable Energy Zones to Enable Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet overviews the benefits of using the RE Data Explorer tool to analyze and develop renewable energy zones. Renewable energy zones are developed through a transmission planning and approval process customized for renewable energy. RE Data Explorer analysis can feed into broader stakeholder discussions and allow stakeholders to easily visualize potential zones. Stakeholders can access pertinent data to inform transmission planning and enable investment.

  20. Energy Zones Study: A Comprehensive Web-Based Mapping Tool to Identify and Analyze Clean Energy Zones in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V.; Kuiper, J.; Hlava, K.; Orr, A.; Rollins, K.; Brunner, D.; Green, H.; Makar, J.; Ayers, A.; Holm, M.; Simunich, K.; Wang, J.; Augustine, C.; Heimiller, D.; Hurlbut, D. J.; Milbrandt, A.; Schneider, T. R.; et al.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the work conducted in support of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones Study and the development of the Energy Zones Mapping Tool performed by a team of experts from three National Laboratories. The multi-laboratory effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In June 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory published Funding Opportunity Announcement FOA-0000068, which invited applications for interconnection-level analysis and planning. In December 2009, the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) and the EISPC were selected as two award recipients for the Eastern Interconnection. Subsequently, in 2010, DOE issued Research Call RC-BM-2010 to DOE’s Federal Laboratories to provide research support and assistance to FOA-0000068 awardees on a variety of key subjects. Argonne was selected as the lead laboratory to provide support to EISPC in developing a methodology and a mapping tool for identifying potential clean energy zones in the Eastern Interconnection. In developing the EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool (EZ Mapping Tool), Argonne, NREL, and ORNL closely collaborated with the EISPC Energy Zones Work Group which coordinated the work on the Energy Zones Study. The main product of the Energy Zones Study is the EZ Mapping Tool, which is a web-based decision support system that allows users to locate areas with high suitability for clean power generation in the U.S. portion of the Eastern Interconnection. The mapping tool includes 9 clean (low- or no-carbon) energy resource categories and 29 types of clean energy technologies. The EZ Mapping Tool contains an extensive geographic information system database and allows the user to apply a flexible modeling approach for the identification and analysis of potential energy zones

  1. Energy exploration in the Australian arid zone: constraints and environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R C

    1982-03-01

    The main constraints on energy exploration in the Australian arid zone are logistic, with limited additional constraints from Aboriginal reserves. The main consequence is increased access, with possible introduction of weeds and expansion of tourism and cattle grazing in consequence.

  2. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  3. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support utility-scale solar energy development at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone (SEZ), as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program.

  4. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Connor, Ben L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tompson, Andrew F.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  5. ON PREDICTING INFRAGRAVITY ENERGY IN THE SURF ZONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Holman, Robert A.; Edge, Billy L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow data were obtained in the surf zone across a barred profile during a storm. RMS cross-shore velocities due to waves in the intragravity band (wave periods greater than 20 s) had maxima in excess of 0. 5 m/s over the bar crest. For comparison to measured spectra, synthetic spectra of cross-shore flow were computed using measured nearshore profiles. The structure, in the infragravity band, of these synthetic spectra corresponded reasonably well with the structure of the measured spectra. Total variances of measured cross-shore flow within the infragravity band were nondimensionalized by dividing by total infragravity variances of synthetic spectra. These nondimensional variances were independent of distance offshore and increased with the square of the breaker height. Thus, cross-shore flow due to infragravity waves can be estimated with knowledge of the nearshore profile and incident wave conditions. Refs.

  6. Mapping the Habitable Zone of Exoplanets with a 2D Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Nicole Taylor; Dr. Lisa Kaltenegger, Dr. Ramses Ramirez

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the habitable zone has been defined as the distance at which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. However, different complexity models (simplified and fast:1D, and complex and time-intense:3D) models derive different boundaries for the habitable zone. The goal of this project was to test a new intermediate complexity 2D Energy Balance model, add a new ice albedo feedback mechanism, and derive the habitable zone boundaries. After completing this first project, we also studied how other feedback mechanisms, such as the presence of clouds and the carbonate-silicate cycle, effected the location of the habitable zone boundaries using this 2D model. This project was completed as part of a 2017 summer REU program hosted by Cornell's Center for Astrophysics and Plantary Sciecne and in partnership with the Carl Sagan Institute.

  7. Fiber-optic perimeter security system based on WDM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Alexandre V.

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent underground fiber optic perimeter security system is presented. Their structure, operation, software and hardware with neural networks elements are described. System allows not only to establish the fact of violation of the perimeter, but also to locate violations. This is achieved through the use of WDM-technology division spectral information channels. As used quasi-distributed optoelectronic recirculation system as a discrete sensor. The principle of operation is based on registration of the recirculation period change in the closed optoelectronic circuit at different wavelengths under microstrain exposed optical fiber. As a result microstrain fiber having additional power loss in a fiber optical propagating pulse, which causes a time delay as a result of switching moments of the threshold device. To separate the signals generated by intruder noise and interference, the signal analyzer is used, based on the principle of a neural network. The system detects walking, running or crawling intruder, as well as undermining attempts to register under the perimeter line. These alarm systems can be used to protect the perimeters of facilities such as airports, nuclear reactors, power plants, warehouses, and other extended territory.

  8. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981

  9. Analysis on energy-saving path of rural buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Li, Jinheng

    2018-02-01

    Since the reform and opening policy, the construction of rural area in China has become more and more important. The idea of establishing green villages needs to be accepted and recognized by the public. The hot summer and cold winter zone combines two contradictory weather conditions that is cold winter and hot summer. So the living conditions are limited. In response to this climate, residents extensively use electric heaters or air conditioning to adjust the indoor temperature, resulting in energy waste and environmental pollution. In order to improve the living conditions of residents, rural area energy conservation has been put on the agenda. Based on the present situation and energy consumption analysis of the rural buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone, this article puts forward several energy saving paths from government, construction technology and so on

  10. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating index...

  11. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  12. 77 FR 34935 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-4-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Notice of... temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority, on behalf of Siemens Energy, Inc., to manufacture wind...

  13. Exploration of resource and transmission expansion decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19% of the total delivered cost of renewable energy. - Research highlights: → We describe a new tool to evaluate transmission expansion and renewable resource selection. → We examine a scenario where 33% of the energy in the Western Interconnection comes from renewables. → Wind energy provides the majority of new renewable energy. → For some loads, the decision to procure wind and the required transmission is insensitive to assumptions. → For other loads, assumptions can shift toward more solar, which also changes the needed transmission.

  14. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process: A Guidebook for Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Achieving clean energy goals may require new investments in transmission, especially if planners anticipate economic growth and increased demand for electricity. The renewable energy zone (REZ) transmission planning process can help policymakers ensure their infrastructure investments achieve national goals in the most economical manner. Policymakers, planners, and system operators around the world have used variations of the REZ process to chart the expansion of their transmission networks and overcome the barriers of traditional transmission planning. This guidebook seeks to help power system planners, key decision makers, and stakeholders understand and use the REZ transmission planning process to integrate transmission expansion planning and renewable energy generation planning.

  15. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 m s-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  16. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 ms-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  17. DAVID: A new video motion sensor for outdoor perimeter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    To be effective, a perimeter intrusion detection system must comprise both sensor and rapid assessment components. The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) to provide the rapid assessment capability, makes possible the use of video motion detection (VMD) processing as a system sensor component. Despite it's conceptual appeal, video motion detection has not been widely used in outdoor perimeter systems because of an inability to discriminate between genuine intrusions and numerous environmental effects such as cloud shadows, wind motion, reflections, precipitation, etc. The result has been an unacceptably high false alarm rate and operator work-load. DAVID (Digital Automatic Video Intrusion Detector) utilizes new digital signal processing techniques to achieve a dramatic improvement in discrimination performance thereby making video motion detection practical for outdoor applications. This paper begins with a discussion of the key considerations in implementing an outdoor video intrusion detection system, followed by a description of the DAVID design in light of these considerations

  18. Top scientists join Stephen Hawking at Perimeter Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nine leading researchers are to join Stephen Hawking as visiting fellows at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, Canada. The researchers, who include string theorists Leonard Susskind from Stanford University and Asoka Sen from the Harisch-Chandra Research Institute in India, will each spend a few months of the year at the institute as "distinguished research chairs". They will be joined by another 30 scientists to be announced at a later date.

  19. Real-time estimation of wildfire perimeters from curated crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xu; Duckham, Matt; Chong, Derek; Tolhurst, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Real-time information about the spatial extents of evolving natural disasters, such as wildfire or flood perimeters, can assist both emergency responders and the general public during an emergency. However, authoritative information sources can suffer from bottlenecks and delays, while user-generated social media data usually lacks the necessary structure and trustworthiness for reliable automated processing. This paper describes and evaluates an automated technique for real-time tracking of wildfire perimeters based on publicly available “curated” crowdsourced data about telephone calls to the emergency services. Our technique is based on established data mining tools, and can be adjusted using a small number of intuitive parameters. Experiments using data from the devastating Black Saturday wildfires (2009) in Victoria, Australia, demonstrate the potential for the technique to detect and track wildfire perimeters automatically, in real time, and with moderate accuracy. Accuracy can be further increased through combination with other authoritative demographic and environmental information, such as population density and dynamic wind fields. These results are also independently validated against data from the more recent 2014 Mickleham-Dalrymple wildfires.

  20. New organization scheme for the energy supply in the not interconnected zones of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Josue; Bayona Lugdy

    2001-01-01

    The paper shows a new scheme of solutions in the financial institutional environment and regulatory, in this sense it thinks about the creation from a support unit to the rural energy administration that takes charge of to identify energy solutions and the technical and organizational support of the service of a foundation that manage the obtained resources and a interconnected scheme to the current conditions of the NIZ. In Colombia the not interconnected zones NIZ corresponds those of the country that don't receive electric power service through the national interconnected system, and who interconnection is not economically feasible

  1. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  2. Stress fields and energy of disclination-type defects in zones of localized elastic distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Ivan I.; Tyumentsev, Alexander N.; Ditenberg, Ivan A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper studies theoretically the elastically deformed state and analyzes deformation mechanisms in nanocrystals in the zones of localized elastic distortions and related disclination-type defects, such as dipole, quadrupole and multipole of partial disclinations. Significant differences in the energies of quadrupole and multipole configurations in comparison with nanodipole are revealed. The mechanism of deformation localization in the field of elastic distortions is proposed, which is a quasi-periodic sequence of formation and relaxation of various disclination ensembles with a periodic change in the energy of the defect.

  3. Design Optimization of a Small-Scale Polygeneration Energy System in Different Climate Zones in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ghaem Sigarchian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Design and performance of polygeneration energy systems are highly influenced by several variables, including the climate zone, which can affect the load profile as well as the availability of renewable energy sources. To investigate the effects, in this study, the design of a polygeneration system for identical residential buildings that are located in three different climate zones in Iran has been investigated. To perform the study, a model has previously developed by the author is used. The performance of the polygeneration system in terms of energy, economy and environment were compared to each other. The results show significant energetic and environmental benefits of the implementation of polygeneration systems in Iran, especially in the building that is located in a hot climate, with a high cooling demand and a low heating demand. Optimal polygeneration system for an identical building has achieved a 27% carbon dioxide emission reduction in the cold climate, while this value is around 41% in the hot climate. However, when considering the price of electricity and gas in the current energy market in Iran, none of the systems are feasible and financial support mechanisms or other incentives are required to promote the application of decentralized polygeneration energy systems.

  4. Topology control of tactical wireless sensor networks using energy efficient zone routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Thulasiraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Defense (DoD routinely uses wireless sensor networks (WSNs for military tactical communications. Sensor node die-out has a significant impact on the topology of a tactical WSN. This is problematic for military applications where situational data is critical to tactical decision making. To increase the amount of time all sensor nodes remain active within the network and to control the network topology tactically, energy efficient routing mechanisms must be employed. In this paper, we aim to provide realistic insights on the practical advantages and disadvantages of using established routing techniques for tactical WSNs. We investigate the following established routing algorithms: direct routing, minimum transmission energy (MTE, Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Head routing (LEACH, and zone clustering. Based on the node die out statistics observed with these algorithms and the topological impact the node die outs have on the network, we develop a novel, energy efficient zone clustering algorithm called EZone. Via extensive simulations using MATLAB, we analyze the effectiveness of these algorithms on network performance for single and multiple gateway scenarios and show that the EZone algorithm tactically controls the topology of the network, thereby maintaining significant service area coverage when compared to the other routing algorithms.

  5. Assessment of solar and wind energy potentials for three free economic and industrial zones of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali; Sabzpooshani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential of renewable energy sources of solar and wind in three free economic and industrial zones of Chabahar, Kish and Salafchegan in Iran. Feasibility of harnessing solar energy was investigated by using key solar parameters like monthly mean global, beam and diffuse solar radiation as well as clearness index. It was found that all locations had great potentials for utilizing different solar energy systems. Additionally, the monthly, seasonal, semi-yearly and yearly optimum tilt angles of south-facing solar surfaces were determined. For all zones, adjusting the tilt angle twice a year or in other words, the semi-yearly tilt adjustment for two periods of warm (April–September) and cold (October–March) were highly recommended, since it offers almost the same level of annual solar energy gain (SEG) as those of monthly and seasonal adjustments. Weibull Distribution Function (WDF) was performed for analyzing the wind potentials at different heights. It was found that Chabahar was not suitable for wind energy development, but Kish and Salafchegan with yearly wind powers of 111.28 W/m 2 and 114.34 W/m 2 , respectively ranked in class 2 which are considered marginal for wind power development. Three different wind turbine models were proposed for Kish and Salafchegan. - Highlights: • Feasibility of solar and wind energy for three locations of Iran was investigated. • All locations were suitable for solar energy utilization. • The optimum tilt angles of solar surfaces were determined. • Chabahar was unsuitable, but Kish and Salafchegan were marginal for wind purpose

  6. The ecological-commerce (ECO-COM) zone concept for developing biomass energy from contaminated resources: A new demonstration zone for the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarn, D.W.; Iakoushev, A.; Grebenkov, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl Accident, about 17,000 km 2 of forested area in the Gomel Oblask of Belarus was contaminated with radioactive material. Remediation and productive utilization of these resources is proposed through the use of the forest biomass as a source of energy. The energy sector of Belarus requires rapid development of new sources of power generating capacity if projected needs are to be met. The current energy balance in the region of the Contaminated Territories shows a deficit of almost 600 MW which is currently being imported. The next five years will see a significant reduction of the energy production capacity of Belarus due to retirement of a large portion of existing facilities. The World Bank has stressed the importance of biomass energy development in Belarus to reduce reliance on imported sources of energy. This proposal addresses this need. A Non-Profit Corporation (NPC) is proposed to manage all identified resources in the contaminated territories in Belarus for use by a duty-free / tax-free Ecological - Commerce (ECO-COM) Zone. The ECO-COM Zone would produce energy, pulp, paper, and other products directly from radioactively contaminated materials. A board of internationally recognized specialists in radiological safety would insure that these products meet internationally acceptable safety norms. A primary benefit for Belarus would be the creation of significant electrical energy capacity as well as expanded pulp and paper production in addition to the removal of a large fraction of the total radioactive source-term from the contaminated land. A short list of projects is presented at the end of this report that meet basic infrastructural, economic, industrial, and energy savings activities permitting the rapid payback of investments. This list was compiled for ECO-COM and recommended by the Ministry of Energy Savings in the framework of the Energy Efficiency 2000 (EE 2000) Demonstration Zone program adopted for Belarus

  7. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.

  8. Renewable Energy Zones for Balancing Siting Trade-offs in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-27

    India’s targets of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, and 40% generation capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 will require a rapid and dramatic increase in solar and wind capacity deployment and overcoming its associated economic, siting, and power system challenges. The objective of this study was to spatially identify the amount and quality of wind and utility-scale solar resource potential in India, and the possible siting-related constraints and opportunities for development of renewable resources. Using the Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) methodological framework, we estimated several criteria valuable for the selection of sites for development for each identified potential "zone", such as the levelized cost of electricity, distance to nearest substation, capacity value (or the temporal matching of renewable energy generation to demand), and the type of land cover. We find that high quality resources are spatially heterogeneous across India, with most wind and solar resources concentrated in the southern and western states, and the northern state of Rajasthan. Assuming India's Central Electricity Regulatory Commission's norms, we find that the range of levelized costs of generation of wind and solar PV resources overlap, but concentrated solar power (CSP) resources can be approximately twice as expensive. Further, the levelized costs of generation vary much more across wind zones than those across solar zones because of greater heterogeneity in the quality of wind resources compared to that of solar resources. When considering transmission accessibility, we find that about half of all wind zones (47%) and two-thirds of all solar PV zones (66%) are more than 25 km from existing 220 kV and above substations, suggesting potential constraints in access to high voltage transmission infrastructure and opportunities for preemptive transmission planning to scale up RE development. Additionally and

  9. Analysis Of The Socioeconomic And Environmental Impacts Of Irrigated Agriculture In The Irrigated Perimeter Of Pau Dos Ferros (Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobson Garcia de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Government implemented irrigated perimeters to ameliorate problems of drought and poverty in the Northeast. In this sense, the objective of this work was to analyze the social, economic and environmental impacts generated by the practice of irrigated agriculture in the municipality of Pau dos Ferros-RN, resulting from the impacts caused by the activity. Obtained references on the topic, on-site visits and interviews with producers of the perimeter. It was observed the presence of negative impacts in the area, such as waste, contamination and water salinisation, compaction and soil erosion, deforestation caused by the removal of the native vegetation, high consumption of energy and public health problems.

  10. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  11. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  12. Fiber optic perimeter system for security in smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Zboril, Ondrej; Novak, Martin; Jargus, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Protection of persons and assets is the key challenge of Smart City safeguards technologies. Conventional security technologies are often outdated and easy to breach. Therefore, new technologies that could complement existing systems or replace them are developed. The use of optical fibers and their subsequent application in sensing is a trend of recent years. This article discusses the use of fiber-optic sensors in perimeter protection. The sensor consists of optical fibers and couplers only and being constructed without wires and metal parts bring many advantages. These include an absence of interference with electromagnetic waves, system presence can be difficult to detect as well as affect its operation. Testing installation of perimeter system was carried out under reinforced concrete structure. Subjects walked over the bridge at different speeds and over the different routes. The task for the system was an absolute detection of all subjects. The proposed system should find application mainly in areas with the presence of volatile substances, strong electromagnetic fields, or in explosive areas.

  13. Divergence-Measure Fields, Sets of Finite Perimeter, and Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Torres, Monica

    2005-02-01

    Divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter are analyzed. A notion of normal traces over boundaries of sets of finite perimeter is introduced, and the Gauss-Green formula over sets of finite perimeter is established for divergence-measure fields in L∞. The normal trace introduced here over a class of surfaces of finite perimeter is shown to be the weak-star limit of the normal traces introduced in Chen & Frid [6] over the Lipschitz deformation surfaces, which implies their consistency. As a corollary, an extension theorem of divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter is also established. Then we apply the theory to the initial-boundary value problem of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws over sets of finite perimeter.

  14. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  15. Energy use and economic analysis of strawberry production in Sanandaj zone of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy consumption and economic analysis for strawberry production. The data were collected from 60 farmers growing strawberry in the Sanandaj zone of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in August-September 2009. The plowing operation at the study area was done by two methods; manually plow (P1 and machinery plow (P2. Also the irrigation operation was done by two methods; pumping irrigation (P and non pumping irrigation (NP. Univariate analysis of variance was used for finding the differences among the total energy used for production and profitability of this crop in the different methods at the 5% and 1% level. Total energy used in various farm operations during strawberry production was 53,605 MJ.ha-1. Total energy output was 17,338 MJ.ha-1, and the average annual yield of strawberry farms was 9,125 kg.ha-1. Energy efficiency was 0.32, and energy productivity calculated as 0.17 kg.MJ-1. This means a production of 0.17 kg per unit energy. The difference between total input energy in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 1% level. There is not any significant difference between different plow types at the 5% level. The interaction of irrigation types and plow types is significant at 5% level. The profit-cost ratio, productivity, and net profit in the strawberry production are 1.2, 0.99, and 1,825 $.ha-1, respectively. The difference between net return in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 5% level. The difference between net return in the different plow types (P1 and P2 is significant at 1% level.

  16. Evidence for acceleration of outer zone electrons to relativistic energies by whistler mode chorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Meredith

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We use plasma wave and electron data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by gyroresonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. In particular, we examine the temporal evolution of the spectral response of the electrons and the waves during the 9 October 1990 geomagnetic storm. The observed hardening of the electron energy spectra over about 3 days in the recovery phase is coincident with prolonged substorm activity, as monitored by the AE index and enhanced levels of whistler mode chorus waves. The observed spectral hardening is observed to take place over a range of energies appropriate to the resonant energies associated with Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance, as supported by the construction of realistic resonance curves and resonant diffusion surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the observed spectral hardening is not consistent with energy-independent radial diffusion models. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence for a local stochastic acceleration mechanism, involving the energisation of a seed population of electrons with energies of the order of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies, driven by wave-particle interactions involving whistler mode chorus. The results suggest that this mechanism contributes to the reformation of the relativistic outer zone population during geomagnetic storms, and is most effective when the recovery phase is characterised by prolonged substorm activity. An additional significant result of this paper is that we demonstrate that the lower energy part of the storm-time electron distribution is in steady-state balance, in accordance with the Kennel and Petschek (1966 theory of limited stably-trapped particle fluxes.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms, energetic particles, trapped – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  17. Impact of aerosols on solar energy production - Scenarios from the Sahel Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Ina; Meilinger, Stefanie; Crewell, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Solar energy is one option to serve the rising global energy demand with low environmental impact. Building an energy system with a considerable share of solar power requires long-term investment and a careful investigation of potential sites. Therefore, understanding the impacts from varying regionally and locally determined meteorological conditions on solar energy production will influence energy yield projections. Aerosols reduce global solar radiation due to absorption and scattering and therewith solar energy yields. Depending on aerosol size distribution they reduce the direct component of the solar radiation and modify the direction of the diffuse component compared to standard atmospheric conditions without aerosols. The aerosol size distribution and composition in the atmosphere is highly variable due to meteorological and land surface conditions. A quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on solar power yields and its relation to land use change is of particular interest for developing countries countries when analyzing the potential of local power production. This study aims to identify the effect of atmospheric aerosols in three different land use regimes, namely desert, urban/polluted and maritime on the tilted plane of photovoltaic energy modules. Here we focus on the Sahel zone, i.e. Niamey, Niger (13.5 N;2.1 E), located at the edge of the Sahara where also detailed measurements of the atmospheric state are available over the year 2006. Guided by observations a model chain is used to determine power yields. The atmospheric aerosol composition will be defined by using the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) library. Direct and diffuse radiation (up- and downward component) are then calculated by the radiative transfer model libRadtran which allows to calculate the diffuse component of the radiance from different azimuth and zenith angles. Then the diffuse radiance will be analytically transformed to an east, south and west facing

  18. Incentive mechanism design for the residential building energy efficiency improvement of heating zones in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y.; Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with analyzing the investigation results by Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China in 2005, more than half of the 10,236 participants are willing to improve the residential building energy efficiency and accept an additional cost of less than 10% of the total cost, the authors illustrate that incenting actions are necessary to improve building energy efficiency and build a central government-local government-market model. As a result of the model analysis, to pursue good execution effects brought by the incentive policies, the executors are required to distinguish the differences of incentive objects' economic activities and strongly respect the incenting on the energy conservation performance. A case study on the incentive policies of existing residential building energy efficiency improvement in heating zones in North China is given as well. Finally, it is strongly recommended to give the first priority to performance-based incentives so that to reduce the lazy behaviors of the incented objects and ensure the targets to be achieved.

  19. Root zone temperature control with thermal energy storage in phase change materials for soilless greenhouse applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyhan, Beyza; Paksoy, Halime; Daşgan, Yıldız

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PCM based passive root zone temperature control system was developed. • The system was tested with zucchinis and peppers in a greenhouse in Turkey. • Two different fatty acids and mixtures were determined as suitable PCMs. • The optimum temperature levels necessary for growth of vegetables were maintained. - Abstract: A new root zone temperature control system based on thermal energy storage in phase change materials (PCM) has been developed for soilless agriculture greenhouses. The aim was to obtain optimum growing temperatures around the roots of plants. The candidate PCMs were 40% oleic acid–60% decanoic acid mixture and oleic acid alone. Field experiments with these PCMs were carried out in November 2009 with Cucurbite Pepo and March 2010 with Capsicum annum plants. No additional heating system was used in the greenhouse during these periods. In the November 2009 tests with zucchini, 40% oleic acid + 60% capric acid mixture was the PCM and a temperature increase in the PCM container (versus the control container) was measured as 1.9 °C. In our March 2010 tests with peppers, both PCMs were tried and the PCM mixture was found to be more effective than using oleic acidalone. A maximum temperature difference achieved by the PCM mixture around the roots of peppers was 2.4 °C higher than that near the control plants

  20. Ecologically Safe Geothermal Energy Resources in Western Siberia near high-rise construction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Alexandr; Shiganova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The development of geothermal energy in combination with other renewable energy sources (the sun, the wind) will help to solve the problem of heat supply and electrification in near high-rise construction zones of the country, especially in sparsely populated parts, where centralized energy and heat supply is economically unacceptable, and will improve the ecological situation. The aim of the research is to analyze the geothermal resources of the main aquifers in Western Siberia and to develop recommendations for further study and use of heat and power resources of this territory. The article gives retrospective of state research programs and potential use of hydrothermal resources of administrative units geographically entering the territory under consideration. It is noted that by now such programs have been curtailed for various reasons, although there are examples of their successful and effective use in various fields of industry and agriculture. According to the decision of the Supreme Ecological Council of the State Duma Committee of the Russian Federation adopted in 2014 on the beginning of the development of federal targeted programs for the use of heat power water as a source of electricity and heat supply, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation made proposals for further research and use of hydrothermal waters in Western Siberia. Implementation of the programs proposed by the authors, alongside with other positive aspects, will solve the problems of heat supply in remote territories and improve the environmental situation in the region.

  1. Current Density Distribution on the Perimeter of Waveguide Exciter Cylindrical Vibrator Conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Yosyp

    2010-01-01

    On ground of electrodynamic analysis the surface current distribution nonuniformity on the perimeter of waveguide-exciter cylindrical conductor is found. Considerable influence of current distribution nonuniformity on exciter input reactance is established. It is also showed, that the current distribution on the vibrator perimeter, for conductor radius no greater then 0,07 of waveguide cross section breadth, approximately uniform is.

  2. Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Dilip R.; SenGupta, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2 billion kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. - Highlights: ► Advancing IST (YRDST) consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST. ► DST consistently saves more energy than dividing India into two time zones. ► There are also many non-energy benefits of advancing IST. ► Results are for India; countries with DST may find it useful to consider YRDST.

  3. Numerical quantification and minimization of perimeter losses in high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altermatt, P.P.; Heiser, Gernot; Green, M.A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of perimeter losses in high-efficiency silicon solar cells. A new method of numerical modelling is used, which provides the means to simulate a full-sized solar cell, including its perimeter region. We analyse the reduction in efficiency due to perimeter losses as a function of the distance between the active cell area and the cut edge. It is shown how the optimum distance depends on whether the cells in the panel are shingled or not. The simulations also indicate that passivating the cut-face with a thermal oxide does not increase cell efficiency substantially. Therefore, doping schemes for the perimeter domain are suggested in order to increase efficiency levels above present standards. Finally, perimeter effects in cells that remain embedded in the wafer during the efficiency measurement are outlined. (author)

  4. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr ≤ annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to cluster bean

  5. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H. E-mail: hsingh11@rediffmail.com; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M

    2004-09-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr {<=} annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to

  6. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Chen; Yongquan Wen; Nanyang Li

    2016-01-01

    With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE) and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted t...

  7. The effects of climate change on heating energy consumption of office buildings in different climate zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanchao; Li, Mingcai; Cao, Jingfu; Li, Ji; Xiong, Mingming; Feng, Xiaomei; Ren, Guoyu

    2017-06-01

    Climate plays an important role in heating energy consumption owing to the direct relationship between space heating and changes in meteorological conditions. To quantify the impact, the Transient System Simulation Program software was used to simulate the heating loads of office buildings in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, representing three major climate zones (i.e., severe cold, cold, and hot summer and cold winter climate zones) in China during 1961-2010. Stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to determine the key climatic parameters influencing heating energy consumption. The results showed that dry bulb temperature (DBT) is the dominant climatic parameter affecting building heating loads in all three climate zones across China during the heating period at daily, monthly, and yearly scales (R 2 ≥ 0.86). With the continuous warming climate in winter over the past 50 years, heating loads decreased by 14.2, 7.2, and 7.1 W/m2 in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, respectively, indicating that the decreasing rate is more apparent in severe cold climate zone. When the DBT increases by 1 °C, the heating loads decrease by 253.1 W/m2 in Harbin, 177.2 W/m2 in Tianjin, and 126.4 W/m2 in Shanghai. These results suggest that the heating energy consumption can be well predicted by the regression models at different temporal scales in different climate conditions owing to the high determination coefficients. In addition, a greater decrease in heating energy consumption in northern severe cold and cold climate zones may efficiently promote the energy saving in these areas with high energy consumption for heating. Particularly, the likely future increase in temperatures should be considered in improving building energy efficiency.

  8. System overview and applications of a panoramic imaging perimeter sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and potential applications of a 360-degree scanning, multi-spectral intrusion detection sensor. This moderate-resolution, true panoramic imaging sensor is intended for exterior use at ranges from 50 to 1,500 meters. This Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) simultaneously uses three sensing technologies (infrared, visible, and radar) along with advanced data processing methods to provide low false-alarm intrusion detection, tracking, and immediate visual assessment. The images from the infrared and visible detector sets and the radar range data are updated as the sensors rotate once per second. The radar provides range data with one-meter resolution. This sensor has been designed for easy use and rapid deployment to cover wide areas beyond or in place of typical perimeters, and tactical applications around fixed or temporary high-value assets. AES prototypes are in development. Applications discussed in this paper include replacements, augmentations, or new installations at fixed sites where topological features, atmospheric conditions, environmental restrictions, ecological regulations, and archaeological features limit the use of conventional security components and systems

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on the built environment: ASHRAE climate zones, building codes and national energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M. [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    Statement of the Problem: ASHRAE releases updates to 90.1 “Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings” every three years resulting in a 3.7%-17.3% increase in energy efficiency for buildings with each release. This is adopted by or informs building codes in nations across the globe, is the National Standard for the US, and individual states elect which release year of the standard they will enforce. These codes are built upon Standard 169 “Climatic Data for Building Design Standards,” the latest 2017 release of which defines climate zones based on 8, 118 weather stations throughout the world and data from the past 8-25 years. This data may not be indicative of the weather that new buildings built today, will see during their upcoming 30-120 year lifespan. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Using more modern, high-resolution datasets from climate satellites, IPCC climate models (PCM and HadGCM), high performance computing resources (Titan) and new capabilities for clustering and optimization the authors briefly analyzed different methods for redefining climate zones. Using bottom-up analysis of multiple meteorological variables which were the subject matter, experts selected as being important to energy consumption, rather than the heating/cooling degree days currently used. Findings: We analyzed the accuracy of redefined climate zones, compared to current climate zones and how the climate zones moved under different climate change scenarios, and quantified the accuracy of these methods on a local level, at a national scale for the US. Conclusion & Significance: There is likely to be a significant annual, national energy and cost (billions USD) savings that could be realized by adjusting climate zones to take into account anticipated trends or scenarios in regional weather patterns.

  10. The Dual Role of Vegetation as a Constraint on Mass and Energy Flux into the Critical Zone and as an Emergent Property of Geophysical Critical Zone Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Swetnam, T. L.; Barnard, H. R.; Singha, K.; Harpold, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial patterns in vegetation long have been used to scale both landsurface-atmosphere exchanges of water and carbon as well as to infer subsurface structure. These pursuits typical proceed in isolation and rarely do inferences gained from one community propagate to related efforts in another. Perhaps more importantly, vegetation often is treated as an emergent property of landscape-climate interactions rather than an active modifier of both critical zone structure and energy fluxes. We posit that vegetation structure and activity are under utilized as a tool towards understanding landscape evolution and present examples that begin to disentangle the role of vegetation as both an emergent property and an active control on critical zone structure and function. As climate change, population growth, and land use changes threaten water resources worldwide, the need for the new insights vegetation can provide becomes not just a basic science priority, but a pressing applied science question with clear societal importance. This presentation will provide an overview of recent efforts to address the dual role of vegetation in both modifying and reflecting critical zone structure in the western North American forests. For example, interactions between topography and stand scale vegetation structure influence both solar radiation and turbulence altering landscape scale partitioning of evaporation vs transpiration with major impacts of surface water supply. Similarly, interactions between topographic shading, lateral redistribution of plant available water, and subsurface storage create a mosaic of drought resistance and resilience across complex terrain. These complex interactions between geophysical and vegetation components of critical zone structure result in predictable patterns in catchment scale hydrologic partitioning within individual watersheds while simultaneously suggesting testable hypotheses for why catchments under similar climate regimes respond so

  11. Visual Resource Analysis for Solar Energy Zones in the San Luis Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Zvolanek, Emily [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Brown, Jeffery [Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of the Interior

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Environmental Science Division for the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The study analyzed the regional effects of potential visual impacts of solar energy development on three BLM-designated solar energy zones (SEZs) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) in Colorado, and, based on the analysis, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation to compensate residents and other stakeholders for the potential visual impacts to the SEZs. The analysis was conducted as part of the solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) task conducted by BLM Colorado with assistance from Argonne. Two separate analyses were performed. The first analysis, referred to as the VSA Analysis, analyzed the potential visual impacts of solar energy development in the SEZs on nearby visually sensitive areas (VSAs), and, based on the impact analyses, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation. VSAs are locations for which some type of visual sensitivity has been identified, either because the location is an area of high scenic value or because it is a location from which people view the surrounding landscape and attach some level of importance or sensitivity to what is seen from the location. The VSA analysis included both BLM-administered lands in Colorado and in the Taos FO in New Mexico. The second analysis, referred to as the SEZ Analysis, used BLM visual resource inventory (VRI) and other data on visual resources in the former Saguache and La Jara Field Offices (FOs), now contained within the San Luis Valley FO (SLFO), to determine whether the changes in scenic values that would result from the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities in the SEZs would affect the quality and quantity of valued scenic resources in the SLV region as a whole. If the regional effects were judged to be significant, regional

  12. Ocean zoning for conservation, fisheries and marine renewable energy: assessing trade-offs and co-location opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S; Klein, Carissa J

    2015-04-01

    Oceans, particularly coastal areas, are getting busier and within this increasingly human-dominated seascape, marine biodiversity continues to decline. Attempts to maintain and restore marine biodiversity are becoming more spatial, principally through the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs compete for space with other uses, and the emergence of new industries, such as marine renewable energy generation, will increase competition for space. Decision makers require guidance on how to zone the ocean to conserve biodiversity, mitigate conflict and accommodate multiple uses. Here we used empirical data and freely available planning software to identified priority areas for multiple ocean zones, which incorporate goals for biodiversity conservation, two types of renewable energy, and three types of fishing. We developed an approached to evaluate trade-offs between industries and we investigated the impacts of co-locating some fishing activities within renewable energy sites. We observed non-linear trade-offs between industries. We also found that different subsectors within those industries experienced very different trade-off curves. Incorporating co-location resulted in significant reductions in cost to the fishing industry, including fisheries that were not co-located. Co-location also altered the optimal location of renewable energy zones with planning solutions. Our findings have broad implications for ocean zoning and marine spatial planning. In particular, they highlight the need to include industry subsectors when assessing trade-offs and they stress the importance of considering co-location opportunities from the outset. Our research reinforces the need for multi-industry ocean-zoning and demonstrates how it can be undertaken within the framework of strategic conservation planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using GIS to evaluate the impact of exclusion zones on the connection cost of wave energy to the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prest, Robert; Daniell, Trevor; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2007-01-01

    An increase in the planning and environmental restrictions associated with wind energy has led to a growth in interest towards wave energy. However, as the connection cost of a wave energy development is a driving factor in the development's feasibility, existing wind farm cable-routing techniques used by renewable energy developers may not be satisfactory. A Geographical Information System (GIS) method is presented which optimises the cable route between a wave farm and the electricity network, while taking a range of exclusion zones, such as native vegetation, into account. The optimisation is presented for a South Australian study area, which subsequently showed that exclusion zones reduce the number of suitable locations for wave energy by almost 40%. The method presented also assesses the effect that each exclusion zone applied has upon the number of suitable locations within the study area. The analysis undertaken showed that National Parks and cliffs pose a significant limitation to the potential of a wave energy industry within South Australia. Allowing the transmission route to travel through a National Park, or traverse a cliff, resulted in an increase in the number of locations from which a connection could be made to the electricity grid for less than $10 million of 33% and 50%, respectively. Conservation Parks, Wilderness Areas and native vegetation also have an effect upon the number of suitable locations for wave energy within South Australia. The GIS methods developed may be of assistance to governments in setting appropriate marine renewable energy policy, and also in identifying existing policy which may require amending if the government wishes to pursue and support the development of wave energy

  14. Effects of tool speeds and corresponding torque/energy on stir zone formation during friction stir welding/processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, S; Chen, Z W

    2009-01-01

    The way processing parameters and the measurable thermomechanical responses relate to the individual and combined flows forming the different processed zones during friction stir welding/processing has been studied. Experimentally, a cast Al-7Si-0.3Mg alloy was used to provide readily identifiable processed zones. A series of friction stir experiments covering a wide range of tool forward and rotation speeds were conducted followed by the measurement of individual and combined stir areas. It has been found that the basic modes of material flow did not change but the relative volume of each flow depended on both forward and rotation speeds. The trends observed in the present data explain how pin rotation relates to the material transportation mechanism and the associated torque required. This data also explains how forward speed, not rotation speed, relates to specific energy and the volume of the total stir zone.

  15. A study of energy performance and audit of commercial mall in hot-summer/warm-winter climate zone in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhisheng, Li; Jiawen, Liao; Xiaoxia, Wang [School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006 (China); Lin, Yaolin [Building Energy Solutions and Technologies, Inc, San Jose Office, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States); Xuhong, Liu [School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510643 (China)

    2013-08-15

    The building energy performance improvement of large-scale public buildings is very important to release China's energy shortage pressure. The aim of the study is to find out the building energy saving potentials of large-scale public and commercial buildings by energy audit. In this paper, the energy consumption, energy performance, and audit were carried out for a typical commercial mall, the so-called largest mall in Asia, located in a hot-summer and warm-winter climate zone. The total annual energy consumption reaches 210.01 kWh/m{sup 2}, of which lighting energy consumption accounts for 30.03 kWh/m{sup 2} and the lift and elevator energy consumption accounts for 40.46 kWh/m{sup 2}. It is by far higher than that of the average building energy consumption in the same category. However, the annual heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption is only 87.19 kWh/m{sup 2} even though they run 24/7. It proves that the energy performance of the HVAC system is good. Therefore, the building energy savings potential mainly relies on reducing the excessive usage of lighting, lifts, and elevators.

  16. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  17. Ukraine-Japanese-Swedish project: Upgrading of perimeter protection system at Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikahaylov, V.; Lapshin, V.; Ek, P.; Flyghed, L.; Nilsson, A.; Ooka, N.; Shimizu, K.; Tanuma, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the Ukraine voluntarily accepted the status of a non-nuclear-weapons state and concluded a Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA, the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) as a nuclear facility using the nuclear material of category 1, has become a Ukrainian priority object for the international community's efforts to ensure nuclear non-proliferation measures and to bring the existing protection systems to the generally accepted security standards. In March 1996, at the meeting held under the auspices of the IAEA in Kiev, the representatives from Japan, Sweden and the USA agreed to provide technical assistance concerning improvement of the nuclear material accountancy and control and physical protection system (MPC and A) available at KIPT. The Technical Secretariat of the Japan-Ukraine Committee for Co-operation on Reducing Nuclear Weapons and Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate undertook to solve the most expensive and labour-consuming task namely, the upgrading of the perimeter protection system at KIPT. This included that the current perimeter system, comprising several kilometers, should be completely replaced. Besides the above-mentioned problem, the upgrading should be carried out with the institute in operation. Thus, it was not allowed to replace the existing protection system by a new one unless KIPT was constantly protected. This required the creation of a new protected zone that to a large extent was occupied by the communication equipment, buildings, trees and other objects interfering with the work. All these difficulties required very comprehensive development of the project design as well as a great deal of flexibility during the implementation of the project. These problems were all successfully resolved thanks to a well working project organization, composed of experts from KIPT, JAERI and ANS, involving the highly qualified Swedish technical experts who played a leading role. In the framework of implementation of the

  18. Experimental evaluation of contour J integral and energy dissipated in the fracture process zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jandejsek, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 129, October (2014), s. 14-25 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060; GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : experimental stress analysis * thin wall material * cohesive zone * J integral * fracture process zone Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013794414000988

  19. Catchment organisation, free energy dynamics and network control on critical zone water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Kleidon, A.; Jackisch, C.; Scherer, U.; Blume, T.

    2012-04-01

    as that these flow structures organize and dominate flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments during rainfall driven conditions at various scales: - Surface connected vertical flow structures of anecic worm burrows or soil cracks organize and dominated vertical flows at the plot scale - this is usually referred to as preferential flow; - Rill networks at the soil surface organise and dominate hillslope scale overland flow response and sediment yields; - Subsurface pipe networks at the bedrock interface organize and dominate hillslope scale lateral subsurface water and tracer flows; - The river net organizes and dominates flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments to the catchment outlet and finally across continental gradients to the sea. Fundamental progress with respect to the parameterization of hydrological models, subscale flow networks and to understand the adaptation of hydro-geo ecosystems to change could be achieved by discovering principles that govern the organization of catchments flow networks in particular at least during steady state conditions. This insight has inspired various scientists to suggest principles for organization of ecosystems, landscapes and flow networks; as Bejans constructural law, Minimum Energy Expenditure , Maximum Entropy Production. In line with these studies we suggest that a thermodynamic/energetic treatment of the catchment is might be a key for understanding the underlying principles that govern organisation of flow and transport. Our approach is to employ a) physically based hydrological model that address at least all the relevant hydrological processes in the critical zone in a coupled way, behavioural representations of the observed organisation of flow structures and textural elements, that are consistent with observations in two well investigated research catchments and have been tested against distributed observations of soil moisture and catchment scale discharge; to simulate the full concert of hydrological

  20. Analysis of Global Solar Irradiance over Climatic Zones in Nigeria for Solar Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived solar irradiance over 25 locations in the 5 climatic zones of Nigeria (tropical rainforest TRF, Guinea savannah GS, Sahel savannah SHS, Sudan savannah SUS, and Mangrove swamp forest MSF was analyzed. To justify its use, the satellite data was tested for goodness of agreement with ground measured solar radiation data using 26-year mean monthly and daily data over 16 locations in the 5 climatic zones. The well-known R2, RMSE, MBE, and MPE statistical tests were used and good agreement was found. The 25 locations were grouped into the 5 climatic zones. Frequency distribution of global solar irradiance was done for each of the climatic zones. This showed that 46.88%, and 40.6% of the number of days (9794 over TRF and MSF, respectively, had irradiation within the range of 15.01–20.01 MJ/m2/day. For the GS, SHS, and SUS, 46.19%, 55.84% and 58.53% of the days had total irradiation within the range of 20.01–25.01 MJ/m2/day, respectively. Generally, in all the climatic zones, coefficients of variation of solar radiation were high and mean values were low in July and August. Contour maps showed that high and low values of global solar irradiance and clearness index were observed in the Northern and Southern locations of Nigeria, respectively.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiencies for soybeans and maize cultivated in different agronomic zones: A case study of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, E M; Cuchietti, A; Cabrol, D; González, A D

    2018-06-01

    Of all human activities, agriculture has one of the highest environmental impacts, particularly related to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, energy use and land use change. Soybean and maize are two of the most commercialized agricultural commodities worldwide. Argentina contributes significantly to this trade, being the third major producer of soybeans, the first exporter of soymeal and soybean oil, and the third exporter of maize. Despite the economic importance of these crops and the products derived, there are very few studies regarding GHG emissions, energy use and efficiencies associated to Argentinean soybean and maize production. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the carbon and energy footprint, as well as the carbon and energy efficiencies, of soybeans and maize produced in Argentina, by analyzing 18 agronomic zones covering an agricultural area of 1.53millionkm 2 . Our results show that, for both crops, the GHG and energy efficiencies at the Pampean region were significantly higher than those at the extra-Pampean region. The national average for production of soybeans in Argentina results in 6.06ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere, while 0.887ton of soybean were produced per GJ of energy used; and for maize 5.01ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere and 0.740ton of maize were produced per each GJ of energy used. We found that the large differences on yields, GHGs and energy efficiencies between agronomic regions for soybean and maize crop production are mainly driven by climate, particularly mean annual precipitation. This study contributes for the first time to understand the carbon and energy footprint of soybean and maize production throughout several agronomic zones in Argentina. The significant differences found in the productive efficiencies questions on the environmental viability of expanding the agricultural frontier to less suitable lands for crop production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing an Agro-Ecological Zoning Model for Tumbleweed (Salsola kali, as Energy Crop in Drylands of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falasca Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salsola kali is considered extremely valuable as an energy crop worldwide because it adapts easily to environments with strong abiotic stresses (hydric, saline and alkaline and produces large amounts of biomass in drylands. This species is categorized as an important weed in Argentina. The aim of this work was to design an agro-ecological zoning model for tumbleweed in Argentina, employing a Geography Information System. Based on the bioclimatic requirements for the species and the climatic data for Argentina (1981–2010 period, an agro-climatic suitability map was drawn. This map was superimposed on the saline and alkaline soil maps delineated by the Food and Agriculture Organization for dry climates, generating the agro-ecological zoning on a scale of 1 : 500 000. This zoning revealed very suitable and suitable cultivation areas on halomorphic soils. The potential growing areas extend from N of the Salta province (approximately 22° S to the Santa Cruz province (50° S. The use of tumbleweed on halomorphic soils under semi-arid to arid conditions, for the dual purpose of forage use and source of lignocellulosic material for bioenergy, could improve agricultural productivity in these lands. Furthermore, it could also contribute to their environmental sustainability, since the species can be used to reclaim saline soils over the years. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented here.

  3. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  4. Urban Design Dimension Of Informality At The Perimeter Of Brawijaya University And UIN Maliki Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyaghita Cesarin Binar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Informality is one of the commonly emerged issues in urban design which rarely explored, especially informality within university’s perimeter. Brawijaya as one of the biggest and oldest University in Malang over time has boosted the development of several of its perimeter, provided several hotspots for students and youth. These rapid hotspots growth is related to the growth of informal practices. For cities that developed by its universities, it is necessary to understand both of the formal and informal practices within its perimeter. Through this study I would like to know the characteristic of informality within university perimeter, which formed by Brawijaya, UIN Maliki, and ITN; and to frame it within Carmona’s Urban Design Dimension. Mapping is utilized as a primary method to analyze both formal and informality within site. The formal aspect consists of formal activities, function and site user. While informality mapper consists of street vendors and street art. The research found that while urban informality within Brawijaya and UIN Maliki are related to the character and morphology, its formal structure has; its relation is reciprocal. The morphological, visual and functional dimension of university perimeter is driven by the social, perceptual and temporal dimension formed by its user and showed through informality.

  5. Determination of a BNI perimeter. Guide nr 9, Release of the 2013/10/31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This guide specifies modalities of definition of the perimeter of a BNI (basic nuclear installation), and elements of assessment of criteria for the inclusion of installations, works and equipment within this perimeter, in compliance with legal measures specified in the French Code of the Environment and in various decrees. It first proposes an overview of the concerned articles in these legal texts, and notices some articulation with other legal texts which do not address nuclear issues. It specifies the various criteria of definition of a BNI perimeter by distinguishing installations, works and equipment under the responsibility of the operator and needed for the BNI exploitation, and installations, works and equipment not needed for the BNI exploitation but under the responsibility of the operator and susceptible to modify risks or inconveniences of the BNI. It addresses some peculiar situations: effluent processing installations and plants, control piezometers, the dredging of water and release sampling works, underground or underwater installations, and some specific departments (medicine, laundry, and so on). It outlines some important aspects of the procedure of modification of a BNI perimeter. An appendix addresses the methodology related to the inclusion of installations, equipment or works within the perimeter

  6. Design and evaluation of the ReKon : an integrated detection and assessment perimeter system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabling, Jeffrey Glenn; Andersen, Jason Jann; McLaughlin, James O. [Stonewater Control Systems, Inc., Kannapolis, NC

    2013-02-01

    Kontek Industries (Kannapolis, NC) and their subsidiary, Stonewater Control Systems (Kannapolis, NC), have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement with Sandia to jointly develop and evaluate an integrated perimeter security system solution, one that couples access delay with detection and assessment. This novel perimeter solution was designed to be configurable for use at facilities ranging from high-security military sites to commercial power plants, to petro/chemical facilities of various kinds. A prototype section of the perimeter has been produced and installed at the Sandia Test and Evaluation Center in Albuquerque, NM. This prototype system integrated fiber optic break sensors, active infrared sensors, fence disturbance sensors, video motion detection, and ground sensors. This report documents the design, testing, and performance evaluation of the developed ReKon system. The ability of the system to properly detect pedestrian or vehicle attempts to bypass, breach, or otherwise defeat the system is characterized, as well as the Nuisance Alarm Rate.

  7. Experimental study of abdominal CT scanning exposal doses adjusted on the basis of pediatric abdominal perimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Wenzhou; Zhu Gongsheng; Zeng Lingyan; Yin Xianglin; Yang Fuwen; Liu Changsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the abdominal helical CT scanning parameters in pediatric patients and to reduce its radiation hazards. Methods: 60 canines were evenly grouped into 4 groups on the basis of pediatric abdominal perimeter, scanned with 110,150,190 and 240 mAs, and their qualities of canine CT images were analyzed. 120 pediafric patients with clinic suspected abdominal diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of abdominal perimeter, scanned by optimal parameters and their image qualities were analyzed. Results: After CT exposure were reduced, the percentages of total A and B were 90.9 % and 92.0 % in experimental canines and in pediatric patients, respectively. Compared with conventional CT scanning, the exposure and single slice CT dose index weighted (CTDIw) were reduced to 45.8%-79.17%. Conclusion: By adjusted the pediatric helical CT parameters basedon the of pediatric abdominal perimeter, exposure of patient to the hazards of radiation is reduced. (authors)

  8. Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment Scenarios of the Western United States: Implications for Solar Energy Zones in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model to estimate utility-scale photovoltaic (UPV) deployment trends from present day through 2030. The analysis seeks to inform the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's (BLM's) planning activities related to UPV development on federal lands in Nevada as part of the Resource Management Plan (RMP) revision for the Las Vegas and Pahrump field offices. These planning activities include assessing the demand for new or expanded additional Solar Energy Zones (SEZ), per the process outlined in BLM's Western Solar Plan process.

  9. Impacts of Severe Weather, Climate Zone, and Energy Factors on Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Engineering Management Christopher L. Teke, Major, USAF Major...the science behind severe weather occurrences and climate zone. Chapter 3 further details the methodology used in the analysis and sets the stage... actuarial estimates and should be thought of as insurance premiums, and ought to remain a budgeted cost if a base stays open. In contrast, if a base is

  10. Large scale hydrogen production from wind energy in the Magallanes area for consumption in the central zone of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolezzi, J.M.; Garay, A.; Reveco, M.

    2010-01-01

    The energy proposal of this research suggests the use of places with abundant wind resources for the production of H 2 on a large scale to be transported and used in the central zone of Chile with the purpose of diversifying the country's energy matrix in order to decrease its dependence on fossil fuels, increase its autonomy, and cover the future increases in energy demand. This research showed that the load factor of the proposed wind park reaches a value of 54.5%, putting in evidence the excellent wind conditions of the zone. This implies that the cost of the electricity produced by the wind park located in the Chilean Patagonia would have a cost of 0.0213 US$ kWh -1 in the year 2030. The low prices of the electricity obtained from the park, thanks to the economy of scale and the huge wind potential, represent a very attractive scenario for the production of H 2 in the future. The study concludes that by the year 2030 the cost of the H 2 generated in Magallanes and transported to the port of Quinteros would be 18.36 US$ MBTU -1 , while by that time the cost of oil would be about 17.241 US$ MBTU -1 , a situation that places H 2 in a very competitive position as a fuel. (author)

  11. Determination of Metastable Zone Width, Induction Period and Interfacial Energy of a Ferroelectric Crystal - Potassium Ferrocyanide Trihydrate (KFCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kanagadurai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An order-disorder type potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate (KFCT is a coordination compound forming lemon- yellow monoclinic ferroelectric crystals with curie temperature 251 K. KFCT crystals have been grown by temperature lowering solution growth technique. Solubility of KFCT has been determined for various temperatures. Metastable zone width, induction period and interfacial energy were determined for the aqueous solution of KFCT. Bulk crystal of potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate was grown with the optimized growth parameters. The grown crystal possesses good optical transmission in the entire UV-Visible region

  12. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  13. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Mike [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost-effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  14. Observation of low energy particle precipitation at low altitude in the equatorial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation of protons in the equatorial zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on the S81-1 mission from May to November, 1982. The protons show a precipitation peak along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a FWHM of 13 deg. The index of equatorial pitch angle distribution is about 19. The peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, and the proton flux shows approximately a factor of 3 times increase in 1982 compared to that in 1969 due, possibly, to the stronger solar maximum conditions of 10.7-cm radiation in 1982.

  15. Law of coastal zones and marine renewable energies: a critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordereaux, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Even before the development of offshore wind energy along the French coasts, marine renewable energies raise many problems of the environmental, industrial and economic, research and political levels. Legal issues are then strongly emerging and have a determining role to play before the deployment of these marine renewable energies. Thus, the author discusses the relationship and interaction between these energies and legal instruments: the French 'Loi Littoral' (Coastlines Act), some specific planning documents (PLUs or town planning local plans, SMVM or scheme for sea valorisation), and the regime of the maritime public domain. As a conclusion, the author wanders whether wind farms should be implanted further offshore

  16. Quasi-kinoform type multilayer zone plate with high diffraction efficiency for high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, S; Yasumoto, M; Kamijo, N; Uesugi, K; Takeuchi, A; Terada, Y; Suzuki, Y

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plate (FZP) with high diffraction efficiency leads to high performance X-ray microscopy with the reduction of the radiation damage to biological specimens. In order to attain high diffraction efficiency in high energy X-ray region, we have developed multilevel-type (6-step) multilayer FZPs with the diameter of 70 micron. The efficiencies of two FZPs were evaluated at the BL20XU beamline of SPring-8. For one FZP, the peak efficiency for the 1st-order diffraction of 51% has been obtained at 70 keV. The efficiencies higher than 40% have been achieved in the wide energy range of 70-90 keV. That for the 2nd-order diffraction of 46% has been obtained at 37.5 keV.

  17. Perimeter generating functions for the mean-squared radius of gyration of convex polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Iwan

    2005-01-01

    We have derived long series expansions for the perimeter generating functions of the radius of gyration of various polygons with a convexity constraint. Using the series we numerically find simple (algebraic) exact solutions for the generating functions. In all cases the size exponent ν 1. (letter to the editor)

  18. Developmental Dyscalculia and Automatic Magnitudes Processing: Investigating Interference Effects between Area and Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hili Eidlin-Levy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between numbers and other magnitudes has been extensively investigated in the scientific literature. Here, the objectives were to examine whether two continuous magnitudes, area and perimeter, are automatically processed and whether adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD are deficient in their ability to automatically process one or both of these magnitudes. Fifty-seven students (30 with DD and 27 with typical development performed a novel Stroop-like task requiring estimation of one aspect (area or perimeter while ignoring the other. In order to track possible changes in automaticity due to practice, we measured performance after initial and continuous exposure to stimuli. Similar to previous findings, current results show a significant group × congruency interaction, evident beyond exposure level or magnitude type. That is, the DD group systematically showed larger Stroop effects. However, analysis of each exposure period showed that during initial exposure to stimuli the DD group showed larger Stroop effects in the perimeter and not in the area task. In contrast, during continuous exposure to stimuli no triple interaction was evident. It is concluded that both magnitudes are automatically processed. Nevertheless, individuals with DD are deficient in inhibiting irrelevant magnitude information in general and, specifically, struggle to inhibit salient area information after initial exposure to a perimeter comparison task. Accordingly, the findings support the assumption that DD involves a deficiency in multiple cognitive components, which include domain-specific and domain-general cognitive functions.

  19. Visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses compared with the Humphrey perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsapakis S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stylianos Tsapakis, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou, Andreas Diagourtas, Konstantinos Droutsas, Konstantinos Andreanos, Marilita M Moschos, Dimitrios Brouzas 1st Department of Ophthalmology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Purpose: To present a visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses and evaluate the reliability of the method by comparing the results with those of the Humphrey perimeter.Materials and methods: Virtual reality glasses, a smartphone with a 6 inch display, and software that implements a fast-threshold 3 dB step staircase algorithm for the central 24° of visual field (52 points were used to test 20 eyes of 10 patients, who were tested in a random and consecutive order as they appeared in our glaucoma department. The results were compared with those obtained from the same patients using the Humphrey perimeter.Results: High correlation coefficient (r=0.808, P<0.0001 was found between the virtual reality visual field test and the Humphrey perimeter visual field.Conclusion: Visual field examination results using virtual reality glasses have a high correlation with the Humphrey perimeter allowing the method to be suitable for probable clinical use. Keywords: visual fields, virtual reality glasses, perimetry, visual fields software, smartphone

  20. Swivel arm perimeter for visual field testing in different body positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, J; Hendrickson, P; Lietz, A; Stümpfig, D

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the influence of body position on visual field results, a 'swivel arm perimeter' was built, based on a modified Octopus 1-2-3. Here, the measuring unit was detected from the control unit and mounted on a swivel arm, allowing its movement in all directions. The first results obtained with this device have indicated that its development was worthwhile.

  1. Examining perimeter gating control of urban traffic networkswith locally adaptive traffic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Gao, X.; Gayah, V.V.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, urban traffic is controlled by traffic lights. Recent findings of the Macroscopic or Network Fundamental Diagram (MFD or NFD) have led to the development of novel traffic control strategies that can be applied at a networkwide level. One pertinent example is perimeter flow control

  2. Developmental Dyscalculia and Automatic Magnitudes Processing: Investigating Interference Effects between Area and Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin-Levy, Hili; Rubinsten, Orly

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between numbers and other magnitudes has been extensively investigated in the scientific literature. Here, the objectives were to examine whether two continuous magnitudes, area and perimeter, are automatically processed and whether adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD) are deficient in their ability to automatically process one or both of these magnitudes. Fifty-seven students (30 with DD and 27 with typical development) performed a novel Stroop-like task requiring estimation of one aspect (area or perimeter) while ignoring the other. In order to track possible changes in automaticity due to practice, we measured performance after initial and continuous exposure to stimuli. Similar to previous findings, current results show a significant group × congruency interaction, evident beyond exposure level or magnitude type. That is, the DD group systematically showed larger Stroop effects. However, analysis of each exposure period showed that during initial exposure to stimuli the DD group showed larger Stroop effects in the perimeter and not in the area task. In contrast, during continuous exposure to stimuli no triple interaction was evident. It is concluded that both magnitudes are automatically processed. Nevertheless, individuals with DD are deficient in inhibiting irrelevant magnitude information in general and, specifically, struggle to inhibit salient area information after initial exposure to a perimeter comparison task. Accordingly, the findings support the assumption that DD involves a deficiency in multiple cognitive components, which include domain-specific and domain-general cognitive functions.

  3. Specifying residential retrofit packages for 30 % reductions in energy consumption in hot-humid climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgett, J.M.; Chini, A.R.; Oppenheim, P. [University of Florida, 573 Rinker Hall, Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the application of energy simulation as an effective tool for specifying cost-effective residential retrofit packages that will reduce energy consumption by 30 %. Single-family homes in the hot-humid climate type of the Southeastern USA were used to demonstrate the application. US census data from both state and federal studies were used to create 12 computer simulation homes representing the most common characteristics of single-family houses specific to this area. Well-recognized energy efficiency measures (EEMs) were simulated to determine their cumulative energy reduction potential. Detailed cost estimates were created for cost-to-benefit analysis. For each of the 12 simulated homes, 4 packages of EEMs were created. The four packages provided home owners options for reducing their energy by 30 % along with the estimated up-front cost and simple payback periods. The simple payback period was used to determine how cost-effective a measure was. The packages are specific to a geographic area to provide a higher degree of confidence in the projected cost and energy savings. The study provides a generic methodology to create a similar 30 % energy reduction packages for other locations and a detailed description of a case study to serve as an example. The study also highlights the value that computer simulation models can have to develop energy efficiency packages cost-effectively and specific to home owner's location and housing type.

  4. A Building Energy Efficiency Optimization Method by Evaluating the Effective Thermal Zones Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency is strongly linked to the operations and control systems, together with the integrated performance of passive and active systems. In new high quality buildings in particular, where these two latter aspects have been already implemented at the design stage, users’ perspective, obtained through post-occupancy assessment, has to be considered to reduce whole energy requirement during service life. This research presents an innovative and low-cost methodology to reduce buildings’ energy requirements through post-occupancy assessment and optimization of energy operations using effective users’ attitudes and requirements as feedback. As a meaningful example, the proposed method is applied to a multipurpose building located in New York City, NY, USA, where real occupancy conditions are assessed. The effectiveness of the method is tested through dynamic simulations using a numerical model of the case study, calibrated through real monitoring data collected on the building. Results show that, for the chosen case study, the method provides optimized building energy operations which allow a reduction of primary energy requirements for HVAC, lighting, room-electricity, and auxiliary supply by about 21%. This paper shows that the proposed strategy represents an effective way to reduce buildings’ energy waste, in particular in those complex and high-efficiency buildings that are not performing as well as expected during the concept-design-commissioning stage, in particular due to the lack of feedback after the building handover.

  5. A study of a zone approach to IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency] safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches

  6. A study of a zone approach to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches.

  7. Tooth angulation and dental arch perimeter-the effect of orthodontic bracket prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Luana F; Cecim, Rodolpho L; Machado, Sissy M; Normando, David

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of upper incisors and canine angulations introduced by different bracket prescriptions on dental arch perimeter. Cone beam computerized tomography scans collected using I-Cat (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) were selected conveniently from a database of routine exams of a clinical radiology center. Crown and radicular measurements of upper incisors and canines were made and exported to the Autocad 2011 software to create a virtual dental model. The virtual teeth were positioned with an angulation of zero; thereafter, a reference value for the perimeter of the arch was measured. Furthermore, teeth angulations were applied according to the standards of the Edgewise bracket system and the Straight-wire systems: MBT, Capelozza, Andrews, and Roth. The largest linear distances for tooth crown (anterior arch perimeter) and root (radicular distance) were obtained for each bracket prescription. The anterior perimeter for well-aligned incisors and canines without angulation was used as reference (crown: 47.34mm; root: 39.13mm). An increase in the arch perimeter was obtained for all bracket prescriptions evaluated, which ranged from 0.28 and 3.19mm in the Edgewise technique, for the crown and root measurements, respectively, to 1.09 and 11.28mm for the Roth prescription. Bracket prescriptions with greater angulation led to an increased use of space within the dental arch, mainly in the radicular region. The consequence of this radicular angular displacement will need to be further investigated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Observation of low energy particle precipitation at low altitude in the equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation of protons (∼ 1 MeV) in the equatorial zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May-November, 1982. The protons show a precipitation peak along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 13 0 . The index of equatorial pitch angle distribution is q ∼ 19. The peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, and the proton flux shows approximately a factor of 3 times increase in 1982 compared to that in 1969 due, possibly, to the stronger (∼ 1.2 times) solar maximum conditions of 10.7 cm radiation in 1982. (author)

  9. Thermal energy and economic analysis of a PCM-enhanced household envelope considering different climate zones in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbouch, Yassine; Mimet, Abdelaziz; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Ouhsaine, Lahoucine

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the thermal energy potentials and economic feasibility of an air-conditioned family household-integrated phase change material (PCM) considering different climate zones in Morocco. A simulation-based optimisation was carried out in order to define the optimal design of a PCM-enhanced household envelope for thermal energy effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of predefined candidate solutions. The optimisation methodology is based on coupling Energyplus® as a dynamic simulation tool and GenOpt® as an optimisation tool. Considering the obtained optimum design strategies, a thermal energy and economic analysis are carried out to investigate PCMs' integration feasibility in the Moroccan constructions. The results show that the PCM-integrated household envelope allows minimising the cooling/heating thermal energy demand vs. a reference household without PCM. While for the cost-effectiveness optimisation, it has been deduced that the economic feasibility is stilling insufficient under the actual PCM market conditions. The optimal design parameters results are also analysed.

  10. Formate as an energy source for microbial metabolism in chemosynthetic zones of hydrothermal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windman, Todd; Zolotova, Natalya; Schwandner, Florian; Shock, Everett L

    2007-12-01

    Formate, a simple organic acid known to support chemotrophic hyperthermophiles, is found in hot springs of varying temperature and pH. However, it is not yet known how metabolic strategies that use formate could contribute to primary productivity in hydrothermal ecosystems. In an effort to provide a quantitative framework for assessing the role of formate metabolism, concentration data for dissolved formate and many other solutes in samples from Yellowstone hot springs were used, together with data for coexisting gas compositions, to evaluate the overall Gibbs energy for many reactions involving formate oxidation or reduction. The result is the first rigorous thermodynamic assessment of reactions involving formate oxidation to bicarbonate and reduction to methane coupled with various forms of iron, nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen for hydrothermal ecosystems. We conclude that there are a limited number of reactions that can yield energy through formate reduction, in contrast to numerous formate oxidation reactions that can yield abundant energy for chemosynthetic microorganisms. Because the energy yields are so high, these results challenge the notion that hydrogen is the primary energy source of chemosynthetic microbes in hydrothermal ecosystems.

  11. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone.

  12. The seawater greenhouse: desalination and crop-production in arid zones based on renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P. A.; Paton, C.; Sablani, S. S.; Perret, J.; Goosen, M. F. A.; Walterbeek, Reinier R.

    2006-01-01

    population growth is threatening the avaliability of fresh water in many regions of the world. With agriculture accounting for approximately 70% of all water used, the water crisis is closely linked to food production and economic development. Conventional agriculture is very inefficient in its use of water with several hundred liters needed to produce just one kilogram of produce. Although seawater is abundant, conventional desalination consumes substantial energy, usually derived from fossil fuels. There is an urgent ned for affordable and sustainable means of p[roducing crops, without heavy reliance on water and energy resource. The seawater Greenhouse is a novel approach to solving this problem. It combines energy-efficient desalination with water-efficient cultivation. Pilot projects have been constructed in Tenerife, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. This paper describes the results from these projects and outlines the potential for opening the seawater Greenhouse from renewable energy sources. Different types of source are evaluated and compared with respect to cost and load matching. Conclusions are drawn about the viability of a stand-alone system for the production of water and crops.(Author)

  13. Renewable Energy Zones for Balancing Siting Trade-offs in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, R; Wu, G; Phadke, A

    2017-01-01

    India’s targets of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, and 40% generation capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 will require a rapid and dramatic increase in solar and wind capacity deployment and overcoming its associated economic, siting, and power system challenges. The objective of this study was to spatially identify the amount and quality of wind and utility-scale solar resource potential in India, and the possible siting-related constraints and opportunities for develo...

  14. Convex lattice polygons of fixed area with perimeter-dependent weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, R; Dhar, Deepak

    2005-01-01

    We study fully convex polygons with a given area, and variable perimeter length on square and hexagonal lattices. We attach a weight tm to a convex polygon of perimeter m and show that the sum of weights of all polygons with a fixed area s varies as s(-theta(conv))eK(t)square root(s) for large s and t less than a critical threshold tc, where K(t) is a t-dependent constant, and theta(conv) is a critical exponent which does not change with t. Using heuristic arguments, we find that theta(conv) is 1/4 for the square lattice, but -1/4 for the hexagonal lattice. The reason for this unexpected nonuniversality of theta(conv) is traced to existence of sharp corners in the asymptotic shape of these polygons.

  15. Asymptotics of the $s$-perimeter as $s\\searrow 0$

    OpenAIRE

    Dipierro, Serena; Figalli, Alessio; Palatucci, Giampiero; Valdinoci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    We deal with the asymptotic behavior of the $s$-perimeter of a set $E$ inside a domain $\\Omega$ as $s\\searrow0$. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such limit, by also providing an explicit formulation in terms of the Lebesgue measure of $E$ and $\\Omega$. Moreover, we construct examples of sets for which the limit does not exist.

  16. Clock Drawing in Spatial Neglect: A Comprehensive Analysis of Clock Perimeter, Placement, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Clock drawings produced by right-brain-damaged (RBD) individuals with spatial neglect often contain an abundance of empty space on the left while numbers and hands are placed on the right. However, the clock perimeter is rarely compromised in neglect patients’ drawings. By analyzing clock drawings produced by 71 RBD and 40 healthy adults, this study investigated whether the geometric characteristics of the clock perimeter reveal novel insights to understanding spatial neglect. Neglect participants drew smaller clocks than either healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. While healthy participants’ clock perimeter was close to circular, RBD participants drew radially extended ellipses. The mechanisms for these phenomena were investigated by examining the relation between clock-drawing characteristics and performance on six subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT). The findings indicated that the clock shape was independent of any BIT subtest or the drawing placement on the test sheet and that the clock size was significantly predicted by one BIT subtest: the poorer the figure and shape copying, the smaller the clock perimeter. Further analyses revealed that in all participants, clocks decreased in size as they were placed farther from the center of the paper. However, even when neglect participants placed their clocks towards the center of the page, they were smaller than those produced by healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. These results suggest a neglect-specific reduction in the subjectively available workspace for graphic production from memory, consistent with the hypothesis that neglect patients are impaired in the ability to enlarge the attentional aperture. PMID:22390278

  17. The environmental impacts of land transformation in the coastal perimeter of the Mar Menor lagoon (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA-AYLLON VEINTIMILLA, SALVADOR; Miralles García, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Assigned to WIT Press all rights under copyright that may exist in and to the Work and any associated written or multimedia components or other enhancements accompanying the Work. The distinctive environment of the lagoon has long been attractive for visitors. A surge in touristic activities has taken place in the area since the early 1960s, characterised by intense urban development along the lagoon s perimeter to accommodate the growing seasonal population. This phenomenon has particular...

  18. Design and testing of a perimeter of increment threshold by projection

    OpenAIRE

    García Domene, María del Carmen; Luque Cobija, María José; Fez Saiz, Dolores de

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we have designed and tested a perimeter for the detection of damage in the chromatic mechanisms using a video projector. To this purpose, we have characterized pixel to pixel a video projector, to account for the inhomogeneities in the projection. We have measured the tristimulus values of the projector primaries as a function of digital level, at 49 locations of the projection screen and, from them, we have arrived to a characterization model which reduces the color dif...

  19. Design of complex bone internal structure using topology optimization with perimeter control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaejong; Sutradhar, Alok; Shah, Jami J; Paulino, Glaucio H

    2018-03-01

    Large facial bone loss usually requires patient-specific bone implants to restore the structural integrity and functionality that also affects the appearance of each patient. Titanium alloys (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V) are typically used in the interfacial porous coatings between the implant and the surrounding bone to promote stability. There exists a property mismatch between the two that in general leads to complications such as stress-shielding. This biomechanical discrepancy is a hurdle in the design of bone replacements. To alleviate the mismatch, the internal structure of the bone replacements should match that of the bone. Topology optimization has proven to be a good technique for designing bone replacements. However, the complex internal structure of the bone is difficult to mimic using conventional topology optimization methods without additional restrictions. In this work, the complex bone internal structure is recovered using a perimeter control based topology optimization approach. By restricting the solution space by means of the perimeter, the intricate design complexity of bones can be achieved. Three different bone regions with well-known physiological loadings are selected to illustrate the method. Additionally, we found that the target perimeter value and the pattern of the initial distribution play a vital role in obtaining the natural curvatures in the bone internal structures as well as avoiding excessive island patterns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Refined universal laws for hull volumes and perimeters in large planar maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    We consider ensembles of planar maps with two marked vertices at distance k from each other, and look at the closed line separating these vertices and lying at distance d from the first one ( d   <   k ). This line divides the map into two components, the hull at distance d which corresponds to the part of the map lying on the same side as the first vertex and its complementary. The number of faces within the hull is called the hull volume, and the length of the separating line the hull perimeter. We study the statistics of the hull volume and perimeter for arbitrary d and k in the limit of infinitely large planar quadrangulations, triangulations and Eulerian triangulations. We consider more precisely situations where both d and k become large with the ratio d / k remaining finite. For infinitely large maps, two regimes may be encountered: either the hull has a finite volume and its complementary is infinitely large, or the hull itself has an infinite volume and its complementary is of finite size. We compute the probability for the map to be in either regime as a function of d / k as well as a number of universal statistical laws for the hull perimeter and volume when maps are conditioned to be in one regime or the other. (paper)

  1. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  2. Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion for managing arch perimeter in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Carneiro da Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Etiology of dental crowding may be related to arch constriction in diverse dimensions, and an appropriate manipulation of arch perimeter by intervening in basal bone discrepancies cases, may be a key for crowding relief, especially when incisors movement is limited due to underlying pathology, periodontal issues or restrictions related to soft tissue profile. Objectives: This case report illustrates a 24-year old woman, with maxillary transverse deficiency, upper and lower arches crowding, Class II, division 1, subdivision right relationship, previous upper incisors traumatic episode and straight profile. A non-surgical and non-extraction treatment approach was feasible due to the miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion technique (MARPE. Methods: The MARPE appliance consisted of a conventional Hyrax expander supported by four orthodontic miniscrews. A slow expansion protocol was adopted, with an overall of 40 days of activation and a 3-month retention period. Intrusive traction miniscrew-anchored mechanics were used for correcting the Class II subdivision relationship, managing lower arch perimeter and midline deviation before including the upper central incisors. Results: Post-treatment records show an intermolar width increase of 5 mm, bilateral Class I molar and canine relationships, upper and lower crowding resolution, coincident dental midlines and proper intercuspation. Conclusions: The MARPE is an effective treatment approach for managing arch-perimeter deficiencies related to maxillary transverse discrepancies in adult patients.

  3. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    the successful governance of such projects, including any that may involve development of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone or beyond. Three supplemental files of coded data accompany this dissertation.

  4. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  5. Towards Rural Land Use: Challenges for Oversizing Urban Perimeters in Shrinking Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, João; Virtudes, Ana

    2017-12-01

    This article, based on the literature review, aims to study the challenges of the urban dispersion and oversizing of urban perimeters, in the cases where the towns are shrinking or spreading to the rural land-use. It is focused on the case of Portugal where during the last decades there was an escaping to the big cities alongside to the sea (Atlantic and Mediterranean) shore. In the Interior part of the country, which means near to the border with Spain, several towns are shrinking, despite their huge urban perimeters, proposed by the municipal master plans, since the middle of the nineties. Consequently, these urban perimeters are nowadays oversizing, with empty buildings and non-urbanized areas. At the same time, the social patterns of occupation of this territory have changed significantly, moving from a society with signs of rurality to an urban realm, understood not only in territorial terms but also regarding the current lifestyle. This deep changing has occurred not only in urbanistic terms but also in the economic, cultural and social organizations of the country, under a movement that corresponds to a decline of the small urban settlements in rural areas, far away from the cosmopolitan strip of land nearby the sea, in between the capital city, Lisbon and the second one Oporto. These transformations were not driven by any significant public policy for land-use actions. On the contrary, the production of urban areas, supporting the new model of economic and social development was largely left to the initiative of economic and social private agents and land owners. These agents were the leading responsible for the new urban developments and housing. In this sense, this research aims to present some strategies for the short time period regarding the devolution of urban areas to rural land use. In this sense, the next steps of spatial planning policies, under the role of local authorities (the 308 municipalities including Madeira and Azores islands, plus the

  6. The use of solar energy - photovoltaic - in hydrogen production and arid zones like Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayigh, A. A. M.

    This paper deals with the use of photovoltaic technology for the production of hydrogen from water by electrolysis. First of all the amount of electricity needed for this process was assessed, then various types of solar cell systems to generate the electricity needed were discussed and the best system was established. Some of the investigations involved testing of solar cells with concentrators and with fixed tilt or tracking devices. Several small panels of solar cells were used in testing the effect of local dust and sand as well as the fixed tilt in the area of Riyadh. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from a conventional grid was calculated. This cost was compared with the cost of production of hydrogen if a solar cell array was used. The paper outlines the continuous price increase of oil to produce electricity and the rapid decrease in price of solar cells. Both these advances will lead to a cheaper way of producing hydrogen by solar energy. In addition it is shown that technology is almost trouble free and requires very little know-how as far as operation is concerned.

  7. Advantage of the renewable energies in isolated zones; Aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en zonas aisladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zazueta, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido de la SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The present article has as objective to present the experiences obtained for more than ten years, in the development and implementation of actions that in the matter of renewable energy have been orchestrated in the Mexican field by the Secretariat of Agriculture, Animal Industry, Rural Development, Fishing, and Nutrition, trough the Shared Risk Trust Fund. The activities began in 1994; the most common applications realized are the water pumping for the drinking trough of cattle and the automation of the irrigation in small surfaces with fruit trees, vegetables, forages and the operation of greenhouses. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de diez anos, en el desarrollo e implementacion de acciones que en materia de energia renovable se han instrumentado en el campo mexicano por la the Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural Pesca y Alimentacion, a traves del Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido. Las actividades se iniciaron en 1994, las aplicaciones mas comunes realizadas son el bombeo de agua para el abrevadero de ganado y la tecnificacion del riego en pequenas superficies con frutales, hortalizas, forrajes y la operacion de invernaderos.

  8. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military

  9. The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of surface energy balance and melt in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the surface energy balance (SEB) in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet, using seven years (September 2003–August 2010) of hourly observations from three automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along the 67◦ N

  10. Laboratory and numerical experiments on water and energy fluxes during freezing and thawing in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut; Montasir Islam, Md.; Šimunek, Jirka

    2017-04-01

    Frozen soil has a major effect in many hydrologic processes, and its effects are difficult to predict. A prime example is flood forecasting during spring snowmelt within the Canadian Prairies. One key driver for the extent of flooding is the antecedent soil moisture and the possibility for water to infiltrate into frozen soils. Therefore, these situations are crucial for accurate flood prediction during every spring. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the water flow and heat transport within HYDRUS-1D version 4.16 and with Hansson's model, which is a detailed freezing/thawing module (Hansson et al., 2004), to predict the impact of frozen and partly frozen soil on infiltration. We developed a standardized data set of water flow and heat transport into (partial) frozen soil by laboratory experiments using fine sand. Temperature, soil moisture, and percolated water were observed at different freezing conditions as well as at thawing conditions. Significant variation in soil moisture was found between the top and the bottom of the soil column at the starting of the thawing period. However, with increasing temperature, the lower depth of the soil column showed higher moisture as the soil became enriched with moisture due to the release of heat by soil particles during the thawing cycle. We applied vadose zone modeling using the results from the laboratory experiments. The simulated water content by HYDRUS-1D 4.16 showed large errors compared to the observed data showing by negative Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Hansson's model was not able to predict soil water fluxes due to its unstable behavior (Šimunek et al., 2016). The soil temperature profile simulated using HYDRUS-1D 4.16 was not able to predict the release of latent heat during the phase change of water that was visible in Hansson's model. Hansson's model includes the energy gain/loss due to the phase change in the amount of latent energy stored in the modified heat transport equation. However, in

  11. Energy position of bistable defect (CiCs)0 in 'B' configuration in a forbidden zone of n-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgolenko, A.P.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Varentsov, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Float-zone and phosphorus-doped n-Si samples after irradiation by fast-pile neutrons and subsequent annealing at room temperature were investigated. The calculation of effective concentration of carriers after irradiation was carried out in the framework of Gossick's model taking into account the recharges of defects both in conducting matrix of n-Si and in the space-charge region of defect clusters. The distribution function of electrons on the acceptor level of bistable defect (C i C s ) 0 when the concentration of this defect is the function of the Fermi level in conducting matrix of n-Si is determined. The concentration of bistable interstitial-carbon-substitutional-carbon pair and its energy level at (E c - 0,123 eV) in forbidden band of silicon were calculated. On the observable level of stable configuration C i C s (A - )-defects at (E c - 0,147 eV) the theoretical change of carriers concentration in the conduction band simulated by the recharges (C i C s ) 0 was imposed. The concentration of these (C i C s ) 0 -defects has been changed in the process of their recharges. It is shown that in n-Si with high carbon and oxygen concentration after affiliating of oxygen atoms to bistable defect (C i C s ) 0 in a forbidden band of n-Si the stable defects not only in 'A' but also in 'B' configurations are formed with energy levels at (E c - 0,13 eV) and (E c - 0,09 eV)

  12. The mass-retrofitting of an energy efficient-low carbon zone: Baselining the urban regeneration strategy, vision, masterplan and redevelopment scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deakin, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Reid, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a recent attempt to reduce energy consumption and the associated levels of carbon emissions by way of and through what has been termed: “an active and integrated institutional arrangement”. That is, by the integration of a mass retrofit proposal into an urban regeneration strategy, with the vision, master-plan, programme of renewal and redevelopment scheme which is capable of transforming into an energy efficient, low carbon zone. As a case study on how institutions can plan for low energy efficient redevelopments and the possibility of low carbon zones, the paper highlights the current state of the art on mass retrofits within the residential property sector and draws particular attention to the type of baseline assessments needed to legitimate, not only the strategic value of such arrangements, but their practical worth as measures capable of meeting emission targets set under the 2008 UK Climate Bill.

  13. Refraction and reflection seismic investigations for geological energy-storage site characterization: Dalby (Tornquist Zone), southwest Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Bergman, Bo; Andersson, Benjamin; Sturk, Robert; Johansson, Mattis

    2017-04-01

    Three high-resolution, 5 m shot and receiver spacing using 141-172 receivers, refraction and reflection seismic profiles for the planning of a major underground energy-storage site near the town of Dalby-Lund within the Scania Tornquist suture zone in southwest of Sweden were acquired during August 2015. The site is situated ca. 1 km north of the RFZ (Romeleåsen fault and flexure zone) with a complex geologic and tectonic history. Near vertical dikes are observed from several quarries in the area crosscutting granitic-gneissic-amphibiotic rocks and form clear magnetic lineaments. These dikes likely have also acted as surfaces on which further faulting have occurred. Although a major high-speed and traffic road runs in the middle of the study area, the seismic data show excellent quality particularly for the data along two profiles (profiles 2 and 3) perpendicular to the road, and slightly noisy, due to high wind, for the data along a profile (profile 4) parallel to the road. A bobcat-mounted drop hammer (500 kg) was used to generate the seismic signal. To provide continuity from one side of the road to another, 51 wireless recorders connected to 10 Hz geophones and operating in an autonomous mode were used. GPS times of the source impacts were used to extract the data from the wireless recorders and then merged with the data from the cabled recorders (also 10 Hz geophones). Three shot records per source position were generated and vertically stacked to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. First arrivals are clear in most shot gathers allowing them to be used for traditional refraction seismic data analysis and also for more advanced traveltime tomography. The velocity models obtained through traveltime tomography clearly depict bedrock surface and its undulations and in many places show good correlation with the boreholes recently drilled in the area. At places where bedrock is intersected at greater depths than usual, for example 25 m at one place, depression

  14. The influence of the fault zone width on land surface vibrations after the high-energy tremor in the "Rydułtowy-Anna" hard coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecka, Elżbieta; Szwarkowski, Dariusz

    2018-04-01

    In the article, a numerical analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone on land surface tremors on the area of the "Rydułtowy - Anna" hard coal mine was performed. The analysis covered the dynamic impact of the actual seismic wave after the high-energy tremor of 7 June 2013. Vibrations on the land surface are a measure of the mining damage risk. It is particularly the horizontal components of land vibrations that are dangerous to buildings which is reflected in the Mining Scales of Intensity (GSI) of vibrations. The run of a seismic wave in the rock mass from the hypocenter to the area's surface depends on the lithology of the area and the presence of fault zones. The rock mass network cut by faults of various widths influences the amplitude of tremor reaching the area's surface. The analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone was done for three alternatives.

  15. Localization of calcium in the cyanobiont and gonidial zone of Cycas revoluta Thunb. by microelectrodes, chlorotetracycline, electron spectroscopic imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiola, M.G.; Canini, A.; Brandizzi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Ionic calcium concentration was measured in the gonidial zone of fresh coralloid roots by means of calcium microelectrodes. It was 10 -6 M in the apical segments of coralloid roots and increased to 10 -5 M in the gonidial zones of median and basal segments. Loosely membrane-bound calcium was evidenced by using chloro-tetracycline (CTC) or ethylene glycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and CTC, in cell walls of columnar cells of Cycas and in the cytoplasm of cyanobiont. Sub-cellular localization of calcium was obtained by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses applied at transmission electron microscopy on thin, unstained sections of gonidial zone of coralloid roots. By means of these techniques, bound-calcium was detected inside the mucilage of apical and median segments whereas, in the basal segments, it was completely absent. In the heterocysts of apical segments of coralloid, calcium was localized on the envelope, cell walls, thylakoids and cyanophycin granules. In the gonidial zone of the basal segments, dead or degenerating heterocysts completely lacked calcium. Therefore, the high ionic calcium amounts detected in the gonidial zone of median and basal segments could represent a minor calcium uptake by the cells or release by lysed ones. The decreases in nitrogenase activity recorded in the median and basal segments of the coralloid roots paralleled the decrease in calcium amount in heterocyst envelope. (authors)

  16. Influence of inhomogeneous surface heat capacity on the estimation of radiative response coefficients in a two-zone energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Choi, Yong-Sang

    2018-04-01

    Observationally constrained values of the global radiative response coefficient are pivotal to assess the reliability of modeled climate feedbacks. A widely used approach is to measure transient global radiative imbalance related to surface temperature changes. However, in this approach, a potential error in the estimate of radiative response coefficients may arise from surface inhomogeneity in the climate system. We examined this issue theoretically using a simple two-zone energy balance model. Here, we dealt with the potential error by subtracting the prescribed radiative response coefficient from those calculated within the two-zone framework. Each zone was characterized by the different magnitude of the radiative response coefficient and the surface heat capacity, and the dynamical heat transport in the atmosphere between the zones was parameterized as a linear function of the temperature difference between the zones. Then, the model system was forced by randomly generated monthly varying forcing mimicking time-varying forcing like an observation. The repeated simulations showed that inhomogeneous surface heat capacity causes considerable miscalculation (down to -1.4 W m-2 K-1 equivalent to 31.3% of the prescribed value) in the global radiative response coefficient. Also, the dynamical heat transport reduced this miscalculation driven by inhomogeneity of surface heat capacity. Therefore, the estimation of radiative response coefficients using the surface temperature-radiation relation is appropriate for homogeneous surface areas least affected by the exterior.

  17. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  18. Evaluation of high-perimeter electrode designs for deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Bryan; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, complications including infections and mis-programing following surgical replacement of the battery-powered implantable pulse generator adversely impact the safety profile of this therapy. We sought to decrease power consumption and extend battery life by modifying the electrode geometry to increase stimulation efficiency. The specific goal of this study was to determine whether electrode contact perimeter or area had a greater effect on increasing stimulation efficiency. Approach. Finite-element method (FEM) models of eight prototype electrode designs were used to calculate the electrode access resistance, and the FEM models were coupled with cable models of passing axons to quantify stimulation efficiency. We also measured in vitro the electrical properties of the prototype electrode designs and measured in vivo the stimulation efficiency following acute implantation in anesthetized cats. Main results. Area had a greater effect than perimeter on altering the electrode access resistance; electrode (access or dynamic) resistance alone did not predict stimulation efficiency because efficiency was dependent on the shape of the potential distribution in the tissue; and, quantitative assessment of stimulation efficiency required consideration of the effects of the electrode-tissue interface impedance. Significance. These results advance understanding of the features of electrode geometry that are important for designing the next generation of efficient DBS electrodes.

  19. Differential GPS effectiveness in measuring area and perimeter in forested settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Jereme; Wing, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies area and perimeter measurement errors, traverse times, recording intervals, and overall time and cost effectiveness for using a mapping-grade differential Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in forested settings. We compared two configurations including one that maximized data collection productivity (position dilution of precision (PDOP) 20, signal to noise ratio (SNR 33), and minimum elevation mask 5°) and a second that involved traditional receiver settings that was designed to improve accuracies (PDOP 6, SNR 39, and minimum elevation mask 15°). We determined that averaging 30 positions and using the settings that maximized productivity was the most time effective combination of recording interval and settings. This combination of recording interval and settings proved slightly more cost effective than other traditional surveying methods such as a laser with digital compass and string box. Average absolute per cent area errors when averaging 30 positions and using maximum settings were 2.6% and average absolute per cent perimeter errors were 2.0%. These results should help forest resource professionals more effectively evaluate GPS techniques and receiver configurations. (paper)

  20. Farmers’ willingness to pay for surface water in the West Mitidja irrigated perimeter, northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Azzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is among the most water-stressed countries in the world. Because of its climatic conditions, irrigation is essential for agricultural production. Water prices paid by farmers in public irrigation districts are very low and do not cover the operation and maintenance (O&M costs of the irrigated perimeters, thus leading to the deterioration of these infrastructures. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether farmer’s in the West Mitidja irrigation district in northern Algeria would be willing to pay more for surface water in order to maintain the water supply service in its current conditions. We estimated farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP for water using data from a dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey to 112 randomly selected farmers. Farmers’ responses were modelled using logistic regression techniques. We also analysed which technical, structural, social and economic characteristics of farms and farmers explain the differences in WTP. Our results showed that nearly 80% of the surveyed farmers are willing to pay an extra price for irrigation water. The average WTP was 64% greater than the price currently paid by farmers, suggesting some scope for improving the financial resources of the Mitidja irrigated perimeter, but insufficient to cover all O&M costs. Some of the key identified factors that affect WTP for surface water relate to farm ownership, access to groundwater resources, cropping patterns, farmers’ agricultural training and risk exposure.

  1. Farmers’ willingness to pay for surface water in the West Mitidja irrigated perimeter, northern Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzi, M.; Calatrava, J.; Bedrani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Algeria is among the most water-stressed countries in the world. Because of its climatic conditions, irrigation is essential for agricultural production. Water prices paid by farmers in public irrigation districts are very low and do not cover the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of the irrigated perimeters, thus leading to the deterioration of these infrastructures. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether farmer’s in the West Mitidja irrigation district in northern Algeria would be willing to pay more for surface water in order to maintain the water supply service in its current conditions. We estimated farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for water using data from a dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey to 112 randomly selected farmers. Farmers’ responses were modelled using logistic regression techniques. We also analysed which technical, structural, social and economic characteristics of farms and farmers explain the differences in WTP. Our results showed that nearly 80% of the surveyed farmers are willing to pay an extra price for irrigation water. The average WTP was 64% greater than the price currently paid by farmers, suggesting some scope for improving the financial resources of the Mitidja irrigated perimeter, but insufficient to cover all O&M costs. Some of the key identified factors that affect WTP for surface water relate to farm ownership, access to groundwater resources, cropping patterns, farmers’ agricultural training and risk exposure.

  2. Determination of action zone in the nuclear / radiology handling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade Awalludin

    2013-01-01

    Assessment has been conducted on determination of action zone in nuclear or radiological emergency. The assessment is taken into account radiological risk level in nuclear or radiological emergency management process outside nuclear installation. Managing of nuclear emergency is same as that one of other emergency by adding the principles of radiation protection. This study aims to provide guidance in making of safety and security perimeter outside the nuclear installation for first responders during nuclear/radiological emergency based on dose rate, contamination level or distance from the scene. Separation of working zone is important for first responder safety that works in radiological environment in the event of nuclear or radiation emergency without violating their standard operating procedure. Value limit of safety and security perimeter has been made according to the conditions in Indonesia and considering the applicability in practical. (author)

  3. Problem zone and pioneer region. The Baltic region between controversies of energy policy and cooperative projects; Problemzone und Vorreiterregion. Der Ostseeraum im Spannungsfeld energiepolitischer Kontroversen und Kooperationsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Kai-Olaf

    2010-10-15

    This publication describes how for the EU states bordering on the Baltic coast energy policy and energy economy have become crucial fields of bilateral and regional cooperation. On the one side this is attributable to the controversial Nord Stream Pipeline, growing concerns over the security of supply, vulnerabilities in energy policy - be they real or imagined - and to competing energy economic interests. On the other side, what has drawn numerous players' attention to the greater Baltic region as an attractive area in terms of energy policy are the prospects for multilateral cooperation projects and associated hopes for greater regional solidarity in issues of energy policy. In this sense the Baltic region is not only an energy political problem zone but also a potential pioneer region, namely when it comes to energy economic and energy political integration within the EU. This ambivalence should continue to characterise the region for the foreseeable future. The extent to which energy economic integration will in future prevail over particular national interests of energy and security policy will greatly depend on the initiatives which the EU Baltic states succeed in launching cooperatively at EU level.

  4. AIRFIL: a FORTRAN program for reduction of data obtained from alpha spectrometry of perimeter air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Howell, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Isotopic alpha spectrometry of 238 U, 235 U, and 234 U, along with gross alpha/beta counting of perimeter air filters, is performed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Laboratory in support of the Envrirnomental Monitoring Section of the Radiation Safety Department. Weekly samples are gross alpha/beta counted and the isotopic analysis performed on quarterly composites. Calculations and data management represents a major portion of the anlaysis time when performed manually, even with a desktop calculator. In order to reduce calculation time, perform orderly data manipulation and management, reduce errors due to redundant calculations, and eliminate report typing turnaround time, a computer program (AIRFIL) has been developed that performs these functions. The program accepts data through user prompts, then calculates and prints intermediate and final data, including detection limits

  5. Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Vehicular Self-organizing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Quanrun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Wanjin

    2018-03-01

    PGPSR (Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) is based on and extended the GPSR protocol to adapt to the high speed mobility of the vehicle auto organization network (VANET) and the changes in the network topology. GPSR is used in the VANET network environment, the network loss rate and throughput are not ideal, even cannot work. Aiming at the problems of the GPSR, the proposed PGPSR routing protocol, it redefines the hello and query packet structure, in the structure of the new node speed and direction information, which received the next update before you can take advantage of its speed and direction to predict the position of node and new network topology, select the right the next hop routing and path. Secondly, the update of the outdated node information of the neighbor’s table is deleted in time. The simulation experiment shows the performance of PGPSR is better than that of GPSR.

  6. Forming Of Spherical Titanium Cups From Circular Blanks With Cutouts On The Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacki P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial demand for drawn parts made of high-strength sheet metal (including titanium alloys observed in the modern industry, particularly automotive and aviation, their application remains insignificant. This results from the fact that such sheet metal shows poor plasticity and its cold-forming is almost impossible. Low drawability makes it impossible to obtain even such simple shapes as spherical cups. The authors of this study developed circular sheet-metal blanks with cutouts on their perimeter. The blanks allow for cold forming of spherical cups from Ti6Al4V titanium alloy sheet metal using conventional rigid tools. The cutouts proposed in the study affect plastic strain distribution, which in turn leads to an increase in forming depth by about 30%. The numerical analysis, performed using the PamStamp 2G System software based on finite element method, was verified experimentally.

  7. Hardware implementation of adaptive filtering using charge-coupled devices. [For perimeter security sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoe, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories' Digital Systems Division/1734, as part of its work on the Base and Installation Security Systems (BISS) program has been making use of adaptive digital filters to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of perimeter sensor signals. In particular, the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-squares algorithm has been used extensively. This non-recursive linear predictor has been successful in extracting aperiodic signals from periodic noise. The adaptive filter generates a predictor signal which is subtracted from the input signal to produce an error signal. The value of this error is fed back to the filter to improve the quality of the next prediction. Implementation of the Widrow adaptive filter using a Charge-Coupled Device tapped analog delay line, analog voltage multipliers and operational amplifiers is described. The resulting filter adapts to signals with frequency components as high as several megahertz.

  8. Comparison of perimeter trap crop varieties: effects on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, L S; Hazzard, R V

    2009-02-01

    Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited marketability may reduce adoption of PTC by growers. Research comparing border crop varieties is necessary to provide options for growers. Furthermore, pollinators are critical for cucurbit yield, and the effect of PTC on pollination to main crops is unknown. We examined the effect of five border treatments on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash and manipulated herbivory and pollination to compare their importance for main crop yield. Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash (C. maxima Duch.), and zucchini (C. pepo L.) were equally attractive to cucumber beetles. Border treatments did not affect butternut leaf damage, but butternut flowers had the fewest beetles when surrounded by Blue Hubbard or buttercup squash. Yield was highest in the Blue Hubbard and buttercup treatments, but this effect was not statistically significant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits, and pollination did not limit yield. There was no evidence that border crops competed with the main crop for pollinators. Our results suggest that both buttercup squash and zucchini may be viable alternatives to Blue Hubbard as borders for the main crop of butternut squash. Thus, growers may have multiple border options that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions with pollinators.

  9. Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PreView PHP) for detecting choroidal neovascularization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Yair; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Brimacombe, Judith A; Crompton, R Michael; Duh, Yi-Jing; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Heier, Jeffrey S; Ip, Michael S; Loewenstein, Anat; Packo, Kirk H; Stur, Michael; Toaff, Techiya

    2005-10-01

    To assess the ability of the Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PreView PHP; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) to detect recent-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) resulting from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to differentiate it from an intermediate stage of AMD. Prospective, comparative, concurrent, nonrandomized, multicenter study. Eligible participants' study eyes had a corrected visual acuity of 20/160 or better and either untreated CNV from AMD diagnosed within the last 60 days or an intermediate stage of AMD. After obtaining consent, visual acuity with habitual correction, masked PHP testing, stereoscopic color fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography were performed. Photographs and angiograms were evaluated by graders masked to diagnosis and PHP results. The reading center's diagnosis determined if the patient was categorized as having intermediate AMD or neovascular AMD. A successful study outcome was defined a priori as a sensitivity of at least 80% and a specificity of at least 80%. Of 185 patients who gave consent to be enrolled, 11 (6%) had PHP results judged to be unreliable. An additional 52 were not included because they did not meet all eligibility criteria. Of the remaining 122 patients, 57 had an intermediate stage of AMD and 65 had neovascular AMD. The sensitivity to detect newly diagnosed CNV using PHP testing was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70%-90%). The specificity to differentiate newly diagnosed CNV from the intermediate stage of AMD using PHP testing was 88% (95% CI, 76%-95%). Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter testing can detect recent-onset CNV resulting from AMD and can differentiate it from an intermediate stage of AMD with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that monitoring with PHP should detect most cases of CNV of recent onset with few false-positive results at a stage when treatment usually would be beneficial. Thus, this monitoring should be considered in the management of the

  10. Electromagnetic Energy Released in the Subduction (Benioff) Zone in Weeks Previous to Earthquake Occurrence in Central Peru and the Estimation of Earthquake Magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraud, J. A.; Centa, V. A.; Bleier, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the past four years, magnetometers deployed in the Peruvian coast have been providing evidence that the ULF pulses received are indeed generated at the subduction or Benioff zone and are connected with the occurrence of earthquakes within a few kilometers of the source of such pulses. This evidence was presented at the AGU 2015 Fall meeting, showing the results of triangulation of pulses from two magnetometers located in the central area of Peru, using data collected during a two-year period. Additional work has been done and the method has now been expanded to provide the instantaneous energy released at the stress areas on the Benioff zone during the precursory stage, before an earthquake occurs. Collected data from several events and in other parts of the country will be shown in a sequential animated form that illustrates the way energy is released in the ULF part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The process has been extended in time and geographical places. Only pulses associated with the occurrence of earthquakes are taken into account in an area which is highly associated with subduction-zone seismic events and several pulse parameters have been used to estimate a function relating the magnitude of the earthquake with the value of a function generated with those parameters. The results shown, including the animated data video, constitute additional work towards the estimation of the magnitude of an earthquake about to occur, based on electromagnetic pulses that originated at the subduction zone. The method is providing clearer evidence that electromagnetic precursors in effect conveys physical and useful information prior to the advent of a seismic event

  11. Unconventional energy resources in a crowded subsurface: Reducing uncertainty and developing a separation zone concept for resource estimation and deep 3D subsurface planning using legacy mining data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Alison A

    2017-12-01

    Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes. An exemplar from the Carboniferous of central Scotland, UK, illustrates how, in areas lacking hydrocarbon well production data and 3D seismic surveys, legacy coal mine plans and associated boreholes provide valuable data that can be used to reduce the uncertainty around geometry and faulting of subsurface energy resources. However, legacy coal mines also limit unconventional resource volumes since mines and associated shafts alter the stress and hydrogeochemical state of the subsurface, commonly forming pathways to the surface. To reduce the risk of subsurface connections between energy resources, an example of an adapted methodology is described for shale gas/oil resource estimation to include a vertical separation or 'stand-off' zone between the deepest mine workings, to ensure the hydraulic fracturing required for shale resource production would not intersect legacy coal mines. Whilst the size of such separation zones requires further work, developing the concept of 3D spatial separation and planning is key to utilising the crowded subsurface energy system, whilst mitigating against resource sterilisation and environmental impacts, and could play a role in positively informing public and policy debate. Copyright © 2017 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of a thermal treatment technology for the generation of electrical energy by municipal solid waste from the zone of Los Santos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza Campos, Kevin; Monge Leiva, Matias

    2014-01-01

    A technical, economic and environmental assessment is realized of a thermal treatment technology. The energetic valorization from municipal solid waste and electric power generation in the zone of Los Santos, Costa Rica, are made by the multicriteria hierarchical analysis methodology. The national and cantonal situation is examined in the integral management of municipal solid waste (GIRS), with emphasis on the cantons from the zone of Los Santos. A comparative analysis is developed among some cantons of Costa Rica that have had GIRS studies, and the zone of Los Santos to know the fraction of municipal solid waste that can be valued energetically and calorific power that present. The similarity in the characterization, composition and physico-chemical properties is determined in the study of residues between the cantons analyzed and the zone of Los Santos. The legislation relating the waste processing is analyzed, according Law 8839 for integral management of waste and laws similar to the implementation of a power generation plant. An analysis is developed for the environmental compliance of thermal treatment technologies, including aspects for control of contaminants. The main technologies of energy valorization from waste are investigated and some real cases of Latin America and the world are exposed. A thermal treatment technology of municipal solid waste is selected through a decision-making methodology to evaluate technical, environmental and economic aspects. Operation requirements and functioning of the devices that conform a power generation plant are described by municipal solid waste of the technology selected. The economic viability of the selected proposal has determined by an economic analysis, to extend on the most influential aspects developing alternative scenarios. The diagnosis of the situation of solid waste in the zone of Los Santos has specified that the cardboard, paper and plastics have been the most adequate for the thermal utilization

  13. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta[Energie renouvelable ; Zone rurale ; Gaz biologique ; Energie solaire ; Sechoir solaire]; Seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies nouvelles en zone rurale du 24 mars au3 avril 1980 a Reo, Haute Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    volume of transport much more reduced. Mastering these new technologies will help fight efficiently against desertification, and fruits and vegetables rotting. [French] L'acces a l'energie par toutes les populations reste une des preoccupations du Gouvernement de Haute Volta (Burkina Faso). C'est ainsi que sous l'egide de la Communaute Economique de l Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO), de l'Agence Canadienne de Developpement International et du Mouvement Scout, un seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies renouvelables en zone rurale y a ete organise. Il s'agit pour les participants venus de plusieurs pays, d'apprendre a mettre en pratique, l'utilisation des energies nouvelles telles la cuisiniere a feu ferme, le gaz biologique, le chauffe- eau solaire et le sechoir solaire. L'adoption de ces nouvelles sources d'energie par les populations permettrait de pallier les problemes de desertification lies au deboisement intensif dans le pays. Tous les participants a cette rencontre sont donc sensibilises pour qu'ils apportent leur contribution et celle des populations de leurs terroirs respectifs pour une meilleure conservation des ressources naturelles disponibles. Cela passe aussi par la construction de cuisinieres a feu ferme qui permettent d'avoir deux sources d'energie. Ce type de foyer est d'une construction facile et utilisable seulement trois jours apres. Il permet d'eviter la perte d'energie qui caracterisait le foyer traditionnel (pres de 95% de perte d'energie) ; ce qui revient a consommer moins de bois tout en assurant un rendement de l'ordre de 60 a 70%. Il s'est agi pour les participants aux travaux de s'initier a l'installation de gaz suivant des modeles chinois et indien . Ils ont donc ete inities a la realisation des technologies de production de gaz biologique a travers la maitrise du schema de principe du procede de fermentation discontinue. De meme, ils ont acquis le savoir- faire sur les techniques de mise en place du chauffe- eau solaire par insolateur et du

  14. Impact Analysis of Window-Wall Ratio on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoxia Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the optimal window-wall ratio and the proper glazing type in different air conditioning system operation modes of residential buildings for each orientation in three typical cities in hot summer and cold winter zone: Chongqing, Shanghai, and Wuhan simulation models were built and analyzed using Designer’s Simulation Toolkit (DeST. The study analyzed the variation of annual heating energy demand, annual cooling energy demand, and the annual total energy consumption in different conditions, including different orientations, patterns of utilization of air conditioning system, window-wall ratio, and types of windows. The results show that the total energy consumption increased when the window-wall ratio is also increased. It appears more obvious when the window orientation is east or west. Furthermore, in terms of energy efficiency, low-emissivity (Low-E glass performs better than hollow glass. From this study, it can be concluded that the influence and sensitivity of window-wall ratio on the total energy consumption are related to the operation mode of air conditioning system, the orientation of outside window, and the glazing types of window. The influence of the factors can be regarded as reference mode for the window-wall ratio when designing residential buildings.

  15. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  16. Physiological intracellular crowdedness is defined by perimeter to area ratio of subcellular compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko eHiroi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular environment is known to be a crowded and inhomogeneous space. Such an in vivo environment differs from a well-diluted, homogeneous environment for biochemical reactions. However, the effects of both crowdedness and the inhomogeneity of environment on the behavior of a mobile particle have not yet been investigated sufficiently. As described in this paper, we constructed artificial reaction spaces with fractal models, which are assumed to be non-reactive solid obstacles in a reaction space with crevices that function as operating ranges for mobile particles threading the space. Because of the homogeneity of the structures of artificial reaction spaces, the models succeeded in reproducing the physiological fractal dimension of solid structures with a smaller number of non-reactive obstacles than in the physiological condition. This incomplete compatibility was mitigated when we chose a suitable condition of a perimeter-to-area ratio of the operating range to our model. Our results also show that a simulation space is partitioned into convenient reaction compartments as an in vivo environment with the exact amount of solid structures estimated from TEM images. The characteristics of these compartments engender larger mean square displacement of a mobile particle than that of particles in smaller compartments. Subsequently, the particles start to show confined particle-like behavior. These results are compatible with our previously presented results, which predicted that a physiological environment would produce quick-response and slow-exhaustion reactions.

  17. Data fusion concept in multispectral system for perimeter protection of stationary and moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurapiński, Wieslaw; Dulski, Rafal; Kastek, Mariusz; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marek; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Piszczek, Marek

    2009-09-01

    The paper presents the concept of multispectral protection system for perimeter protection for stationary and moving objects. The system consists of active ground radar, thermal and visible cameras. The radar allows the system to locate potential intruders and to control an observation area for system cameras. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of detection probability of intruder and reduction of false alarms. A final decision from system is worked out using image data. The method of data fusion used in the system has been presented. The system is working under control of FLIR Nexus system. The Nexus offers complete technology and components to create network-based, high-end integrated systems for security and surveillance applications. Based on unique "plug and play" architecture, system provides unmatched flexibility and simplistic integration of sensors and devices in TCP/IP networks. Using a graphical user interface it is possible to control sensors and monitor streaming video and other data over the network, visualize the results of data fusion process and obtain detailed information about detected intruders over a digital map. System provides high-level applications and operator workload reduction with features such as sensor to sensor cueing from detection devices, automatic e-mail notification and alarm triggering.

  18. The way of land use in the perimeter of town Podu Iloaiei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena TODAŞCĂ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Podu Iloaiei is situated in the south part of Jijia Plain, in Bahlui hydrographic basin. The relief is predominantlysculptural, followed by the accumulation relief. There are quaternary and basarabian  sediments/deposits. The climate is temperate-continental with dryness nuances whichcontributed to the growth of forest steppe vegetation. The hidrography is represented by Bahlui river and its main tributary: Bahluet. Pedological layer is influenced by the particular factors and processes of pedogenesis of Podu Iloaiei. There are spread types ofsoil from the following soil classes:cernisols, fluvisols, protisols and anthrosols. Podu Iloaiei perimeter didn’t have a spectacular evolution concerning its target. Its use is predominantly agricultural(83%, no matter the period studied(before and after 1990 orits recently rural-urban administrative structure. We may speak, in this case, about the existence of an agricultural-town. Many lands of Podu Iloaiei research station were taken over after 1990, by local entrepreneurs who preserve the modern techniques of land use,inherited from it. More than that, it feels the pressure of Iasi city, which determined some lands to get real interest.

  19. Constructibility Challenges for Perimeter Control Blasting and Slope Development in Shale and Other "Weak" Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpato, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    Slope construction in shale can present some interesting challenges for geotechnical design engineers and contractors alike. There are challenges that can be expected and designed for; however, all too frequently, such challenges manifest themselves as "surprises" in the field. Common constructibility challenges can include drill hole deviation during drilling for controlled blasting; and, excavation slope instability arising from inconsistent perimeter control drilling. Drill hole deviation results from the cumulative effects from both drilling mechanics and rock mass conditions. Once a hole has initiated the deviation trajectory, it is difficult to rectify drill steel position. Although such challenges are not necessarily unique to shale, they are often exacerbated by weak, weathered and transversely isotropic nature of bedrock conditions. All too often, the working assumption is that shale is "soft" and easily excavatable; however, this blanket assumption can prove to be costly. This paper is intended to provide design professionals and contractors with the practical considerations needed to avoid the "surprises" associated with drill hole deviation, and minimize the potential for costly claims.

  20. Availability of processed foods in the perimeter of public schools in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernanda Helena Marrocos; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida de; Cremm, Elena Carvalho; Abreu, Débora Silva Costa de; Maron, Luana Rieffe; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2012-07-01

    To assess the availability of food in relation to their degree of industrial processing and the types of food stores in the perimeters of elementary schools. This is a cross-sectional study. 82 food stores located within a 500 m radius buffer of three public schools located in three distinct regions with different socioeconomic levels in the municipality of Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, were assessed. All streets within a 500-meter radius of the schools were covered, geographic coordinates were recorded and information about the stores and food items available were collected by direct observation and interview with store managers. Available food items were classified in relation to their degree of industrial processing as ultra-processed foods and minimally processed foods. Kernel's density maps were used to assess the degree of agglomeration of stores near the schools. The stores that offered mostly ultra-processed foods were significantly closer to schools than those who offered mostly minimally processed foods. There was a significant difference between the availability of processed food in different types of stores and between the three regions assessed. The data found by this work evidence that children who attend the three public schools assessed are exposed to an environment that encourages the consumption of ultra-processed foods through easier access of these products in the studied stores.

  1. Full perimeter intersection criteria. Definitions and implementations in SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond

    2010-03-15

    Large fractures intersecting canisters have potential to reactivate due to nearby earthquakes and thereby jeopardising the canister/buffer integrity. The use of full perimeter intersection (FPI) as a proxy for fracture size has been explored within SKB since late 2004. A methodology to use FPI as a deposition hole rejection criterion was first reported in and the concept has successively matured ever since. As a response to feedback obtained from various instances of our organisation and external reviewers, additional analyses and benchmarks were reported in 2007. An analytical solution to the canister/fracture intersection probability was introduced, which enabled us to benchmark various aspects of the FPI simulations. The methodology was first applied within the framework of SR-CAN to compute the number of potentially critical canister positions and soon after, based on preliminary DFN models, as one of many prerequisites for repository design. The methodology and simulation logic has evolved substantially ever since it was originally reported in 2006 and the present report is intended to entirely replace previous reports on this subject, to thereby provide the interested reader with an description of the modelling procedure, prerequisites and limitations. As a consequence thereof, major portions of previous reports are repeated herein, though we occasionally refer to these reports for comparative purposes. Furthermore, as the final versions of the site descriptive models have been reported we find it convenient to, within this report, also apply the methodology using the most actual site specific fracture data

  2. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Culp, Thomas D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  3. Impending sources of energy to replace fire wood in semi arid climatic zones: A case study in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret Dananto Ulsido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study paper shows an alternative source of energy that can decrease the extensive use of fire wood in Ethiopia. The country’s entire rural area and significant part of urban population is completely dependent on fire wood as a source of energy. This practice takes its own toll, the forest is on the verge of being wiped out and as a result a clear change of climate and loss of natural biodiversity resources is visible. Fire wood is not the only source of energy available in the country. In this paper, based on their low cost, construction material availability and the required unskilled labor it is shown that biogas and solar energy are potentially feasible source of energy to replace firewood for cooking.

  4. THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE ABANDONED URANIUM MINING EXPLOITATIONS ON ROCKS AND SOILS - ZIMBRU PERIMETER, ARAD COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA M. BANU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mining exploration and exploitation, especially the activity of uranium mineralization exploration and exploitation has a negative impact on the environment by the alterations of the landscape and the degradation of the environmental factors' quality. The principal environmental factors that could be affected by mining operations resulting from uranium exploitation are: water, air, soil, population, fauna, and flora. The aim of this study is, first, to identify the sources of pollution (natural radionuclides - natural radioactive series of uranium, radium, thorium, potassium and heavy metals that are accompanying the mineralizations for two of the most important environmental factors: rocks and soils: and, second, to assess the pollution impact on those two environmental factors. In order to identify this pollutants and their impact assessment it was selected as a study case an abandoned uranium mining perimeter named the Zimbru perimeter located in Arad County, Romania.

  5. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  6. Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone. Legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, Michelle E.; Duff, John A.; Koeppel, Johann; Reisert, Jessica; Higgins, Megan E.

    2009-01-01

    The development of renewable energy as a major component of efforts to combat climate change serves as the impetus for the location of energy production facilities in coastal ocean space. Yet, while many coastal nations see offshore renewable energy development as an important way forward, the speed and manner in which these efforts take shape vary dramatically. This paper assesses the role of coastal nations' domestic legal and policy frameworks in the siting of offshore renewable energy facilities in areas under federal jurisdiction. It focuses on two nations - Germany and the United States. Both have articulated their interest in renewable offshore energy, but while Germany has approved many offshore sites, recent US proposals have for the most part stalled. Based on a review of legal and policy documents, laws and regulations, academic literature, and interviews, this research identifies and compares factors that figure most prominently for the development of offshore renewable energy policies. Comparisons are organized under four categories: the regulatory framework, the public's role in siting, targeted economic mechanisms, and indirect mechanisms. The paper concludes with observations about prominent supports and impediments and suggestions for further research. (author)

  7. Multiyear Plan for Validation of EnergyPlus Multi-Zone HVAC System Modeling using ORNL's Flexible Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhandari, Mahabir S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiyear experimental plan for validation and uncertainty characterization of whole-building energy simulation for a multi-zone research facility using a traditional rooftop unit (RTU) as a baseline heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The project’s overarching objective is to increase the accuracy of energy simulation tools by enabling empirical validation of key inputs and algorithms. Doing so is required to inform the design of increasingly integrated building systems and to enable accountability for performance gaps between design and operation of a building. The project will produce documented data sets that can be used to validate key functionality in different energy simulation tools and to identify errors and inadequate assumptions in simulation engines so that developers can correct them. ASHRAE Standard 140, Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs (ASHRAE 2004), currently consists primarily of tests to compare different simulation programs with one another. This project will generate sets of measured data to enable empirical validation, incorporate these test data sets in an extended version of Standard 140, and apply these tests to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) EnergyPlus software (EnergyPlus 2016) to initiate the correction of any significant deficiencies. The fitness-for-purpose of the key algorithms in EnergyPlus will be established and demonstrated, and vendors of other simulation programs will be able to demonstrate the validity of their products. The data set will be equally applicable to validation of other simulation engines as well.

  8. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested.

  9. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  10. Ecosystem-service tradeoffs associated with switching from annual to perennial energy crops in riparian zones of the US Midwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Meehan

    Full Text Available Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could affect a variety of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. We found that a switch from continuous corn production to perennial-grass production decreased annual income provisioning by 75%, although it increased annual energy provisioning by 33%, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water by 29%, increased below-ground carbon sequestration by 30%, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions by 84%, increased an index of pollinator abundance by an average of 11%, and increased an index of biocontrol potential by an average of 6%. We expressed the tradeoffs between income provisioning and other ecosystem services as benefit-cost ratios. Benefit-cost ratios averaged 12.06 GJ of additional net energy, 0.84 kg of avoided phosphorus pollution, 18.97 Mg of sequestered carbon, and 1.99 kg of avoided nitrous oxide emissions for every $1,000 reduction in income. These ratios varied spatially, from 2- to 70-fold depending on the ecosystem service. Benefit-cost ratios for different ecosystem services were generally correlated within watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots--watersheds where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs. When assessing the monetary value of ecosystem services relative to existing conservation programs and environmental markets, the overall value of enhanced services associated with adoption of perennial energy crops was far lower than the opportunity cost. However, when we monitized services using estimates for the social costs of pollution, the value of enhanced services far exceeded the opportunity cost. This

  11. Uncertainties estimation in surveying measurands: application to lengths, perimeters and areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covián, E.; Puente, V.; Casero, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper develops a series of methods for the estimation of uncertainty when measuring certain measurands of interest in surveying practice, such as points elevation given a planimetric position within a triangle mesh, 2D and 3D lengths (including perimeters enclosures), 2D areas (horizontal surfaces) and 3D areas (natural surfaces). The basis for the proposed methodology is the law of propagation of variance-covariance, which, applied to the corresponding model for each measurand, allows calculating the resulting uncertainty from known measurement errors. The methods are tested first in a small example, with a limited number of measurement points, and then in two real-life measurements. In addition, the proposed methods have been incorporated to commercial software used in the field of surveying engineering and focused on the creation of digital terrain models. The aim of this evolution is, firstly, to comply with the guidelines of the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), as the international reference agency in the field of metrology, in relation to the determination and expression of uncertainty; and secondly, to improve the quality of the measurement by indicating the uncertainty associated with a given level of confidence. The conceptual and mathematical developments for the uncertainty estimation in the aforementioned cases were conducted by researchers from the AssIST group at the University of Oviedo, eventually resulting in several different mathematical algorithms implemented in the form of MATLAB code. Based on these prototypes, technicians incorporated the referred functionality to commercial software, developed in C++. As a result of this collaboration, in early 2016 a new version of this commercial software was made available, which will be the first, as far as the authors are aware, that incorporates the possibility of estimating the uncertainty for a given level of confidence when computing the aforementioned surveying

  12. COMPARISON OF FAST PERIMETRIC STRATEGIES USING G2 PROGRAM ON OCTOPUS 101 PERIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pajek

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The duration of the perimetric examination was significantly shortened by development of fast perimetric strategies. By analyzing the results of normal, dynamic and TOP strategy we studied the differences in determination of MD, LV, in determination of number of all points with a deficit and number of points with a significant deficit of p < 0.5%.Methods. 22 normal visual fields of 17 subjects (mean age 33 ± 15 years and 22 visual fields with defects of 17 patients (47 ± 16 years having different types and degrees of visual lesions were examined. All visual fields were examined once with each strategy in alternating order using Octopus 101 perimeter with the G2 program.Results. No statistically significant differences were measured in MD values. In abnormal visual fields group, TOP strategy showed 11 ± 14 dB2 lower LV values compared to dynamic strategy (p < 0.01 and 9.8 ± 16 dB2 lower LV values compared to normal strategy (p = 0.02. In the abnormal visual fields group the dynamic strategy measured in average 3 points with the deficit less compared to the other two strategies (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between strategies in the number of points with a deficit of p < 0.5%.Conclusions. With the exception of lower LV values measured with TOP strategy, the differences between TOP, dynamic strategy results are small and the time sparing benefits are substantial. Therefore the usage of fast perimetric strategies is clinically justified.

  13. Investigation of Energy Use Pattern and Emission Discharge in Nigeria: A Case Study of South West Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Abimbola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand has increased with population growth, industrialization and civilization. Most householders are barely conscious of the conservative measures for available limited supply, while the environmental impact has rarely been taken into cognizance by consumers. The study examines end-users attitude to energy consumption in Nigeria based on four scenarios. Gaseous emissions data obtained from prepaid and post-paid metering systems usage in low-income and high-income housing types were analyzed. Results obtained indicate strong relationship between energy use and emissions with significantly different emission generation. About 38% and 23% reduction in global warming and acidification potential is achieved by a switch to prepaid meters for both income earners. Post-paid low-income earners utilized the highest energy (59.8kW/hr while the prepaid high-income earners had the minimum (31.1kW/hr. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from both earners followed similar trend. Prepaid metering system usage improves energy consumption, thereby offsetting global warming and acidification impacts.

  14. Modeling and Zoning Solar Energy Received at the Earth's Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions of Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam gholamnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar radiation (Rs energy received at the Earth's surface is measured usingclimatological variables in horizontal surface and is widely used in various fields. Domination of hot and dry climates especially in the central regions of Iran results from decreasing cloudiness and precipitation and increasing sunshine hours, which shows the high potential of solar energy in Iran. There is a reasonable climatic field and solar radiation in most of regions and seasons which have provided an essential and suitable field to use and extend new and pure energy. Materials and Methods: One of the common methods to estimate the solar energy received by the earthis usingtemperature variables in any place . An empirical model is proposed to estimate the solar energy as a function of other climatic variables (maximum temperature recorded in 50 climatological, conventional stations; this model is helpful inextending the climatological solar-energy estimation in the study area. The mean values of both measured and estimated solar energy wereobjectively mapped to fill the observation gaps and reduce the noise associated with inhomogeneous statistics and estimation errors. This analysis and the solar irradiation estimation method wereapplied to 50 different climatologicalstations in Iran for monthly data during1980–2005. The main aim of this study wasto map and estimate the solar energy received in four provinces of Yazd, Esfahan, Kerman and Khorasan-e-Jonoubi.The data used in this analysis and its processing, as well as the formulation of an empirical model to estimate the climatological incident of solar energy as a function of other climatic variables, which is complemented with an objective mapping to obtain continuous solar-energy maps. Therefore, firstly the Rswasestimated using a valid model for 50 meteorological stations in which the amounts of solar radiation weren't recorded for arid and semi-arid areas in Iran. Then, the appropriate method

  15. 29 CFR Appendix F to Subpart R of... - Perimeter Columns: Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Complying With § 1926.756(e) To Protect the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Subpart R of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Steel Erection Pt. 1926, Subpt. R, App. F Appendix F to Subpart R of Part 1926—Perimeter Columns: Non...

  16. Surface energy balance in the ablation zone of Langfjordjøkelen, an arctic, maritime glacier in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, Rianne H.; Andreassen, Liss M.; Oerlemans, Johannes; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers in northern and southern Norway are subject to different daily and seasonal cycles of incoming solar radiation, which is presumably reflected in the importance of net solar radiation in their surface energy balance. We present a 3 year continuous record from an automatic weather station in

  17. Energy performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant air-conditioning system for commercial building in main climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of solar liquid desiccant AC system in four climate regions was conducted. • System performance was determined by relationship of sensible and latent cooling load. • For humid area, saving amount is large by handling latent load with solar energy. • For dry area, electricity saving rate is considerable due to the high COP of chillers. • For buildings with mild SHR, the system performance was not as good as others. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) system, which consists of a liquid desiccant ventilation system for dehumidification and an air-handling unit for cooling, has become a promising alternative for conventional technology. To evaluate its feasibility and applicability, the simulation of solar-assisted LDAC (SLDAC) in commercial buildings in five cities of four main climate regions were conducted, including Singapore in Tropical, Houston and Beijing in Temperate, Boulder in Arid and Los Angeles in Mediterranean. Results showed that the system’s performance was seriously affected by the ratios of building’s sensible and latent cooling load. For buildings located in humid areas with low sensible-total heat ratio (SHR), the electricity energy reduction of SLDAC was high, about 450 MW h in Houston and Singapore, which accounted for 40% of the total energy consumption in cooling seasons. The cost payback period was as short as approximately 7 years. The main reason is that the energy required for handling the moisture could be saved by liquid desiccant dehumidification, and the regeneration heat could be covered by solar collectors. For buildings in dry climate with high SHR, the total cooling load was low, but up to 45% electricity of AC system could be saved in Boulder because the chiller COP could be significantly improved during more than 70% operation time. The cost payback period was around 22 years, which was acceptable. However, for the buildings with mild SHR, such as those in Beijing and Los

  18. Survey of trapped low energy electrons near the inner boundary of the inner radiation zone from the OSO-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neighbors, J.E.; Clark, G.W.

    1974-01-01

    Data from the MIT x-ray experiment on the OSO-7 satellite were used to delineate the regions in B-L and geographic spaces where trapped radiation was encountered. The results pertain specifically to electrons with energies in a range of 10 keV centered on 55 keV which were encountered in an orbit between altitudes of 330 and 570 km and latitudes of +-33.3 0 . A typical pitch angle distribution is fitted by a Gaussian with a FWHM of 28 degrees. (U.S.)

  19. Energy balance of the metropolitan zone of the valley of Mexico, methodology and the entailment energy-air quality; Balance de energia de la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico metodologia y la vinculacion energia - calidad del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Navarrete, Gerardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present document raises a methodology for the elaboration of the Energy Balance of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMVM), in order to unify criteria and to facilitate the work of entities and investigators, mainly of those that require the entailment of energy and environment. The applied methodology, the consolidated format and the caloric unity facilitates the insertion of the Energy Balance of the ZMVM within the National Balance of Energy. The regional balances of energy have the intention of knowing the energy consumption patterns in the ZMVM and the indexes of energy intensity by sector. They establish the relationship of the indexes of energy intensity with the local and global air quality of the region, performing studies of incidence with the main polluting agents and with the greenhouse effect gases. [Spanish] El presente documento plantea una metodologia para la elaboracion del Balance de Energia de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico (ZMVM), con el proposito de unificar criterios y facilitar el trabajo de organismos e investigadores, sobre todo de aquellos que requieren vincular energia y medio ambiente. La metodologia aplicad, el formato consolidado y la unidad calorica facilitan la insercion del Balance de Energia de la ZMVM dentro del Balance Nacional de Energia. Los balances regionales de energia tienen el proposito de conocer los patrones de consumo de energia en la ZMVM y los indices de intensidad energetica por sector. Establecen la relacion de los indices de intensidad energetica con la calidad del aire local y global de la region, realizando estudios de incidencia con los principales contaminantes y con los gases de efecto invernadero.

  20. Renewable Energy Zones for Balancing Siting Trade-offs in India: Multi-Criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE)

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Wu, Grace C.; Phadke, Amol

    2017-01-01

    India’s targets of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022, and 40% generation capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 will require a rapid and dramatic increase in solar and wind capacity deployment and overcoming its associated economic, siting, and power system challenges. The objective of this study was to spatially identify the amount and quality of wind and utility-scale solar resource potential in India, and the possible siting-related constraints and opportunities for devel...

  1. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, Marc; Davidson, Zeke; Pratt, Laura; Mwololo, Mary; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2016-01-01

    The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi). The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation.

  2. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dupuis-Desormeaux

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis and the Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi. The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation.

  3. Heat Damage Zones Created by Different Energy Sources Used in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pig Liver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi Fai; Chan, Alexander Chak Lam; Pun, Chung Ting; Ho, Lap Yin; Chan, Steve Wai-Hee; Au, Wing Hang

    2015-06-01

    There are different types of transurethral prostatic surgeries and the complication profiles are different. This study aims to compare the heat damage zones (HDZ) created by five different technologies in a pig liver model. Monopolar resection, bipolar resection, electrovaporization, and Greenlight™ lasers of 120 and 180 W were used to remove fresh pig liver tissue in a simulated model. Each procedure was repeated in five specimens. Two blocks were selected from each specimen to measure the three deepest HDZ. The mean of HDZ was 295, 234, 192, 673, and 567 μm, respectively, for monopolar resection, bipolar resection, electrovaporization, Greenlight laser 120 W, and Greenlight laser 180 W, respectively. The Greenlight laser produced one to three times deeper HDZ than the other energy sources (p=0.000). Both 120 and 180 W Greenlight lasers produced deeper HDZ than the other energy sources. Urologists need to be aware of HDZ that cause tissue damage outside the operative field.

  4. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Rivera-Dirks, C.; Coriz, F.

    1995-07-01

    Area G, in Technical Area 54, has been the principle facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the storage and disposal of low-level and transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes since 1957. The current environmental investigation consisted of ESH-19 personnel who collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G to characterize possible contaminant movement through surface-water runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241 (soil only), and cesium 137. The metals, mercury, lead, and barium, were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence

  5. Application Development: AN Interactive, Non-Technical Perspective of the Geology and Geomorphology of the Ouray Perimeter Tail, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H. M.; Giardino, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Each year people seek respite from their busy lifestyles by traveling to state or national parks, national forests or wilderness areas. The majority of these parks were established in order to help preserve our natural heritage, including wildlife, forests, and the beauty of landscapes formed from thousands of years of geologic/geomorphologic processes. Whilst being able to enjoy the tranquility of nature, tourists are being robbed of a more in-depth experience as a result of the lack of a geologic background. One such location that attracts a large number of summer tourists is the perimeter trail in Ouray, Colorado. Located in the Southwestern portion of Colorado, Ouray is situated in the beautiful San Juan Mountain range along the "Million Dollar Highway." The Perimeter trail is a six-mile trail loop that circles the city of Ouray. The city is a very popular place for summertime tourism because of its unparalleled scenery. Ouray is situated in an area that is riddled with textbook angular unconformities, metasedimentary, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks. In the study area, The San Juans have been beautifully sculpted by an array of major faulting events, glacial activity and volcanics. With the understanding that technology is ever expanding, we think there is no better way to experience the Perimeter Trail than to have an interactive application that will be both educational as well as interesting. This application is a non-technical way of looking at the geology and geomorphology of the perimeter trail. Additionally, a paper brochure shows the most noteworthy points of interest. The brochure contains a brief geologic history of the San Juan Mountains accompanied with annotated photographs to illustrate the complex geology/geomorphology encountered on the trail. The application is based on an interactive three-dimensional map, which can be zoomed to various scales. The app hosts a locational service that uses the phone's GPS to communicate location of the hiker

  6. The use of geological data from pilot holes for predicting FPI (full perimeter intersection) fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joutsen, A.

    2012-02-15

    Posiva Oy is responsible for preparation of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. The knowledge about existing network of fractures is important for the safety and feasibility of the final repository. The bedrock properties essential for safety case are analyzed in investigations of Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC). One subtask in RSC is avoidance of large (long) fractures adjacent to disposal holes. The long fractures have been defined in tunnel mapping to indicate tunnel cross-cutting fractures (TCF) or full perimeter intersections (FPI). The purpose for this study was to evaluate the possibility of recognizing FPIs from drill cores by their geological properties. The study was carried out by correlating FPIs mapped from the ONKALO tunnel to the pilot holes logging data with a view of finding out which fracture in the pilot hole corresponds to the FPI in the tunnel. It was also estimated what kind of geological properties does FPIs commonly have in the tunnel and how does these properties differ from the FPI correlated pilot hole fractures. The data sources for this study are the pilot holes from ONK-PH8 to ONK-PH14 and the systematic geological mapping data. The FPIs used in this study usually follow the general trends of the fracturing in the Olkiluoto bedrock. The fracture surface profiles are principally undulating and a striation can be often seen on the fracture surfaces. The FPIs are frequently moderately to intensely altered with diverse filling mineralogy and thick fracture fillings in comparison to the regular fractures. The FPI correlated pilot hole fractures have slightly different properties in comparison to the FPIs. These fractures have wider range of different fracture surface profiles and are slightly less altered than the FPIs. Filling mineralogy follows the trends of the FPIs but filling thicknesses are thinner. These differences probably occur because of the variable uncertainties related to the correlation and to the fact that the

  7. The use of geological data from pilot holes for predicting FPI (full perimeter intersection) fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joutsen, A.

    2012-02-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for preparation of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. The knowledge about existing network of fractures is important for the safety and feasibility of the final repository. The bedrock properties essential for safety case are analyzed in investigations of Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC). One subtask in RSC is avoidance of large (long) fractures adjacent to disposal holes. The long fractures have been defined in tunnel mapping to indicate tunnel cross-cutting fractures (TCF) or full perimeter intersections (FPI). The purpose for this study was to evaluate the possibility of recognizing FPIs from drill cores by their geological properties. The study was carried out by correlating FPIs mapped from the ONKALO tunnel to the pilot holes logging data with a view of finding out which fracture in the pilot hole corresponds to the FPI in the tunnel. It was also estimated what kind of geological properties does FPIs commonly have in the tunnel and how does these properties differ from the FPI correlated pilot hole fractures. The data sources for this study are the pilot holes from ONK-PH8 to ONK-PH14 and the systematic geological mapping data. The FPIs used in this study usually follow the general trends of the fracturing in the Olkiluoto bedrock. The fracture surface profiles are principally undulating and a striation can be often seen on the fracture surfaces. The FPIs are frequently moderately to intensely altered with diverse filling mineralogy and thick fracture fillings in comparison to the regular fractures. The FPI correlated pilot hole fractures have slightly different properties in comparison to the FPIs. These fractures have wider range of different fracture surface profiles and are slightly less altered than the FPIs. Filling mineralogy follows the trends of the FPIs but filling thicknesses are thinner. These differences probably occur because of the variable uncertainties related to the correlation and to the fact that the

  8. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  9. 基于主成分-聚类分析法的建筑节能气候区划%Further climatic zoning of building energy efficiency based on principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧玲; 付祥钊

    2012-01-01

    Taking HDD18, CDD26, average temperature of the coldest month, average temperature of the hottest month, solar radiation in winter, solar radiation in summer, humidity ratio in winter and humidity ratio in summer as division indexes based on the analysis of climate indexes impacting the building cooling and heating energy consumptions, applies the principal component analysis and cluster analysis to building energy efficiency climatic zoning of the 270 cities in China, which are divided into the severe-cold dry heat high-solar-radiation zone, severe-cold cool high-solar-radiation zone, severe-cold summer free zone, cold slight-hot zone, temperate-hot-humid zone, temperate-cool zone and raw hot-wet zone. Describes the main climatic characteristics and geographic distribution of the seven climate zones, and clarifies the key point of building energy efficiency and the appropriate technical strategies respectively.%通过分析影响建筑冷热耗量的气候指标,提出了以采暖度日数HDD18、空调度日数CDD26、最冷月平均温度、最热月平均温度、冬季太阳辐射热量、夏季太阳辐射热量、冬季含湿量和夏季含湿量8个气候指标作为建筑节能气候区划指标,采用主成分分析与聚类分析相结合的区划方法对我国270个城市进行了建筑节能气候区划,划分为严寒干热高辐区、严寒凉爽高辐区、严寒无夏区、寒冷微热区、温和炎热湿润区、温和凉爽区和阴冷湿热区,介绍了这7个气候区的主要气候特征和主要的地理范围,明确了各区的建筑节能重点和适宜的技术策略.

  10. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  11. Recent findings relating to firefighter safety zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; Russ Parsons; William Mell

    2015-01-01

    Designation of safety zones is a primary duty of all wildland firefighters. Unfortunately, information regarding what constitutes an adequate safety zone is inadequately defined. Measurements of energy release from wildland fires have been used to develop an empirically based safety zone guideline. The basis for this work is described here.

  12. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling. Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area

  13. Characterization of particulate matter from the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Avila-Perez, P.; Carapio-Morales, L.; Zarazua, G.; Tejeda, S.

    2005-01-01

    The urban air pollution issue is a concern in many Mega cities, because of hazardous effect to human health. The Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZMV) is one of the ten largest urban areas around the World with a population of 24.4 million people by the year 2000. One or the 'six criteria pollutants' regulated by Norm (because the hazardous effect to human health) are those commonly designed as Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Respirable Particles (RP) lower than 10 μm (coarse, PM10 and fine PM2.5). Particulate matter consists of solids or liquid aerosol particles suspended in the air and has diverse chemical composition related to the sources. Under ambient conditions of sampling analysis particulate matter exists almost exclusively in solid phase but can include liquid aerosols such as the heavier components of diesel combustion products and nitric acid. In general particulate matter includes dust, dirt, soot, smoke and liquid droplets emitted in the air by sources such as factories, power plants, cars, fire, construction activities, aircrafts and winds blown dust. In this work the survey of TSP particles an PM10 was carried out with an automatic high volume sampler with an average flow rate of 1.5 m 3 min -1 during 24 h in five monitoring stations of the national network system chosen trying to cover the fourth cardinal directions and the central zone: Xalostoc (XAL) at NE; Tlanepantla (TLA) at NW; Merced (MER) at the downtown; Cerro de la Estrella (CES) at SE and Pedregal (PED) at SW. A sample of l cm 2 was cut from each filter and mounted with a graphite tape on an aluminum sample-holder. The analysis of 100 induvidual particles of each sample were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope PHILLIPS Model XL-30. X-ray analysis is carried out with an energy-dispersive Si(Li) detector Model Saphire, SUTW (super ultra thin window), allowing

  14. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Unburned Areas within Fire Perimeters in the Northwestern United States from 1984 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Kolden, C.; Lutz, J. A.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Hudak, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been concern about increasing extent and severity of wildfires across the globe given rapid climate change. Areas that do not burn within fire perimeters can act as fire refugia, providing (1) protection from the detrimental effects of the fire, (2) seed sources, and (3) post-fire habitat on the landscape. However, recent studies have mainly focused on the higher end of the burn severity spectrum whereas the lower end of the burn severity spectrum has been largely ignored. We developed a spatially explicit database for 2,200 fires across the inland northwestern USA, delineating unburned areas within fire perimeters from 1984 to 2014. We used 1,600 Landsat scenes with one or two scenes before and one or two scenes after the fires to capture the unburned proportion of the fire. Subsequently, we characterized the spatial and temporal patterns of unburned areas and related the unburned proportion to interannual climate variability. The overall classification accuracy detecting unburned locations was 89.2% using a 10-fold cross-validation classification tree approach in combination with 719 randomly located field plots. The unburned proportion ranged from 2% to 58% with an average of 19% for a select number of fires. We find that using both an immediate post-fire image and a one-year post fire image improves classification accuracy of unburned islands over using just a single post-fire image. The spatial characteristics of the unburned islands differ between forested and non-forested regions with a larger amount of unburned area within non-forest. In addition, we show trends of unburned proportion related primarily to concurrent climatic drought conditions across the entire region. This database is important for subsequent analyses of fire refugia prioritization, vegetation recovery studies, ecosystem resilience, and forest management to facilitate unburned islands through fuels breaks, prescribed burning, and fire suppression strategies.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MoradAli Fouladvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are of one most important problems in developing countries and job is one of the most important factors determining the rate of intestinal parasitic infections. Persons who deal with waste elimination and recycling, due to close contact with infectious sources are more likely to be infected than others. Because of industrialization, population density and immigrants residing in Assaluyeh region , and due to the lack of history of a study for intestinal parasitic infection, the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in the collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone was evaluated. Material and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, demographic questionaire was completed for each person, Stool samples were taken and sample containers were transferred to parasitology research laboratory of university. Samples were examined for intestinal parasites by preparing direct smear (wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and Chi square test. Results: The results showed that 37.3% of samples were infected at least with one intestinal parasite, 10.7% of samples were infected with more than one parasite. Giardia lamblia (6% and Entamoeba coli (13/4%, showed the highest infection rate among all parasite species. Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in worker from Nakhl-e- Taghi municipality was higher than other region of the study area. Conclusion : Job type and duration of contact with infectious source play important roles in determining rate of intestinal parasitic infection. Workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes are more at risk of intestinal parasitic infections than others. Therfore, providing personal protective equipments and health education in this group can play an important role in community

  16. Rigorous derivation of the perimeter generating functions for the mean-squared radius of gyration of rectangular, Ferrers and pyramid polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Keh Ying

    2006-01-01

    We have derived rigorously the perimeter generating functions for the mean-squared radius of gyration of rectangular, Ferrers and pyramid polygons. These functions were found by Jensen recently. His nonrigorous results are based on the analysis of the long series expansions. (comment)

  17. Evaluating the Relation between Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand Perimeters and Handgrip Strength of Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton and Handball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Defne Öcal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's aimed to evaluate the relation between dominant and non-dominant hand perimeters and handgrip strength of basketball, volleyball, badminton and handball athletes. Totally 101 active athletes (49 females, 52 male), of the average age in female 20±1.42 years, in male 21±1.99 years, joined to this study. Height, body weight, BMI…

  18. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5b: Medida Lineal, Perimetro y Area (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5b: Linear Measure, Perimeter and Area).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include measurement, perimeter, and area. (MK)

  19. [Irrigated perimeters as a geopolitical strategy for the development of the semi-arid region and its implications for health, labor and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Andrezza Graziella Veríssimo; Gadelha, Diego; Freitas, Bernadete Maria Coêlho; Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro

    2013-11-01

    An analysis was made of irrigated perimeters as a geopolitical strategy for expanding Brazilian agricultural frontiers and the "development" of the northeastern semi-arid region with respect to social determinants in health in rural communities. Research was conducted in the Chapada do Apodi in the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte between 2007 and 2011. Various research techniques and tools were adopted, such as research-action, ethnographic studies, questionnaires and laboratory exams, water contamination analyses, social cartography and focal groups. In the context of agribusiness expansion, it was revealed that public policies of irrigation have had consequences for health, labor and the environment with the implementation of the Jaguaribe-Apodi Irrigated Perimeter in Ceará. The social and environmental conflict and resistance in the phase prior to the installation of the Santa Cruz do Apodi Irrigated Perimeter in Rio Grande do Norte was significant as it had consequences for the health-disease process on rural communities. It is important for the evaluation of public irrigation policies to consider the impacts of the perimeters on the lifestyle, labor, health and the environment of the affected territories.

  20. Pushing the physics envelope Canada's new Perimeter Institute is planning to apply the risk-taking approach of venture capitalism to the pursuit of theoretical physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Spurgeon, D

    2001-01-01

    An highly successful business man has donated 100 million Canadian dollars to found the Perimeter Institue for Theoretical Physics. It is designed to attract young, innovative scientists to tackle some of the most difficult problems in physics such as quantum gravity and quantum information theory (1 page).

  1. The role of fire severity, distance from fire perimeter and vegetation on post-fire recovery of small-mammal communities in chaparal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay Diffendorfer; Genie M. Fleming; Scott Tremor; Wayne Spencer; Jan L. Beyers

    2012-01-01

    Chaparral shrublands in southern California, US, exhibit significant biodiversity but are prone to large, intense wildfires. Debate exists regarding fuel reduction to prevent such fires in wildland areas, but the effects of these fires on fauna are not well understood. We studied whether fire severity and distance from unburned fire perimeter influenced recovery of the...

  2. Agreement between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 November 1999, signed in Vienna on 17 December 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  3. Installation of a Hydrologic Characterization Network for Vadose Zone Monitoring of a Single-Shell Tank Farm at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.; Ritter, Jason C.; Sisson, James B.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Duratek Federal Services, deployed a suite of vadose-zone instruments at the B Tank Farm in the 200 E Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, during the last quarter of FY 2001. The purpose of the deployment was to obtain in situ hydrologic characterization data within the vadose zone of a high-level-waste tank farm. Eight sensor nests, ranging in depth from 67 m (220 ft) below ground surface (bgs) to 0.9 m (3 ft) bgs were placed in contact with vadose-zone sediments inside a recently drilled, uncased, borehole (C3360) located adjacent to Tank B-110. The sensor sets are part of the Vadose Zone Monitoring System and include advanced tensiometers, heat dissipation units, frequency domain reflectometers, thermal probes, and vadose zone solution samplers. Within the top meter of the surface, a water flux meter was deployed to estimate net infiltration from meteoric water (rain and snowmelt) sources. In addition, a rain gage was located within the tank farm to document on-site precipitation events. All sensor units, with the exception of the solution samplers, were connected to a solar-powered data logger located within the tank farm. Data collected from these sensors are currently being accessed by modem and cell phone and will be analyzed as part of the DOE RL31SS31 project during the coming year (FY 2001)

  4. Laser beam deflection-based perimeter scanning of integrated circuits for local overheating location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpina, X; Jorda, X; Vellvehi, M; Altet, J; Mestres, N

    2009-01-01

    In integrated circuits, local overheating (hot spots) can be detected by monitoring the temperature gradients present in the silicon substrate at a given depth, laterally accessing the die with an infra-red laser beam probe. The sensed magnitude is the laser beam deflection, which is proportional to the temperature gradients found along the beam trajectory (mirage effect). Biasing the devices with periodic electrical functions allows employing lock-in detection strategies (noise immunity) and thermally isolating the analysed chip substrate thermal behaviour from the external boundary conditions by setting the excitation frequency (control of the thermal energy penetration depth). Measuring the first harmonic of the deflection signal components (vertical and horizontal) allows performing a fast and accurate location of devices, interconnects or circuits dissipating relatively high power levels without any calibration procedure. It has been concluded that the horizontal component of the beam deflection provides a higher spatial resolution than the vertical one when measurements are performed beyond the thermal energy penetration depth. (fast track communication)

  5. Airway basement membrane perimeter in human airways is not a constant; potential implications for airway remodeling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Brent E; Paré, Peter D; Johnson, Peter R A; Armour, Carol L; Black, Judith L

    2004-08-01

    Many studies that demonstrate an increase in airway smooth muscle in asthmatic patients rely on the assumption that bronchial internal perimeter (P(i)) or basement membrane perimeter (P(bm)) is a constant, i.e., not affected by fixation pressure or the degree of smooth muscle shortening. Because it is the basement membrane that has been purported to be the indistensible structure, this study examines the assumption that P(bm) is not affected by fixation pressure. P(bm) was determined for the same human airway segment (n = 12) fixed at distending pressures of 0 cmH(2)O and 21 cmH(2)O in the absence of smooth muscle tone. P(bm) for the segment fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was determined morphometrically, and the P(bm) for the same segment, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was predicted from knowing the luminal volume and length of the airway when distended to 21 cmH(2)O (organ bath-derived P(i)). To ensure an accurate transformation of the organ bath-derived P(i) value to a morphometry-derived P(bm) value, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, the relationship between organ bath-derived P(i) and morphometry-derived P(bm) was determined for five different bronchial segments distended to 21 cmH(2)O and fixed at 21 cmH(2)O (r(2) = 0.99, P < 0.0001). Mean P(bm) for bronchial segments fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was 9.4 +/- 0.4 mm, whereas mean predicted P(bm), had the segments been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was 14.1 +/- 0.5 mm (P < 0.0001). This indicates that P(bm) is not a constant when isolated airway segments without smooth muscle tone are fixed distended to 21 cmH(2)O. The implication of these results is that the increase in smooth muscle mass in asthma may have been overestimated in some previous studies. Therefore, further studies are required to examine the potential artifact using whole lungs with and without abolition of airway smooth muscle tone and/or inflation.

  6. Codification of scan path parameters and development of perimeter scan strategies for 3D bowl-shaped laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, A.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Roohi, Amir H.; Gollo, M. Hoseinpour; Shahabad, Sh. Imani

    2018-01-01

    In the 3D laser forming process, developing an appropriate laser scan pattern for producing specimens with high quality and uniformity is critical. This study presents certain principles for developing scan paths. Seven scan path parameters are considered, including: (1) combined linear or curved path; (2) type of combined linear path; (3) order of scan sequences; (4) the position of the start point in each scan; (5) continuous or discontinuous scan path; (6) direction of scan path; and (7) angular arrangement of combined linear scan paths. Regarding these path parameters, ten combined linear scan patterns are presented. Numerical simulations show continuous hexagonal, scan pattern, scanning from outer to inner path, is the optimized. In addition, it is observed the position of the start point and the angular arrangement of scan paths is the most effective path parameters. Also, further experimentations show four sequences due to creat symmetric condition enhance the height of the bowl-shaped products and uniformity. Finally, the optimized hexagonal pattern was compared with the similar circular one. In the hexagonal scan path, distortion value and standard deviation rather to edge height of formed specimen is very low, and the edge height despite of decreasing length of scan path increases significantly compared to the circular scan path. As a result, four-sequence hexagonal scan pattern is proposed as the optimized perimeter scan path to produce bowl-shaped product.

  7. Glaucoma Diagnostic Capabilities of Foveal Avascular Zone Parameters Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography According to Visual Field Defect Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junki; Choi, Jaewan; Shin, Joong Won; Lee, Jiyun; Kook, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic ability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters to discriminate glaucomatous eyes with visual field defects (VFDs) in different locations (central vs. peripheral) from normal eyes. Totally, 125 participants were separated into 3 groups: normal (n=45), glaucoma with peripheral VFD (PVFD, n=45), and glaucoma with central VFD (CVFD, n=35). The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity and parafoveal vessel density were calculated from optical coherence tomography angiography images. The diagnostic ability of the FAZ parameters and other structural parameters was determined according to glaucomatous VFD location. Associations between the FAZ parameters and central visual function were evaluated. A larger FAZ area and longer FAZ perimeter were observed in the CVFD group than in the PVFD and normal groups. The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity were better in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes [areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), 0.78 to 0.88] than in differentiating PVFDs from normal eyes (AUC, 0.51 to 0.64). The FAZ perimeter had a similar AUC value to the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness for differentiating eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes (all P>0.05, the DeLong test). The FAZ area was significantly correlated with central visual function (β=-112.7, P=0.035, multivariate linear regression). The FAZ perimeter had good diagnostic capability in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes, and may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for detecting glaucomatous patients with CVFDs.

  8. Potential Visual Impacts of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development within Solar Energy Zones on Selected Viewpoints in Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cantwell, Brian L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beckman, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In connection with the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Solar PEIS), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has conducted an extended visual impact analysis for selected key observation points (KOPs) within three National Park Service (NPS) units located within the 25-mi (40-km) viewshed of four solar energy zones (SEZs) identified in the Solar PEIS. The analysis includes only those NPS units that the Solar PEIS identified as potentially subject to moderate or strong visual contrasts associated with solar development within the SEZs. The NPS units included in the analysis are Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail. The analysis showed that certain KOPs in each of these NPS units could potentially be subject to major visual contrast and impacts from solar development within the SEZs, but many of the KOPs would likely be subject to moderate, minor, or negligible contrasts and impacts, generally because they were relatively distant from the relevant SEZ, had views of the SEZ partially blocked by intervening terrain, and/or had very low vertical angles of view toward the SEZ. For all three NPS units, power tower facilities were found to be major contributors to potential visual contrasts, primarily because of the long-distance visibility of intensely bright reflection of light from the receivers on the central towers, but also because of the height and strong vertical line of the tower structures and the potential for night-sky impacts from FAA-mandated hazard navigation lighting.

  9. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  10. Frequency inverter and irrigation management in irrigated perimeter on Jaiba region - MG, Brazil; Uso de inversor de frequencia e do manejo da irrigacao em perimetro da regiao do Jaiba, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria Joselma de; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Vieira, Gustavo H.S. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: maria.moraes@ufv.br, delly@ufv.br, ghsvieira@ifes.edu.br; Scarcelli, Ricardo de O.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: rocvenceslau@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The electric energy expenditure and the irrigation depth for one irrigated perimeter on Jaiba region/MG, Brazil, for the cultures: pineapple, banana, guava, lemon, papaya, mango, passion fruit, cantaloupe, pine cone and grape. With the monthly irrigation depth data for an hypothetical area of 12 lots (10 ha each), it was simulated, with Galateia software, the head pressure for 4 combinations of cultures: first - papaya (12 lots); second - banana (8 lots), guava (1), papaya (1), mango (1) and passion fruit (1); third - papaya (8), guava (1), pineapple (1), (1) and lemon (1); and fourth - guava (8), mango (1), papaya (1), pine cone (1) and passion fruit (1). It was dimensioned the necessary power and the electrical energy expenses with TOU (green category tariff) for the biggest irrigation depth. The frequency inverter use and the management of the number of working hours were simulated for each combination, in order to maximize the motor's load and the pump-motor set performance. For the combinations 2, 3, and 4 occurred reduction on the electrical energy consumption of 6%, 8% and 20%, respectively in respect of the combination 1. (author)

  11. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  12. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 94, Group ESH-19. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Lyons, C.R.; Coriz, F.

    1996-08-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY94 to characterize possible contaminant movement out of Area G through surface-water and sediment runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. Ten metals were also analyzed on selected soils using analytical laboratory techniques. All radiochemical data are compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and reported in LA-12986. Baseline concentrations for future disposal operations were established for metals and radionuclides by a sampling program in the proposed Area G Expansion Area. Considering the amount of radioactive waste that has been disposed at Area G, there is evidence of only low concentrations of radionuclides on perimeter surface soils. Consequently, little radioactivity is leaving the confines of Area G via the surface water runoff pathway

  13. Probing properties of the interfacial perimeter sites in TiO x /Au/SiO 2 with 2-propanol decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi Y.; Kung, Harold H. (NWU)

    2017-11-01

    The decomposition of 2-propanol was studied over SiO2, SiO2 with an overlayer of TiO2 (Ti/SiO2), Au/SiO2, and Au/SiO2 with an overlayer of TiO2 (Ti/[Au/SiO2]) at 170–190 °C. There was no reaction on SiO2. Propene was the only product on Ti/SiO2, and its rate of formation increased proportionally with the Ti content. Acetone was the major product (selectivity 65–99%) on all Au-containing catalysts. Its rate of formation also increased with Ti loading. In addition, small amounts of propene were also formed on Ti/[Au/SiO2] the rate of which increased with Ti loading. Characterization of the catalysts with N2 adsorption, STEM, DR-UV-vis spectroscopy, XPS, XANES and EXAFS suggested that the Ti formed an amorphous TiO2 overlayer on the catalyst. At high Ti loadings (4–5 wt.%), there were patches of thick porous TiO2 layer, and some microdomains of crystalline TiO2 could be detected. Au was present as 1–3 nm nanoparticles on all catalysts, before and after used in reaction. Only Lewis acid sites were detected based on results from pyridine adsorption, and their quantities increased with Ti loading. Based on the comparison of reaction rates, the dependence of the kinetics on 2-propanol partial pressure, the apparent activation energies, and the effect of co-feeding O2 among different catalysts, it was concluded that propene was formed on the TiO2 overlayer, acetone was formed primarily at the Au-TiO2 interfacial perimeter sites, and α-C-H bond breaking preceding acetone formation was more facile on Au at the interfacial site than other surface Au atoms. Implication of these results to the selective acetone formation in the oxidation of propane in the presence of a O2/H2 mixture was discussed.

  14. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  15. Air traffic energy efficiency differs from place to place: analysis of historical trends by geographical zones using a macro-level methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Gastineau, Pascal; Chevallier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses energy efficiency coefficients and their evolution in the air transport sector. The proposed 'macro-level' methodology allows obtaining energy efficiency coefficients and their growth rates (corresponding to the evolution of energy gains) from 1983 to 2006 for eight distinct geographical regions and at the world level. During the whole period, energy efficiency improvements have been equal to 2.88% per year at the world level, with strong differences between regions. Moreover, our results indicate that domestic air travels are less energy efficient (i.e. more carbon intensive) than international air travels. This result applies in all regions. (authors)

  16. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Wildland Fire Perimeters By Year 2000 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the historical fire perimeters within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the GeoMAC...

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments Riparian Buffer (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Wildland Fire Perimeters By Year 2000 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the historical fire perimeters within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers based on...

  18. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  19. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  1. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  2. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  3. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  4. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  5. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Irradiation damage 'displacement zone'; Dommages sous irradiation zone de deplacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    It is well known that a charged particle (ion, primary atom, etc...) moving in a solid slows down and can cause a cascade of displacements of the atoms in the solid. A study is made here of the extent to which the cascade is made up, or not, of independent collisions, as a function of the energy of the initial charged particle. When the distance between the collisions is small, these latter are no longer independent; the cascade, which then has to be considered as a whole, perturbs and locates, in the irradiated solid , a zone which has been named a 'displacement zone'. It is shown that the proportion of displacement zones increases with increasing atom size (high atomic number Z), with decreasing atomic distance D in the substance considered and with decreasing energy of the ion undergoing the slowing down process (although always remaining above a few hundred eV). The proportions obtained are higher than those corresponding to the calculations of J. A. Brinkman [3]. An interatomic potential required for this work has also been determined. (author) [French] On sait qu'une particule chargee (ions, atomes primaires, etc...) en mouvement dans un solide se ralentit, avec eventuellement deplacement en cascade d'atomes du solide. On etudie ici dans quelle proportion, en fonction de l'energie de la particule chargee initiale, la cascade est constituee, ou non, de 'chocs independants'. Lorsque la distance entre chocs est petite, ceux-ci ne sont plus independants; la cascade, qui doit alors etre consideree dans son ensemble, perturbe et definit dans le solide irradie, une zone qu'on a appele zone de deplacements. On montre que la proportion de zones de deplacements est d'autant plus grande que les atomes sont gros (nombre atomique Z grand), que la distance interatomique D est petite dans le corps considere, et que l'energie de l'ion en ralentissement est petite (tout en restant superieure a quelques centaines d'eV). Les proportions obtenues sont superieures a celles qui

  7. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  8. Assessment of geomechanical properties, maximum depth and excavation damaged zone aspects - Expert report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, F.; Löw, S.; Perras, M.

    2015-11-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss National Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI discusses the expert report published on the need for the assessment of geomechanical properties and maximum depth of repositories for high, medium and low-activity nuclear wastes. Also, aspects concerning excavation damaged zones (EDZ) are considered. These are all criteria for the selection of sites as part of Phase 2 of the Swiss waste disposal project. Four questions are examined: are NAGRA’s documented basic considerations and calculations on Opalinus Clay comprehensive enough and correct, are the calculations on maximum depth correct, are the proposed storage perimeters correct with respect to depth and will NAGRA be able to take possible excavation damaged zones (EDZ) into account? Literature and references concerning the subject are quoted

  9. On the fine structure of medium energy electron fluxes in the auroral zone and related effects in the ionospheric D-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of trapped and precipitated electrons of energy >30 keV and >100 keV observed by polar orbiting environmental satellites during overpasses of the imaging riometer at Kilpisjärvi, Finland. The satellites are in sun-synchronous orbits of about 850 km altitude, recording the electron fluxes at 2-s time resolution. The riometer measures the radiowave absorption at 38.2 MHz, showing the spatial pattern within a 240 km field of view. The analysis has focussed on two areas. Having found a close correlation between the radiowave absorption and the medium-energy electron fluxes during satellite overpasses, empirical relationships are derived, enabling one quantity to be predicted from the other for three sectors of local time. It is shown that small-scale variations observed during a pass are essentially spatial rather than temporal. Other properties, such as the spectra and the relation between precipitated and trapped components, are also considered in the light of the theory of pitch angle scattering by VLF waves. It is found that the properties and behaviour depend strongly on the time of day. In the noon sector, the precipitated and trapped fluxes are highly correlated through a square law relationship.

  10. Origin of microbial life hypothesis: a gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane, with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T; Pollack, G H

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that pre-biotic bacterial cell(s) and the first cells capable of growth/division did not require a cytoplasmic membrane. A gel-like microscopic structure less than a cubic micrometer may have had a dual role as both an ancient pre-cytoplasm and a boundary layer to the higher-entropy external environment. The gel pre-cytoplasm exposed to radiant energy, especially in the infrared (IR) region of the EM spectrum resulted in the production of an exclusion zone (EZ) with a charge differential (-100 to -200 mV) and boundary that may have been a possible location for the latter organization of the first cytoplasmic membrane. Pre-biotic cells and then-living cells may have used hydrogen as the universal energy source, and thermosynthesis in their bioenergetic processes. These components will be discussed as to how they are interconnected, and their hypothesized roles in the origin of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    The 13 Distribution Divisions in which Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has administratively and technically structured the electric energy distribution in the attended territory it has to take care of, are also constituted by a total of 120 of Distribution Zones, classified according to the product of their number of clients, by their volume of annual sales, in medium and low tension, as zones type I, II and III. Examples of zones type III are the Guadalajara Zone and the Metropolitan Zone North Monterrey, East and West (metropolis), type II are predominantly urban zones such as Queretaro and Tepic, and type I is predominantly rural such as the Zapotlan Zones and Los Altos, in the state of Jalisco. Because of the cost and number of facilities that are authorized for their construction in the Distribution Rural Zones (Type I), one must be assured that these works are really the necessary ones to satisfy the demand of power within the quality commitments and with the best economy in the time. Otherwise, a great possibility exists of constructing expensive facilities and that little will help to solve the distribution system problems. Although annually reviews and updates are made of the Budget of Investments of Operation (PIO), and the Work Program of Investment of Electric Sector (POISE), the case that has occurred sometimes is that facilities are constructed where all the passages of the Planning Process were not applied or that the analysis was not sufficient, being very probable that some or several of the following types of errors have been committed: a) The allocation of the processes to facilities that are not necessary in the short term. b) Constructing a non-useful work or of little usefulness causes that facilities with greater yield are not constructed. c) The priority of works is not the most adequate. d) Not to have a long term vision so that the facilities that are constructed in the short term are useful in the long term plan. e) Some facilities

  12. Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. R. Fresquez

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ( 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3 H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of 241 Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for 238 Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for 239,240 Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of 3 H in three soil samples and 241 Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 (micro)g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 (micro)g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element concentrations in soils collected along a transect from Area G to the

  13. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  14. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  15. In-situ bioaugmentation of vadose zone restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Minkel, K.A.; Schepart, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Leakage from an underground gasoline storage tank caused evacuation from a restaurant and an insurance company. An engineering consultant was engaged to correct the problem. Upon remedy of the habitability situation, a groundwater recovery system was designed to recover whatever open-quotes free productclose quotes gasoline could be collected. Since traditional open-quotes Pump and treatclose quotes remedial technologies are successful only to the extent that the contaminant is mobile, an alternative is necessary to effectively remediate that contamination which is recalcitrant. At this point, Waste Stream Technology was enlisted to propose an in-situ remedial action plan. Approximately five injection wells were installed around the perimeter and in the zone of influence of each of eight recovery wells. The injection wells were designed to distribute the bacteria at various depths in the vadose zone. Bacteria were cultured on site in Waste Stream's proprietary bioreactor. Bacterial and nutrient applications were injected on a weekly basis. Bacterial population dynamics and BETX levels were monitored throughout the course of the remediation. Although the remediation is currently in progress, disappearance of open-quotes free productclose quotes on the water table and elimination of benzene in the groundwater over a reasonable time period marked the success of this project

  16. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  17. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  18. Repeatability of Retinal Sensitivity Measurements Using a Medmont Dark-Adapted Chromatic Perimeter in Healthy and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rose S; Guymer, Robyn H; Luu, Chi D

    2018-05-01

    To determine the intrasession and intersession test-retest repeatability of retinal sensitivity measurements using a dark-adapted chromatic perimeter (DACP). For intrasession testing, retinal sensitivity within the central 24° for the 505-nm stimulus was measured after 20, 30, and 40 minutes of dark adaptation (DA) and for the 625-nm stimulus was measured after the first and second 505-nm tests. For intersession testing, retinal sensitivity for both stimuli was measured after 30 minutes of DA at baseline and 1 month. The point-wise sensitivity (PWS) difference and coefficient of repeatability (CoR) of each stimulus and group were determined. For intrasession testing, 10 age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and eight control subjects were recruited. The overall CoR for the 505-nm stimulus was 8.4 dB for control subjects and 9.1 dB for AMD cases, and for the 625-nm stimulus was 6.7 dB for control subjects and 9.5 dB for AMD cases. For intersession testing, seven AMD cases and 13 control subjects returned an overall CoR for the 505-nm stimulus of 8.2 dB for the control and 11.7 dB for the AMD group. For the 625-nm stimulus the CoR was 6.2 dB for the control group and 8.4 dB for the AMD group. Approximately 80% of all test points had a PWS difference of ±5 dB between the two intrasession or intersession measurements for both stimuli. The CoR for the DACP is larger than that reported for scotopic perimeters; however, the majority of test points had a PWS difference of ±5 dB between tests. The DACP offers an opportunity to measure static and dynamic rod function at multiple locations with an acceptable reproducibility level.

  19. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  20. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  1. Generation of sound zones in 2.5 dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Olsen, Martin; Møller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    in a certain direction within a certain region of a room and at the same time suppress sound in another region. The method is examined through simulations and experiments. For comparison a simpler method based on the idea of maximising the ratio of the potential acoustic energy in an ensonified zone......Amethod for generating sound zones with different acoustic properties in a room is presented. The method is an extension of the two-dimensional multi-zone sound field synthesis technique recently developed by Wu and Abhayapala; the goal is, for example, to generate a plane wave that propagates...... to the potential acoustic energy in a quiet zone is also examined....

  2. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  3. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  4. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  5. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  6. Experimental investigation of cooling perimeter and disturbance length effect on stability of Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.R.

    1992-02-01

    The stability of three coils, with similar parameters besides having differing strand diameters, was investigated experimentally using inductive heaters to input disturbances. One of the coils stability was also tested by doubling the inductive heated disturbance length to 10 cm. By computationally deriving approximate inductive heater input energy at 12 T, stability curves show fair agreement with zero-dimensional and one-dimensional computer predictions. Quench velocity and limiting currents also show good agreement with earlier work. Also, the stability measured on one of the coils below its limiting current by disturbing a 10 cm length of conductor was much less than the same samples stability using a 5 cm disturbance length. (author)

  7. Redox-Active Star Molecules Incorporating the 4-Benzoylpyridinium Cation - Implications for the Charge Transfer Along Branches vs. Across the Perimeter in Dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Yang, Jinua; Fabrizio,Even F.; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Oh, Woon Su; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimers are self-repeating globular branched star molecules, whose fractal structure continues to fascinate, challenge, and inspire. Functional dendrimers may incorporate redox centers, and potential applications include antennae molecules for light harvesting, sensors, mediators, and artificial biomolecules. We report the synthesis and redox properties of four star systems incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-alkylpyridinium cation; the redox potential varies along the branches but remains constant at fixed radii. Bulk electrolysis shows that at a semi-infinite time scale all redox centers are electrochemically accessible. However, voltammetric analysis (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry) shows that on1y two of the three redox-active centers in the perimeter are electrochemically accessible during potential sweeps as slow as 20 mV/s and as fast as 10 V/s. On the contrary, both redox centers along branches are accessible electrochemically within the same time frame. These results are explained in terms of slow through-space charge transfer and the globular 3-D folding of the molecules and are discussed in terms of their implications on the design of efficient redox functional dendrimers.

  8. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  9. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  10. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  11. Dike zones on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  12. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  14. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...... much time their operated vessels navigate the ECA in the future....

  15. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  16. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  17. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  18. Signatures of chaos in the Brillouin zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Aaron; Barr, Ariel; Porter, Max D; Reichl, Linda E

    2017-10-01

    When the classical dynamics of a particle in a finite two-dimensional billiard undergoes a transition to chaos, the quantum dynamics of the particle also shows manifestations of chaos in the form of scarring of wave functions and changes in energy level spacing distributions. If we "tile" an infinite plane with such billiards, we find that the Bloch states on the lattice undergo avoided crossings, energy level spacing statistics change from Poisson-like to Wigner-like, and energy sheets of the Brillouin zone begin to "mix" as the classical dynamics of the billiard changes from regular to chaotic behavior.

  19. Mapping crop based on phenological characteristics using time-series NDVI of operational land imager data in Tadla irrigated perimeter, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzemou, Jamal-eddine; El Harti, Abderrazak; EL Moujahid, Ali; Bouch, Naima; El Ouazzani, Rabii; Lhissou, Rachid; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2015-10-01

    Morocco is a primarily arid to semi-arid country. These climatic conditions make irrigation an imperative and inevitable technique. Especially, agriculture has a paramount importance for the national economy. Retrieving of crops and their location as well as their spatial extent is useful information for agricultural planning and better management of irrigation water resource. Remote sensing technology was often used in management and agricultural research. Indeed, it's allows crops extraction and mapping based on phenological characteristics, as well as yield estimation. The study area of this work is the Tadla irrigated perimeter which is characterized by heterogeneous areas and extremely small size fields. Our principal objectives are: (1) the delimitation of the major crops for a good water management, (2) the insulation of sugar beet parcels for modeling its yields. To achieve the traced goals, we have used Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data pan-sharpened to 15 m. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifications were applied to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of 10 periods. Classifications were calculated for a site of more than 124000 ha. This site was divided into two parts: the first part for selecting, training datasets and the second one for validating the classification results. The SVM and SAM methods classified the principal crops with overall accuracies of 85.27% and 57.17% respectively, and kappa coefficient of 80% and 43% respectively. The study showed the potential of using time-series OLI NDVI data for mapping different crops in irrigated, heterogeneous and undersized parcels in arid and semi-arid environment.

  20. Neuropathies of the optic nerve and visual evoked potentials with special reference to color vision and differential light threshold measured with the computer perimeter OCTOPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildberger, H

    1984-10-31

    The contrast evoked potentials (VEPs) to different check sizes were recorded in about 200 cases of discrete optic neuropathies (ON) of different origin. Differential light threshold (DLT) was tested with the computer perimeter OCTOPUS. Saturated and desaturated tests were applied to evaluate the degree of acquired color vision deficiency. Delayed VEP responses are not confined to optic neuritis (RBN) alone and the different latency times obtained from other ON are confluent. The delay may be due to demyelination, to an increasing dominance of paramacular VEP subcomponents or to an increasing dominance of the upper half-field responses. Recording with smaller check sizes has the advantage that discrete dysfunctions in the visual field (VF) center are more easily detected: a correlation between amplitudes and visual acuity is best in strabismic amblyopias, is less expressed in maculopathies of the retina and weak in ON. The absence or reduction of amplitudes to smaller check sizes, however, is an important indication of a disorder in the VF center of ON in an early or recovered stage. Acquired color vision defects of the tritan-like type are more confined to discrete ON, whereas the red/green type is reserved to more severe ON. The DLT of the VF center is reduced in a different, significant and non significant extent in discrete optic neuropathies and the correlation between DLT and visual acuity is weak. A careful numerical analysis is needed in types of discrete ON where the central DLT lies within normal statistical limits: a side difference of the DLT between the affected and the normal fellow eye is always present. Evaluation of visual fatigue effects and of the relative sensitivity loss of VF center and VF periphery may provide further diagnostic information.

  1. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  2. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  3. Special zone territory decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Special zone is the Chernobyl' NPP operating site (OS). OS decontamination is described including reactor ruins from the accident moment. The process was begun from reactor bombardment with absorbing and filtering materials (sand, clay, lead, boron compounds). Then were produced soil shovelling, territory filling by dry concrete and laying concrete layer with thickness up to 300 mm. NPP room and equipment decontamination is described. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  5. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  6. VT Data - Zoning 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Marlboro, Vermont. Surface water buffer overlay is in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created by WRC in 2005. Marlboro's zoning bylaw...

  7. Solar Energy Development PEIS Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    skip navigation Solar Energy Development Programmatic EIS Home About the EIS Public Involvement Solar Energy Solar Energy Zones Maps Documents secondary menu News Frequently Asked Questions Glossary E the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern

  8. Habitable Zones in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review...

  9. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  10. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Stability Zone of Natural Gas Hydrates in a Permafrost-Bearing Region of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin: Study of a Feasible Energy Source (Geological Survey of Canada Contribution No.1999275)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of geological and geophysical data from 150 wells in the Beaufort-Mackenzie region(study area between 68 deg. 30'-70 deg. 00'N and 131 deg. -39 deg. W) led to reinterpretation of the depth of methane hydrate stability and construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost. Calculations were based on construction of temperature-depth profiles incorporating regional heat-flow values, temperature at the base of ice-bearing permafrost, and models relating thermal conductivity with depth. Data analysis indicates the presence and extent of the methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost development and less so by the relatively small regional variations of temperature gradients. Analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone allows reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences. Log analysis indicates that in the onshore and shallow sea area of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 27 wells. Fifteen of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections reveals that hydrates are related mainly to sandy deltaic and delta-plain deposits in Iperk, Kugmallit, and Reindeer sequences although additional hydrate picks have been inferred in other sequences, such as Richards. Overlying permafrost may act as seal for hydrate accumulations; however, the thickness of permafrost and its related hydrate stability zone fluctuated during geological time. It is interpreted that only in the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene), conditions for hydrates changed from nonstable to stable. During Early and Late

  12. Guardians of the Threshold. The Minor Friars as guarantors of social perimeter (13th century Guardiani della soglia. I Frati Minori come garanti del perimetro sociale (XIII secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Todeschini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution analyses Minor Friars’ role in pacifying the civitas. Minor Friars’ charisma appeared as an antidote to scandalum and a preliminary to the readmission of the townspeople inside the circuit of the fides. This particular disposition, which was used by Franciscan texts since the beginning to substantiate the fratres’ sanctity, is connected to their capacity to offer themselves as successful civic mediators, even though they were a religious group, then an Order, whose distinguishing feature consisted in their ecclesiological and social inferiority (minoritas. The reasons for such an attitude can be traced back to Minor Friars’ political ability to try out their closeness to the ecclesial and urban power connecting it to the experimentation of the perimeter of the civitas, which was patent even from the location of the first settlements: from the social viewpoint, this experimentation expressed itself in contact with the pauperes, the marginal and the wicked. Thus, Minor Friars became an element of composition of different social poles managing to mediate the relation between fama and infamia, between potentes and pauperes.

    Il contributo indaga il ruolo dei Minori nella pacificazione della civitas. Il carisma dei frati minori si presentava come antidoto allo scandalum e premessa alla riammissione della cittadinanza all’interno del circuito della fides. Tale speciale attitudine, che sin dalle origini fu utilizzata dai testi francescani per comprovare la santità dei fratres, viene ricondotta alla loro capacità di proporsi come efficaci mediatori civici pur costituendo un gruppo religioso, poi un Ordine, il cui tratto di identificazione era dato dall’inferiorità ecclesiologica e sociale (minoritas. Le ragioni di un simile atteggiamento vengono

  13. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuhong

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.

  14. Finite thickness effect of a zone plate on focusing hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial resolution and focusing efficiency are two important properties of a zone plate in x-ray focusing applications. A general expression of the zone plate equation describing its zone registration is derived from the interference of spherical waves emited from two mutually coherent point sources. An analytical expression of the focusing efficiency in terms of the zone plate thickness and x-ray refractive indices of the zones is also derived. Validity condition for using this expression is considered. Thickness required for obtaining adequate focusing efficiency is calculated as a function of x-ray energy for several representative materials. The spatial resolution of a finite thickness zone plate is worse than that of an infinetly thin zone plate. which is approximately equal to the smallest zone width of the zone plate. The effect of the finite thickness on the spatial resolution is considered

  15. Geoecological zoning of developed territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Gryaznov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains information on methods of geoecological zoning carried out based on the assessment of cartographic material using geoinformation technologies for the analysis of factographic cartographic material. The proposed methodology complements the existing methodological recommendations on geological and environmental research, developed by VSEGINGEO. The paper reflects the basic principles of obtaining the initial environmental information for creation of a map evaluation model of the Salekhard Area, and the rationale for selecting factors and numerical criteria for an integrated environmental assessment of the territory, taking into account the specifics of nature-technogenic conditions of the Severnoye Priobye region (West Siberia. The article briefly describes the main natural factors of the region of research, including landscape, geological, radiation, engineering-geological, geocryological, hydrogeological factors. Separate block describes the objects of technogenic load, including technogeneally-transformed landscapes in residential areas, corridors of transport communications, industrial and energy zones, and local ecologically significant objects. Ecological significance of natural and technogenic factors affected conducted ranking of their numerical parameters of the evaluation criteria. The article shows the application of a method of expert scoring for obtaining an integral assessment of the ecological state of the geological environment and creating a map of the regionalization of the Salekhard Area. Based on obtained cartographic model, a brief analysis of the existing ecological situation in the Salekhard Area shows the territories of favorable, satisfactory, tense, and crisis ecological states. The geoinformation-integrated model serves as the basis for determination of ecologically significant factors at the points of mapping the state of the geological environment, which allows for the further development of the

  16. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  17. Grey zones of welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Harboe Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the ‘grey zones of welfare’ in rural Lithuania whereby I point to the inherent ambiguities that lies in a system where people to a high degree rely on networks and normative solutions to everyday shortcomings, rather than on the state. I argue that we in the period after socialism witness an increased degree of informal economies and social arrangements, as the formal sector of social security is perceived as unreliable. This results in a model where liberalism and individual ethics co-exist with a strong morality to support the poorest in society.

  18. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  19. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  20. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  1. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E.

    2002-02-01

    A review is made about the consequences of the European directive on energy that entered into application in august 2000. It appears that most countries are opening their electricity and gas markets at a faster pace than required by the E.U. directive. European gas imports reached 480 Gm{sup 3} in 2000 and are expected to be over 700 Gm{sup 3} in 2015, so the question of the reliability of the gas suppliers has to be answered at the European level. The current time is marked by an increase of the complexity of the energy market that is due to different factors: 1) the delay in the implementation of European energy directives in France, 2) new arrangement is occurring in United-Kingdom in the energy sector, 3) the lack of a regulating authority in Germany, and 4) the difficulty of inter-connecting the different European energy networks. This transitory period may generate some economic imbalances and competition disturbances by allowing some enterprises to benefit from lower energy prices before others. (A.C.)

  2. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  3. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  4. The effect of terrain slope on firefighter safety zone effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; J. Forthofer; K. Shannon; D. Jimenez; D. Frankman

    2010-01-01

    The current safety zone guidelines used in the US were developed based on the assumption that the fire and safety zone were located on flat terrain. The minimum safe distance for a firefighter to be from a flame was calculated as that corresponding to a radiant incident energy flux level of 7.0kW-m-2. Current firefighter safety guidelines are based on the assumption...

  5. 10 CFR 100.11 - Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance. 100.11 Section 100.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR... and for Testing Reactors § 100.11 Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population...

  6. The zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagorski, A.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl's toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can't afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills

  7. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  8. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available prospective map are the weights-of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote.... . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION φWMSD+V(Sn) = λ N(A) ∑ −→x ∈A P(−→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣−→x −QSn( −→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ +(1− λ)s2(OSn) , (2) where QSn( −→x ) is the location vector of an optimal exploration focal point in Sn nearest to −→x , and s2(OSn) is the variance...

  9. The zone of alienation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagorski, A.

    1996-04-23

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl`s toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can`t afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills.

  10. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  11. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    'IRAD – Fisheries and Marine Sciences Research Station, Batoke, P.M.B. 77 Limbe, ... biogeochemical budgeting guidelines and Computer Assisted Budget Analysis, Research, Education and ... may cause shifts in the flow of energy and.

  12. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  13. VT Data - Zoning 20170712, Westminster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Westminster, Vermont. Overlay districts (Agricultural Land, Ridgeline Protection, and Historical Preservation) are in separate shapefiles. Data...

  14. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  15. Interpretation of vadose zone monitoring system data near Engineered Trench 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-12

    The E-Area Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) includes lysimeter sampling points at many locations alongside and angling beneath the Engineered Trench #1 (ET1) disposal unit footprint. The sampling points for ET1 were selected for this study because collectively they showed consistently higher tritium (H-3) concentrations than lysimeters associated with other trench units. The VZMS tritium dataset for ET1 from 2001 through 2015 comprises concentrations at or near background levels at approximately half of locations through time, concentrations up to about 600 pCi/mL at a few locations, and concentrations at two locations that have exceeded 1000 pCi/mL. The highest three values through 2015 were 6472 pCi/mL in 2014 and 4533 pCi/mL in 2013 at location VL-17, and 3152 pCi/mL in 2007 at location VL-15. As a point of reference, the drinking water standard for tritium and a DOE Order 435.1 performance objective in the saturated zone at the distant 100-meter facility perimeter is 20 pCi/mL. The purpose of this study is to assess whether these elevated concentrations are indicative of a general trend that could challenge 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) conclusions, or are isolated perturbations that when considered in the context of an entire disposal unit would support PA conclusions.

  16. GAMMA RAYS FROM THE TYCHO SUPERNOVA REMNANT: MULTI-ZONE VERSUS SINGLE-ZONE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atoyan, Armen [Department of Mathematics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Dermer, Charles D., E-mail: atoyan@mathstat.concordia.ca, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil [Code 7653, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Recent Fermi and VERITAS observations of the prototypical Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) Tycho have discovered {gamma}-rays with energies E in the range 0.4 GeV {approx}< E {approx}< 10 TeV. Crucial for the theory of Galactic cosmic-ray origin is whether the {gamma}-rays from SNRs are produced by accelerated hadrons (protons and ions) or by relativistic electrons. Here we show that strong constraints on the leptonic model imposed in the framework of the commonly used single-zone model are essentially removed if the analysis of the broadband radiation spectrum of Tycho is done in the two-zone (or, in general, multi-zone) approach, which is likely to apply to every SNR. Importantly, we show that the single-zone approach may underpredict the {gamma}-ray fluxes by an order of magnitude. A hadronic model can, however, also fit the detected {gamma}-ray spectrum. The difference between {gamma}-ray fluxes of hadronic and leptonic origins becomes significant only at {approx}<300 MeV, which could be revealed by spectral measurements of Tycho and other SNRs at these energies.

  17. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  18. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container types for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion

  19. Overview of electrical energy December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development in the balance of physical exchanges, Development of extractions by heavy industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for December 2009. A 2009 provisional balance of electrical energy in France is given in appendix. (J.S.)

  20. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  1. Environmental Zoning: Some methodological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Voogd, Henk

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss some methodological problems of environmental zoning. The principle of environmental zoning will be elaborated. In addition an overview is given of a number of approaches that have been followed in practice to arrive at an integral judgement. Finally some

  2. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  3. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  4. Growth with Time Zone Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Kikuchi; Sugata Marjit

    2010-01-01

    We propose a two-country growth model of intermediate business-services trade that captures the role of time zone differences. It is shown that a time-saving improvement in intermediate business-services trade involving production in different time zones can have a permanent impact on productivity.

  5. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  6. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  7. The conflict zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ana Maria Ribeiro de

    2006-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview on the beginning of the nuclear energy in the world passing through the conflicts at United Nations - UN, the new political order, the revision of MacMahon Law, the nuclear control, the fear peace and searching for the equilibrium

  8. Potential of arid zone vegetation as a source of substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    Three aspects of the potential of vegetation in arid zones as a source of substrates are discussed. The first includes the limitations on efficiency of conversion of solar energy to the stored chemical energy of biomass in green plants, and the subsequent biochemical pathways of carbon dioxide fixation and biosynthesis. Second is the potential of plants endogenous to arid zones. Finally, the use of covered agriculture or controlled environmental agriculture (CEA) is considered both in its present form and in terms of possible extenion to the large scale production of stable crops. (JGB)

  9. THE LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF NATINAL PARK OF SUPERAGÜI, PARANÁ STATE AND THE BUFFER’S ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa Mascarenhas Grise

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985076The National Park of Superagüi is located on the north coast of Paraná state. It is the largest continuous area of the Atlantic Forest remaining in the country and this biome is among the most threatened ones in the world. This area covers the north coast of the state and includes several conservation units of different categories, and the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba, is the largest one. The objective of this study was to analyze the landscape structure (matrix and patches of the National Park of Superagüi, and its buffer zone. The classification of land cover and the definition of the attributes of the area and perimeter were made using a digital image Landsat 5 TM. According to the landscape structure analysis, it was observed that the Park matrix is formed by native vegetation interrupted by the presence of patches. Approximately 7% of the studied area is composed by fragments, which belong to class of changed vegetation, exposed soil, urban areas, sand and water; mostly have less than one hectare and have a regular shape. The Park buffer zone is not fully incorporated within the limits of Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba, where marine areas form a great portion. It follows that landscape structure analysis, through its structural components matrix and patches, is an efficient subsidy to verify the park land cover functionality and its buffer zone.

  10. Dynamics of the solar transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Time-resolved profiles of the 1548-A C IV line arising from the solar transition region are analyzed in order to determine whether the 300-sec oscillations characteristic of the photosphere and chromosphere penetrate into the transition zone and to measure the rms amplitude of transition-zone disturbances as well as their dependence on solar activity. The rms velocity amplitude is used to set limits on the mechanical energy flux available for solar heating. A power-spectrum analysis indicates that acoustic waves appear to have been detected in the transition zone, that at least one case of a strong 200- to 300-sec oscillation was observed, but that strong periodicities are not found on the average in either the intensity or the velocity field. It is suggested that the rms velocity that may be attributed to directly observable wave motion is between 3 and 7 km/s, depending on whether the individual emission elements seen in rocket spectra are coherent or independent in phase.

  11. Mechanical properties of fracture zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.

    1993-05-01

    Available data on mechanical characteristics of fracture zones are compiled and discussed. The aim is to improve the basis for adequate representation of fracture zones in geomechanical models. The sources of data researched are primarily borehole investigations and case studies in rock engineering, involving observations of fracture zones subjected to artificial load change. Boreholes only yield local information about the components of fracture zones, i.e. intact rock, fractures and various low-strength materials. Difficulties are therefore encountered in evaluating morphological and mechanical properties of fracture zones from borehole data. Although often thought of as macroscopically planar features, available field data consistently show that fracture zones are characterized by geometrical irregularities such as thickness variations, surface undulation and jogs. These irregularities prevail on all scales. As a result, fracture zones are on all scales characterized by large, in-plane variation of strength- and deformational properties. This has important mechanical consequences in terms of non-uniform stress transfer and complex mechanisms of shear deformation. Field evidence for these findings, in particular results from the underground research laboratory in Canada and from studies of induced fault slip in deep mines, is summarized and discussed. 79 refs

  12. Synchronisation of two separate zones in a standalone microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Standalone microgrids that comprise distributed generation sources (DGSs or energy storage systems (ESSs exist on off-shore islands or remote areas. When a fault occurs in a standalone microgrid, the microgrid is separated into several zones with pre-specified DGS or ESS supplying power to local loads. After the fault is cleared, the three-phase voltages and frequencies may differ among these zones. To restore the original microgrid topology, these zones must be reconnected to each other by synchronisation. A synchronisation controller of the DGS/ESS that accounts for slightly different three-phase voltages and frequencies in two separate zones is presented. The Clark transform and Mamdani fuzzy rules are used to implement the controller, providing fast and seamless synchronisation. Simulation results using a standalone microgrid show the practical applicability of the proposed method.

  13. The Biomantle-Critical Zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Lin, H.

    2006-12-01

    three agents. Earth's biomantle is where most biota live, reproduce, metabolize, use and expend energy, generate heat and waste, and/or where their remains accumulate upon death. The biomantle is the epidermis of soil and dominantly a product of bioturbation and organic accumulations, impacted by subordinate processes (leaching, eluviation, illuviation, rainwash, throughflow, mass transfer, weathering, biochemical transformations, etc.). Biomantles are either one layered, those without basal stonelayers, or two layered, those with basal stonelayers, depending on presence or absence of gravels and the style of bioturbation. Earth's critical zone integrates the studies of water with soil, biota, air, and rock in the terrestrial surface and near surface environment. Its upper limit is the tops of trees and its lower is the base of the aquifer. Water is the plasma that drives Earth's environmental systems and circulates through the critical zone. The critical zone encompasses the soil, which acts as a geomembrane through which water and solutes, energy, gases, solids, and living organisms biodynamically exchange with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, thus creating a life sustaining environment. Soil also functions as a central link in hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. The biomantle-critical zone approach provides an appealing way forward in pedology, soil geomorphology, soil ecology, soil science, and near surface geophysical studies. It fosters fresh process and results understandings, and offers Earth science practitioners an array of new interpretive options.

  14. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  15. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashparov, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  16. 75 FR 50700 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge Operation... notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, and drawbridge operation... responsive to the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and...

  17. Targeting heat recovery and reuse in industrial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Milana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the usage of fossil fuels in industrial sectors by meeting the requirements of production processes, new heat integration and heat recovery approaches are developed. The goal of this study is to develop an approach to increase energy efficiency of an industrial zone by recovering and reusing waste heat via indirect heat integration. Industrial zones usually consist of multiple independent plants, where each plant is supplied by an independent utility system, as a decentralized system. In this study, a new approach is developed to target minimum energy requirements where an industrial zone would be supplied by a centralized utility system instead of decentralized utility system. The approach assumes that all process plants in an industrial zone are linked through the central utility system. This method is formulated as a linear programming problem (LP. Moreover, the proposed method may be used for decision making related to energy integration strategy of an industrial zone. In addition, the proposed method was applied on a case study. The results revealed that saving of fossil fuel could be achieved. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI172063

  18. Research on Energy-Saving Optimization for the Performance Parameters of Rural-Building Shape and Envelope by TRNSYS-GenOpt in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to optimize the building shape parameters and envelope parameters influencing the rural building energy consumption in cold winter and hot summer climate. Several typical models are established and optimized by integrated TRNSYS and GenOpt. Single-objective optimization has provided guidance to the multi-dimensional optimization. Building shape and envelope parameters are considered simultaneously by multi-dimensional optimization. Results of the optimization showed significant reduction in terms of EC (energy consumption. When O (building orientation was SW (south by west 10°, LWR (length-width ratio was 1.1, WWRS (window-wall ratio in south with the range of 0.6–0.8, ITE (insulation thickness of exterior wall and ITR (insulation thickness of roof was 0.05 m and 0.08 m respectively, the building had minimal energy consumption. The results also indicated that the optimal EWT (exterior window type was plastic single-frame Low-E insulating glazing filled with inert gas, and the optimal shape of building is Re (rectangle. An effective method was provided to optimize the design of the rural building for the purpose of reducing building energy consumption in cold winter and hot summer climate.

  19. VT Data - Zoning Stream Buffers 20081014, Hartford

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — OVERLAY DISTRICT. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator....

  20. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  1. Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, soil reaction and base saturation with highest values in the topsoil due to the .... These soils occur extensively in the. Zone ... tion with 6M sulphuric acid. .... which will lead to removal of topsoil litter,.

  2. VT Data - Zoning 20130305, Dover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This file, along with two others, was created to produce a new, official zoning map series for the Town of Dover, Vermont in 2007. This file represents the base...

  3. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  4. Work zone and operation enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  5. VT Data - Zoning 20170407, Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — For a detailed description of the zoning districts referenced in this data, please refer to the City of Burlington, Vermont's webpage. Please be sure to review all...

  6. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  7. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vidiella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  8. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  9. Overview of electrical energy October 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development of wind generation in France, Development of extractions by large-scale industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for October 2009. (J.S.)

  10. Overview of electrical energy January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development in the balance of physical exchanges, Development of extractions by heavy industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for January 2010. (J.S.)

  11. Overview of electrical energy November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development of wind generation in France, Development of extractions by large-scale industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for November 2009. (J.S.)

  12. Overview of electrical energy August 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development of wind generation in France, Development of extractions by large-scale industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for August 2009. (J.S.)

  13. Overview of electrical energy in February 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development in the balance of physical exchanges, Development of extractions by heavy industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for February 2010. (J.S.)

  14. Overview of electrical energy September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and Cumulative trend over last 12 months; - the balance of electrical energy in France: Results at end of past month (net generation by source, gross national consumption - End customers connected to the RTE network and Other customers and losses on all networks); Development of wind generation in France, Development of extractions by large-scale industry; - the extreme values for consumption, exchanges (perimeter France, past month and Last 12 months); - the electricity market mechanisms: contractual cross-border electricity exchanges (exports, imports, cumulative total, export balance); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; Exchanges between Balance Responsible entities via block exchange notifications; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for September 2009. (J.S.)

  15. Dynamics of the solar transition zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, E.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of time-resolved C IV line profiles arising from the solar transition zone. Objectives were twofold: to determine whether the 300 s photospheric oscillations penetrate to the transition zone, and to measure the rms velocity disturbance amplitude and its dependence upon solar activity. The data set consisted of 44 times sequences of 50 min average duration and included samples from study experiments of both active and quiet regions of the disk. Power-spectrum analysis of the time series of intensity and line position measurements showed at least one example of a well-developed 300 s oscillation. There was no evidence, however, for 300 s peaks in the average power spectra either in the quiet network or in active regions.The rms velocities were found to be about 2.3 km s - 1 in active regions and 5.7 km s -1 in quiet regions. The suggested average value, allowing for the substantial statistical noise contribution to the quiet Sun data, is about 3 km s -1 . The inferred energy flux, assuming energy transport by acoustic waves, is at most 1.6 x 10 4 ergs cm -2 s -1 for spatial scales greater than 15,000 km and periods in the range 100--1800 s. The acoustic-wave hypothesis apparently fails by at least one order of magnitude to provide the 2--6 x 10 5 ergs cm -2 s -1 thought to be required to replace coronal energy losses. The data are, however, consistent with heating mechanisms based on energy transport by magnetohydrodynamic waves

  16. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  17. Solar-thermal-energy collection/storage-pond system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1982-03-25

    A solar thermal energy collection and storage system is disclosed. Water is contained, and the water surface is exposed directly to the sun. The central part of an impermeable membrane is positioned below the water's surface and above its bottom with a first side of the membrane pointing generally upward in its central portion. The perimeter part of the membrane is placed to create a watertight boundary separating the water into a first volume which is directly exposable to the sun and which touches the membranes first side, and a second volumn which touches the membranes second side. A salt is dissolved in the first water volume.

  18. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  19. Root zone effects on tracer migration in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Walker, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The study of groundwater recharge and soil water movement in arid regions has received increased attention in the search for safe disposal sites for hazardous wastes. In passing through the upper 1 to 2 m of most soil profiles, tracers indicative of recharge such as Cl, 2 H, 18 O, Br, 3 H, and 56 Cl are subjected to a wide range of processes not encountered deeper in the profile. This transition zone, where water enters as precipitation and leaves as recharge, is often ignored when environmental tracers are used to estimate deep soil water flux and recharge, yet its effect may be profound. In this work, we reexamine the processes of root extraction and its effect on the velocity and distribution of tracers. Examples are presented for idealized conditions, which show clearly the relation between the root zone processes and the deep drainage or recharge. The results indicate that, when recharge is small and root zone processes are not accounted for, tracer techniques can significantly overestimate recharge until the tracer has moved well below the root zone. By incorporating simple models of root zone processes, a clearer understanding of tracer distributions and a more accurate estimate of recharge can then be made. 11 refs., 9 figs

  20. Quantifying the Influence of Near-Surface Water-Energy Budgets on Soil Thermal Properties Using a Network of Coupled Meteorological and Vadose Zone Instrument Arrays in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Gustin, A. R.; Ellett, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather stations that collect reliable, sustained meteorological data sets are becoming more widely distributed because of advances in both instrumentation and data server technology. However, sites collecting soil moisture and soil temperature data remain sparse with even fewer locations where complete meteorological data are collected in conjunction with soil data. Thanks to the advent of sensors that collect continuous in-situ thermal properties data for soils, we have gone a step further and incorporated thermal properties measurements as part of hydrologic instrument arrays in central and northern Indiana. The coupled approach provides insights into the variability of soil thermal conductivity and diffusivity attributable to geologic and climatological controls for various hydrogeologic settings. These data are collected to facilitate the optimization of ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) in the glaciated Midwest by establishing publicly available data that can be used to parameterize system design models. A network of six monitoring sites was developed in Indiana. Sensors that determine thermal conductivity and diffusivity using radial differential temperature measurements around a heating wire were installed at 1.2 meters below ground surface— a typical depth for horizontal GSHP systems. Each site also includes standard meteorological sensors for calculating reference evapotranspiration following the methods by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Vadose zone instrumentation includes time domain reflectometry soil-moisture and temperature sensors installed at 0.3-meter depth intervals down to a 1.8-meter depth, in addition to matric potential sensors at 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 meters. Cores collected at 0.3-meter intervals were analyzed in a laboratory for grain size distribution, bulk density, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity. Our work includes developing methods for calibrating thermal properties sensors based on

  1. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Linke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances between individual plants. A targeting optimization problem is solved to establish the maximum possible waste heat recovery for the industrial zone. Then, a design optimization problem is solved to identify concrete waste heat recovery options considering economic objectives. The paper describes the approach and illustrates its application with a case study. -- Highlights: → Developed a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and to design optimal recovery and reuse options across plants in industrial zones. → Five stage approach involving data acquisition, analysis, assessment, targeting and design. → Targeting optimization problem establishes the maximum possible waste heat recovery and reuse limit for the industrial zone. → Design optimization problem provides concrete waste heat recovery and reuse network design options considering economic objectives.

  2. Best Practices in Zoning for Solar | State, Local, and Tribal Governments |

    Science.gov (United States)

    solar, cities and counties can still sign up for the SolSmart program. For more information, go to http NREL Best Practices in Zoning for Solar Best Practices in Zoning for Solar April 21, 2017 by Megan Day The price of solar energy generation has plummeted in recent years, with the average installed

  3. SEMIAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF TUMORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Zagrouba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  4. Assessing the optimality of ASHRAE climate zones using high resolution meteorological data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fils, P. D.; Kumar, J.; Collier, N.; Hoffman, F. M.; Xu, M.; Forbes, W.

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumed by built infrastructure constitutes a significant fraction of the nation's energy budget. According to 2015 US Energy Information Agency report, 41% of the energy used in the US was going to residential and commercial buildings. Additional research has shown that 32% of commercial building energy goes into heating and cooling the building. The American National Standards Institute and the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 90.1 provides climate zones for current state-of-practice since heating and cooling demands are strongly influenced by spatio-temporal weather variations. For this reason, we have been assessing the optimality of the climate zones using high resolution daily climate data from NASA's DAYMET database. We analyzed time series of meteorological data sets for all ASHRAE climate zones between 1980-2016 inclusively. We computed the mean, standard deviation, and other statistics for a set of meteorological variables (solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature)within each zone. By plotting all the zonal statistics, we analyzed patterns and trends in those data over the past 36 years. We compared the means of each zone to its standard deviation to determine the range of spatial variability that exist within each zone. If the band around the mean is too large, it indicates that regions in the zone experience a wide range of weather conditions and perhaps a common set of building design guidelines would lead to a non-optimal energy consumption scenario. In this study we have observed a strong variation in the different climate zones. Some have shown consistent patterns in the past 36 years, indicating that the zone was well constructed, while others have greatly deviated from their mean indicating that the zone needs to be reconstructed. We also looked at redesigning the climate zones based on high resolution climate data. We are using building simulations models like EnergyPlus to develop

  5. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  6. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  7. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deck, large common areas may be zoned in accordance with table 76.23-5(b). All such zones within one common area shall be of approximately the same size. Zones of this type shall overlap in such a manner that the end sprinkler heads of both adjoining zones will cover the identical area. Table 76.23-5(b...

  8. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  9. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  10. Dynamic recrystallization mechanisms and their transition in the Daling Thrust (DT) zone, Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Dasgupta, Sujoy

    2016-04-01

    The Daling Thrust (DT) delineates a zone of intense shear localization in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. From microstructural studies of deformed quartzite samples, we show a transition in the dynamic recrystallization mechanism with increasing distance from the DT, dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) recrystallization closest to the DT, and progressively replaced by sub-grain rotation (SGR) recrystallization away from the thrust. The transition is marked by a characteristic variation in the fractal dimension (D) of grain boundaries, estimated from the area-perimeter method. For the BLG regime, D ≈ 1.046, which decreases significantly to a value as low as 1.025 for the SGR regime. Using the available thermal data for BLG and SGR recrystallization, we infer increasing deformation temperatures away from the DT in the hanging wall. Based on the quartz piezometer our estimates reveal strong variations in the flow stress (59.00 MPa to 16.00 MPa) over a distance of 1.2 km from the DT. Deformation mechanism maps constructed for different temperatures indicate that the strain rates (10- 12 S- 1 to 10- 14 S- 1) comply with the geologically possible range. Finally, we present a mechanical model to provide a possible explanation for the cause of stress intensification along the DT.

  11. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1301-000] Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Zone J...

  12. Critical Transition in Critical Zone of Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agriculture has resulted in severe unintended global impacts, including degradation of arable land and eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Modern agricultural practices rely on significant direct and indirect human energy inputs, which have created imbalances between increased rates of biogeochemical processes related to production and background rates of natural processes. These imbalances have cascaded through the deep inter-dependencies between carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological processes, resulting in a critical transition of the Critical Zone and creating emergent dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Understanding of these novel organization and function of the Critical Zone is vital for developing sustainable agricultural practices.

  13. Dual-zone boiling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Schwarz, A.; Thorogood, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for boiling flowing liquids in a heat exchanger wherein the flowing liquids is heated in a single heat exchanger to vaporize the liquid. The improvement described here comprises: (a) passing the boiling flowing liquid through a first heat transfer zone of the heat exchanger comprising a surface with a high-convective-heat-transfer characteristic and a higher pressure drop characteristic; and then (b) passing the boiling flowing liquid through a second heat transfer zone of the heat exchanger comprising an essentially open channel with only minor obstructions by secondary surfaces, with an enhanced nucleate boiling heat transfer surface and a lower pressure drop characteristic

  14. Methods for converting industrial zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  15. Energy analysis of crack-damage interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1989-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with a main crack propagating into a surrounding damage zone, and a damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as an energy of interaction between the two are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for the crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed employing a semi-empirical stress analysis and experimental evaluation of the average craze density in the crazed zone.

  16. Nutritional status of tribal preschool children in three ecological zones of Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D H; Rao, K M; Radhaiah, G; Rao, N P

    1994-06-01

    A health and nutrition survey was conducted on tribals in three ecological zones of Madhya Pradesh namely Jhabua (West Zone), Bastar (South Zone) and Sarguja (East Zone) taking into consideration the relative contribution of agriculture, forest and a combination of both to the economy, respectively. The consumption of both foods and nutrients appear to be worse among preschool children of Jhabua compared to Bastar and Sarguja. Clinically overt forms of Protein Energy Malnutrition and other vitamin deficiency signs were strikingly low. However, 4% of children in Sarguja exhibited signs of goitre. Both by extent and severity of malnutrition, the children of Jhabua appear to be worse followed by Bastar and Sarguja.

  17. Avaliação do espaço adicional requerido no perímetro do arco inferior para o nivelamento da curva de Spee Assessment of the additional lower arch perimeter needed for leveling the curve of Spee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio José da Silva Campos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar o perímetro de arco adicional necessário para o nivelamento da curva de Spee através de uma técnica laboratorial em modelos de estudo. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 70 modelos inferiores nos quais se mediu a profundidade da curva de Spee e o perímetro do arco (de segundo molar a segundo molar. Nos mesmos modelos, após a simulação do nivelamento da curva de Spee, o perímetro de arco foi novamente avaliado, mantendo sua forma e comprimento. RESULTADOS: foi confirmada a correlação entre a profundidade da curva de Spee e o perímetro de arco adicional, sendo deduzida a fórmula [Paa = 0,21 CSmax - 0,04]. CONCLUSÃO: a técnica proposta permitiu, através da avaliação do perímetro de arco com curva de Spee nivelada, a determinação do espaço disponível para o alinhamento dentário.AIM: To determine the additional arch perimeter needed for leveling the curve of Spee by means of a laboratory technique using dental casts. METHODS: Seventy lower dental models were used for measuring the depth of the curve of Spee and assessing the arch perimeter from second molar to second molar. In these dental casts, after simulation of leveling the curve of Spee, arch perimeter was reevaluated, after maintaining its form and length. RESULTS: The correlation between the depth of the curve of Spee and the additional arch perimeter was ratified, as can be shown by the formula [Paa = 0,21 CSmax - 0,04]. CONCLUSION: The proposed technique allowed, through the assessment of the arch perimeter with the leveled curve of Spee, the determination of the space available for tooth alignment.

  18. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  19. Decay of a hot zone in finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, J.N.; Gregoire, C.

    1987-01-01

    Assuming that a hot zone is formed in nuclear collisions, we study its decay in the surrounding colder nuclear matter. Thermal equilibration resulting from energy transport is analyzed in terms of a classical model and within the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck self-consistent approach. Convection is found to be the dominant energy propagation mode. Thermal equilibration time is found to be of the order of the damping of isoscalar quadrupole vibration, i.e. a few 10 -21 sec. This feature may not be fully consistent with recent available experimental data and casts doubt on the possibility of formation of a sharply localised thermally equilibrated hot zone as a likely intermediate state for excitation in finite nuclei in intermediate energy collisions. 16 refs

  20. 75 FR 25111 - Safety Zone; KFOG Kaboom, Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... entertainment purposes. This safety zone establishes a temporary restricted area on the waters surrounding the... of Energy Effects under Executive Order 13211. Technical Standards The National Technology Transfer.... This rule involves establishing, disestablishing, or changing Regulated Navigation Areas and security...

  1. 76 FR 37653 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Martinez, Martinez, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... display is meant for entertainment purposes. This safety zone establishes a temporary restricted area on... of Energy Effects under Executive Order 13211. Technical Standards The National Technology Transfer.... This rule involves establishing, disestablishing, or changing Regulated Navigation Areas and security...

  2. Evaluation of factors affecting soil carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds in varying climate zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L S; Moore, T L C; Wang, J W; Osmond, D L; Al-Rubaei, A M; Smolek, A P; Blecken, G T; Viklander, M; Hunt, W F

    2017-04-01

    The carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds were investigated in four different climates: U.S., Northern Sweden, Southern Sweden, and Singapore, representing a range of annual mean temperatures, growing season lengths and rainfall depths: geographic factors that were not statistically compared, but have great effect on carbon (C) accumulation. A chronosequence was used to estimate C accumulations rates; C accumulation and decomposition rates were not directly measured. C accumulated significantly over time in vegetated shallow water areas (0-30cm) in the USA (78.4gCm -2 yr -1 ), in vegetated temporary inundation zones in Sweden (75.8gCm -2 yr -1 ), and in all ponds in Singapore (135gCm -2 yr -1 ). Vegetative production appeared to exert a stronger influence on relative C accumulation rates than decomposition. Comparing among the four climatic zones, the effects of increasing rainfall and growing season lengths (vegetative production) outweighed the effects of higher temperature on decomposition rates. Littoral vegetation was a significant source to the soil C pool relative to C sources draining from watersheds. Establishment of vegetation in the shallow water zones of retention ponds is vital to providing a C source to the soil. Thus, the width of littoral shelves containing this vegetation along the perimeter may be increased if C sequestration is a design goal. This assessment establishes that stormwater wet retention ponds can sequester C across different climate zones with generally annual rainfall and lengths of growing season being important general factors for C accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 30245 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...'' N, 082-51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). This proposed zone would be enforced one evening during the last week...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... by adding three permanent safety zones within the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. This action is...

  4. Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on energy release rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1990-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the energy of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.

  5. ShoreZone Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  6. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  7. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  8. Land governance as grey zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...

  9. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  10. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  11. 1999 vadose zone monitoring plan and guidance for subsequent years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Last, G.V.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive waste in the US. The majority of the liquid waste was disposed to the soil column where much of it remains today. This document provides the rationale and general framework for vadose zone monitoring at cribs, ditches, trenches and other disposal facilities to detect new sources of contamination and track the movement of existing contamination in the vadose zone for the protection of groundwater. The document provides guidance for subsequent site-specific vadose zone monitoring plans and includes a brief description of past vadose monitoring activities (Chapter 3); the results of the Data Quality Objective process used for this plan (Chapter 4); a prioritization of liquid waste disposal sites for vadose monitoring (Chapter 5 and Appendix B); a general Monitoring and Analysis Plan (Chapter 6); a general Quality Assurance Project Plan (Appendix A), and a description of vadose monitoring activities planned for FY 1999 (Appendix C)

  12. Solar oven for intertropical zones: Optogeometrical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Huelsz, G.; Hernandez-Luna, G.; del Rio, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Priv. Xochicalco S/N. Col. Centro. Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Acosta, R. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Boulevard Bahia s/n Esq. I. Comonfort, Chetumal Quintana Roo 77019 (Mexico); Arriaga, L.G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490 (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this paper, a novel design of a solar oven for the intertropical zones is presented. The oven box has seven faces instead of the six faces of most common designs reported in the literature, two of them are alternatively used as bases. This oven has four fixed mirrors to concentrate solar energy.The main advantage of this novel design is that the oven needs only four simple movements in order to obtain an adequate solar concentration throughout the year. This feature has been possible due to the optogeometrical design that is presented. A simple theoretical model of the oven concentration is developed. According to the model, the concentration achieved by the oven at noon is greater than 1.95 for all days of the year. In order to analyze the optical performance of the solar cooker, an experimental evaluation was conducted by using a scale model of the solar cooker and a heliodon. (author)

  13. Solar oven for intertropical zones: Optogeometrical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Huelsz, G.; Hernandez-Luna, G.; Rio, J.A. del; Acosta, R.; Arriaga, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design of a solar oven for the intertropical zones is presented. The oven box has seven faces instead of the six faces of most common designs reported in the literature, two of them are alternatively used as bases. This oven has four fixed mirrors to concentrate solar energy.The main advantage of this novel design is that the oven needs only four simple movements in order to obtain an adequate solar concentration throughout the year. This feature has been possible due to the optogeometrical design that is presented. A simple theoretical model of the oven concentration is developed. According to the model, the concentration achieved by the oven at noon is greater than 1.95 for all days of the year. In order to analyze the optical performance of the solar cooker, an experimental evaluation was conducted by using a scale model of the solar cooker and a heliodon

  14. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security... the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and COTPs have...

  15. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  16. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion

  17. Probing the hot zone of colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, R Aa

    1995-11-01

    The hot zone created in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions has been studied. At energies between 20 A MeV and 300 A MeV the nuclear emulsion technique has been used to achieve a full 4 pi identification and momentum determination of all charged fragments, enabling a strict selection of central events based on multiplicity and the energy flow tensor. In connection with this a CCD-based track identification system has been developed, specially designed for charge identification of intermediate-mass fragments. The CCD-camera is connected to an image processing card in a microcomputer where the width of the track is determined by profile measurements on the pixel level. The results point to a presence of radial flow in central {sup 36}Ar + AgBr collisions at 65 A MeV, but not in {sup 16}O + AgBr collisions at 210 A MeV. At energies between 0.8 to 1.8 A GeV mesons produced in symmetric Ne + NaF, Ni + Ni and Au + Au, have been measured by plastic scintillator counter telescopes. The mass and angular dependence of the subthreshold production of kaons at a laboratory energy of 1.0 A GeV have been systematically extracted from three different experiment periods at GSI, Darmstadt. The results point to the presence of rescattering of kaons in the dense nuclear environment, thus increasing the cross section at large angles. More speculatively, an anisotropy in the production process could be conjectured. 61 refs, 15 figs.

  18. Probing the hot zone of colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, R.Aa.

    1995-11-01

    The hot zone created in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions has been studied. At energies between 20 A MeV and 300 A MeV the nuclear emulsion technique has been used to achieve a full 4 pi identification and momentum determination of all charged fragments, enabling a strict selection of central events based on multiplicity and the energy flow tensor. In connection with this a CCD-based track identification system has been developed, specially designed for charge identification of intermediate-mass fragments. The CCD-camera is connected to an image processing card in a microcomputer where the width of the track is determined by profile measurements on the pixel level. The results point to a presence of radial flow in central 36 Ar + AgBr collisions at 65 A MeV, but not in 16 O + AgBr collisions at 210 A MeV. At energies between 0.8 to 1.8 A GeV mesons produced in symmetric Ne + NaF, Ni + Ni and Au + Au, have been measured by plastic scintillator counter telescopes. The mass and angular dependence of the subthreshold production of kaons at a laboratory energy of 1.0 A GeV have been systematically extracted from three different experiment periods at GSI, Darmstadt. The results point to the presence of rescattering of kaons in the dense nuclear environment, thus increasing the cross section at large angles. More speculatively, an anisotropy in the production process could be conjectured. 61 refs, 15 figs

  19. 'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  1. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  2. Overview of electrical energy in March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for March 2009. (J.S.)

  3. Overview of electrical energy in January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for January 2009. (J.S.)

  4. Overview of electrical energy in April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for April 2009. (J.S.)

  5. Overview of electrical energy in May 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the results of operation of the French public transmission network and power system during the past month. Information comes from different sources: electricity generators, ERDF, METEOFRANCE, RTE. The information provided concerns: - the internal electricity consumption (perimeter France), Results at end of past month and trend over last 12 months; - the balance of physical electrical energy flows in France on the RTE network: net injections into the RTE network; net deliveries at the terminals of the RTE network; - consumption and physical exchanges (noteworthy data); - the electricity market: contractual electricity exchanges with foreign countries (exports, imports, trend); balancing mechanism - balance responsible entities; notification of new installations for transmission network development. This document presents the above information for May 2009. (J.S.)

  6. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A

    2015-01-01

    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a two.......0001). No day-to-day or observer-to-observer differences in SHAs were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients, in the range of 0.51 to 0.84, indicated a moderate to almost perfect reliability between observers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: No standardized approach in SHA-assessment has hitherto been...... presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  7. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  8. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  9. Vadose Zone Journal: The first ten years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, J.A.; Or, D.; Young, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Celebrating ten years of publication, the authors introduce a special section commemorating the anniversary of Vadose Zone Journal and reviewing the journal’s role in an evolving understanding of vadose zone science.

  10. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  11. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  12. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  13. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  14. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  15. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  16. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  17. Structure-function relationship between the octopus perimeter cluster mean sensitivity and sector retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with the RTVue optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Farzaneh; Garas, Anita; Vargha, Péter; Holló, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    To determine structure-function relationship between each of 16 Octopus perimeter G2 program clusters and the corresponding 16 peripapillary sector retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) values measured with the RTVue-100 Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx-VCC) and enhanced corneal compensation (GDx-ECC) corneal compensation. One eye of 110 white patients (15 healthy, 20 ocular hypertensive, and 75 glaucoma eyes) were investigated. The Akaike information criterion and the F test were used to identify the best fitting model. Parabolic relationship with logarithmic cluster mean sensitivity and linear sector RNFLT values provided the best fit. For RTVue OCT, significant (P0.05) was found for the control eyes. Mean sensitivity of the Octopus visual field clusters showed significant parabolic relationship with the corresponding peripapillary RNFLT sectors. The relationship was more general with the RTVue OCT than GDx-VCC or GDx-ECC. The results show that visual field clusters of the Octopus G program can be applied for detailed structure-function research.

  18. Work of plastic deformation in local zone of crack apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, V.Yu.; Matvienko, Yu.G.; Rivkin, E.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For substantiating application of criteria of viscous fracture and deeoer understanding of this. process one should know strain distribution and energy consumption for plastic deformation in crack top zone. For this purpose plane samples of 300x70x1.5 mm dimension with central notch of 23, 36 and 46 mm length have been subjected to tensile testing. The samples have been cut out from sheet steel 1Kh18N9T perpendicularly to the rolling direction. It is shown that the suggested viscous fracture conception ensures general approach to the viscous and elastoplastic fracture based on the concept on specific work of plastic deformation in the localized zone νsub(l). The νsub(l) value characterizes maximum plastic material energy consumption and may serve as criterion of viscous material fracture parallel to the critical opening of the deltasub(c) crack top

  19. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  20. Energy Research - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  1. Do "Some" Enterprise Zones Create Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Jed; Neumark, David

    2010-01-01

    We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase…

  2. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...] RIN 2105-AE20 Standard Time Zone Boundaries AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... time zone boundaries regulations to reflect changes that Congress made to the Uniform Time Act. The... regulations on standard time zone boundaries, 49 CFR Part 71, need to be updated in order to ensure their...

  3. Drug-Free School Zones: Taking Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carol F.

    Information for planning and implementing drug-free school zones within a broader school-community prevention and intervention program is provided in this guidebook. The first section provides background information on drug-free school zone legislation and common elements of drug-free school zones. The risk and protective factors for alcohol and…

  4. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  5. Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) defines the authorities, roles, and responsibilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and those contractor organizations participating in the Hanford Site' s Groundwater/Vadose Zone (GW/VZ) Integration Project. The PMP also describes the planning and control systems, business processes, and other management tools needed to properly and consistently conduct the Integration Project scope of work

  6. Dislocation arrangement in the plastic zone for propagating cracks in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Ohr, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Since nickel is a metal of high stacking fault energy, it is of interest to study the arrangement of dislocations in the plastic zone for propagating cracks and to compare the results with those found in metals of low stacking fault energy. It has been found that two distinct distributions of dislocations in the plastic zone are associated with cracks in nickel. In one of these, the plastic zone appeared as a thin ribbon and consisted of a number of partial dislocations with stacking fault fringes. From contrast analysis and stereoscopic observations, the crack was found to be approximately mode III type, and the plane of the plastic zone was identified as (111). The crack geometry was very similar to that observed in metals of low stacking fault energy, namely, stainless steel and copper. The second type of plastic zone observed was not in the form of a thin ribbon; that is, the dislocations in the plastic zone were not split into partial dislocations. Since the dislocations were not split, they cross-slipped readily from the original slip plane and formed a broad plastic zone

  7. On the long run effects of market splitting: Why more price zones might decrease welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Veronika; Martin, Alexander; Weibelzahl, Martin; Zöttl, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets we observe different approaches to congestion management. While nodal pricing is implemented in Canada and some markets in the United States, European markets are split up into a limited number of price zones with uniform prices, in order to at least partially realize the benefits of regional price differentiation. Zonal boundaries often coincide with national borders, but some countries are also split into multiple zones. In this paper we shed light on possible negative welfare effects of market splitting that arise in a model where investment incentives in new generation capacity are taken into account if zones are misspecified. We show that standard approaches to configure price zones – on the basis of projected nodal price differences or congested transmission capacity – may fail to suggest reasonable zone specifications. Also an adjustment of Available Transfer Capacities (ATCs) between zones or a switch to flow-based market splitting does not ensure positive welfare effects. Our analysis suggests that a careful and detailed evaluation of the system is needed to ensure a reasonable zone configuration. - Highlights: •We analyze investment and production in energy only markets with market splitting. •Market splitting can lead to decreased welfare even for reasonably chosen zones. •We identify the reasons for the negative impact of introducing prices zones.

  8. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... USCG-2009-1081 New Orleans, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/23/2009 USCG-2009-1084 Rio Vista, CA...-1096 Port Portland Zone......... Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 7/3/2010 USCG-2009-0040 La Push, WA Safety...-0950 Madisonville, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/31/2009 USCG-2009-0951 Lower Mississippi River...

  9. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... zones for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This... Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from April 27, 2013, until June 22, 2013. This...

  10. WorkZoneQ user guide for two-lane freeway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    WorkZoneQ was developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to implement the results of the previous study, : Queue and Users Costs in Highway Work Zones. This report contains the WorkZoneQ user guide. WorkZoneQ : consists of eight Excel ...

  11. 78 FR 26508 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Harbor located in approximate Safety Zone, 33 CFR 165.160(3.8). position 40[deg]51'58'' N, 073[deg]39'34... Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zones in the Captain of the Port New...

  12. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ....941(a)(51) Target Fireworks, Detroit, MI The first safety zone will be enforced from 7 a.m. on June 24... Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for...

  13. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Houston-Galveston Zone. 165.814 Section 165.814 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas are designated as security zones: (1) Houston, Texas. The Houston Ship Channel and all associated...

  14. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... Commanders and Captains of the Port (COTP) must be immediately responsive to the safety and security needs...

  15. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  16. Downscaling NASA Climatological Data to Produce Detailed Climate Zone Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David J.; Whitlock, Charles H.; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    The design of energy efficient sustainable buildings is heavily dependent on accurate long-term and near real-time local weather data. To varying degrees the current meteorological networks over the globe have been used to provide these data albeit often from sites far removed from the desired location. The national need is for access to weather and solar resource data accurate enough to use to develop preliminary building designs within a short proposal time limit, usually within 60 days. The NASA Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project was established by NASA to provide industry friendly access to globally distributed solar and meteorological data. As a result, the POWER web site (power.larc.nasa.gov) now provides global information on many renewable energy parameters and several buildings-related items but at a relatively coarse resolution. This paper describes a method of downscaling NASA atmospheric assimilation model results to higher resolution and maps those parameters to produce building climate zone maps using estimates of temperature and precipitation. The distribution of climate zones for North America with an emphasis on the Pacific Northwest for just one year shows very good correspondence to the currently defined distribution. The method has the potential to provide a consistent procedure for deriving climate zone information on a global basis that can be assessed for variability and updated more regularly.

  17. Calendar Year 1999 Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Groundwater Protection Program, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the calendar year (CY) 1999 groundwater and surface water quality monitoring data that were obtained at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in accordance with the applicable requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring for the purposes of DOE Order 5400.1, as defined in the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1996), includes site surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Site surveillance monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater/surface water quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by operations at the Y-12 Plant. Exit pathway/perimeter monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater and surface water quality where contaminants from the Y-12 Plant are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

  18. Isotope hydrology in the Sahel zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Northern Africa has recently experienced an exceptional period of severe drought. Practically no precipitation has been received during two or three years by large regions in the so-called Sahel zone, which extends over all Africa from West to East at a latitude between 10 and 20 degrees North in the following countries: Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Upper Volta, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan and Ethiopia. Although precipitation is scarce even in normal years, important groundwater resources are present in the Sahei zone. However, groundwater is exploited mainly by dug wells, reaching only the upper part of the phreatic aquifer, which is also the one immediately affected by droughts (lowering of the water table). Deep groundwater is exploited only by a limited number of drilled wells. In recent years several hydrogeological projects have been financed by the United Nations through UNDP in the Sahel countries, with the purpose of locating and evaluating groundwater resources and of developing their exploitation. The International Atomic Energy Agency has taken or takes part in many of these projects by providing isotopic analyses of groundwater. Some of the most difficult questions to be answered in groundwater research in arid zones are: Is the recharge of a given aquifer also taking place at present? If so, from where does the major contribution to groundwater recharge come? What is the age of groundwater? Often it is not possible to answer these questions with the classical hydrogeological and geophysical methods above, but the techniques based on the so-called environmental isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H, 3 H and 14 C) may provide an answer. The information provided by isotope techniques is in many cases extremely valuable for a better understanding of groundwater resources and a better planning of their exploitation, despite the problems which always occur in actual cases. In fact, natural processes, like mixing or interaction with the aquifer material, or practical

  19. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  20. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  1. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  2. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Co., Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, John E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Anderson L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths where direct exposure pathways are not of concern, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Department of Energy developed a treatability test program for technologies to address Tc-99 and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment, have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. The treatability test of desiccation described herein was conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation was shown to be a potentially effective vadose zone remediation technology to protect groundwater when used in conjunction with a surface infiltration barrier.

  3. Surface modification by preparation of buffer zone in glow-discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reactive species, energetic particles, and uv radiation in the plasma created by a glow discharge strongly interact with solid surfaces under the influence of the plasma. As a result of the strong interaction, various physical and chemical reactions, unique and advantageous for the surface modification of solid materials, occur on the solid surfaces. The surface modification is carried out through formation of a thin buffering layer on the solid surface. The preparation of a buffer zone on solid surfaces for surface modification is described. Two kinds of a buffer zone are prepared by plasma polymerization, or simultaneous sputter deposition of electrode material with plasma polymerization: a transitional buffer zone and a graded buffer zone. Important factors for preparation of the buffer zone (pre-conditioning of a substrate surface, thin-film deposition, post-treatment of the film, magnetron discharge, energy input, geometry of a substrate and a plasma) are discussed

  4. Multiple-Zone Diffractive Optic Element for Laser Ranging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    A diffractive optic element (DOE) can be used as a beam splitter to generate multiple laser beams from a single input laser beam. This technology has been recently used in LRO s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to generate five laser beams that measure the lunar topography from a 50-km nominal mapping orbit (see figure). An extension of this approach is to use a multiple-zone DOE to allow a laser altimeter instrument to operate over a wider range of distances. In particular, a multiple-zone DOE could be used for applications that require both mapping and landing on a planetary body. In this case, the laser altimeter operating range would need to extend from several hundred kilometers down to a few meters. The innovator was recently involved in an investigation how to modify the LOLA instrument for the OSIRIS asteroid mapping and sample return mission. One approach is to replace the DOE in the LOLA laser beam expander assembly with a multiple-zone DOE that would allow for the simultaneous illumination of the asteroid with mapping and landing laser beams. The proposed OSIRIS multiple-zone DOE would generate the same LOLA five-beam output pattern for high-altitude topographic mapping, but would simultaneously generate a wide divergence angle beam using a small portion of the total laser energy for the approach and landing portion of the mission. Only a few percent of the total laser energy is required for approach and landing operations as the return signal increases as the inverse square of the ranging height. A wide divergence beam could be implemented by making the center of the DOE a diffractive or refractive negative lens. The beam energy and beam divergence characteristics of a multiple-zone DOE could be easily tailored to meet the requirements of other missions that require laser ranging data. Current single-zone DOE lithographic manufacturing techniques could also be used to fabricate a multiple-zone DOE by masking the different DOE zones during

  5. 78 FR 42027 - Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... safety zones. Thunderboats Unlimited Inc. is sponsoring San Diego Bayfair, which is held on the navigable... distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. 12. Energy Effects This proposed rule is not a ``significant energy action'' under Executive Order 13211, Actions...

  6. Air-sea interactions in the marginal ice zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Zippel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of waves in the Arctic Ocean has increased with the significant retreat of the seasonal sea-ice extent. Here, we use wind, wave, turbulence, and ice measurements to evaluate the response of the ocean surface to a given wind stress within the marginal ice zone, with a focus on the local wind input to waves and subsequent ocean surface turbulence. Observations are from the Beaufort Sea in the summer and early fall of 2014, with fractional ice cover of up to 50%. Observations showed strong damping and scattering of short waves, which, in turn, decreased the wind energy input to waves. Near-surface turbulent dissipation rates were also greatly reduced in partial ice cover. The reductions in waves and turbulence were balanced, suggesting that a wind-wave equilibrium is maintained in the marginal ice zone, though at levels much less than in open water. These results suggest that air-sea interactions are suppressed in the marginal ice zone relative to open ocean conditions at a given wind forcing, and this suppression may act as a feedback mechanism in expanding a persistent marginal ice zone throughout the Arctic.

  7. Installation and sampling of vadose zone monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, S.M.; Strickland, D.J.; Pearson, R.

    1987-10-01

    A vadose zone monitoring system was installed in a sanitary landfill near the Y-12 facility on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge, Tennessee Reservation. The work was completed as part of the LLWDDD program to develop, design, and demonstrate new low level radioactive waste disposal monitoring methods. The objective of the project was to evaluate the performance of three types of vadose zone samplers within a similar hydrogeologic environment for use as early detection monitoring devices. The three different types of samplers included the Soil Moisture Equipment Corporation Pressure-Vacuum samplers (Models 1920 and 1940), and the BAT Piezometer (Model MK II) manufactured by BAT Envitech, Inc. All three samplers are designed to remove soil moisture from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Five clusters of three holes each were drilled to maximum depths of 45 ft around part of the periphery of the landfill. Three samplers, one of each type, were installed at each cluster location. Water samples were obtained from 13 of the 15 samplers and submitted to Martin Marietta for analysis. All three samplers performed satisfactorily when considering ease of installation, required in-hole development, and ability to collect water samples from the vadose zone. Advantages and disadvantages of each sampler type are discussed in the main report

  8. Safety of stationary grinding machines - impact resistance of work zone enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Detlef; Adler, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Guards on machine tools are intended to protect persons from being injured by parts ejected with high kinetic energy from the work zone of the machine. Stationary grinding machines are a typical example. Generally such machines are provided with abrasive product guards closely enveloping the grinding wheel. However, many machining tasks do not allow the use of abrasive product guards. In such cases, the work zone enclosure has to be dimensioned so that, in case of failure, grinding wheel fragments remain inside the machine's working zone. To obtain data for the dimensioning of work zone enclosures on stationary grinding machines, which must be operated without an abrasive product guard, burst tests were conducted with vitrified grinding wheels. The studies show that, contrary to widely held opinion, narrower grinding wheels can be more critical concerning the impact resistance than wider wheels although their fragment energy is smaller.

  9. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for the first underground repository for permanent disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors as well as for other types high-level nuclear waste. Emplacement of high-level radioactive waste, especially commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. The heating rate will decrease with time, creating a thermal pulse. Over a period of several thousand years, the rock temperature will rise initially, then drop when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. Besides raising the rock temperature, much of this heat will vaporize water, which will then condense in cooler regions. The condensate is likely to form a gravity-driven heat pipe above the repository, creating the possibility that water may drain back onto the waste packages (WPs) or that it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. The long-term importance of these effects has been investigated through the development, testing, and application of thermohydrologic (TH) models. Other effects, such coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may also influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. A recent report on thermally driven coupled processes (Hardin and Chesnut, 1997) provides a qualitative assessment of the probable significance of these processes for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) and is the phenomenological framework for the present report. This report describes the conceptual and numerical models that have been developed to predict the thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and chemical responses to the cumulative heat production of the potential host rock at Yucca Mountain. As proposed, the repository horizon will be situated within the Topopah Spring tuff, in the adjacent middle nonlithophysal and lower

  10. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for the first underground repository for permanent disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors as well as for other types high-level nuclear waste. Emplacement of high-level radioactive waste, especially commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. The heating rate will decrease with time, creating a thermal pulse. Over a period of several thousand years, the rock temperature will rise initially, then drop when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. Besides raising the rock temperature, much of this heat will vaporize water, which will then condense in cooler regions. The condensate is likely to form a gravity-driven heat pipe above the repository, creating the possibility that water may drain back onto the waste packages (WPs) or that it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. The long-term importance of these effects has been investigated through the development, testing, and application of thermohydrologic (TH) models. Other effects, such coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may also influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. A recent report on thermally driven coupled processes (Hardin and Chesnut, 1997) provides a qualitative assessment of the probable significance of these processes for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) and is the phenomenological framework for the present report. This report describes the conceptual and numerical models that have been developed to predict the thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and chemical responses to the cumulative heat production of the potential host rock at Yucca Mountain. As proposed, the repository horizon will be situated within the Topopah Spring tuff, in the adjacent middle

  11. Airport Perimeter Security Advisor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aviation system of the United States of America is one of our national treasures. Very few elements of our culture capture the America spirit like aviation. Air...

  12. Historical Fire Perimeters (2000 to 2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  13. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  14. Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    , this derivative coincides up to sign with the directional derivative of the covariogram of A in direction u. By known results for the covariogram, this derivative can therefore be expressed by the cosine transform of the surface area measure of A. We extend this result to sets Q that are at most countable and use...... it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function of a stationary random closed set at zero. A variant for uncountable Q is given, too. The proofs are based on approximation of the characteristic function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation and showing corresponding formulas for them....

  15. Multichannel imager for littoral zone characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joe; Sofianos, James; Boucher, Cynthia; Gilbert, Gary

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an approach to utilize a multi-channel, multi-spectral electro-optic (EO) system for littoral zone characterization. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) presents their EO sensor systems for the surf zone environmental assessment and potential surf zone target detection. Specifically, an approach is presented to determine a Surf Zone Index (SZI) from the multi-spectral EO sensor system. SZI provides a single quantitative value of the surf zone conditions delivering an immediate understanding of the area and an assessment as to how well an airborne optical system might perform in a mine countermeasures (MCM) operation. Utilizing consecutive frames of SZI images, ACT is able to measure variability over time. A surf zone nomograph, which incorporates targets, sensor, and environmental data, including the SZI to determine the environmental impact on system performance, is reviewed in this work. ACT's electro-optical multi-channel, multi-spectral imaging system and test results are presented and discussed.

  16. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  17. The fracture zone project - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the work and the experiences gained during the fracture zone project at the Finnsjoen study site. The project is probably the biggest effort, so far, to characterize a major fracture zone in crystalline bedrock. The project was running between 1984-1990 involving a large number of geological, geohydrological, geochemical, and geomechanical investigation. The methods used for identification and characterization are reviewed and discussed in terms of applicability and possible improvements for future investigations. The discussion is exemplified with results from the investigation within the project. Flow and transport properties of the zone determined from hydraulic tests and tracer tests are discussed. A large number of numerical modelling efforts performed within the fracture zone project, the INTRAVAL project, and the SKB91-study are summarized and reviewed. Finally, occurrence of similar zones and the relevance of major low angle fracture zones in connection to the siting of an underground repository is addressed

  18. 反馈系统发展对策生成的顶点赋权反馈图法——以鄱阳湖区德邦生态能源经济反馈系统发展为例%Feedback system development policy generating vertex weighted feedback diagram analysis——Debang eco-energy economics feedback system development in Poyang Lake Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静华; 贾仁安; 袁新发; 张南生; 涂国平

    2011-01-01

    德邦规模养殖生态能源经济区是国家战略农业产业区,是要求实现规模养殖和种植循环经济的开发区,是要求实现开发沼气能源减少污染物排放(节能减排)的低碳生态产业区,是由大学、公司、农户、地方政府等共同参加建设的有普遍意义的创新基地.此规模养种循环与节能减排系统是一个反馈复杂系统,对此,创建系统动力学三步顶点赋权反馈图的管理对策生成法进行研究.首先,通过对德邦牧业实地发展进行深入分析,建立了两个增长正反馈环和一个制约负反馈环构成的2005-2009年五个规模养殖生态能源经济区增长制约顶点赋权反馈图,定量揭示现行系统发展的优势和存在的问题.其次,围绕五个顶点赋权反馈图中两个增长正反馈环和一个制约负反馈环的内涵再提出系统可持续发展实现规模养种循环与节能减排的3条管理对策.最后,通过五个顶点赋权反馈图顶点值的反馈变化规律,证明了系统发展中必须实施以猪尿资源为原料养殖场开发沼气工程并周边养种结合开发沼液资源,必须实行以养殖场的猪粪资源为原料促进全乡户用沼气池开发且全乡实施沼液种植,必须加大投入实施规模经营改变生产方式3条管理对策的正确性.此三步顶点赋权反馈图法及研究结果有重要理论和普遍实际意义,且为后续定量仿真管理对策未来实施效应评价中仿真方程的建立提供了积累.%The Debang Pig Farming eco-energy with the scale livestock breeding is an agriculture zone for Poyang lake eco-economics zone planning of national strategy. It is a circular economic development zone to be realized scale livestock breeding and scale planting. It is also a low carbon and eco-industrial zone of biogas energy for decreasing pollutant discharge (energy saving and emission reduction) and an innovation base built up by the cooperation of university, company

  19. Turbulence Spreading into Linearly Stable Zone and Transport Scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2003-01-01

    We study the simplest problem of turbulence spreading corresponding to the spatio-temporal propagation of a patch of turbulence from a region where it is locally excited to a region of weaker excitation, or even local damping. A single model equation for the local turbulence intensity I(x, t) includes the effects of local linear growth and damping, spatially local nonlinear coupling to dissipation and spatial scattering of turbulence energy induced by nonlinear coupling. In the absence of dissipation, the front propagation into the linearly stable zone occurs with the property of rapid progression at small t, followed by slower subdiffusive progression at late times. The turbulence radial spreading into the linearly stable zone reduces the turbulent intensity in the linearly unstable zone, and introduces an additional dependence on the rho* is always equal to rho i/a to the turbulent intensity and the transport scaling. These are in broad, semi-quantitative agreements with a number of global gyrokinetic simulation results with zonal flows and without zonal flows. The front propagation stops when the radial flux of fluctuation energy from the linearly unstable region is balanced by local dissipation in the linearly stable region

  20. Haralick textural features on T2 -weighted MRI are associated with biochemical recurrence following radiotherapy for peripheral zone prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnep, Khémara; Fargeas, Auréline; Gutiérrez-Carvajal, Ricardo E; Commandeur, Frédéric; Mathieu, Romain; Ospina, Juan D; Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Hatt, Mathieu; Acosta, Oscar; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    To explore the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including Haralick textural features, and biochemical recurrence following prostate cancer radiotherapy. In all, 74 patients with peripheral zone localized prostate adenocarcinoma underwent pretreatment 3.0T MRI before external beam radiotherapy. Median follow-up of 47 months revealed 11 patients with biochemical recurrence. Prostate tumors were segmented on T 2 -weighted sequences (T 2 -w) and contours were propagated onto the coregistered apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. We extracted 140 image features from normalized T 2 -w and ADC images corresponding to first-order (n = 6), gradient-based (n = 4), and second-order Haralick textural features (n = 130). Four geometrical features (tumor diameter, perimeter, area, and volume) were also computed. Correlations between Gleason score and MRI features were assessed. Cox regression analysis and random survival forests (RSF) were performed to assess the association between MRI features and biochemical recurrence. Three T 2 -w and one ADC Haralick textural features were significantly correlated with Gleason score (P recurrence (P recurrence following prostate cancer radiotherapy. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:103-117. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  2. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  3. Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of opportunity in the summers of 2012- 2014. In...measurements across the Beaufort-Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of...such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water. In addition to SIZRS

  4. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  5. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  6. Interactive Volumetry Of Liver Ablation Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Busse, Harald; Brandmaier, Philipp; Seider, Daniel; Gawlitza, Matthias; Strocka, Steffen; Voglreiter, Philip; Dokter, Mark; Hofmann, Michael; Kainz, Bernhard; Hann, Alexander; Chen, Xiaojun; Alhonnoro, Tuomas; Pollari, Mika; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Moche, Michael

    2015-10-20

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive technique that destroys cancer cells by heat. The heat results from focusing energy in the radiofrequency spectrum through a needle. Amongst others, this can enable the treatment of patients who are not eligible for an open surgery. However, the possibility of recurrent liver cancer due to incomplete ablation of the tumor makes post-interventional monitoring via regular follow-up scans mandatory. These scans have to be carefully inspected for any conspicuousness. Within this study, the RF ablation zones from twelve post-interventional CT acquisitions have been segmented semi-automatically to support the visual inspection. An interactive, graph-based contouring approach, which prefers spherically shaped regions, has been applied. For the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the algorithm's results, manual slice-by-slice segmentations produced by clinical experts have been used as the gold standard (which have also been compared among each other). As evaluation metric for the statistical validation, the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) has been calculated. The results show that the proposed tool provides lesion segmentation with sufficient accuracy much faster than manual segmentation. The visual feedback and interactivity make the proposed tool well suitable for the clinical workflow.

  7. Uranium occurrences in the Granite Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyegaard, P.; Armour-Brown, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the work and results of the South Greenland Exploration Programme (Sydex) during the 1984 field season in the Granite Zone, and discusses the results and conclusions that can be drawn from them. It also contains a structural analysis of the Ivigtut-Julianehaab region, which will help in future exploration by indicating the likely directions of uraniferous faults and fractures. It also includes suggestions for future work with both exploration and scientific aspects. The project was carried out by the Geological Survey Greenland (GGU) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory. It was financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. The structural analysis was carried out using previous geological maps, our own field observations and an analysis of lineament frequencies taken from aerial photographs and satellite images. Major lineaments in the region are due to E-W sinistral wrench faults and NE-SW normal faults. Analysis of the minor lineaments showed that the region could be divided into three blocks which have each reacted differently to the same regional stress field which was active throughout the Gardar period. A northern block which has been influenced by an older system of faults in the Archaean gneiss, a central block dominated by a graben, and a southern block where there is a change to a less intensively faulted area. 2 maps, 27 refs. (EG)

  8. Interactive Volumetry Of Liver Ablation Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Busse, Harald; Brandmaier, Philipp; Seider, Daniel; Gawlitza, Matthias; Strocka, Steffen; Voglreiter, Philip; Dokter, Mark; Hofmann, Michael; Kainz, Bernhard; Hann, Alexander; Chen, Xiaojun; Alhonnoro, Tuomas; Pollari, Mika; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Moche, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive technique that destroys cancer cells by heat. The heat results from focusing energy in the radiofrequency spectrum through a needle. Amongst others, this can enable the treatment of patients who are not eligible for an open surgery. However, the possibility of recurrent liver cancer due to incomplete ablation of the tumor makes post-interventional monitoring via regular follow-up scans mandatory. These scans have to be carefully inspected for any conspicuousness. Within this study, the RF ablation zones from twelve post-interventional CT acquisitions have been segmented semi-automatically to support the visual inspection. An interactive, graph-based contouring approach, which prefers spherically shaped regions, has been applied. For the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the algorithm’s results, manual slice-by-slice segmentations produced by clinical experts have been used as the gold standard (which have also been compared among each other). As evaluation metric for the statistical validation, the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) has been calculated. The results show that the proposed tool provides lesion segmentation with sufficient accuracy much faster than manual segmentation. The visual feedback and interactivity make the proposed tool well suitable for the clinical workflow.

  9. Enhanced phytoremediation in the vadose zone: Modeling and column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Chang, Y.; Corapcioglu, M.; Cho, C.

    2002-05-01

    Phytoremediation is a plant-based technique with potential for enhancing the remediation of vadoese zone soils contaminated by pollutants. The use of deep-rooted plants is an alternative to conventional methodologies. However, when the phytoremediation is applied to the vadose zone, it might have some restrictions since it uses solely naturally driven energy and mechanisms in addition to the complesxity of the vadose zone. As a more innovative technique than conventional phytoremediation methods, air injected phytoremediation technique is introduced to enhance the remediation efficiency or to apply at the former soil vapor extraction or bio venting sites. Effects of air injection, vegetation treatment, and air injection with vegetation treatments on the removal of hydrocarbon were investigated by column studies to simulate the field situation. Both the removal efficiency and the microbial activity were highest in air-injected and vegetated column soils. It was suggested that increased microorganisms activity stimulated by plant root exudates enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds. Air injection provided sufficient opportunity for promoting the microbial activity at depths where the conditions are anaerobic. Air injection can enhance the physicochemical properties of the medium and contaminant and increase the bioavailability i.e., the plant and microbial accessibility to the contaminant. A mathematical model that can be applied to phytoremediation, especially to air injected phytoremediation, for simulating the fate and the transport of a diesel contaminant in the vadose zone is developed. The approach includes a two-phase model of water flow in vegetated and unplanted vadose zone soil. A time-specific root distribution model and a microbial growth model in the rhizosphere of vegetated soil were combined with an unsaturated soil water flow equation as well as with a contaminant transport equation. The proposed model showed a satisfactory representation of

  10. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  11. 75 FR 29658 - Safety Zone; America's Discount Tire 50th Anniversary, Fireworks Display, South Lake Tahoe, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... entertainment purposes. This safety zone establishes a temporary restricted area on the waters surrounding the... of Energy Effects under Executive Order 13211. Technical Standards The National Technology Transfer.... This rule involves establishing, disestablishing, or changing Regulated Navigation Areas and security...

  12. Using ecological zones to increase the detail of Landsat classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L., III; Mayer, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in classification detail of forest species descriptions were made for Landsat data on 2.2 million acres in northwestern California. Because basic forest canopy structures may exhibit very similar E-M energy reflectance patterns in different environmental regions, classification labels based on Landsat spectral signatures alone become very generalized when mapping large heterogeneous ecological regions. By adding a seven ecological zone stratification, a 167% improvement in classification detail was made over the results achieved without it. The seven zone stratification is a less costly alternative to the inclusion of complex collateral information, such as terrain data and soil type, into the Landsat data base when making inventories of areas greater than 500,000 acres.

  13. Entropy in the Critical Zone: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quijano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic entropy was initially proposed by Clausius in 1865. Since then it has been implemented in the analysis of different systems, and is seen as a promising concept to understand the evolution of open systems in non-equilibrium conditions. Information entropy was proposed by Shannon in 1948, and has become an important concept to measure information in different systems. Both thermodynamic entropy and information entropy have been extensively applied in different fields related to the Critical Zone, such as hydrology, ecology, pedology, and geomorphology. In this study, we review the most important applications of these concepts in those fields, including how they are calculated, and how they have been utilized to analyze different processes. We then synthesize the link between thermodynamic and information entropies in the light of energy dissipation and organizational patterns, and discuss how this link may be used to enhance the understanding of the Critical Zone.

  14. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  15. Multiple zone power forwards. A value at risk framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, Jean-Guy

    2009-01-01

    Over the 1990s, deregulated power markets in New-England provided zones with fluctuating spot prices. Such prices have a notoriously high volatility, owing to the difficulty of storing electrical energy and the delays needed to adjust generation levels. In this context, forward contracts have become increasingly popular and understanding their dynamic is a problem facing many market players. This paper proposes a parsimonious parametric model, based on the price series of all n-month forward contracts (n = 1,2,3..), encompassing multiple zones. The model is then used for value at risk forecasts, which are backtested and compared with the ones in use by the risk management unit of an important electricity producer. Extensions to include natural gas and power-relevant oil-based future markets are discussed. (author)

  16. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  17. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Padula

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations

  18. 77 FR 42176 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... fireworks launch site located at position 41-34'-18.10'' N, 082-51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). This zone will be... at position 41-34'-18.10'' N, 082- 51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). (ii) Expected date. This safety zone will...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  19. Economic analysis of hybrid power systems (PV/diesel) in different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, U.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on economic feasibility of PV/diesel system in various climatic zones. • HOMER is used to solve economic feasibility analysis. • By the sensitivity analysis, the net present cost is reduced. • Optimum climatic zone in Tamil Nadu, India is recommended. - Abstract: With the increasing threat to environment and the fast depleting fossil fuel resources, hybrid power systems consisting of two or more renewable energy sources such as solar PV, wind, biomass, ocean thermal-with or without the back up of diesel generator have come to the forefront. These hybrid systems are normally integrated with battery banks for total reliability; such systems have brought about better quality of life in remote areas of developing economics. The remote areas in the state of Tamil Nadu in India possess excellent renewable energy sources. These areas fall under different climatic zones, are sparsely populated and are in the process of development. Though these areas are connected to the grid, Tamil Nadu grid is not stable; it is currently experiencing 40% short fall in generation. Thus grid power is available to these remote areas only for 10 h a day and even when available, there are voltage frequency problems. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of installing and operating hybrid systems in these areas. The areas are divided into different climatic zones and the hybrid system economy is analyzed for each climatic zone on the basis of NPC (net present cost), consumption of diesel and renewable fraction for all climate zones. The analysis indicates that the interior climatic zone – the area would be the optimum climatic zone to install HPS PV/diesel. The sensitivity analysis proves that the NPC of such a system can be reduced. It is suggested that due to high initial cost, government subsidy is necessary to adopt the system on a large scale. Such a profit will encourage development of renewable energy utilization and bring about rapid

  20. The distinguishing characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and burial ancient ground oxidation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Zhou Wenbin

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the main characteristics of interlayer oxidation zones and the burial ancient ground oxidation zones of Uranium deposit No. 512 in Xinjiang Uigur municipality. The epigenetic genesis, depending on some aquifer, the tongue-like in section, having the zonation along dip direction and having certain mineral assemblage are the typical features for interlayer oxidation zones

  1. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Jardine Water Filtration Plant security zone would encompass all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan... areas near shore to Chicago's water filtration plants; the security zones have been designed to allow.... 165.910 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan. (a) * * * (1) Jardine Water Filtration...

  2. 76 FR 42048 - Safety Zones; Swimming Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Swimming Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Boston Zone for swimming events. This action is necessary to... property on navigable waters from the hazardous nature of swimming events such as large numbers of swimmers...

  3. 75 FR 19304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... previously published in Coast Guard regulations. These safety zones are necessary to protect spectators...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishment of safety...

  4. 78 FR 40396 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast... America's Cup races. This safety zone and no loitering area are established to enhance the safety of spectators and mariners near the north east corner of the America's Cup regulated area. All persons or...

  5. 78 FR 54588 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6:00 a.m. on September 2, 2013 through 11:59 p.m...

  6. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on September 12, 2013 through 11:59 p.m...

  7. 77 FR 9528 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Waterway Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on February 17, 2012, through 11...

  8. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Hampton Roads Zone. 165.503 Section 165.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.503 Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone. (a) Definitions. As used in this... been authorized by the Captain of the Port (COTP), Hampton Roads, Virginia to act on his or her behalf...

  9. Work Zone Intrusion Report Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    While necessary for roadways, work zones present a safety risk to crew. Half of road workers deaths between 2005 and 2010 were due to collisions with motorists intruding on the work zone. Therefore, addressing intrusions is an important step for ensu...

  10. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  11. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  12. Efforts to update firefighter safety zone guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler

    2009-01-01

    One of the most critical decisions made on wildland fires is the identification of suitable safety zones for firefighters during daily fire management operations. To be effective (timely, repeatable, and accurate), these decisions rely on good training and judgment, but also on clear, concise guidelines. This article is a summary of safety zone guidelines and the...

  13. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  14. Turbulent viscosity in natural surf zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasso, F.R.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Waves breaking in the shallow surf zone near the shoreline inject turbulence into the water column that may reach the bed to suspend sediment. Breaking-wave turbulence in the surf zone is, however, poorly understood, which is one of the reasons why many process-based coastal-evolution models

  15. A broader classification of damage zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Dimmen, V.; Rotevatn, A.; Sanderson, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    Damage zones have previously been classified in terms of their positions at fault tips, walls or areas of linkage, with the latter being described in terms of sub-parallel and synchronously active faults. We broaden the idea of linkage to include structures around the intersections of non-parallel and/or non-synchronous faults. These interaction damage zones can be divided into approaching damage zones, where the faults kinematically interact but are not physically connected, and intersection damage zones, where the faults either abut or cross-cut. The damage zone concept is applied to other settings in which strain or displacement variations are taken up by a range of structures, such as at fault bends. It is recommended that a prefix can be added to a wide range of damage zones, to describe the locations in which they formed, e.g., approaching, intersection and fault bend damage zone. Such interpretations are commonly based on limited knowledge of the 3D geometries of the structures, such as from exposure surfaces, and there may be spatial variations. For example, approaching faults and related damage seen in outcrop may be intersecting elsewhere on the fault planes. Dilation in intersection damage zones can represent narrow and localised channels for fluid flow, and such dilation can be influenced by post-faulting stress patterns.

  16. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  17. Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    , this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...

  18. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal Register Environmental Documents in coordination with Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management (MA CZM) and EPA Region 1 Office of Ecosystem Protection (OEP) staff.

  19. How weak is the subduction zone interface?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that subduction zones are weak and that the unique availability of water on Earth is a critical factor in the weakening process. We have evaluated the strength of subduction zone interfaces using two approaches: (i) from empirical relationships between shear stress

  20. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  1. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision Special Economic Zones, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_special_economic_zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates special economic zones included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Special economic zones include existing national,...

  2. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  3. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  4. Chaotic Zones around Rotating Small Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, José; Shevchenko, Ivan I. [Institut UTINAM, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon F-25030 (France); Shepelyansky, Dima L., E-mail: jose.lages@utinam.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse F-31062 (France)

    2017-06-01

    Small bodies of the solar system, like asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei, and planetary satellites, with diameters smaller than 1000 km usually have irregular shapes, often resembling dumb-bells or contact binaries. The spinning of such a gravitating dumb-bell creates around it a zone of chaotic orbits. We determine its extent analytically and numerically. We find that the chaotic zone swells significantly if the rotation rate is decreased; in particular, the zone swells more than twice if the rotation rate is decreased 10 times with respect to the “centrifugal breakup” threshold. We illustrate the properties of the chaotic orbital zones in examples of the global orbital dynamics about asteroid 243 Ida (which has a moon, Dactyl, orbiting near the edge of the chaotic zone) and asteroid 25143 Itokawa.

  5. CLASSIFICATION AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY JUNCTIONAL ZONE USING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jinfeng; Velaga, Swetha Bindu; Hariri, Amir H; Nittala, Muneeswar Gupta; Sadda, Srinivas

    2017-08-22

    The junctional zone at the border of areas of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration is an important target region for future therapeutic strategies. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed classification and quantitative characterization of the junctional zone using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography volume cube scans (Spectralis OCT, 1024 × 37, Automatic Real Time > 9) were obtained from 15 eyes of 11 patients with GA because of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration. Volume optical coherence tomography data were imported into previously described validated grading software (3D-OCTOR), and manual segmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor layers was performed on all B-scans (total of 555). Retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor defect maps were produced for each case. The borders of the photoreceptor defect area and RPE defect area were delineated individually on separate annotation layers. The two outlines were then superimposed to compare the areas of overlap and nonoverlap. The perimeter of the RPE defect area was calculated by the software in pixels. The superimposed outline of the photoreceptor defect area and the RPE defect area was scrutinized to classify the overlap configuration of the junctional zone into one of three categories: Type 0, exact correspondence between the edge of the RPE defect and photoreceptor defect; Type 1, loss of photoreceptors outside and beyond the edge of the RPE defect; Type 2, preservation of photoreceptors beyond the edge of the RPE defect. The relative proportion of the various border configurations was expressed as a percentage of the perimeter of the RPE defect. Each configuration was then classified into four subgroups according to irregularity of the RPE band and the presence of debris. Fifteen eyes of 11 patients (mean age: 79.3 ± 4.3 years; range: 79-94 years) were

  6. Converting Constant Volume, Multizone Air Handling Systems to Energy Efficient Variable Air Volume Multizone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    TO OTHER ZONE DAMPERS N.O. TEMPERATURE SENSOR CHILLED WATER ZONE 1 STAT SUPPLY FAN COLD DECK COIL TO OTHER ZONE DAMPERS ZONE 1 DAMPER ACTUATOR HOT... water pump usage were considered. Figure 25. Condensing Boiler Combustion Efficiencies 3. Chilled water system losses : Similarly, electrical energy...required to meet cooling demands at the chilled water coil BTU meter is dependent on network losses and chiller energy efficiency ratios. Using

  7. Formation zone description in multiproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodolsky, L.

    1975-01-01

    The suprisingly low multiplicities (and presumably inelasticities) of high energy reactions on nuclei, as compared to what would be expected on any kind of 'cascade' picture, presents a simple qualitative fact concerning hadrons. A qualitative discussion and an explanation by analogy of this occurrence is presented based on a phenomenon discussed in 1953 by Lanau and Pomeranchuk. (U.K.)

  8. Vegetation root zone storage and rooting depth, derived from local calibration of a global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, R.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Hessels, T.; Bastiaanssen, W.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The storage and dynamics of water in the root zone control many important hydrological processes such as saturation excess overland flow, interflow, recharge, capillary rise, soil evaporation and transpiration. These processes are parameterized in hydrological models or land-surface schemes and the effect on runoff prediction can be large. Root zone parameters in global hydrological models are very uncertain as they cannot be measured directly at the scale on which these models operate. In this paper we calibrate the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB using a state-of-the-art ensemble of evaporation fields derived by solving the energy balance for satellite observations. We focus our calibration on the root zone parameters of PCR-GLOBWB and derive spatial patterns of maximum root zone storage. We find these patterns to correspond well with previous research. The parameterization of our model allows for the conversion of maximum root zone storage to root zone depth and we find that these correspond quite well to the point observations where available. We conclude that climate and soil type should be taken into account when regionalizing measured root depth for a certain vegetation type. We equally find that using evaporation rather than discharge better allows for local adjustment of root zone parameters within a basin and thus provides orthogonal data to diagnose and optimize hydrological models and land surface schemes.

  9. Laser scanning of a recirculation zone on the Bolund escarpment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Angelou, Nikolas; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Rapid variations in the height of the recirculation zone are measured with a scanning wind lidar over a small escarpment on the Bolund Peninsula. The lidar is essentially a continuous-wave laser Doppler anemometer with the capability of rapidly changing the focus distance and the beam direction....... The instrument measures the line-ofsight velocity 390 times per second and scans ten wind profiles from the ground up to seven meters per second. The results will be used to test computational fluid dynamics models for flow over terrain, and has relevance for wind energy. The development of multiple lidar...

  10. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    having tested and refined the image analysis processing for some typical images, we have recorded a macro with ImageJ-Fiji allowing to process all the images for a given DOM. As a result, the three different types of rocks can be semi-automatically mapped on large DOMs using a simple and efficient procedure. This allows to develop quantitative analyses of fault rock distribution and thickness, fault trace roughness/curvature and length, fault zone architecture, and alteration halos due to hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction. To improve our workflow, additional or different morphological operators could be integrated in our procedure to yield a better resolution on small and thin pseudotachylyte veins (e.g. perimeter/area ratio).

  11. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  12. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  13. Automated spectral zones selection methodology for diffusion theory data preparation for pebble bed reactor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphahlele, Ramatsemela

    A methodology is developed for the determination of the optimum spectral zones in Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). In this work a spectral zone is defined as a zone made up of a number of nodes whose characteristics are collectively similar and that are assigned the same few-group diffusion constants. In other words the spectral zones are the regions over which the few-group diffusion parameters are generated. The identification of spectral boundaries is treated as an optimization problem. It is solved by systematically and simultaneously repositioning all zone boundaries to achieve the global minimum error between the reference transport solution (MCNP) and the diffusion code solution (NEM). The objective function for the optimization algorithm is the total reaction rate error, which is defined as the sum of the leakage, absorption and fission reaction rates error in each zone. An iterative determination of group-dependent bucklings is incorporated into the methodology to properly account for spectral effects of neighboring zones. A preferred energy group structure has also been chosen. This optimization approach with the reference transport solution has proved to be accurate and consistent, however the computational effort required to complete the optimization process is significant. Thus a more practical methodology is also developed for the determination of the spectral zones in PBRs. The reactor physics characteristics of the spectral zones have been studied to understand the nature of the spectral zone boundaries. The practical tool involves the use of spectral indices based on few-group diffusion theory whole core calculations. With this methodology, there is no need to first have a reference transport solution. It is shown that the diffusion-theory coarse group fluxes and the effective multiplication factor computed using zones based on the practical index agrees within a narrow tolerance with those of the reference approach. Therefore the "practical" index

  14. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  15. Solute redistribution and Rayleigh number in the mushy zone during directional solidifi cation of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interdendritic segregation along the mushy zone of directionally solidifi ed superalloy Inconel 718 has been measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion analysis spectrometry (EDAXtechniques and the corresponding liquid composition profile was presented. The liquid density and Rayleigh number (Ra profi les along the mushy zone were calculated as well. It was found that the liquid density difference increased from top to bottom in the mushy zone and there was no density inversion due to the segregation of Nb and Mo. However carbide formation in the freezing range and the preferred angle of the orientated dendrite array could prompt the fl uid fl ow in the mushy zone although there was no liquid density inversion. The largest relative Rayleigh number appeared at 1,326 篊 for Inconel 718 where the fl uid fl ow most easily occurred.

  16. Numerical modeling of continental lithospheric weak zone over plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of magmatic systems in the continental lithosphere over diffluent mantle plumes. The areas of tension originating over them are accompanied by appearance of fault zones, and the formation of permeable channels, which are distributed magmatic melts. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of deformation fields in the lithosphere due to convection currents in the upper mantle, and the formation of weakened zones that extend up to the upper crust and create the necessary conditions for the formation of intermediate magma chambers has been carried out. Thermodynamically consistent non-isothermal model simulates the processes of heat and mass transfer of a wide class of magmatic systems, as well as the process of strain localization in the lithosphere and their influence on the formation of high permeability zones in the lower crust. The substance of the lithosphere is a rheologic heterophase medium, which is described by a two-velocity hydrodynamics. This makes it possible to take into account the process of penetration of the melt from the asthenosphere into the weakened zone. The energy dissipation occurs mainly due to interfacial friction and inelastic relaxation of shear stresses. The results of calculation reveal a nonlinear process of the formation of porous channels and demonstrate the diversity of emerging dissipative structures which are determined by properties of both heterogeneous lithosphere and overlying crust. Mutual effect of a permeable channel and the corresponding filtration process of the melt on the mantle convection and the dynamics of the asthenosphere have been studied. The formation of dissipative structures in heterogeneous lithosphere above mantle plumes occurs in accordance with the following scenario: initially, the elastic behavior of heterophase lithosphere leads to the formation of the narrow weakened zone, though sufficiently extensive, with higher porosity. Further, the increase in the width of

  17. Energy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerici, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy has taken with his reflections on the environment, the geopolitical aspects and its pervasive use in all activities a crucial role for sustainable development of our planet. The energy in the future will be increasingly a global problem [it

  18. 76 FR 38297 - Safety Zone; Marine Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte Marie Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... spectators. Such hazards include obstructions to navigable channels, explosive dangers associated with...: NAD 83], with the West Bay shoreline forming the South and West boundaries of the zone. (ii...

  19. Response of hyporheic zones to transient forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T.; Wu, L.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Lewandowski, J.; Nuetzmann, G.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of water, solutes, and energy between river channels and hyporheic zones (HZs) modulates biogeochemical cycling, regulates stream temperature and impacts ecological structure and function. Numerical modelling of HZ processes is required as field observations are challenging for transient flow. To gain a deeper mechanistic understanding of the effects of transient discharge on hyporheic exchange, we performed a systematic analysis using numerical experiments. In this case, we vary (i) the characteristics of time-varying flood events; (ii) river bedform geometry; (iii) river hydraulic geometry; and (iv) the magnitude and direction of groundwater fluxes (neutral, gaining and losing conditions). We conceptualize the stream bed as a two-dimensional system. Whereby the flow is driven by a dynamically changing head distribution at the water-sediment interface and is modulated by steady groundwater flow. Our model estimates both net values for a single bedform and spatial distributions of (i) the flow field; (ii) mean residence times; and (iii) the concentration of a conservative tracer. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed by changing channel slope, flood characteristics, groundwater upwelling/downwelling fluxes and biogeochemical time-scales in different bedforms such as ripples, dunes and alternating bars. Results show that change of parameters can have a substantial impact on exchange fluxes which can lead to the expansion, contraction, emergence and/or dissipation of HZs . Our results also reveal that groundwater fluxes have different impacts on HZs during flood events, depending on the channel slope and bedform topography. It is found that topographies with smaller aspect ratios and shallower slopes are more affected by groundwater upwelling/downwelling fluxes during flood events. The analysis of biogeochemical transformations shows that discharge events can potentially affects the efficiencies of nitrate removal. Taking into consideration multiple

  20. Making SPC easier with zone control charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, B.

    1995-01-01

    The zone control chart is a simple, easy to learn statistical process control (SPC) tool that can be applied to any process where the data are normally distributed. Several Shewhart runs rules are incorporated into a simple scoring system, with a single rule to determine when a process is out of control. Zone charts have average run lengths (ARLs) for detecting shifts in the process mean which, for most cases, are uniformly better than the standard control charts. This paper presents the simplified methodology behind the zone control chart