WorldWideScience

Sample records for performance feed utilisation

  1. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  2. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  3. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    was investigated. The effect of phytase on the CAID and TTR of P in birds with access to a separate Ca source was of particular interest. Five dietary Ca concentrations (1.3, 4.3, 7.3, 10.3 and 13.3 g/kg) and two inclusion levels (0 or 1000 phytase units [FYT/kg] of feed) of a 6-phytase were evaluated in a 5 × 2...... factorial arrangement of treatments. All diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to be equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate P contents (5.7 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). A total of 480, one-day-old male broilers were allocated to 48 cages (8 birds/cage), and cages were randomly...... assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Increasing dietary Ca concentration decreased (P g Ca/kg, whereas in the phytase...

  4. Aquaculture and the utilisation of plant wastes in fish feeds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available shape and size of pellets vary between species and age of the fish • Feed management needs on fish farms, must be convenient, thus feed must be stable, dry, easy to handle, cost-effective © CSIR 2010 Slide 5 Plant-based feedstuffs to replace... Acids 65.4 0.77 1.4 0.7 18.3 0.8 1.5 0.7 Fermented Soya 56.1 0.68 1.7 0.6 18.4 0.8 1.6 0.6 © CSIR 2010 Slide 16 The effect of aquaculture biological agents on water quality during feeding trials • Freshwater finfish Oreochromis...

  5. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink......Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors...

  6. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2014-01-01

    cages. Feed intake, gain and feed utilisation were not significantly affected. Plasma urea (P carcass tended to increase linearly by reducing CP, but neither nitrogen retention nor carcass meat percentage...... and back fat depth differed among treatments. In conclusion, the study indicated that CP could be decreased to 136 g/kg as-fed for growing pigs in the weight range 50–100 kg without negative impact on growth performance and carcass traits. Moreover, leanness was not affected by excess CP....

  7. Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and relation to growth and feed utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out aimed at clarifying variations in the digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout families and studying how differences in digestibility may be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates. The digestibility of protein, lipid...... the digestibility of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extracts and dry matter was measured. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that selective breeding still offers a large potential for improved growth and feed utilisation in rainbow trout strains. In the first study, family Dc showed a higher specific growth rate......, carbohydrates (nitrogen-free extracts, NFE) and dry matter was analysed in two experiments involving eight rainbow trout families [Ab, Ba, Cd, Dc (first study); V, X, Y, Z (second study)]. In the first experiment rainbow trout were reared for 128 days at 13.0A degrees C, and in the second experiment, they were...

  8. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  9. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  10. High-performance hybrid-fibre concrete : Development and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Although concrete is the most utilised building material nowdays, this material has a large shortcoming: it has a good resistance against compressive stresses, but a very low resistance against tensile stresses. Usual way to solve this problem is the application of steel reinforcement in concrete

  11. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  12. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Towards zero solid waste: utilising tannery waste as a protein source for poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Hiralal; Antunes, A Paula M; Covington, Anthony D; Evans, Paul; Phillips, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Zero waste is now a strongly emerging issue for sustainable industrial development where minimisation and utilisation of waste are a priority in the leather industry. In a tannery hides and skins converted in to leather through various processes. Approximately 20% (w/w) of the chrome containing tannery solid waste (TSW) is generated from one tonne of raw hides and skins. However, tannery solid waste may also be a resource if it is managed expertly as we move towards zero waste.\\ud This resear...

  14. Evaluation of the effect of different wheats and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient and energy utilisation in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma González-Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism of broiler chicks fed 8 different wheat samples, supplemented or not with xylanase. Seven-hundred sixty eight male broilers (1-day-old were distributed to 16 experimental treatments (6 replicates per treatment. The treatments were in a factorial arrangement with 8 different wheats and 2 levels of xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg. The predicted apparent metabolisable energy (AME of the wheat samples ranged from 13.0 to 13.9 MJ/kg and all diets were formulated to contain the same amount of wheat. Body weight gain (BWG and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 d, as was jejunal digesta viscosity, and feed conversion ratio (FCR calculated. On day 24, one representative bird per pen was selected to calculate whole body energetics. At 21 d, 3 chicks per replicate were randomly allocated to metabolism cages for energy and nutrient utilisation determinations, and were continued on the experimental diets until 24-d-old. No interactions were observed for any performance response variables, ileal nutrient utilisation or digesta viscosity. Xylanase improved BWG and reduced FCR and digesta viscosity (P < 0.05. Wheat influenced dry matter (DM utilisation and xylanase increased ileal digestible energy (P = 0.04. Xylanase also improved (P < 0.05 DM and nitrogen retention. Apparent metabolisable energy and AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn were subject to an interaction whereby wheats 2 and 6, which returned the lowest AME and AMEn values, responded to xylanase supplementation and the remainder did not. Net energy for production and the efficiency of energy use for production were not influenced by xylanase, but were affected by wheat (P < 0.05. Despite the significant differences between wheats with regards to their nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism in birds, xylanase removed this variance and resulted in more homogeneous performance.

  15. Feed consumption and utilisation in female western tarsier (Tarsius bancanusin captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus, one of protected Indonesian wildlife is endemic primate of Bangka, Sumatra, Kalimantan and Natuna Islands. Studies on nutrition requirement through feed consumption and utilization of western tarsier was conducted in the Small Mammal Captivity of Zoology Division, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI Cibinong, Bogor. The results indicated that average of dry matter intake was 4.05±0.14 g/head/day or 4.01±0.24% of body weight. Diets given were cricket and grasshopper, considered high coefficient of dry matter digestibility (94.33±1.76%. Average of the following nutrient intake was ash 4.12±0.04%; crude protein 64.52±0.49%; fat 12.82±0.68%; crude fiber 6.59±0.11%; nitrogen free extract 12.03±0.79% and gross energy 23.54±0.67 kcal/head/day. Average of body weight gain of western tarsier at this experiment was 0.5 5± 0.2 g/head/day with average of feed efficiency was 13.39±4.66% and protein efficiency ratio was 0.21±0.07 g/day. Average of total digestible nutrient (TDN was 67.42±0.97%.

  16. An assessment of the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens by nutritional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sonia Y; Selle, Peter H; Raubenheimer, David; Cadogan, David J; Simpson, Stephen J; Cowieson, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design. Energy derived from lipid had a greater impact on feed intake than energy derived from starch and protein. When we compared the influence of starch and protein on feed intake, 'equal distance rule' was observed, which means the animal consumes feed to the point on its respective nutritional rails where the shortage of starch exactly equals the surplus of consumed protein. Increasing the protein-derived energy intake increased weight gain in broiler chickens, whereas energy intake derived from starch and lipid had little impact on weight gain. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) may be reduced by either increasing protein energy intake or decreasing starch energy intake. As the slope of the contours was less than 1, the influence of starch energy intakes on FCR exceeded that of protein energy intakes. In conclusion, energy derived from protein is more important than non-protein energy in terms of weight gain, and a balance between protein and energy supplies is required for efficient muscle protein deposition.

  17. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. THE UTILISATION OF GRAPE MARC FOR OBTAINING FEED PROTEIN WITH ETHANOL CONSUMING YEASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliana RODINO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work has been directed to achieve an optimal and economic medium, for the protein biosynthesis. The carbon source and the mineral elements are provided by the fresh marc diffusion solution and the source of organic nitrogen and growth factors are provided by proteic wine yeast extract. For the alcoholic fermentation it was used a strain of Saccharomyces ellipsoideus and for obtaining the biomass, a strain of Candida robusta. There were performed two series of experiments in which the alcoholic fermentation progress was monitored as follows: by titration of the carbohydrates, at the beginning and respectively at the end of the fermentation; by determining the optical density of the culture medium and by the determination of alcohol in the fermented solution. Protein biosynthesis was monitored by measurement of the alcohol concentration at the beginning and end of the process, by the determination of the optical density of the culture medium, by the determination of residual sugar, and by determining wet and dry biomass. The wet biomass was used for the protein titration. At the termination of the bioprocess was determined the dry matter in the culture medium.

  19. Effect of chicken genotype on growth performance and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...

  20. Investigation of the influence of the feed quantity on the utilisation of synthetic lysine (α-15N-labelled) in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, F.; Gebhardt, G.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 15 broiler chickens was fed with a diet of wheat/wheat gluten supplemented with lysine on three N intake levels (I: 1,500; II: 2,100; III: 3,000 mgN/LW/sub kg//sup 0.67/) between their 11. and 20. day of life and tested with regard to the characteristic data of N metabolisation (N balance experiment) and 15 N incorporation in selected tissues and the whole body of chickens. While N metabolisation did not show any differences of process, the results of 15 N incorporation indicated a little more favorable conditions of utilisation for synthetic lysine in III concerning the whole body and the liver. The level of feed intake must not be neglected as a quantity on the utilisation of synthetic lysine but all the problems connected cannot be explained as a whole by this parameter. For the restrictions of N intake effective in the N balance experiment no negative influence is to be expected with regard to the utilisation of synthetic lysine in comparison to ad libitum feeding. (author)

  1. Food and feeding performance of Pellonula leonensis (Reajon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding performance of Pellonula leonensis (Reajon, 1917) ... fed more on ants and fish larvae while juveniles fed more on detritus, crustaceans and sand. ... Pellonula was considered piscivorous and cannibalistic its feeding habit.

  2. Feeding of whole cottonseed on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of including different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS) in the finishing diet of lambs on their dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg gain), carcass characteristics and small intestinal morphology. Twenty Zandi male lambs (29.8 ...

  3. Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. CI Ayo-Olalusi, AAA Ugwumba. Abstract. Investigations were carried out on the growth performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus using four different feeding frequencies. Two hundred and forty juveniles (8.6 +0.0 g) were stocked in eight aquaria ...

  4. Effect of feeding silkworm on growth performance and feed efficiency of snakehead (Channa striata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, U.; Lono

    2018-04-01

    The snakehead, Chana striata is a carnivorous freshwater fish and widely distributed in Asia. High demand of this fish has been triggering many aquaculturist to culture C. stiata. Feed was the important factor for fish growth. Silkworm has high protein content, low fat and can be used as natural feed for finfish. This study investigate the silkworm feed in C. striata. The treatment of this research were A (100 % pellet); B (100 % silkworm); C (combination of 75 % pellet and 25 % silkworm); D (combination of 50 % pellet and 50 % silkworm); and E (combination of 25 % pellet and 75 % silkworm). The variables measured in this study were relatif growth, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The result show that silkworm gave the high growth performance, feed efficiency and survival rate of the snakehead (Channa striata) compared with the control.

  5. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds were initially offered one of two feeds with widely different protein to energy ratios until they reached a pre-defined liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in Experiment 1 and four in Experiment 2. Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was reached, ...

  6. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in ... Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was .... procedure ensured that all feeds contained the same amino acid balance. ... Keeping birds to 2500 g liveweight in cages led to some problems with leg weakness.

  7. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet of algae in fish feed (aquafeed resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal, Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp. for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar. Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination, in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  8. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  9. Effect of fermented moist feed on performance, gut bacteria and gut histo-morphology in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, J A; Michiels, J; Dierick, N; Ovyn, A; Akbarian, A; De Smet, S

    2013-01-01

    1. Fermented feed has been shown to be beneficial in pig nutrition as a tool to reduce gut microbial disorders. Experiments with fermented feed in poultry are scarce, probably because of the belief that wet feed is less suitable for this species and causes wet litter. 2. A total of 280 one-d-old Ross 308 chickens were used in a completely randomised design with two dietary treatments (7 replicates of 20 birds/treatment); air-dry feed versus the same feed in moist form (water:feed ratio of 1.3:1, on a weight basis), inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 40087 (9 log10 CFU/kg feed) and batch-fermented for 48 h at 26°C. The birds were given starter (d 0-13), grower (d 4-26) and finisher (d 27-39) diets ad libitum. At the end of the grower and finisher period, two birds per pen were removed to sample intestinal contents for cultivating bacteria and intestinal tissue to determine villus height and crypt depth. 3. Fermented moist feed (FMF) batches showed good characteristics, with a pH between 3.9 and 4.4 and DL-lactic acid between 137 and 286 mmol/l. Daily feed intake and gain were reduced considerably in the FMF group in the starter (-40 and -44%, respectively) and grower (-23 and -16%) period, though in the finisher period these birds performed better, with an improved feed utilisation. Concomitant with the latter, villus height at the mid-jejunum and mid-ileum on d 39 was higher (+22.6% and +16.0%). Significantly more Lactobacilli and less coliforms were found in the foregut and less Streptococci in ileum and caeca of birds given FMF. 4. This trial showed that FMF was detrimental for early bird growth but affected beneficially feed efficiency, the composition of the gut bacteria and villus height in the small intestine in the finisher period in broilers.

  10. Effects of feed process variables on Hanford Vitrification Plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Wagner, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of nuclear defense activities, high-level liquid radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site for over 40 yr. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being proposed to immobilize these wastes in a waste form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. Prior to vitrification, the waste will undergo several conditioning steps before being fed to the melter. The effect of certain process variables on the resultant waste slurry properties must be known to assure processability of the waste slurry during feed preparation. Of particular interest are the rheological properties, which include the yield stress and apparent viscosity. Identification of the rheological properties of the slurry is required to adequately design the process equipment used for feed preparation (agitators, mixing tanks, concentrators, etc.). Knowledge of the slurry rheological properties is also necessary to establish processing conditions and operational limits for maximum plant efficiency and reliability. A multivariable study was performed on simulated HWVP feed to identify the feed process variables that have a significant impact on rheology during processing. Two process variables were evaluated in this study: (a) the amount of formic acid added to the feed and (b) the degree of shear encountered by the feed during processing. The feed was physically and rheologically characterized at various stages during feed processing

  11. Growth performance and feed utilization of Tilapia zillii (Gervais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Accepted 22 May, 2009. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Tilapia zillii fed diets where poultry by-product meal replaced fish meal protein at 0, 50 and 100% ... fish diets because of its high protein quality and palata- bility. However, fish ...

  12. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... the best feed cost/kg gain values at restriction and re-alimentation. It is concluded that restricting growing pigs at 80% of the ad libitum intake of the control yields best performance and ... largely proved not to be very effective due to availability.

  13. Performance of locally formulated feeds for rearing of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fisheries is an important food production sub-sector, providing almost 20% of the world's protein supply; however, the trend in fish production from capture fisheries has reached its limits due to overfishing. A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two locally formulated feeds as possible replacements for an ...

  14. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-01

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess))

  15. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  16. The utilisation of the performances of Neil Diamond for improving the classroom practices of educators: an educational appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Pretorius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research the 5D-framework of Appreciative Inquiry is used to investigate the possibility of applying the attributes and artistic strategies of the pop singer Neil Diamond for the improvement of classroom practices of educationalists. During the attendance of the performances of Diamond in 2011 in South Africa the writers and five other educationalists have identified five broad qualities and practices of Diamond. These may have application value in a school or university classroom: passionate enthusiasm, purposeful dedication, communication and interaction with the audience, refusing to conform/creating variation as well as good planning. This is the first time that the 5D-cycle has been used to study the possible utilisation of a live performance of a popular artist to facilitate the professional development of educationalists.

  17. The Performance and Incidence of Ascites in Broiler Chickens in Response to Feed Restriction and Meal Feeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Dastar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction (FR and meal feeding (MF on performance, carcass characteristics and related parameters to ascites in Ross 308 male broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were 1 the control (ad libo. feeding, 2 feed restriction from 7 to 14 days (FR14, 3 feed restriction from 7 to 21 days (FR21, 4 meal feeding from 7 to 14 days (MF14 and 5 meal feeding from 7 to 21days (MF21. All birds were fed adlibitum for the first week post hatch and after 21 days of age. Four replicate of 12 birds were allocated to each treatment. The results indicated FR and MF21 groups had significantly (p

  18. Evaluation of various feeding programmes on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compaq

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various feeding ... broiler or layer diets, since these feeds are readily available and easy to purchase. ... Research was conducted on multiple-phase broiler feeding ...

  19. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  20. Performance of PC-based charged particle multi-channel spectrometer utilising particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, G.; Sziklai, J.; Trajber, Cs.

    1993-12-01

    A collaterally expandable charged particle spectrometer based on PC control and particle identification is described. A typical system configuration consisting of two channels are used to test the system performance. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  1. Influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2013-06-01

    1. The influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers given wheat-based diets was examined from 10 to 42 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two pellet diameters (3 and 4.76 mm) and two pellet lengths (3 and 6 mm). From 0 to 9 d of age, all birds were offered a common starter diet pelleted with a 3-mm diameter die and 3-mm length. Broiler grower (d 10 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets, based on wheat, were formulated and then subjected to the 4 different treatments. 2. In grower diets, increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the gelatinised starch (GS) content of the diets. In finisher diets, GS content of 3-mm diameter pellets did not change with increasing pellet length but decreased in 4.76-mm diameter pellets. 3. In grower and finisher diets, increments in intact pellet weight, pellet durability index and pellet hardness with increasing pellet length were greater in 3-mm diameter pellets than those with 4.76-mm diameter. 4. Increasing pellet length from 3 to 6 mm increased apparent metabolisable energy values. Neither the interaction nor main effects were significant for the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. 5. During the grower period (d 10 to 21), birds given pellets of 6-mm length had greater body-weight gain than those given 3-mm length pellets. Feeding 6-mm length pellets decreased feed per body-weight gain compared to 3-mm length pellets. During the finisher (d 22 to 42) and whole grow-out (d 10 to 42) periods, while different pellet lengths had no effect on feed per body-weight gain values at 3-mm pellet diameter, increasing the pellet length decreased feed per body-weight gain at 4.76-mm pellet diameter. 6. Increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the relative length of duodenum. Birds given 3-mm diameter pellets had heavier proventriculus compared to

  2. Genome-wide associations for feed utilisation complex in primiparous Holstein–Friesian dairy cows from experimental research herds in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Coffey, M.P.; Berry, D.P.; Haas, de Y.; Strandberg, E.; Bovenhuis, H.; Calus, M.P.L.; Wall, E.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies for difficult-to-measure traits are generally limited by the sample size with accurate phenotypic data. The objective of this study was to utilise data on primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows from experimental farms in Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and

  3. The relation between finance utilisation and business performance in Indonesian horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Finance is important for Indonesian farmers to purchase agricultural inputs and machinery and to pay for hired labour, which can improve farm performance. Farmers in Indonesia can access finance from various finance providers, i.e. banks, micro-finance institutions, farmers’ associations,

  4. The perception of performance in stress: the utilisation of cognitive facts by nondepressed and depressed students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S

    1985-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which expectancies about performance in stressful conditions by nondepressed and depressed nonclinical populations were examined. The first experiment was concerned with estimates of either errors or response rates made in advance, with regard to the likely competence level of a (hypothetical) person allegedly working in conditions of either loud noise, fatigue, sleep loss, social stress, or incentive. Nondepressed subjects as well as depressed subjects provided negative expectancies. The second experiment involved obtaining an estimate of personal competence in conditions where subjects were instructed that personal performance on the task would be required after the estimate had been provided. Nondepressed subjects differed from depressed subjects in that the estimates of the former were less negative in terms of the magnitude of the estimates provided. A third experiment was designed to see whether the negative expectancies about performance in stress exhibited both by nondepressed and by depressed subjects would be used in making allowances for the competence of a typist on the basis of a typescript allegedly produced under high noise conditions. An unexpected effect was that depressed subjects judged the typist more harshly and failed to make allowance for adverse working conditions in the way that nondepressed subjects did. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for understanding cognitive factors in depression.

  5. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feeding behavior with feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2014-03-01

    Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.

  6. A simple vector system to improve performance and utilisation of recombinant antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Karen J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of recombinant antibody fragments from antibody libraries is well established using technologies such as phage display. Phage display vectors are ideal for efficient display of antibody fragments on the surface of bacteriophage particles. However, they are often inefficient for expression of soluble antibody fragments, and sub-cloning of selected antibody populations into dedicated soluble antibody fragment expression vectors can enhance expression. Results We have developed a simple vector system for expression, dimerisation and detection of recombinant antibody fragments in the form of single chain Fvs (scFvs. Expression is driven by the T7 RNA polymerase promoter in conjunction with the inducible lysogen strain BL21 (DE3. The system is compatible with a simple auto-induction culture system for scFv production. As an alternative to periplasmic expression, expression directly in the cytoplasm of a mutant strain with a more oxidising cytoplasmic environment (Origami 2™ (DE3 was investigated and found to be inferior to periplasmic expression in BL21 (DE3 cells. The effect on yield and binding activity of fusing scFvs to the N terminus of maltose binding protein (a solubility enhancing partner, bacterial alkaline phosphatase (a naturally dimeric enzymatic reporter molecule, or the addition of a free C-terminal cysteine was determined. Fusion of scFvs to the N-terminus of maltose binding protein increased scFv yield but binding activity of the scFv was compromised. In contrast, fusion to the N-terminus of bacterial alkaline phosphatase led to an improved performance. Alkaline phosphatase provides a convenient tag allowing direct enzymatic detection of scFv fusions within crude extracts without the need for secondary reagents. Alkaline phosphatase also drives dimerisation of the scFv leading to an improvement in performance compared to monovalent constructs. This is illustrated by ELISA, western blot and

  7. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary treatments consisted of providing feed ad libitum (ull fed) and two feed restriction treatments restrictingeedng 80 % of ad libitum ... A cost – benefit analysis was utilized for the economy of production. ... Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Feeding time can alleviate negative effects of heat stress on performance, meat quality and health status of turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghly, M F A; Alagawany, M; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2018-04-01

    1. A total of 180 one-day-old turkeys were randomly assigned to 6 equal groups to investigate the effect of feeding time on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, leg problems and physiological responses of growing turkeys under the high temperature conditions of summer. 2. Birds of the first group were ad libitum fed and were considered as the controls (C). The second group (T1) was given 80% of diet in the morning and 20% of diet in the afternoon, the third group (T2) was given 60% of diet in the morning and 40% of diet in the afternoon, the fourth group (T3) was given 40% of diet in the morning and 60% of diet in the afternoon, the fifth group (T4) was given 20% of diet in the morning and 80% of diet in the afternoon and the sixth group (T5) was given 100% of diet in the afternoon. 3. Body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improved with T2, T3, T4 and T5 in comparison to control or T1 under heat stress conditions. No significant impacts on carcass traits and meat quality due to changing the time of feeding were seen, except for tenderness and juiciness. 4. Feeding in the afternoon (100%) decreased body temperature and tonic immobility test score, which were positively related with the health condition of the birds. 5. The incidence of leg problems, plumage condition and breast blisters were not significantly different among the experimental groups. 6. It is concluded that feeding turkeys mainly or totally in the afternoon (T4 and T5, birds were fed with 80% or 100% of the diet in the afternoon) can be used as a strategy and a managerial tool for improving growth rate, feed utilisation, carcass and meat quality, as well as health status of growing turkeys reared under hot climate conditions.

  9. Influence of limit-feeding and time of day of feed availability to growing calves on growth performance and feeding behavior in cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Islas, A; Swanson, K C

    2017-11-01

    Objective swere to determine the effects of limit-feeding and time of feed access in cold weather on growth performance and feeding behavior of growing calves fed a corn silage-based diet. Sixty-six steers (BW = 317 ± 5.3 kg) and 30 heifers (BW = 239 ± 7.6 kg) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment: 1) ad libitum feed intake (AL), 2) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the daytime (0601-1759 h; LF-D), 3) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the nighttime (1800-0559 h; LF-N), and 4) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis, split 1/2 in the daytime and 1/2 in the nighttime (LF-S). Feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored over 84 d using the Insentec feeding system. Average daily gain, DMI, and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.002) in the AL group compared with others. Dry matter intake was not different ( = 0.17) when comparing the LF-D with the LF-N groups. Average daily gain and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.05) when comparing the LF-N group to the LF-D group, and were not different ( ≥ 0.51) when comparing the LF-S group with the mean of the LF-D and LF-N groups. Number of visits and meals per d was greater ( ≤ 0.001) in the LF-N than the LF-D group. Feed intake per visit was not different ( = 0.55) when comparing the AL group and others, and tended to be greater ( = 0.06) in the LF-D than the LF-N group. Feed intake per meal was greater ( Feed intake per minute (eating rate) was not influenced by treatment. In conclusion, limit-feeding at 80% of ad libitum intake decreased ADG and G:F. Limit-feeding in the nighttime as compared to limit-feeding in the daytime improves growth performance and increases feeding activity (number of visits and meals per d) which could be because of increased heat production to help maintain body temperature and thus reduce maintenance energy requirements.

  10. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  11. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  12. The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, feed efficiency and specific growth rate (%) of juvenile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, weight 16.44±0.22 g) rearing in cold sea water conditions (5.8 to 9.3°C; 17 to 18 ppt). Fish were fed on a commercial feed to the apparent ...

  13. Performance enhancement of implantable medical antenna using differential feed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Bhattacharjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The health care industry is continuously revolutionizing and advancing towards developing more efficient system suitable for human body. Today implantable devices have become a more interesting topic in health care services which primarily started with the pacemakers. Since then it is continuously evolving due to its non-invasive nature, instant monitoring and diagnosis, and periodic simulation. The main goal of these implantable devices is to efficiently monitor or inspect various ailments in the body and then transmits this to the server or base station. For proper communication between the implant and the base station, antenna design is of prime importance. In this paper MEMS based differentially fed dual band antenna has been proposed and can be used both in Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS band for transmission of data and industrial, scientific and medical (ISM band for wake-up purpose. The proposed antenna has been simulated for free space scenario and has been found to radiate in both MICS & ISM band with S11 of −17.62 dB and −14.31 dB respectively. Subsequently the antenna is inserted within a skin mimicking model with equivalent dielectric features and the results show variation in radiation characteristics between free space condition and within skin phantom. The design of the antenna has been optimized in such a way that minimum deviation occurs between the two conformal conditions. With the use of differential feeding technique performance of the antenna is quite enhanced in terms of various parameters when compared with single feed.

  14. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in Experiment ... killed for carcass analysis. .... Gains of the chemical components were ... Table2 Main effects and interactions between genotype, sex and first and second ...

  15. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  16. The oral motor capacity and feeding performance of preterm newborns at the time of transition to oral feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the oral motor capacity and the feeding performance of preterm newborn infants when they were permitted to start oral feeding. This was an observational and prospective study conducted on 43 preterm newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of UFSM, RS, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were the presence of head and neck malformations, genetic disease, neonatal asphyxia, intracranial hemorrhage, and kernicterus. When the infants were permitted to start oral feeding, non-nutritive sucking was evaluated by a speech therapist regarding force (strong vs weak, rhythm (rapid vs slow, presence of adaptive oral reflexes (searching, sucking and swallowing and coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Feeding performance was evaluated on the basis of competence (defined by rate of milk intake, mL/min and overall transfer (percent ingested volume/total volume ordered. The speech therapist's evaluation showed that 33% of the newborns presented weak sucking, 23% slow rhythm, 30% absence of at least one adaptive oral reflex, and 14% with no coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Mean feeding competence was greater in infants with strong sucking fast rhythm. The presence of sucking-swallowing-respiration coordination decreased the days for an overall transfer of 100%. Evaluation by a speech therapist proved to be a useful tool for the safe indication of the beginning of oral feeding for premature infants.

  17. The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... according to the water temperature and the weight of the fish. In optimum rearing conditions, the trout are fed on with high qualified commercial feed formulized according to their needs. As a result of high metabolic rates, juvenile fish consume much more feed as proportion, besides the fish in warm water ...

  18. Male broiler performance and nocturnal feeding under constant 8-h ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... however, they still consumed more feed in the 8-h dark period than birds that had always been given 16 h illumination. Cobb and Ross genotypes responded similarly to all lighting treatments. Keywords: Photoperiod, broiler growth, nocturnal feeding. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (3) 2008: pp. 159-165 ...

  19. The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurden, I.; Borchert, P.; Balasubramanian, M.N.; Schrama, J.W.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Quillet, E.; Kaushik, S.J.; Panserat, S.; Médale, F.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional

  20. Effects of two different feeding positions on physiological characteristics and feeding performance of preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Burcu Aykanat; Gözen, Duygu; Karatekin, Güner

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled study was to determine the effect of semielevated side-lying (ESL) and semielevated supine (ESU) positions, which are used to bottle-feed preterm infants, on their physiological characteristics and feeding performance. The sample consisted of preterm infants who were born in the 31st gestational week and below, and met the inclusion criteria. A randomization was provided in the sample group with a total of 80 infants including 38 infants in the ESL (experimental) group and 42 infants in the ESU (control) group. Both groups were compared in terms of their SpO2 values, heart rates, and feeding performances before, during, and after the feeding. The data were obtained by using a form for infant descriptive characteristics, feeding follow-up form, a Masimo Radical-7 pulse oximeter device, and a video camera. It was determined that the infants in the ESL group had statistically significantly higher SpO2 values (ESL: 96.77 ± 2.51; ESU: 93.48 ± 5.63) and lower heart rates (ESL: 155.87 ± 11.18; ESU: 164.35 ± 6.00) during the feeding compared to the infants in the ESU group (p ESL group. The ESL position has a more positive effect on oxygen saturation and heart rate of infants and it is more effective in providing a physiological stabilization during the feeding, compared to the ESU position. According to these results, the ESL position can be recommended for preterm feeding. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  2. Closing carbon cycles : Evaluating the performance of multi-product CO2 utilisation and storage configurations in a refinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Dacosta, Cora; Stojcheva, Viktorija; Ramirez, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) has the potential to provide business cases as CO2 waste streams are turned into feedstock for the synthesis of marketable products. Although CCU could reduce fossil resource demand, its capability as a climate change mitigation option is under debate. In

  3. Resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does: a review of feeding and genetic strategies for suitable performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare.  Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven.  Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability.  To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum.  There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential.  The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential.  The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction.  The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level.  The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure.  The body condition of young

  4. Effect of feeding level on production performance of lactating Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdou Nourou (208530695)

    design was applied on 40 does according to body weight, parity and birth type implying 10 does per treatment, ..... Table 2: Chemical composition of feeds offered and refusals (g/kg DM). Diet ..... intake of nursing kids and their dams,.

  5. Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karameldin, A.; Saadawy, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient K w is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient K s from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18 deg.. C to 45 deg.. C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate. (author)

  6. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0

  7. Effect of feed restriction and feeding plans on performance, slaughter traits and body composition of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Birolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding systems (L, ad libitum vs. R, feed restriction were combined with 3 feeding plans (MM, MH, HH to evaluate the effects on performance, slaughter results, body composition and nitrogen balance of 300 commercial crossbred rabbits kept individually from weaning to slaughter (34-70 d of age. The R rabbits were fed from 80% (first days on trial to 100% (end of 3rd wk of ad libitum intake, whereafter R rabbits had free access to feed. The 3 feeding plans were: MM plan, M diet with moderate digestible energy (DE content, 10.6 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; HH plan, H diet with high DE content, 11.1 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; MH plan, M diet for the first 3 wk and H diet for the last 2 wk. Feed restriction did not affect nutrient digestibility, growth rate on the whole trial and slaughter results, but improved feed conversion (2.96 vs. 2.89 in L and R rabbits, respectively; P<0.01 and reduced N excretion (2.16 vs. 2.07 g excreted N/d, in L and R rabbits; P<0.05. At the end of the first period (55 d, R rabbits showed lower empty body protein, lipid, and gross energy gains than L rabbits, but differences disappeared within the end of the trial. The HH plan improved feed conversion (2.97 vs. 2.89 for MM vs. HH; P<0.05, but increased excreted N (2.03 vs. 2.17 g/d; P<0.001 in comparison with the MM plan due to the higher digestible protein/DE ratio of H diet, whereas the MH plan showed intermediate results. In conclusion, a moderate feed restriction during post weaning improved feed conversion and reduced N excretion without negative effects on growth or slaughter results. Moreover, N excretion was confirmed to depend largely on dietary nitrogen content.

  8. Effect of creep feeding system on performance of suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh S, A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty seven newly born Barki Lambs of about 3.84 kg live body weight were randomly divided into three groups of nine lambs each. Their weights were recorded at birth. Lambs in the first group were served as controls and fed on their dam's milk only (milk basis) > The second group was fed on their dam's milk in addition to concentrate feed mixture (CFM) as creep feeding> Group three was fed on their dam's milk; concentrate feed mixture and lactic acid producing bacteria. Concentrate feed mixture was offered daily in the morning for lambs under creep feeding system, started at 7 days from birth. Lambs were kept with their mothers in the same pens. Blood samples were collected at 7.30 and 60 days old from the jugular vein of each animal. Total gain, average daily gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher (P<0.05) in groups II and III than control group. Both groups II and III showed no significant difference in weight gain. The higher values serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III. Values of serum total proteins were recorded in groups II and III . Values of serum albumin were similar in all different groups. However, group III recorded the highest values of globin. Blood serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were not affected by treatment. It was clearly observed that GPT values were increased with age in all groups. Values for serum glucose were decreased with age until weaning, while serum urea nitrogen was increased with age. The differences among treatments in creatinine concentrations were not significant. Total triiodothyronine (T4) and total thyroxine (T4) concentrations were not significantly different between experimental groups. It is concluded that creep feeding promotes growth in lambs during suckling period and can be successfully used for a short fattening period

  9. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  10. Effect of the Feed Additive Clinoptilolite (ZeoFeed on Nutrient Metabolism and Production Performance of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Macháček

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two levels of clinoptilolite administered in feed (2% and 4% on some selected performance indicators, metabolic utilization of basic nutrients and the health status of laying hens. The selected 24 Bovans Goldline hybrid laying hens were divided into three equal groups, two experimental groups (E1 and E2 and one control group (C. The laying hens were housed individually in cages with an automatic supply of drinking water, manual feeding, in a setting with controlled light and temperature regimens. Hens from individual groups were all fed a complete feed mix of the same composition and the only difference was in clinoptilolite supplementation: feed mixes for E1 and E2 groups contained 2% and 4% of clinoptilolite (commercial additive ZeoFeed respectively, replacing the same amounts of wheat. The hens received feed mixes and drinking water ad libitum. During this 28-day experiment, feed consumption and the number and weight of eggs laid were monitored individually for each hen. At the end of the experiment, the balance test using the indicator method (Cr2O3 was performed in all eight hens in each of the groups. The results of balance tests were then used to calculate the metabolic utilization of selected nutrients (nitrogen, fat, ash, nitrogen-free extracts, starch, gross energy, Ca, P. After the balance tests, blood samples for haematological and biochemical examinations were collected via puncture of the vena basilica. The addition of 2% clinoptilolite to feed mix resulted in a highly significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in mean egg weight to 64.69 g, but the addition of 4% clinoptilolite in group E2 resulted in a highly significant (P ⪬ 0.01 decrease in mean egg weight to 62.20 g compared to the control (63.73 g. Moreover, daily feed mix consumption in group E1 decreased to 114 g per one laying hen/day compared to the controls (118 g per one laying hen/day. In group E2 (4% clinoptilolite, daily

  11. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased

  12. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  13. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...... to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production)....

  14. Effect of feeding system and fermented sago waste on performance of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Kompiang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment, with a split plot experimental design, was conducted to determine the effect of feeding system (full vs choice feeding and fermented sago waste (AST 5 vs 0% on the performance of broiler chickens. Complete feed was formulated tocontain 21% crude protein, 2900 kcal ME/kg, without or with 5% AST. Feed for choice feeding was formulated to contain 2900 kcal ME/kg, without or with 5% AST with crude protein 23 or 17%. Four hundreds DOC broilers were used for each treatment divided into 4 replicates (100 birds/replicate on litter system. Feed and water were given ad lib. during the 4 weeks trial. Data collected included feed consumption (weekly, body weight (bi-weekly, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER were calculated biweekly. Feeding system has no significant effect on total feed/energy consumption. Choice feeding reduced total protein consumption (P<0.01; 323.5 vs 354.9 gram/head/4weeks, increased body weight gained (P<0.01; 889.5 vs 835 gram/head/4weeks, improved FCR (P<0.05; 1.90 vs 2.03, and PER (P<0.001; 0.37 vs 0.43. Fermented sago waste (AST had no significant effect on total feed/energy consumption (P<0.05, reduced total protein consumption (P<0.05; 333.6 vs 349.8 gram/head/4weeks, increased body weight gained (P<0.05; 887.5 vs 837 gram/head/4weeks, improved FCR (P<0.05; 1.88 vs 2.06 and PER (P<0.05; 0.38 vs 0.42. It is concluded that broiler chicken had an ability to determine its protein requirement, and AST supplementation significantly improved performance of the birds.

  15. Feeding calves with hydrosoluble soybean extract. I. Performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Novita Esteves

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the total replacement of powder milk protein (SL for hydrosoluble soybean extract (EHS in feeding 5-day-old Holstein male calves. The experiment was carried out using 3 treatment throughout the period of milk intake (5 to 90 days of life. In treatment I, SL was supplied from the 5th to 90th day of life. In treatment II, SL was supplied until the 29th day, and, from the 30th to 90th day, EHS was supplied. In treatment III, EHS was supplied from the 5th day of life. After this period the calves were weaned and received the same hay and concentrate feed as in the milk intake period, up to 180 days. During the milk intake period, the animals of treatment II, showed in average lower food intake, decreased daily weight gain and poorer digestibility of nutrients than animals from treatment I (P<0.05. In the post-weaning period food intake and average daily gain were similar. Calves of treatment III lost weight throughout the experiment, showed very weak body condition and were sacrified.

  16. The bounds on tracking performance utilising a laser-based linear and angular sensing and measurement methodology for micro/nano manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Leon; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Tian, Yanling; Zhong, Yongmin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the tracking performance of a planar three degrees of freedom (DOF) flexure-based mechanism for micro/nano manipulation, utilising a tracking methodology for the measurement of coupled linear and angular motions. The methodology permits trajectories over a workspace with large angular range through the reduction of geometric errors. However, when combining this methodology with feedback control systems, the accuracy of performed manipulations can only be stated within the bounds of the uncertainties in measurement. The dominant sources of error and uncertainty within each sensing subsystem are therefore identified, which leads to a formulation of the measurement uncertainty in the final system outputs, in addition to methods of reducing their magnitude. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the vision-based subsystem utilised for the measurement of angular displacement. Furthermore, a feedback control scheme is employed to minimise tracking errors, and the coupling of certain measurement errors is shown to have a detrimental effect on the controller operation. The combination of controller tracking errors and measurement uncertainty provides the bounds on the final tracking performance. (paper)

  17. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Ledogar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1 less well configured, or (2 better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint

  18. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H.; Baab, Karen L.; Smith, Amanda L.; Weber, Gerhard W.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens) cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA) to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1) less well configured, or (2) better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting) side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint dislocation and

  19. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  20. Performance, health and physiological responses of newly weaned feedlot cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, K A; Cooke, R F; Schubach, K M; Brandão, A P; Schumaher, T F; Prado, I N; Marques, R S; Bohnert, D W

    2018-03-26

    With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot. Upon arrival on day -1, shrunk BW was recorded. On day 0, calves were ranked by sex, source and shrunk BW, and allocated to one of 21 pens. Pens were assigned to receive (7 pens/treatment) a free-choice total mixed ration containing: (1) lasalocid (360 mg/calf daily of Bovatec; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA)+chlortetracycline (350 mg/calf of Aureomycin at cycles of 5-day inclusion and 2-day removal from diet; Zoetis) from days 0 to 32, and monensin only (360 mg/calf daily of Rumensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA) from days 33 to 60 (PC), (2) sodium saccharin-based sweetener (Sucram at 0.04 g/kg of diet dry matter; Pancosma SA; Geneva, Switzerland)+plant extracts containing eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum (800 mg/calf daily of XTRACT Ruminants 7065; Pancosma SA) from days 0 to 32 and XTRACT only (800 mg/calf daily) from days 33 to 60 (EG) or (3) no supplemental ingredients (CON; days 0 to 60). Calves were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs and dry matter intake was recorded from each pen daily. Calves were vaccinated against BRD pathogens on days 0 and 22. Shrunk BW was recorded on day 61, and blood samples collected on days 0, 6, 11, 22, 33, 43 and 60. Calf ADG was greater (P=0.04) in PC v. EG and tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON. Feed efficiency also tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON, although main treatment effect for this response

  1. Performance, body fat reserves and plasma metabolites in Brown Swiss dairy cows: Indoor feeding versus pasture-based feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H-J; Gross, J J; Petermann, R; Probst, S; Bruckmaier, R M; Hofstetter, P

    2018-04-01

    Feeding dairy cows indoors or on pasture affects not only labour, machinery and housing costs, but also animals' performance and metabolism. This study investigates the effects of indoor feeding (IF) with a partial-mixed ration (PMR) versus pasture-based feeding (PF) on milk production, fertility, backfat thickness (BFT), body weight (BW) loss and energy metabolism of Brown Swiss (BS) dairy cows with similar genetic production potential. The IF herd consisted of 13 cows fed a PMR composed of maize and grass silage plus protein concentrate according to each cow's requirements. The PF herd consisted of 14 cows offered barn-ventilated hay ad libitum after calving from January until March and grazed on semi-continuous pastures during the vegetation period. The IF cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) per standard lactation (9,407 vs. 5,960 kg; p dairy cows in our trial seem to have a high capacity for metabolic adaptation to different production systems. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of nutrient dilution on feed intake, eating time and performance of hens in early lay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; André, G; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment with 480 ISA Brown layers was conducted to measure the effect of dietary energy (11.8, 11.2 and 10.6 MJ/kg) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) (128, 146 and 207 g/kg) concentration, soluble NSP content (64 and 85 g/kg), particle size distribution of the NSP fraction (fine and coarse) and feed form (mash and crumble) on feed intake, eating time and egg performance of laying hens in early lay (from 18 to 26 weeks of age). Twelve experimental diets were tested, each replicated 4 times. 2. Laying hens in early lay that were fed low- or high-NSP diets were able to compensate for 10% dietary dilution by 9.5 and 4.9% higher feed intakes, respectively. Feeding crumble or coarsely ground mash did not affect feed intake. 3. Eating time of the hens fed the undiluted diets increased over the experimental period from 16.4 to 24.6% of the observation period, but was not affected by sand or grit addition, particle size distribution or feed form. Feeding high-NSP diets increased eating time by 22%. 4. Egg performance and body weight gain of the hens that were fed low-NSP or high-NSP diets were similar or better compared to the undiluted diets, whereas coarse grinding of the diets showed 7 to 10% lower egg performance and weight gain. Egg performance and weight gain were not affected by feed form. 5. It is concluded that hens in early lay, fed energy-diluted diets, by adding sand or grit (low-NSP) or NSP-rich raw materials (high-NSP) to the control diet, were able to increase their feed intake, resulting in energy intake and egg performance comparable to the control group. Supplementing diets with insoluble NSP also decreased eating rate. Prolonged eating time using insoluble NSP could be useful in reducing feather pecking behaviour.

  3. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  4. Bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract microbiota correlated with improved growth and feed conversion: Challenges presented for the identification of performance enhancing probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana eStanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of bacteria associated with desirable productivity outcomes in animals may offer a direct approach to the identification of probiotic bacteria for use in animal production. We performed three controlled chicken trials (n=96 to investigate caecal microbiota differences between the best and poorest performing birds using four performance measures; Feed Conversion Rate (FCR, utilisation of energy from the feed measured as Apparent Metabolisable Energy (AME, gain rate (GR and amount of feed eaten (FE. The shifts in microbiota composition associated with the performance measures were very different between the three trials. Analysis of the caecal microbiota revealed that the high and low FCR birds had significant differences in the abundance of some bacteria as demonstrated by shifts in microbiota alpha and beta diversity. Trials 1 and 2 showed significant overall community shifts, however the microbial changes driving the difference between good and poor performers were very different. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae families and genera Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and multiple lineages of genus Clostridium (from families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae were highly abundant in good FCR birds in Trial 1. Different microbiota was associated with FCR in Trial 2; Catabacteriaceae and unknown Clostridiales family members were increased in good FCR and genera Clostridium (from family Clostridiaceae and Lactobacillus were associated with poor FCR. Trial 3 had only mild microbiota differences associated with all 4 performance measures. Overall, the genus Lactobacillus was correlated with feed intake which resulted in poor FCR performance. The genus Faecalibacterium correlated with improved FCR, increased GR and reduced FE. There was overlap in phylotypes correlated with improved FCR and GR, while different microbial cohorts appeared to be correlated with FE. Even under controlled conditions

  5. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    . Sci. & Technol. Vol. 18 (2) 2010 The most essential and major operational input in successful aquaculture is the feed and hence cheap and nutritionally balanced effective artificial feeds need to be developed. From historical times, carrageen..., and efficient feed for a better growth of carps. Since foraging carps readily accept artificial pelleted feeds under any culture conditions, Catla catla belonging to the same group was selected to study the performance of feed developed in his study...

  6. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  7. Effects of non-antibiotic feed additives on performance, immunity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but .... probiotic had no significant effects on performance traits. .... Some information on the gut health could be obtained by studying the structure of the intestinal.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF FAT-TAILED RAMS FED COMPLETE FEED BASED OIL PALM FRONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamidah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of fat-tailed rams fed complete feed based oil palm fronds (OPF. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 treatments and 4 replications i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of OPF substituting fields grass in complete feed for A, B, C, D and E treatments, respectively. Twenty fat-tailed rams were fed twice at 08.00 and 14.00 with pellet of complete feed for 4 months. The result of this experiment showed that OPF significantly influenced nutrient consumption, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency ratio (FER. Oil palm fronds significantly affected (P<0.05 fat-tailed rams’s dry matter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, crude protein intake (CPI, ADG and FER. The highest DMI, OMI, CPI, ADG, and FER of fat-tailed rams was in C treatment and significantly different from the others. It was concluded that C treatment was the best treatment which can give the best fat-tailed rams performance. The OPF can be used to replace the field grass as feed up to 75% proportion in complete feed and could increase the performance and productivity of fat-tailed rams.

  9. Evaluation of feed and feeding regime on growth performance, flesh quality and fecal viscosity of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Ying; Li, Yong; Li, Xian; Wang, Shunkui

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different feeds and feeding regimes on growth performance, flesh quality and fecal viscosity of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were investigated. Fish (initial body weight of 1677 g ± 157 g) were fed with four commercial feeds (Nosan salmon-NS, Aller gold-AG, Skretting salmon-SS and Han ye-HY) in two feeding regimes (80% and 100% satiation) for 78 d. The results showed that salmon specific growth ratio (SGR) and weight gain ratio (WGR) were significantly affected by feed type and feeding regime ( P vitamin E, hydroxyproline (HYP), liquid loss and muscle pH among all groups showed significant differences ( P important quality attributes of Atlantic salmon.

  10. Effect of feed texture on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Altaf, H.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of two important forms of feed, mash and crumbles, fed alone or in combination (mash-crumbs), was studied on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers. One hundred twenty broiler chicks were used in the present study and were fed mash, crumbles and mash-crumbs feed for 0-6 weeks of age. Four treatments, designated as A, B, C and D were used in this experiment. Chicks in group A were kept on mash feeding serving as control and those in group B were offered crumbles. Group C was fed mash from day old to two weeks and crumbles from three to six weeks of age while group D was offered mash from day old to four weeks and then crumbles were fed for next two weeks of age. The results of the experiment showed that different forms of feed exhibited significant (P<0.05) effect on overall weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers. Whereas, feed consumption, dressing percentage and relative weights of liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, pancreas, intestine and abdominal fat pad of the birds remained unaffected due to different forms of feed. The broilers maintained upon crumbles throughout the experimental period, fetched maximum profit than other treatment groups. (author)

  11. A novel shredder for municipal solid waste (MSW): influence of feed moisture on breakage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyi; Xiao, Bo; Xiao, Lei

    2010-08-01

    A novel MSW shredder was presented but many aspects of the shredder have not been fully characterized. The feed moisture is an important factor that influences crushing performance. This paper focuses on the effect of feed moisture. The breakage of municipal solid waste (MSW) at several moisture levels (0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%) was conducted with a laboratory shredder to investigate the effect of feed moisture on product size distribution and specific energy consumption under two different hydraulic pressures (40 and 60 kg/cm(2)). The results showed definite effects of feed moisture on the product size distribution and specific energy consumption: there is a tendency for the fine production in products to decrease with increasing amounts of water content in the feed; with the increasing feed moisture, specific energy shows an increasing trend; the specific energy and product size distribution under lower hydraulic pressure is more sensitive to the feed moisture than it is under higher hydraulic pressure. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feed utilization and growth performance of cockerels fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of soldier ant as dietary supplements on the growth performance of cockerels. Two hundred cockerels of Nera white strain (aged 6 weeks) were randomly assigned into 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 8 ...

  13. Effects of feeding layer faeces on performance and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two (32) weaned rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes with mean weight (410 g) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments at 0, 10, 20 and 30% in a completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the growth performance and microbial diversity in the faeces of rabbits fed dietary inclusion of layers faeces.

  14. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avizyme 1500TM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility by broiler finishers was investigated. A total of 120 d-old broiler chickens was assigned to four treatments each having two replicates of 15 birds in a 2 x 2 factorial block design.

  15. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  16. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  17. The effect of heated mash on performance and feeding behavior of newly weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, K; Hessel, E F; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2008-12-01

    The influence of heated mash on growth and feeding behavior of newly weaned piglets was investigated. An automatically ventilated nursery with 4 identical pens was used. Twenty piglets weaned at 21 d were housed in each pen. The experiment was repeated 3 times. In total, data were obtained from 240 piglets of 12 pens. The pens were provided with a sensor-controlled, automatic feeding device, which dosed a ready-mixed mash in a trough. In each of 2 of the pens, the feed was mixed with warm water at 36 degrees C, during the first week of weaning. This heated mash had a temperature of 34 degrees C at the outlet of the automatic feeding device (experimental group). In the 2 control groups, the water was not heated and the temperature of the mash was 14 degrees C at the outlet of the automatic feeding device. From the second week of weaning, the mash had a temperature of 14 degrees C at the outlet of the automatic feeding device in all 4 pens. Piglets were weighed at weaning, at weekly intervals through 49 d after weaning, and on d 139 after weaning. Behavior of the whole group, as well as behavior of selected focal animals, was evaluated for the first 48 h after weaning. In addition, skin condition of piglets was assessed on day of weaning and on d 7, 14, and 21 after weaning. The amount of feed consumed by the piglets was recorded on a daily basis throughout the whole period of nursery. Over the total period of the study, piglets in the experimental group gained 3.98 +/- 1.66 kg (P = 0.047) more than the control group. The difference was particularly clear during the nursery period (49 d) when the experimental group gained 0.89 +/- 0.23 kg more than the control group (P = 0.03). Although piglets in the control group consumed 37.15 +/- 0.15 kg of feed over the complete nursery period, the experimental group consumed 42.56 +/- 0.15 kg per piglet (P = 0.023). By heating the mash feed in the first week after weaning, both growth performance as well as feed consumption of

  18. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Feed Flow Loop Phase VI: PulseEcho System Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.

    2012-11-21

    This document presents the visual and ultrasonic PulseEcho critical velocity test results obtained from the System Performance test campaign that was completed in September 2012 with the Remote Sampler Demonstration (RSD)/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform located at the Monarch test facility in Pasco, Washington. This report is intended to complement and accompany the report that will be developed by WRPS on the design of the System Performance simulant matrix, the analysis of the slurry test sample concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) data, and the design and construction of the RSD/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF FAT-TAILED RAMS FED COMPLETE FEED BASED OIL PALM FRONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamidah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of fat-tailed rams fed complete feedbased oil palm fronds (OPF. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRDwith 5 treatments and 4 replications i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of OPF substituting fields grass incomplete feed for A, B, C, D and E treatments, respectively. Twenty fat-tailed rams were fed twice at08.00 and 14.00 with pellet of complete feed for 4 months. The result of this experiment showed thatOPF significantly influenced nutrient consumption, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency ratio(FER. Oil palm fronds significantly affected (P<0.05 fat-tailed rams’s dry matter intake (DMI, organicmatter intake (OMI, crude protein intake (CPI, ADG and FER. The highest DMI, OMI, CPI, ADG, andFER of fat-tailed rams was in C treatment and significantly different from the others. It was concludedthat C treatment was the best treatment which can give the best fat-tailed rams performance. The OPFcan be used to replace the field grass as feed up to 75% proportion in complete feed and could increasethe performance and productivity of fat-tailed rams.

  20. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  1. Assessing Space Utilisation Relative to Key Performance Indicators--How Well, Not How Much, Space Is Used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Simon; Apps, Nathan; Harbon, Paul; Baldock, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Efficient use of resources, including space, is critical in academic departments. Traditional space auditing simply assesses occupancy levels. We present a novel approach which assesses not just the extent to which space is used, but also how well it is used. We link space use quantitatively to key performance indicators in a research-intensive…

  2. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes. Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD values used were 0.617mm and 0.723mm (corn fine and coarse particle sizes, respectively, and 0.361mm, 0.721mm, and 0.947mm (limestone fine, intermediate and coarse particle sizes, respectively. The following treatments were applied: T1: fine corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T2: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T3: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone; T4: coarse corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T5: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T6: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone. The experiment lasted 112 days, consisting of 4 cycles of 28 days. No significant interaction was observed among corn and limestone particle sizes for any of the analyzed parameters. There were no significant effects (p>0.05 of the tested corn particle sizes on quail performance or egg quality. There were significant (p<0.05 isolated effects of limestone particle size only on the percentage of cracked eggs, which was reduced when birds fed 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm and 50% fine limestone (0.361mm as compared to those fed 100% fine limestone. Therefore, the inclusion of 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm is recommended for quail egg production.

  3. Effects of a malfunctional column on conventional and FeedCol-simulated moving bed chromatography performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Donghoon; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2015-07-17

    The effects of a malfunctional column on the performance of a simulated moving bed (SMB) process were studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results of conventional four-zone SMB (2-2-2-2 configuration) and FeedCol operation (2-2-2-2 configuration with one feed column) with one malfunctional column were compared with simulation results of the corresponding SMB processes with a normal column configuration. The malfunctional column in SMB processes significantly deteriorated raffinate purity. However, the extract purity was equivalent or slightly improved compared with the corresponding normal SMB operation because the complete separation zone of the malfunctional column moved to a lower flow rate range in zones II and III. With the malfunctional column configuration, FeedCol operation gave better experimental performance (up to 7%) than conventional SMB operation because controlling product purity with FeedCol operation was more flexible through the use of two additional operating variables, injection time and injection length. Thus, compared with conventional SMB separation, extract with equivalent or slightly better purity could be produced from FeedCol operation even with a malfunctional column, while minimizing the decrease in raffinate purity (less than 2%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stimulate feed intake before weaning and control intake after weaning to optimise health and growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehya Read

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-weaning feed restriction is a common practice in rabbit farming to reduce mortality, but results in lower growth performance and slaughter weights. This study aimed to assess the influence of 2 diets both rich in fibre and low in starch, with high or low digestible energy (DE and digestible protein (DP contents for a constant DP/DE ratio offered from 18 to 70 d of age, on the growth performance and health parameters of rabbits. Eight hundred rabbit kits were divided in 2 experimental groups differing in the feed offered from 18 to 70 d: a high concentrate diet (HC group; 10.37 MJ DE/kg DM and 102 g DP/kg DM or low concentrate diet (LC group; 9.63 MJ DE/kg DM and 95 g DP/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum before weaning (35 d and from 63 to 70 d, while feed offered from 35 to 63 d was controlled to obtain similar DE intake in both groups. Feed intake, animal weights and health status were recorded weekly. Mortality was recorded daily. Feed intake was similar in both groups before weaning (P=0.204, and consequently the DE intake was higher in the HC group compared to the LC group before weaning (3.91 vs. 3.39 MJ, respectively; P=0.017. Feed intake from 63 to 70 d was lower in the HC than in the LC group (229 vs. 239 g/d/kit, respectively; P<0.001.Total DE ingested after weaning was similar in both groups (45.44 MJ; P=0.143. Kits were heavier in the HC group throughout the study (P<0.05. A higher average daily gain during the periods of 18-28, 35-42 and 56-63 d was seen in the HC group (+8.1%, +16.8% and +4.5%, respectively; P<0.05. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar between groups throughout the study (P=1.0 and P=0.104, respectively. Our results suggest that when the feed intake after weaning is controlled, i the feeding strategy before weaning determines the weight at weaning and at slaughter age; and ii rabbits fed a diet more highly concentrated but rich in fibre increase their growth performance without negative

  5. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2017-09-29

    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  6. Performance of a radio link between a base station and a medical implant utilising the MICS standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders J

    2004-01-01

    Modern medical implants are of increasing complexity and with that, the need for fast and flexible communication with them grows. A wireless system is preferable and an inductive link is the most commonly used. But it has the drawback of a very short range, essentially limited to having the external transceiver touching the patient. The Medical Implant Communication System, MICS, is a standard aimed at improving the communication distance. It operates at a higher frequency band between 402 MHz and 405 MHz. We have by simulations and measurements investigated the channel properties of this band and calculated the link performance for a typical implant application. The result is a link speed between a base station and a bedridden patient of 600 kbit bits per second with a bit error rate of 2% in the downlink to the implant and 1 % in the uplink to the base station. Conclusions on the necessary complexity of the base station are also given.

  7. Genetic relationships between feed efficiency in growing males and beef cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J J; Evans, R D; Mc Hugh, N; Kenny, D A; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Berry, D P

    2011-11-01

    Most studies on feed efficiency in beef cattle have focused on performance in young animals despite the contribution of the cow herd to overall profitability of beef production systems. The objective of this study was to quantify, using a large data set, the genetic covariances between feed efficiency in growing animals measured in a performance-test station, and beef cow performance including fertility, survival, calving traits, BW, maternal weaning weight, cow price, and cull cow carcass characteristics in commercial herds. Feed efficiency data were available on 2,605 purebred bulls from 1 test station. Records on cow performance were available on up to 94,936 crossbred beef cows. Genetic covariances were estimated using animal and animal-dam linear mixed models. Results showed that selection for feed efficiency, defined as feed conversion ratio (FCR) or residual BW gain (RG), improved maternal weaning weight as evidenced by the respective genetic correlations of -0.61 and 0.57. Despite residual feed intake (RFI) being phenotypically independent of BW, a negative genetic correlation existed between RFI and cow BW (-0.23; although the SE of 0.31 was large). None of the feed efficiency traits were correlated with fertility, calving difficulty, or perinatal mortality. However, genetic correlations estimated between age at first calving and FCR (-0.55 ± 0.14), Kleiber ratio (0.33 ± 0.15), RFI (-0.29 ± 0.14), residual BW gain (0.36 ± 0.15), and relative growth rate (0.37 ± 0.15) all suggest that selection for improved efficiency may delay the age at first calving, and we speculate, using information from other studies, that this may be due to a delay in the onset of puberty. Results from this study, based on the estimated genetic correlations, suggest that selection for improved feed efficiency will have no deleterious effect on cow performance traits with the exception of delaying the age at first calving.

  8. Musculoskeletal anatomy and feeding performance of pre-feeding engyodontic larvae of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouilliart, M.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lauesen, P.

    2015-01-01

    changes in the functionality of the feeding apparatus towards the active feeding phase, 3D data of joints, levers and muscles derived from the reconstructions were used to estimate bite and joint reaction forces (JRFs). Observing a maximum estimated bite force of about 65μN (and corresponding JRFs of 260μ...

  9. The feed value of toasted Mucuna sloanei meal on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the feed value of toasted Mucuna sloanei meal (TMSM) on the performance, haematology and blood biochemistry of broiler finisher birds. Mucuna sloanei seeds were processed into toasted Mucuna sloanei meal (TMSM) and analyzed for proximate and phytochemical ...

  10. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  11. Effect of feeding different cereal-based diets on the performance and gut health of weaned piglets with or without previous access to creep feed during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrallardona, D; Andrés-Elias, N; López-Soria, S; Badiola, I; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M

    2012-12-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different cereals on the performance, gut mucosa, and microbiota of weanling pigs with or without previous access to creep feed during lactation. A total of 108 newly weaned pigs (7.4 kg BW; 26 d of age; half with and half without creep feed) were used. Piglets were distributed by BW into 36 pens according to a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement of treatments with previous access to creep feed (with or without) and cereal source in the experimental diet [barley (Hordeum vulgare), rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran, corn (Zea mays), naked oats (Avena sativa), oats, or rice] as main factors. Pigs were offered the experimental diets for 21 d and performance was monitored. At day 21, 4 piglets from each treatment were killed and sampled for the histological evaluation of jejunal mucosa and the study of ileal and cecal microbiota by RFLP. The Manhattan distances between RFLP profiles were calculated and intragroup similarities (IGS) were estimated for each treatment. An interaction between cereal source and previous creep feeding was observed for ADFI (P creep feeding increased ADFI for the rice-wheat bran diet it reduced it for naked oats. No differences in mucosal morphology were observed except for deeper crypts in pigs that did not have previous access to creep feed (P creep feeding and cereal was also observed for the IGS of the cecal microbiota at day 21 (P creep feed reduced IGS in the piglets fed oats or barley but no differences were observed for the other cereal sources. It is concluded that the effect of creep feeding during lactation on the performance and the microbiota of piglets after weaning is dependent on the nature of the cereal in the postweaning diet.

  12. Effects of feed loading on nitrogen balances and fish performance in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of applying four fixed feed loadings to three replicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on water quality changes, nitrogenous balances and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Feed loadings ranged from 1.6 to 6.3kgfeed/m3 make-up...... water, with a constant make-up water renewal of 4.7% of total water volume per day in all twelve RAS. Fish densities ranged from 14 to 92kg/m3 during the prolonged trial of 10weeks. Selected water quality parameters were measured during two intensive sampling campaigns, evaluating biofilter...

  13. Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers

    OpenAIRE

    U Santoso

    2002-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707) were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter) and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib.) were tested as treatment factors. B...

  14. Early oral-motor management on feeding performance in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Abnormal brain sonography [odds ratio (OR: 2.222, p = 0.047 and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC (OR: 2.857, p = 0.017 did affect the first trial in the study group. Early intervention of oral-motor management in very-low-birth-weight premature infants improved feeding performance and neonatal outcome in terms of shorter hospital days. Abnormal brain image and NEC could interfere with the success rate of initial challenge of transitioning from tube to oral feeding in the study group.

  15. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to determine their effect on the growth performance of the fish. Two formulations were tested: Diet A - Formula 1 MARDI and Diet B - Formula 2 MARDI, which were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous with 32 % digestible protein and energy value of 14 MJ/kg. A commercial diet (Diet C was included as a control. At 15 wk of culture, fish fed diet C showed the highest growth performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR and specific growth rate (SGR. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 found among diets for weight gain and feed intake. However, FCR and SGR of Diet C were significantly better (P<0.05 compared to the experimental diets. The best FCR was recorded in Diet C at 1.17, followed by Diet A (1.42 and Diet B (1.46. Diet C also had the highest SGR with 1.99%/day followed by Diet B (1.70 and Diet A (1.67. Cost of both diets, A and B, was RM 2.50/kg compared to RM 3.50/kg for Diet C. Although the FCR of the commercial feed was lower than the experimental diets, the production cost of fish was RM4.11/kg for the commercial feed compared to RM 3.54-3.65/kg for the experimental diets. It is concluded that local feed ingredients can be used in formulating diets for catfish and they have no detrimental effect on the growth of African catfish.

  16. Improvement of mammalian cell culture performance through surfactant enabled concentrated feed media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Patrick; McDermott, Sean; Racicot, Christopher; Fann, John C H

    2013-01-01

    The design of basal and feed media in mammalian cell culture is paramount towards ensuring acceptable upstream process performance in various operation modes, especially fed-batch culture. Mammalian cell culture media designs have evolved from the classical formulations designed by Eagle and Ham, to today's formulations designed from continuous improvement and statistical frameworks. Feed media is especially important for ensuring robust cell growth, productivity, and ensuring the product quality of recombinant therapeutics are within acceptable ranges. Numerous studies have highlighted the benefit of various media designs, supplements, and feed addition strategies towards the resulting cell culture process. In this work we highlight the use of a top-down level approach towards feed media design enabled by the use of select surfactants for the targeted enrichment of a chemically defined feed media. The use of the enriched media was able to improve product titers at g/L levels, without adversely impacting the growth of multiple Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines or the product quality of multiple recombinant antibodies. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Interdemic variation in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri: correlations among hypoxia, morphology, and feeding performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaack, S.; Chapman, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive change in one character may affect associated, but functionally unrelated, characters in adaptive or nonadaptive ways. For example, adaptive change in gill size (i.e., larger gills in hypoxic habitats) may alter adjacent feeding structures and therefore have indirect effects on feeding behavior. This study examines whether differences in total gill filament length among populations of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri correlate with variation in trophic structures and feeding performance. Morphological measurements revealed larger total gill filament length in populations from low-oxygen habitats. Differences in external and internal morphology of the trophic apparatus correlated with those found in gills and suggest a reduction in food capture and processing ability in fish with larger respiratory apparatus. In paired feeding trials on a novel prey type, large-gilled fish spent more time feeding than small-gilled fish of the same body size without ingesting more food. This suggests less efficient food uptake in large-gilled fish from hypoxic habitats. We suggest that variation in gill size facilitates the broad habitat distribution of B. neumayeri but may limit the success of phenotypes crossing physicochemical gradients. (author)

  18. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed; Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passey, C A; Roy, D; Savoie, L [St. Hyacinthe Food Research Centre, Agriculture (Canada); Malo, R [AgriZo Vet Consultants, St. Hyacinthe, QA (Canada); Wilson, J [J.J. Wilson et Fils, Inc., St. Hyacinthe, QA (Canada)

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1{plus minus}0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author).

  19. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing, K.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage and inconsistent quality of forage in developing countries are the major constraints to the development of ruminant sector. To overcome these problems, feeding of ruminants with conserved forages is an important feeding strategy to ensure the success of ruminant production in the third world countries. The use of whole corn plant as silage has drawn many attention due to high protein efficiency, relatively high digestible energy and total digestible nutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine feed intake, growth performance and nutrients digestibility in goats fed different inclusion level of whole corn plant silage to Napier grass based diets. Fifteen male Boer cross goats around six months old and approximately 18.54 ? 1.83 kg of body weight were used as experimental animals. The goats were assigned into five treatment groups consisted of different proportions of Napier grass (G and whole plant corn silage (CS ?T1:100/0 G/CS; T2:75/25 G/CS; T3:50/50 G/CS; T4:25/75 G/CS and T5:0/100 G/CS. The increase of corn silage to Napier grass proportion demonstrates increase in dry matter intake and growth performance in the goats. The highest nutrient digestibility was observed in T5:0/100 G/CS and T3:50/50 G/CS. It can be concluded that high proportion of corn silage to grass diets had resulted in increases in feed intake and growth performance of goats. Feeding the animals with T5 and T3 resulted in high nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. However, the highest growth performance was observed in animals that were fed with T5 diets.

  20. Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokapirnasari, W P; Dewi, A R; Fathinah, A; Hidanah, S; Harijani, N; Soeharsono; Karimah, B; Andriani, A D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the production performance and economic analysis in quail which use probiotic supplementation to alternate antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) to feed consumption, water consumption, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and feed efficiency. About 240 quails ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 14 weeks of age were completely randomized into four treatments, each treatment consisted of six replications and each replication consisted by 10 heads. The treatment was T0 (organic feed without AGP and without probiotic), T1 (organic feed + 0.001% AGP), T2 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in feed), and T3 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in drinking water). The probiotic consist of 1.2×10 5 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus . The results showed that the probiotic supplementation both in feed and water give a significant impact to feed consumption, water intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, and quail day production, but no statistical difference of egg mass. The T3 also show the most profitable business analysis, which has the best result in income, profit, break-even point, return cost ratio, benefit-cost ratio, and return on investment. It can be concluded that giving 0.005% probiotic in drinking water to get the best egg production and profit.

  1. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  2. Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707 were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib. were tested as treatment factors. Broilers were feed-restricted for 6 days from 7 to 13 days of age and thereafter they were fed ad lib. Feed intake of restricted broilers during restriction period was calculated from feed consumed by ad lib. group in the previous day. Results showed that unsexed broilers raised in litter had higher body weight (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat and higher triglyceride concentration at 42 days of age (P<0.05, and lower liver fat and higher carcass percentage at 56 days of age (P<0.05. Early feed restriction reduced body weight of 42-day old unsexed broilers except for broilers fed 75% ad lib. At 56 days of age, restricted broilers had similar body weight to those fed ad lib. At 56 days of age, broilers fed 25% ad lib. had lower FCR (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat (P<0.05 and lower triglyceride concentration (P<0,05. In conclusion, unsexed broilers fed 25% ad lib. showed compensatory growth with better FCR and lower fat accumulation at 56 days of age. Broilers raised in litter had higher body weight and lower abdominal and liver fat deposition.

  3. Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification of feeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. A. Ghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes. The experimental goats were divided into two groups of 15 animals each labeled as control and treatment groups, which were kept under intensive farming system. Goats in control group were fed with normal routine feeding protocol practiced by the farmer, while goats in the treatment group were fed with new feed formulation. Throughout the experimental period, on-farm monitoring and data collection were carried out. Initial BW and body condition score (BCS were recorded before the start of the experiment while final BW and BCS were gained after 7 months of the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG was calculated after the experiment end. Data on BW, ADG, and BCS were recorded from both groups for every 2 weeks and reported monthly. The feed intake for the control group was 2.8 kg/animal/day which practiced by the farmer and 3.2 kg/animal/day as new feed formulation for the treatment group. Results: After 7 months of the experimental period, final BW shows an improvement in treatment group (39.1±1.53 kg compared with control group (32.3±1.23 kg. The ADG in treatment group also gives promising result when comparing with control group. Goats in treatment group significantly attained better ADG than control group which were 126.7 g/day and 83.3 g/day, respectively. For the BCS, goats in the treatment group had shown an improvement where 86.67% (13 out of 15 of the group had BCS =3 (1-5 scoring scale and only 66.67% (10 out of 15 of the control group had

  4. Performing in-feed type centerless grinding process on a surface grinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Wu, Y.; Sato, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a new centerless grinding method using surface grinder was proposed. In this method, centerless grinding operations are performed by installing a compact centerless grinding unit, consisting mainly of an ultrasonic elliptic-vibration shoe, a blade and their respective holders, on the worktable of a surface grinder. During grinding, the cylindrical workpiece is held on the ultrasonic shoe and the blade, and its rotational motion is controlled by the elliptic motion of the shoe end-face. An actual unit had been produced and its performance in tangential-feed type centerless grinding using a surface grinder had been confirmed in the previous workd. In this paper, the performance of the grinding unit in in-feed centerless grinding operation was confirmed, and the effects of the main process parameter, i.e., eccentric angle, on the workpiece roundness was investigated experimentally. The obtained results showed that: (1) the centerless grinding unit performed well in in-feed type centerless grinding; (2) the eccentric angle affects roundness significantly, and its optimal angle is 6 deg.; (3) the workpiece roundness can be further improved by varying the eccentric angle during grinding, and the final roundness reached 0.65 μm after grinding as the eccentric angle varied from 9 deg. to 6 deg. and to 3 deg.

  5. Feed evaluation, nitrogen requirements and the effect of supplementary feeding on the performance of small ruminants in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the quality of various sources of roughage available in Cyprus as well as to determine the protein requirements of milk producing sheep and goats. Throughout the experimental programme comparisons were made between sheep and goats. A range of gramineous and leguminous hays were fed to Chios sheep in order to measure the digestibility of different constituents and digestible energy values. These hays were analysed chemically and digestibility was estimated in vitro. The leguminous hays were of higher digestibility (66.5%) than the gramineous (57.0%) despite having higher concentrations of acid detergent lignin (5.95 vs. 3.55%). There was good correlation between in vivo and in vitro measurements of digestibility. A series of experiments was conducted to measure various aspects of protein quality and requirements for production. In field trials, grazing goats were fed supplements of barley with or without a protein/mineral supplement. The inclusion of the protein/mineral supplement improved performance in suckling goats but not during pregnancy or mid-lactation. The mean retention time of protein in the rumen of lactating and dry ewes and goats was estimated using Cr-labelled soybean meal. Effective digestibility values (degradability values related to outflow rates) were similar in the two species, but were greater in lactating than dry animals. The requirements for protein in dairy goats were determined at various stages of lactation. In early lactation approximately 140 g CP/kg feed DM were required compared to around 100 g in late lactation. Two sources of protein, soybean and fishmeal, were compared in diets for ewes and goats. Significantly higher milk production was observed in ewes fed fishmeal but not in goats. (author). 29 refs, 9 tabs

  6. Relationship between feed intake, feeding behaviors, performance, and ultrasound carcass measurements in growing purebred Angus and Hereford bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Hill, R A

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the growth, DMI, and feeding behaviors of Angus and Hereford bulls; identify the relationships between feeding behaviors and variation in DMI and residual feed intake (RFI); and determine the value of feeding behaviors in predicting DMI. Individual DMI was measured in Angus bulls (n=189; initial BW=427±3.4 kg) and Hereford bulls (n=146; initial BW=411±4.1 kg) fed a grower ration for 71 d in 2009, 78 d in 2010, and 74 d in 2011 using a GrowSafe intake monitoring system. Feeding frequency (FF, meals/d), head down duration (HDD, s/d), head down duration per meal (HDDM, HDD/FF, s/meal), average meal size [AMS, kg/(meal·d)], and feeding rate (FR, g/s) were also measured or calculated using behavior data collected by the GrowSafe system. Ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (UFT), longissimus muscle area (ULMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF) were determined during the midtest-weight event of every trial. The data from 3 yr were pooled to generate mean differences between the breeds. Residual feed intake was calculated using a linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW0.75 (MMWT). Animals were classified into 3 RFI groups based on their RFI score as Low (>0.5 SD below the mean), Average (±0.5 SD from the mean), or High RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean). Angus bulls in the Low RFI group consumed 17% (PAngus and Hereford bulls, respectively. The HDD, HDDM, and FR were significantly correlated with DMI. The feeding behavior traits, HDD, HDDM, and FR when added to the RFI base model, explained 18, 17, and 13%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT in Angus bulls. Similarly, in Hereford bulls, HDD, HDDM, and FR explained 35, 26, and 24%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT. These data suggest that feeding behaviors are related to DMI of growing Angus and Hereford bulls.

  7. The effect of restricted milk feeding through conventional or step-down methods with or without forage provision in starter feed on performance of Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, D; Khorvash, M; Ghasemi, E; Mahdavi, A H; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether step-down (STP) milk feeding method together with forage provision would improve performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, and structural growth of calves. Holstein bull calves ( = 40) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) conventional (COV) milk feeding without forage provision (COV-NF), 2) COV milk feeding with forage provision, 3) STP milk feeding without forage provision, and 4) STP milk feeding with forage provision. Calves in the COV method ( = 20) received 5.5 L/d milk until d 56 of age followed by 2 L/d milk from d 56 to 59 of age. Calves in the STP method ( = 20) received 7 L/d milk until d 35, 4 L/d milk from d 35 to 48, and 2 L/d milk from d 50 to 59 of age. All the calves received the starter ration from d 3 of the study until d 74 of age. Forage-supplemented calves ( = 10/milk feeding method) received 15% alfalfa hay mixed with finely ground starter as a total mixed ration. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age and remained in the study until d 74. Regardless of the milk feeding method, the final BW (92.54 vs. 83.14 kg/d), starter intake (0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d), total DMI (1.43 vs. 1.17 kg/d), and ADG (0.73 vs. 0.60 kg/d) were greater ( calves than those that received no forage during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. Milk feeding method had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA, acetate, or acetate:propionate ratio as well as body measurements. Ruminal pH and the molar proportions of acetate were greater ( calves than those that received no forage during the pre- and postweaning periods. Regardless of forage provision, STP methods increased ( feeding methods and forage provision with respect to BW, DMI, G:F, apparent nutrient digestibility (DM, OM, and CP), and body measurements. The interaction of milk feeding method and forage provision was significant

  8. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc.

  9. Growth performance, haematology and cost benefit of growing rabbits reared on different feed access times and restriction durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obasa, O.A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty growing rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes were used for 10 wk in a 4 x 3 factorial experimental design to test for the effect of different feed access times (2, 4, 6 and 24 h and different restriction durations (2, 4 and 6 wk on the performance, haematological parameters and cost benefits of growing rabbits. Data obtained were subject to a 2�way analysis of variance. Results showed significantly higher (p0.05 across the feed access time and restriction duration. White blood cell was higher in growing rabbits on 2-h feed access time for 6-wk duration of restriction while all other parameters measured for haematology were not significantly affected by the feed access time and restriction duration. Total cost of feed consumed was highest in growing rabbits maintained on 24-h feed access time. Cost of feed per kg weight gain was not significantly influenced across the feed access times and the restriction durations. It was concluded that for a reduced cost of feeding without an adverse effect on the performance and haematological profile, growing rabbits should be raised on not less than 4-h feed access time for 2-wk restriction duration.

  10. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2004-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding laying hens grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins. Parameters measured included performance, organ weights, and plasma chemistry. One hundred and forty-four, 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for a 12-wk period. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased feed consumption compared with controls in the first 4 wk. Feed consumption increased, however, from 4 to 8 wk and from 8 to 12 wk. The efficiency of feed utilization (feed consumption/egg mass) decreased compared with controls in the periods from 4 to 8 and from 8 to 12 wk when birds were fed contaminated grains. Supplementation with GMA decreased feed consumption and increased the efficiency of feed utilization in the period from 8 to 12 wk. Egg production and egg mass decreased in wk 4 and 8 compared with controls when contaminated grains were fed, whereas egg and eggshell weights decreased in the fourth wk. Plasma uric acid concentrations increased throughout the experiment and relative kidney weights increased at the end of the experiment compared with controls when birds were fed contaminated grains. The feeding of GMA prevented the elevation in uric acid concentrations and relative kidney weights. It was concluded that layer performance and metabolism were adversely affected by chronic feeding of a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins, and that GMA prevented many of these effects.

  11. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6(th) week. Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3(rd) week where it reduced significantly (pbroilers reared under deep litter system of management in Mizoram.

  12. Performance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior of Holstein steers fed different diets in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of dry matter and feeding behavior of Dutch steers fed different diets in feedlot. Were used 36 Holstein calves, from the same herd, with an average of 192 days and an average body weight of 221kg age. The experimental diets consisted of: T1: 100% concentrate diet; T2: 55% concentrate diet + corn silage; and T3: 55% concentrate diet + oat hay, and six replicates, where each replicate was a stall with two animals. Was no significant difference between treatments, and the treatment consists of the 100% concentrate diet had higher performance results with an average daily gain of 1.350 kg day-1; and feed conversion of 5.28 dry matter intake of 6.84. We evaluated also the 100% diet also influenced the feeding behavior, and the time for rumination, food consumption and water intake are respectively 2.75; 1.14; 0.15 hours day-1. The digestibility of dry matter was also a significant difference to the diet 100%, and this was around 76.37%. The diet showed 100% concentrate in terms of performance, an interesting alternative for termination of Holstein steers.

  13. Early nutritional intervention can improve utilisation of vegetable-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Michael; Migaud, Herve; Metochis, Christoforos; Vera, Luisa M; Leeming, Daniel; Tocher, Douglas R; Taylor, John F

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated nutritional programming in Atlantic salmon to improve utilisation of a vegetable-based diet. At first exogenous feeding, fry were fed either a marine-based diet (Diet Mstimulus, 80% fishmeal (FM)/4% fish oil (FO)) or a vegetable-based diet (Diet Vstimulus, 10% FM/0% FO) for 3 weeks. Subsequently, all fish were then fed under the same conditions with a commercial, marine-based, diet for 15 weeks and thereafter challenged with a second V diet (Diet Vchallenge, 10% FM/0% FO) for 6 weeks. Diploid and triploid siblings were run in parallel to examine ploidy effects. Growth performance, feed intake, nutrient utilisation and intestinal morphology were monitored. Fish initially given Diet Vstimulus (V-fish) showed 24 % higher growth rate and 23 % better feed efficiency compared with M-fish when later challenged with Diet Vchallenge. There was no difference in feed intake between nutritional histories, but increased nutrient retentions highlighted the improved utilisation of a V diet in V-fish. There were generally few significant effects of nutritional history or ploidy on enteritis scores in the distal intestine after the challenge phase as only V-triploids showed a significant increase (Pnutritional programming and the ability to respond better when challenged later in life may be attributed to physiological and/or metabolic changes induced by the stimulus. This novel study showed the potential of nutritional programming to improve the use of plant raw material ingredients in feeds for Atlantic salmon.

  14. Chemical Utilisation of CO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Chemical Utilisation of CO2: A Challenge for the Sustainable World. Dinesh Jagadeesan Bhaskar Joshi Prashant Parameswaran. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 165-176 ...

  15. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  16. Relationship among performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics, and their ability to predict economic value in the feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-12-01

    A 4-yr study was conducted using 736 steers of known Angus, Simmental, or Simmental × Angus genetics to determine performance, carcass, and feed efficiency factors that explained variation in economic performance. Steers were pen fed and individual DMI was recorded using a GrowSafe automated feeding system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada). Steers consumed a similar diet and received similar management each year. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine current economic value of feed efficiency and 2) identify performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics that predict: carcass value, profit, cost of gain, and feed costs. Economic data used were from 2011 values. Feed efficiency values investigated were: feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed to gain), residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG). Dependent variables were carcass value ($/steer), profit ($/steer), feed costs ($/steer • d(-1)), and cost of gain ($/kg). Independent variables were year, DMI, ADG, HCW, LM area, marbling, yield grade, dam breed, and sire breed. A 10% improvement in RG (P Profit increased with a 10% improvement in feed efficiency (P profit. Eighty-five percent of the variation in cost of gain was explained by ADG, DMI, HCW, and year. Prediction equations were developed that excluded ADG and DMI, and included feed efficiency values. Using these equations, cost of gain was explained primarily by FCR (R(2) = 0.71). Seventy-three percent of profitability was explained, with 55% being accounted for by RG and marbling. These prediction equations represent the relative importance of factors contributing to economic success in feedlot cattle based on current prices.

  17. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  18. Effects of different electron donor feeding patterns on TCE reductive dechlorination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakis, I; Antoniou, K; Mamais, D; Pantazidou, M

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates how the feeding pattern of e(-) donors might affect the efficiency of enhanced in situ bioremediation in TCE-contaminated aquifers. A series of lab-scale batch experiments were conducted using butyrate or hydrogen gas (H2) as e(-) donor and a TCE-dechlorinating microbial consortium dominated by Dehalococcoides spp. The results of these experiments demonstrate that butyrate is similarly efficient for TCE dechlorination whether it is injected once or in doses. Moreover, the present work indicates that the addition of butyrate in great excess cannot be avoided, since it most likely provide, even indirectly, significant part of the H2 required. Furthermore, methanogenesis appears to be the major ultimate e(-) accepting process in all experiments, regardless the e(-) donor used and the feeding pattern. Finally, the timing of injection of H2 seems to significantly affect dechlorination performance, since the injection during the early stages improves VC-to-ETH dechlorination and reduce methanogenic activity.

  19. Correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rita K C; de Carvalho, Gleidson G P; Silva, Robério R; Dias, Daniel L S; Mendes, Fabrício B L; Lins, Túlio O J D'A; Pereira, Maria M S; Guimarães, Joanderson O; Tosto, Manuela S L; Rufino, Luana M de A; de Araujo, Maria L G M L

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers reared on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers at an average age of 10 months and with an average initial body weight of 234.5 ± 16.0 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with two types of supplementation and eleven replications. Pearson's linear correlation analysis was performed between behavioral variables and weight gain and feed conversion. Correlation coefficients were tested by the t test. The time expended feeding at the trough was positively correlated (P correlated (P correlated (P correlation (P < 0.05) between feed efficiency in dry matter and neutral detergent fiber and ADG. Feeding behavior characteristics have little association with the production performance of cattle on pasture receiving mineral or energy-protein supplementation.

  20. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  1. Extreme Postnatal Scaling in Bat Feeding Performance: A View of Ecomorphology from Ontogenetic and Macroevolutionary Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Miller, Kimberly E

    2016-09-01

    Ecomorphology studies focus on understanding how anatomical and behavioral diversity result in differences in performance, ecology, and fitness. In mammals, the determinate growth of the skeleton entails that bite performance should change throughout ontogeny until the feeding apparatus attains its adult size and morphology. Then, interspecific differences in adult phenotypes are expected to drive food resource partitioning and patterns of lineage diversification. However, Formal tests of these predictions are lacking for the majority of mammal groups, and thus our understanding of mammalian ecomorphology remains incomplete. By focusing on a fundamental measure of feeding performance, bite force, and capitalizing on the extraordinary morphological and dietary diversity of bats, we discuss how the intersection of ontogenetic and macroevolutionary changes in feeding performance may impact ecological diversity in these mammals. We integrate data on cranial morphology and bite force gathered through longitudinal studies of captive animals and comparative studies of free-ranging individuals. We demonstrate that ontogenetic trajectories and evolutionary changes in bite force are highly dependent on changes in body and head size, and that bats exhibit dramatic, allometric increases in bite force during ontogeny. Interspecific variation in bite force is highly dependent on differences in cranial morphology and function, highlighting selection for ecological specialization. While more research is needed to determine how ontogenetic changes in size and bite force specifically impact food resource use and fitness in bats, interspecific diversity in cranial morphology and bite performance seem to closely match functional differences in diet. Altogether, these results suggest direct ecomorphological relationships at ontogenetic and macroevolutionary scales in bats. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative

  2. A Novel Feed-Forward Modeling System Leads to Sustained Improvements in Attention and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ashley F; Rose, Maya; Norris, Troy; Gordon, Eric

    2016-01-28

    This study tested a novel feed-forward modeling (FFM) system as a nonpharmacological intervention for the treatment of ADHD children and the training of cognitive skills that improve academic performance. This study implemented a randomized, controlled, parallel design comparing this FFM with a nonpharmacological community care intervention. Improvements were measured on parent- and clinician-rated scales of ADHD symptomatology and on academic performance tests completed by the participant. Participants were followed for 3 months after training. Participants in the FFM training group showed significant improvements in ADHD symptomatology and academic performance, while the control group did not. Improvements from FFM were sustained 3 months later. The FFM appeared to be an effective intervention for the treatment of ADHD and improving academic performance. This FFM training intervention shows promise as a first-line treatment for ADHD while improving academic performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. INFLUENCE OF SOIL FERTILITY AMENDMENT PRACTICES ON EX-SITU UTILISATION OF INDIGENOUS ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE AND COMMON BEAN IN KENYAN HIGHLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Nyaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF are important in agriculture and have received attention as they are considered a part of an active and diverse soil biological community essential for increasing the sustainability of agricultural systems. However, most of agricultural practices have a negative impact on AMF association and agricultural soils are AMF impoverished. Interventions to replenish AMF include re-introduction through inoculation or manipulation of existing AMF to increase density. A major problem with inoculation is that there is possible competition with native (indigenous AMF species. Indigenous AMF will be more adapted to the soil environment than introduced strains but with conflicting results on the effects of AMF inoculation on crop yield, more field studies for different ecological areas are required. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of inoculating crops with indigenous AMF applied applied singly or combined with other Soil Fertility Amendment Practices (SFAP on root colonisation and subsequent performance of maize (Zea mays L. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Analysis was also done on the best soil amendment practice that encourages crop colonisation by AMF. This was tested under field experiment and compared with control treatment (no soil amendment practice and three other soil fertility amendment practices used singly or in combination with AMF; (1 MAVUNO (macro- and micronutrients and secondary nutrients fertilizer, and (2 Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN and Triple Super Phosphate (TSP (3 cattle manure. Maize and bean performances were determined and compared between the treatments for a period of two consecutive seasons with the experiment replicated in two benchmark sites of Embu district (highlands of central Kenya and Taita-Taveta district (coastal highlands. Soils at Embu have high soil pH than at Taita which results in low phosphorus levels and possible micronutrients deficiencies. Even though

  4. Functional morphology of the feeding apparatus, feeding constraints, and suction performance in the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Philip J; Hueter, Robert E; Tricas, Timothy C; Summers, Adam P; Huber, Daniel R; Lowry, Dayv; Mara, Kyle R; Matott, Michael P; Whitenack, Lisa B; Wintzer, Alpa P

    2008-09-01

    The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is an obligate suction feeder that preys on benthic invertebrates and fish. Its cranial morphology exhibits a suite of structural and functional modifications that facilitate this mode of prey capture. During suction-feeding, subambient pressure is generated by the ventral expansion of the hyoid apparatus and the floor of its buccopharyngeal cavity. As in suction-feeding bony fishes, the nurse shark exhibits expansive, compressive, and recovery kinematic phases that produce posterior-directed water flow through the buccopharyngeal cavity. However, there is generally neither a preparatory phase nor cranial elevation. Suction is generated by the rapid depression of the buccopharyngeal floor by the coracoarcualis, coracohyoideus, and coracobranchiales muscles. Because the hyoid arch of G. cirratum is loosely connected to the mandible, contraction of the rectus cervicis muscle group can greatly depress the floor of the buccopharyngeal cavity below the depressed mandible, resulting in large volumetric expansion. Suction pressures in the nurse shark vary greatly, but include the greatest subambient pressures reported for an aquatic-feeding vertebrate. Maximum suction pressure does not appear to be related to shark size, but is correlated with the rate of buccopharyngeal expansion. As in suction-feeding bony fishes, suction in the nurse shark is only effective within approximately 3 cm in front of the mouth. The foraging behavior of this shark is most likely constrained to ambushing or stalking due to the exponential decay of effective suction in front of the mouth. Prey capture may be facilitated by foraging within reef confines and close to the substrate, which can enhance the effective suction distance, or by foraging at night when it can more closely approach prey.

  5. LEARNING ALGORITHM EFFECT ON MULTILAYER FEED FORWARD ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK PERFORMANCE IN IMAGE CODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMER MAHMOUD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors that affect the performance of Artificial Neural Networks is the learning algorithm. The performance of Multilayer Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network performance in image compression using different learning algorithms is examined in this paper. Based on Gradient Descent, Conjugate Gradient, Quasi-Newton techniques three different error back propagation algorithms have been developed for use in training two types of neural networks, a single hidden layer network and three hidden layers network. The essence of this study is to investigate the most efficient and effective training methods for use in image compression and its subsequent applications. The obtained results show that the Quasi-Newton based algorithm has better performance as compared to the other two algorithms.

  6. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Berto,DA; Garcia,EA; Móri,C; Faitarone,ABG; Pelícia,K; Molino,AB

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes). Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD) values used were 0.617mm and 0.72...

  7. Performance of juvenile mojarra supplied with feed containing varying levels of crude protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henrique Bastos de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth of the Brazilian aquaculture has stimulated the development of the productive chain of native species, including marine environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of juvenile mojarra fish (Diapterus rhombeus fed diets containing different concentrations of crude protein (32, 36, 40 and 44 g 100 g-1. The 80 juvenile mojarra (7.2±1.5 g were kept in 16 circular tanks (150 L. The study design used was completely randomized with four treatments and four repetitions. The fish were fed four times a day. At the end of the experiment (60 days the final weight, feed intake, weight gain (WG, feed:gain ratio (FGR, protein efficiency rate (PER, energy efficiency rate, specific growth, survival rate and, body composition were evaluated. It was verified significant effect of protein level on the WG, with the best value at the level of 38.20 g 100 g-1 of crude protein. For FGR, the best estimated value occurred with 38.06 g 100 g-1 of crude protein, similar to that reported for the PER (38.91 g 100 g-1. The other performance parameters and body composition were not influenced by crude protein levels. Diet crude protein concentrations between 38.06 and 38.91 g 100 g-1 provide the best performance indices for juvenile mojarra.

  8. Effect of feed supplement containing earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) on production performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.

  9. Crosslinkable mixed matrix membranes with surface modified molecular sieves for natural gas purification: II. Performance characterization under contaminated feed conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jason K.; Koros, William J.

    2011-01-01

    as 47% and 13%, respectively (Part I). The previous film characterization, however, was performed using ideal, clean mixed gas feeds. In this paper, PDMC/SSZ-13 MMMs are further characterized using more realistic mixed gases containing low concentrations

  10. The effect of different feed on the spawning performance of mud crab Scylla serrata broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethsy J. Pattiasina

    2013-11-01

    by PB.Keywords: spawning perform, broodstock feed, mud crab (Scylla serrata

  11. Effects of physical form of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Giménez, A; Juaristi, J L; Ahedo, J

    2007-06-01

    One hundred six female Holstein calves [body weight (BW) = 41.5 +/- 0.37 kg and 11.2 +/- 0.3 d old] were used to evaluate the effects of physical form of a starter on animal performance and starter intake. Calves were randomly allocated to 2 treatments consisting of either a multiparticle or a pelleted starter. Both starters had exactly the same ingredient and nutrient composition but differed in their physical form. Calves received 4 L/d of the same milk replacer at a 150 g/kg dilution rate in 2 offers of 2 L each until they consumed an average of 300 g/d of starter (as fed) for 2 consecutive days; then the dilution rate was decreased to 120 g/kg until the age of 49 d when milk replacer was limited to 1 daily dose of 2 L until 57 d of age. Calves were kept in individual hutches for at least 1 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 49 and 64 d of age. The median perimeters for the multiparticle and pelleted starters were 0.61 +/- 0.016 and 2.71 +/- 0.082 cm, respectively. Overall starter consumption was greater in calves receiving the multiparticle starter (944.8 +/- 30.01 g/d) than in those receiving the pelleted starter (863.9 +/- 32.04 g/d). There were no differences in the total milk replacer intake between the 2 treatments. Calf BW when leaving the individual hutches at the end of the study was similar between both treatments. Consequently, feed conversion efficiency was greater in calves consuming the pelleted than the multiparticle starter up to 64 d of age, mainly due to the greater conversion efficiency obtained with the pelleted than with the multiparticle starter after the preweaning period. It is concluded that pelleted starters may result in lower dry feed consumption compared with multiparticle starters, but because final BW was similar in both treatments, feed efficiency of calves consuming pelleted starters may be greater than that of calves consuming multiparticle starters. Therefore, when feeding a starter

  12. Embryo Development and Post-Hatch Performances of Kampung Chicken by in Ovo Feeding of L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azhar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate embryo development, post-hatch performances, and growth rate of kampung chicken treated in-ovo feeding of L-Arginine. A total of 135 kampung chicken fertile eggs (weight 42-43 g were used and divided into 5 treatment groups of three replications. They were placed in the semi-automatic incubator. The first group was without in-ovo feeding (negative control; the second group was in-ovo feeding of saline 0.9% (positive control; the 3, 4, and 5 groups were in-ovo feeding of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% L-Arginine, respectively. In-ovo feeding of L-Arginine were injected into albumen on day 10 of incubation period using automatic syringe in the narrow end side of egg by inserting needle through a small hole at 10 mm depth. After hatching, all day old chicks were placed in floor pens (1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m accordance with the previous egg groups. The results showed that in-ovo feeding of L-Arginine increased weight and circumference of the embryo, but did not affect the length of embryo. In-ovo feeding of L-Arginine resulted in a higher body weight gain and a lower feed conversion even though feed intake was not significantly different compared to the control groups. The growth rate performance up to 6 weeks rearing increased significantly by increasing L-Arginine administration to 1.0%. It can be concluded that embryo development and post-hatch performances of kampung chicken were markedly increased by in-ovo feeding of L-arginine.

  13. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  14. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  15. Administration of high amounts of two solid feeds to veal calves: effects on growth performance and slaughter traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects on growth performance and slaughter traits of two type of solid feeds (Maize grain vs. Mix administrated to veal calves in amounts exceeding the minimum recommended by the welfare legislation. Fifty Polish Friesian calves, housed in 5 group pens per each experimental treatment, were fed the same milk replacer diett twice a day. After milk distribution a growing amount of solid feed was distributed through the fattening period. The type of solid feed did not affect calves final body weight and average daily gain although intake of solid feed was higher innnnnnnnnnnnncalves fed the Mix diet. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were no significantly affected by the two diets. Despite the higher haemoglobin level resulted with the Mix diet, no relevant differences between the two feeding treatments were observed regarding carcass colour parameters that were suitable for the meat market.

  16. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  17. Effects of feeding different levels of corn steep liquor on the performance of fattening lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A; Sharifi, A; Mirmohammadi, D; Baluch-Gharaei, H; Rezaei, J

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding corn steep liquor (CSL) on in vivo digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia and hydrolytic enzyme activities, blood metabolites, feed intake (FI) and growth performance in fattening lambs. The CSL is a by-product of wet milling process of maize starch industry. The crude protein (CP), rumen-degradable protein (RDP), lactic acid and metabolisable energy contents of this by-product were 420, 324, 200 g/kg dry matter (DM) and 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively. Twenty-seven male Moghani lambs were assigned randomly into three groups of nine lambs each in a completely randomised design. Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets containing different levels (0, 50 or 100 g/kg dry matter) of CSL were offered ad libitum three times a day. Forage to concentrate ratio of the diets was 30:70. With inclusion of CSL in diet, the contents of canola meal, fish meal, wheat bran, corn grain and sugar beet pulp were decreased. The contents of DM, ash-free neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), ether extract, starch, Ca and S were numerically lower, but soluble protein, RDP and non-fibre carbohydrates were greater in the diets containing CSL in comparison with the control diet. The lambs fed with the diets containing CSL had lower [linear (L), p < 0.06] digestibility coefficients of DM and NDFom as compared to those fed with the diet free of CSL. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration increased (L, p < 0.05), but pH decreased (L, p < 0.05) with raising CSL level in diet. Carboxymethyl cellulase and filter paper-degrading activities decreased (L, p < 0.05), while proteases activity increased (L, p < 0.05) as dietary rates of CSL increased. Microcrystalline cellulase and ɑ-amylase activities were similar among the treatments. Within blood metabolites, only urea-N concentration increased (L, p < 0.05) in the lambs receiving CSL as compared to those fed with diet without CSL. Dietary inclusion of CSL resulted in linear decreases (L, p < 0.05) in the

  18. Temperament and dominance relate to feeding behaviour and activity in beef cattle: implications for performance and methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; Somarriba, M; Duthie, C A; Troy, S; Roehe, R; Rooke, J; Haskell, M J; Turner, S P

    2018-04-02

    In beef cattle, feeding behaviour and activity are associated with feed efficiency and methane (CH4) emissions. This study aimed to understand the underlying traits responsible for the contribution of cattle behaviour to individual differences in feed efficiency, performance and CH4 emissions. A total of 84 steers (530±114 kg BW) of two different breeds (crossbreed Charolais and Luing) were used. The experiment was a 2×2×3 factorial design with breed, basal diets (concentrate v. mixed) and dietary treatments (no additive, calcium nitrate or rapeseed cake) as the main factors. The individual dry matter intake (DMI; kg) was recorded daily and the BW was measured weekly over a 56-day period. Ultrasound fat depth was measured on day 56. Based on the previous data, the indexes average daily gain, food conversion and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. The frequency of meals, the duration per visit and the time spent feeding per day were taken as feeding behaviour measures. Daily activity was measured using the number of steps, the number of standing bouts and the time standing per day. Agonistic interactions (including the number of contacts, aggressive interactions, and displacements per day) between steers at the feeders were assessed as indicators of dominance. Temperament was assessed using the crush score test (which measures restlessness when restrained) and the flight speed on release from restraint. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression models. Steers that spent more time eating showed better feed efficiency (P=0.039), which can be due to greater secretion of saliva. Feeding time was longer with the mixed diet (P<0.001), Luings (P=0.009) and dominant steers (P=0.032). Higher activity (more steps) in the pen was associated with poorer RFI, possibly because of higher energy expenditure for muscle activity. Frequent meals contributed to a reduction in CH4 emissions per kg DMI. The meal frequency was higher with a mixed diet (P

  19. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  20. Performance Guaranteed Inertia Emulation forDiesel-Wind System Feed Microgrid via ModelReference Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [ORNL; Zhang, Yichen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Djouadi, Seddik [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Olama, Mohammed M. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a model reference control based inertia emulation strategy is proposed. Desired inertia can be precisely emulated through this control strategy so that guaranteed performance is ensured. A typical frequency response model with parametrical inertia is set to be the reference model. A measurement at a specific location delivers the information of disturbance acting on the diesel-wind system to the referencemodel. The objective is for the speed of the diesel-wind system to track the reference model. Since active power variation is dominantly governed by mechanical dynamics and modes, only mechanical dynamics and states, i.e., a swing-engine-governor system plus a reduced-order wind turbine generator, are involved in the feedback control design. The controller is implemented in a three-phase diesel-wind system feed microgrid. The results show exact synthetic inertia is emulated, leading to guaranteed performance and safety bounds.

  1. Zilpaterol improves feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T E; Gasch, C A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feeding performance and fabrication yield of concentrate-finished cull cows. Three hundred twenty commercial cull cows (2 to 10 yr old) were obtained from ranches in Missouri and South Dakota and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no ZH and 2) a diet that contained ZH. Cows were fed for 75, 88, or 110 d, and all received the control ration until ZH treatments were initiated. Twenty-four days before slaughter, ZH feeding began for the designated treatment pens; cows were fed ZH [8.33 mg/kg (100% DM basis)] for 20 d with a 4-d withdrawal period before slaughter. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between the 2 treatment groups for initial BW or DMI. Final BW (640.5 vs. 619.1 kg), ADG for the last 24 d (2.75 vs. 2.17 kg), and G:F for the last 24 d (0.160 vs. 0.126) were greater (P 0.05) were found for lean or skeletal maturity score, fat thickness, LM area, HCW, or calculated yield grade among the 2 treatment groups. Feeding ZH increased (P0.07) were found for the remaining fabrication yield attributes. The ZH-treated cows had greater (Pfeeding of ZH to concentrate-finished cull cows enhances production efficiencies and can add new value to the cull cow market. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of feeding mode and dilution on the performance and microbial community population in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hun; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kwon, Joong-Chun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2018-01-01

    The effect of feeding mode and dilution was studied in anaerobic digestion of food waste. An upflow anaerobic digester with a settler was fed at six different organic loading rates (OLRs) from 4.6 to 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d for 200days. The highest methane productivity of 2.78LCH 4 /L/d was achieved at 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d during continuous feeding of diluted FW. Continuous feeding of diluted food waste showed more stable and efficient performance than stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste. Sharp increase in propionate concentration attributed towards deterioration of the digester performances in stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste. Microbial communities at various OLRs divulged that the microbial distribution in the continuous feeding of diluted food waste was not significantly perturbed despite the increase of OLR up to 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d, which was contrast to the unstable distribution in stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste at 6.1kgCOD/m 3 /d. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  4. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2014-02-01

    Performance, rumen development, and metabolism of male Holstein calves (n=54) were evaluated according to 1 of 3 liquid feeding strategies: 4 L of milk replacer (MR)/d until 60 d old (4 L-60 d), 6L of MR/d until 29 d old and 4 L/d from 30 to 60 d (6L-29 d/4 L-60 d), or 6L of MR/day until 60 d old (60 d-6L). Water and starter were provided ad libitum. Intakes of MR and starter were monitored daily and body weight (BW) weekly. Blood samples for glucose and insulin concentrations and ruminal content samples for volatile fatty acids and ruminal ammonia concentrations were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d of age. Six calves on each treatment were euthanized at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Empty weights of forestomach and abomasum, papillae length, and mitotic index were measured. Average MR intake/d (expressed as a percent of BW) was greater for calves receiving 6L/d than for those receiving 4 L/d until 30 d of age. Calves on the 6 L-29 d/4 L-60 d had the smallest MR intake from 30 to 60 d old, followed by the 4 L-60 d and 6L-60 d treatments. Starter intake (kg of dry matter/day) did not differ between groups. It increased from 0.065 kg/d in the first month to 0.386 kg/d in the second month, and to 2.065 kg/d after weaning. Weight gain was greater for calves fed more MR in the first month, but no difference was observed during the second month. After weaning, 6L-60 d calves had greater rate of weight gain than others and were heavier at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Weight of empty forestomachs, ruminal pH, and ammoniac nitrogen concentration were not different among groups. Propionate concentration was lower for 6 L-60 d calves, but acetate and butyrate concentrations were not influenced by MR feeding strategy. Calves fed more MR until d 30 had greater ruminal epithelium mitotic index. The different MR feeding strategies did not influence papillae length or ruminal epithelium thickness. Lesions such as ruminal parakeratosis or hyperkeratosis were not observed. The MR

  5. Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mateus Z; Baez, Giovanni M; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Lobos, Nelson E; Guenther, Jerry N; Trevisol, Eduardo; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 μM; P maintenance in multiparous cows. Further studies are needed to confirm these responses and understand the biological mechanisms that underlie these responses as well as the timing and concentrations of circulating Met that are needed to produce this effect.

  6. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Kasiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW, dried Tubifex (DT, dried Gammarus (DG and prepared granulated feed (PGF, twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI, fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested.

  7. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H. Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. PMID:26497462

  8. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-01-15

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  10. Supplementary feeding of farmed fallow deer: effect on milk composition and fawn performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bovolenta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to study the effect of supplementary feeding offered to farmed fallow deer does on milk characteristics and on male and female fawns performance. During two years, 40 females were divided in two groups and assigned to two homogeneous paddocks of the same pasture: SUP group received 0.5 kg/d per female of supplement that was raised to 0.7 kg/d from the third month of fawns age, while HER group was fed only on herbage. Herbage availability and composition were monitored by exclusion cages. Female performance (body weight, body condition score and milk composition was recorded. Further, during the first year, performance and hematological parameters (non-esterified fatty acids and urea nitrogen were assessed. Fawns were weighed every 45 days until the end of the experiment, when the characteristics of their carcasses were recorded. Supplementary feeding reduced herbage gathering and quality, but allowed a full recovery of body weight and condition of does. The milk provided by the HER does to their female offspring was richer in fat (16.1 vs 14.2 g/100 mL and protein (8.76 vs 8.04 g/100 mL than that furnished to male fawns; the opposite condition happened for SUP does (12.6 vs 13.3 g/100 mL for fat and 8.04 vs 8.35 g/100 mL for protein. At slaughter, SUP fawns showed higher carcass weight (14.10 vs 11.26 kg, greater conformation score (2.1 vs 1.6 points and higher fat score (2.0 vs 1.2 points than HER ones, moreover male fawns presented higher carcass weight than female (13.62 vs 11.74 kg.

  11. Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Karcol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on nutrient utilization and production performance of dairy cows under field conditions. Balancing diets for crude protein without consideration of protein quality or rumen degradability often led to overfeeding of nitrogen and less than optimum production. High yielding dairy cows separated in two groups with 85 resp. 80 cows in each were set up for the trial. Groups were consistent according the stage of production and reproduction cycle as well as age structure. Both groups were fed concentrate mixture with the same composition with only difference in NPN/ microbial protein source, with same dosage of 100 g per cow and day. Field trial was performed for period of 3 subsequent months. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording. In both groups majority of cows were on first lactation. Significant differences in daily milk production were observed 2.87 kg (P<0.01 for group 2, in fat content 0.07 % for group 2 non-significant, whereas in protein content 0.18% for group 1 significant (P<0.01 in case of first lactations. If considering first tree lactations, group 2 produced 1.7 kg milk per day more (P<0.08, with 0.05% fat more and 0.002 % protein less than group 1. The space created in dry matter intake by a concentrated slow-release NPN can be filled with high quality forage that could reduce the cost of feeding while maintaining levels of production.

  12. Feeding kinematics, suction, and hydraulic jetting performance of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Marshall

    Full Text Available The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; P<0.01 than biting feeding events (0.18±0.08 s. Subjects feeding in-water used both a suction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land. Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; P<0.001 and gape angle (12.9±2.02°, pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by a large gape (3.63±0.21 cm and gape angle (28.8±1.80°; P<0.001 and lip curling to expose teeth. The maximum subambient pressure recorded was 48.8 kPa. In addition, harbor seals were able to jet water at food items using suprambient pressure, also known as hydraulic jetting. The maximum hydraulic jetting force recorded was 53.9 kPa. Suction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their

  13. Effect of physical form of forage on performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2013-02-01

    The physical form of forage may influence rumen development and, consequently, the body weight gain, dry matter (DM) consumption, digestibility, and welfare of dairy calves. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different physical forms of forage on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior of young calves. Twenty Holstein male calves (46.8 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding treatments in which they were exposed to a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3 to 4 cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2mm) grass hay (FN; n=10). All calves were offered 8L/d of milk replacer (MR; 1.2 kg of DM) from birth; the amount of MR was progressively reduced after 5 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. The study finished after wk 8. Consumption of the mixed ration, MR, and water was recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice weekly. Samples of feed and orts were taken in wk 7 and 8 for nutrient content analysis. Behavioral data for each calf were obtained for 2h/d during wk 6 and 8, for a total observation time per animal of 28 h. Total feces were collected during wk 8 to determine apparent digestibility. Calves fed CRS had greater DM intake than those fed FN (2.70 vs. 2.45 ± 0.11 kg/d, respectively) during the week after weaning (wk 8). Body weight gain was similar between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to have a greater gain-to-feed ratio than calves fed FN (0.68 vs. 0.63 ± 0.02 kg of gain/kg of DM intake). No differences were observed in crude protein and acid detergent fiber consumption between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to consume more neutral detergent fiber than calves fed FN during the last week of the study (719.2 vs. 610.5 ± 25.84 g/d). Calves receiving CRS sorted in favor of neutral detergent fiber to a greater extent than calves consuming FN, whereas calves fed FN sorted in favor of

  14. Design and performance of feed-delivery systems for simulated radioactive waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    Processes for vitrifying simulated high-level radioactive waste have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last several years. Paralleling this effort, several feed systems used to deliver the simulated waste slurry to the melter have been tested. Because there had been little industrial experience in delivering abrasive slurries at feed rates of less than 10 L/min, early experience helped direct the design of more-dependable systems. Also, as feed delivery requirements changed, the feed system was modified to meet these new requirements. The various feed systems discussed in this document are part of this evolutionary process, so they have not been ranked against each other. The four slurry feed systems discussed are: (1) vertical-cantilevered centrifugal pump system; (2) airlift feed systems; (3) pressurized-loop systems; and (4) positive-displacement pump system. 20 figures, 11 tables

  15. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janampet, Razia Sultana; Malavath, Kishan Kumar; Neeradi, Rajanna; Chedurupalli, Satyanarayana; Thirunahari, Raghunandan

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (preplacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  16. Simultaneous determination of eight cyclopolypeptide antibiotics in feed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporation light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuqin; Xie, Jingmeng; Zhang, Meiyu; Zhang, Yingxia; Li, Jiufeng; Huang, Qiwen; He, Limin

    2018-02-15

    A high throughput, reliable and reproducible analysis strategy based on high performance liquid chromatography combined to evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for simultaneous determination of eight cyclopolypeptide antibiotics including vancomycin, polymyxin B (polymyxin B1 and polymyxin B2), polymyxin E (colistin A and colistin B), teicoplanin, bacitracin A, daptomycin and virginiamycin M1 in animal Feed. Feed samples were extracted with methanol-2% formic acid aqueous solution, followed by a solid-phase extraction step using a HLB cartridge. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions and ELSD parameters, target compounds were separated well on a short column filled with biphenyl stationary phase. The method was developed in accordance with pig complete feed and then extended to detect polypeptide antibiotics in piglet premix, pig feed additive, poultry complete feed and fattening pig premix. The results showed that logarithmic calibration curves of eight analytes were linear (r 2  > 0.99) within the concentration range of 5-200 mg mL -1 . The developed method provided good accuracy and precision for quantification of eight polypeptides in five kinds of feeds with recoveries ranging from 72.0% to 105.4% with relative standard deviations antibiotics in commercial feed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  18. Ocean acidification induces changes in algal palatability and herbivore feeding behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Benítez, Samanta; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The effects of global stressors on a species may be mediated by the stressors' impact on coexisting taxa. For instance, herbivore-algae interactions may change due to alterations in algal nutritional quality resulting from high CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA). We approached this issue by assessing the indirect effects of OA on the trophic interactions between the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata and the brown alga Durvillaea antarctica, two prominent species of the South-east Pacific coast. We predicted that amphipod feeding behavior and performance (growth rate) will be affected by changes in the palatability of the algae exposed to high levels (1000 ppm) of CO2. We exposed algae to current and predicted (OA) atmospheric CO2 levels and then measured their nutritive quality and amphipod preference in choice trials. We also assessed consumption rates separately in no-choice trials, and measured amphipod absorption efficiency and growth rates. Protein and organic contents of the algae decreased in acidified conditions and amphipods showed low preference for these algae. However, in the no-choice trials we recorded higher grazing rates on algae exposed to OA. Although amphipod absorption efficiency was lower on these algae, growth rates did not differ between treatments, which suggests the occurrence of compensatory feeding. Our results suggest that changes in algal nutritional value in response to OA induce changes in algal palatability and these in turn affect consumers' food preference and performance. Indirect effects of global stressors like OA can be equally or more important than the direct effects predicted in the literature.

  19. Performance evaluation of PRIDE UNDA system with feed material of pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Su Jung; Seo, Hee; Lee, Chae Hun; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Park, Se Hwan; Ku, Jeong Hoe [Nonproliferation System Research Division, KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The PRIDE (PyRoprocessing Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) provides unique opportunities not only to develop process technologies but also to test various types of safeguards equipment for nuclear material accountancy (NMA), containment and surveillance (C/S), as well as process monitoring. In this regard, we developed a UNDA (Unified Non-Destructive Assay) system by incorporating three different non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques, i.e., neutron, gamma-ray, and mass measurements, for the testing of NMA of PRIDE. One of the main advantages of the UNDA is reducing measurement time and systematic error related to sample handling and placement by integrating the NDA techniques. The {sup 235}U mass can be determined from the {sup 238}U mass and uranium enrichment ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U). The {sup 238}U mass is acquired from total neutron counting using neutron detection module of UNDA, with the information on the spontaneous fission neutron yield of {sup 238}U and neutron detection efficiency of the system. Total sample mass is measured by using the mass balance. In our previous studies, the UNDA was developed and characterized for a calibration source. In this study, the UNDA was installed in PRIDE facility, and the performance of the UNDA was evaluated with feed material of oxide reduction process. In this study, the performance of the UNDA was evaluated with feed material of oxide reduction process: UO2 porous pellets made of DU. The neutron net count rate was obtained as functions of 238U mass. The measured net count rate fitted by linear regression showed good linearity. In addition, the 238U mass of unknown source was determined using the information of the detection efficiency and count rate obtained from the UNDA.

  20. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  1. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, for each extra gram of dietary free amino acid content/kg diet, the rate of lay and egg output decreased by 3.0% and 2.5 g per day, respectively, and the efficiency of methionine utilisation decreased by 4.3%. There was no interaction between frequency of feeding and amino acid supplementation. These results ...

  2. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  3. SUPPLY AND UTILISATION OF FOOD CROPS IN GHANA, 1960 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    Due to that much attention has been placed on sustainable management of agricultural ... Supply (import and export) and utilisation (for food, feed, seed, farm manure, waste and other uses) of food crops have ..... Cassava is mainly used in non-poultry livestock production, i.e., for goats, sheep, pigs and some ruminants.

  4. Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mateus Z.; Baez, Giovanni M.; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Lobos, Nelson E.; Guenther, Jerry N.; Trevisol, Eduardo; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 μM; P Cows fed RPM had a small increase in milk protein percentage (3.08 vs 3.00%; P = 0.04) with no differences on milk yield and milk protein yield. Additionally, in multiparous cows, RPM feeding increased milk protein (3.03 vs 2.95%; P = 0.05) and fat (3.45 vs 3.14%; P = 0.01) percentages, although no effects were observed in primiparous cows. In multiparous cows fed RPM, pregnancy loss was lower between Days 28 to 61 (19.6 [10/51] vs. 6.1% [3/49]; P = 0.03) or between Days 32 to 61 (8.9 [4/45] vs. 0 [0/0] %; P = 0.03), although, there was no effect of treatment on pregnancy loss in primiparous cows. Consistent with data on pregnancy loss, RPM feeding increased embryonic abdominal diameter (P = 0.01) and volume (P = 0.009) and amniotic vesicle volume (P = 0.04) on Day 33 of pregnancy in multiparous cows but had no effect on embryonic size in primiparous cows. Thus, the increase in plasma

  5. Relationship between body weight at first mating and subsequent body development, feed intake, and reproductive performance of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Meijerhof, R.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Kemp, B.

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the relationships between BW at first insemination and subsequent body development, feed intake, reproductive performance, and culling rate of rabbit does. Young rabbit does are vulnerable to body energy deficit in first lactation, resulting in

  6. Turbidity and salinity affect feeding performance and physiological stress in the endangered delta smelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Komoroske, Lisa M; Connon, Richard E; Geist, Juergen; Fangue, Nann A

    2013-10-01

    Coastal estuaries are among the most heavily impacted ecosystems worldwide with many keystone fauna critically endangered. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered pelagic fish species endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary in northern California, and is considered as an indicator species for ecosystem health. This ecosystem is characterized by tidal and seasonal gradients in water parameters (e.g., salinity, temperature, and turbidity), but is also subject to altered water-flow regimes due to water extraction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of turbidity and salinity on feeding performance and the stress response of delta smelt because both of these parameters are influenced by water flows through the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) and are known to be of critical importance to the completion of the delta smelt's life cycle. Juvenile delta smelt were exposed to a matrix of turbidities and salinities ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs) and 0.2 to 15 parts per thousand (ppt), respectively, for 2 h. Best statistical models using Akaike's Information Criterion supported that increasing turbidities resulted in reduced feeding rates, especially at 250 NTU. In contrast, best explanatory models for gene transcription of sodium-potassium-ATPase (Na/K-ATPase)-an indicator of osmoregulatory stress, hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin-a precursor protein to adrenocorticotropic hormone (expressed in response to biological stress), and whole-body cortisol were affected by salinity alone. Only transcription of glutathione-S-transferase, a phase II detoxification enzyme that protects cells against reactive oxygen species, was affected by both salinity and turbidity. Taken together, these data suggest that turbidity is an important determinant of feeding, whereas salinity is an important abiotic factor influencing the cellular stress response in delta smelt. Our data support habitat association studies that have shown greater

  7. Performance and endurance of a PEMFC operated with synthetic reformate fuel feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sishtla, C; Koncar, G; Platon, R [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gamburzev, S; Appleby, A J [Texas Engineering Experimental Station, Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research; Velev, O A [AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, CA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    Widespread implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) powerplants for stationary and vehicular applications will be dependent in the near future on using readily available hydrocarbon fuels as the source of the hydrogen fuel. Methane and propane are ideal fuels for stationary applications, while methanol, gasoline, and diesel fuel are better suited for vehicular applications. Various means of fuel processing are possible to produce a gaseous fuel containing H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CO. CO is a known electrocatalyst poison and must be reduced to low (10`s) ppm levels and CO{sub 2} is said to cause additional polarization effects. Even with no CO in the feed gas a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gas mixture will form some CO. Therefore, as a first step of developing a PEMFC that can operate for thousands of hours using a reformed fuel, we used an anode gas feed of 80% H{sub 2} and 20% CO{sub 2} to simulate the reforming of CH{sub 4}. To investigate the effect of reformate on cell performance and endurance, a single cell with an active area of 58 cm{sup 2} was assembled with a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) furnished by Texas A and M University using IGT`s internally manifolded heat exchange (IMHEX{sup TM}) design configuration. The MEA consisted of a Nafion 112 membrane with anode and cathode Pt catalyst loadings of 0.26 and 1.46 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The cell was set to operate on a synthetic reformate - air at 60 C and 1 atm and demonstrated over 5000 h of endurance with a decay rate of less than 1%/1000 h of operation. The cell also underwent four successful thermal cycles with no appreciable loss in performance. The stable performance is attributed to a combination of the IGT IMHEX plate design with its inherent uniform gas flow distribution across the entire active area and MEA quality. The effects of temperature, gas composition, fuel utilization (stoics) and thermal cycle on cell performance are described. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of Local Feed Ingredients Based Diets on Growth Performance of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Farahiyah, I. J.; Zainal, A.A.R.; Ahmad, A.; Mardhati, M..; Thayalini, K.; Yong, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    Formulating the right feed based on the requirements of the fish species is the main solver to reduce the high cost of aquaculture production. In formulating suitable diet, factors such as the sustainability or availability of the feed sources used, quality of the feeds and price of raw materials, need to be taken into account as well so that the diets can be formulated at least cost. Low cost diets using local feed ingredients were formulated in pelleted and extruded forms and fed to juvenil...

  9. Performance of crossbred heifers in different step-down waste milk-feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana Mergh; Lima, Juliana Aparecida Mello; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Saturnino, Helton Mattana; Reis, Ronaldo Braga; Barbosa, Fabiano Alvim; de Azevedo, Rafael Alves; Sá Fortes, Robson Vilela; Coelho, Sandra Gesteira

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consumption, performance, feed efficiency, glucose concentration, and the cost per kilogram of weight gain of crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n = 33) subjected to one of the three waste milk step-down strategies: 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T1), 6L-45d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T2), and 8L-30d/6L-60d/3L-90d (T3). Heifers were weaned at the age of 91 days. Water and starter were provided ad libitum. The average waste milk intake was higher in T3 than in T1 and T2 strategies until 30 days and between 60 and 90 days. The starter intake did not differ among the strategies until 45 days, but it was higher in strategy T1 than in strategy T3 between 60 and 90 days. The waste milk step-down strategy did not influence the total dry matter intake, average daily gain, body weight, and feed efficiency. Glucose concentrations in plasma varied within a range that could be considered normal and were similar among the treatments. The average cost per kilogram of weight gain was the lowest in strategy T1 (US$3.0) compared to that in the other strategies (T2, US$3.2, and T3, US$3.6). The 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d waste milk step-down strategy was the most effective, since it increased the starter intake, led to normal glucose concentrations in plasma, and caused similar weight gain compared with the other strategies; however, it had a lower cost per kilogram.

  10. Effects of nicotine on the digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds reflect their relative tolerance to this alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Nicolson, S W

    2015-12-01

    The paradox of secondary metabolites, toxic defence compounds produced by plants, in nectar and fruits is well known. Deterrence of feeding by nectarivorous and frugivorous birds is better understood than the effect of these chemicals on the digestive performance of birds. Digestive parameters such as transit time and sugar assimilation are important in assessing nutrient utilization and deterrence may be related to post-ingestive effects involving these parameters. Nectar and many fruits contain mainly sugars and water, and avian consumers compensate for low sugar content in their diet by increasing food intake: this may also increase their intake of secondary metabolites. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences compensatory feeding and digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds. High nicotine concentration negatively affected compensatory feeding and apparent assimilation efficiency of white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens; but nicotine slowed gut transit time only in the latter species. In contrast, food intake and digestive performance of dark-capped bulbuls Pycnonotus tricolor was unaffected by nicotine up to a concentration of 50μM. Bulbuls are primarily frugivorous; hence, they are more exposed to secondary metabolites than sunbirds and possibly white-eyes. Because their diet is richer in toxins, frugivorous birds may have evolved more efficient detoxification strategies than those of specialist nectar-feeding birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE PREDICTIVE DMC CONTROLLER PERFORMANCE APPLIED TO A FEED-BATCH BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. D. RODRIGUES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Two control algorithms were implemented in the stabilization of the dissolved oxygen concentration of the penicillin process production phase. A deterministic and nonstructured mathematical model was used, where were considered the balances of cell, substrate, dissolved oxygen and product formation as well as kinetic of the growth, respiration, product inhibition due to excess of substrate, penicillin hydrolyze, yield factors among cell growth, substrate consumption and dissolved oxygen consumption. The bioreactor was operated in a feed-batch way using an optimal strategy for the operational policy. The agitation speed was used as manipulated variable in order to achieve the dissolved oxygen control because it was found to be the most sensitive one. Two types of control configurations were implemented. First, the PID feedback control with the parameters estimated through Modified Simplex optimization method using the IAE index, and second, the DMC predictive control that had as control parameters the model, prediction and control horizons as well as suppression factor and the trajectory parameter. A sensitivity analysis of these two control algorithms was performed using the sample time and dead time as the index to make stability evaluation. Both configurations showed stable performance, however, the predictive one was found to be more robust in relation to the sample time, as well as the dead time variations. This is a very important characteristic to be considered for the implementation of control scheme in real fermentative process

  12. Performance equations of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with feeds of varying degrees of humidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsuen, Hsiao-Kuo; Yin, Ken-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Performance equations that describe the dependence of cell potential on current density for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with feeds of varying degrees of humidification have been formulated in algebraic form. The equations are developed by the reduction of a one-dimensional multi-domain model that takes into account, in details, the transport limitations of gas species, proton migration and electron conduction, electrochemical kinetics, as well as liquid water flow within the cathode, anode, and membrane. The model equations for the anode and membrane were integrated with those of the cathode developed in the previous studies to form a complete set of equations for one-dimensional single cell model. Because the transport equations for the anode diffuser can be solved analytically, calculations of integrals are only needed in the membrane and the two-phase region of cathode diffuser. The proposed approach greatly reduces the complexity of the model equations, and only iterations of a single algebraic equation are required to obtain final solutions. Since the performance equations are originated from a mechanistic one-dimensional model, all the parameters appearing in the equations are endowed with a precise physical significance.

  13. Effect of corn- and soybean hull-based creep feed and backgrounding diets on lifelong performance and carcass traits of calves from pasture and rangeland conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three separate studies were conducted to investigate the life-long effect of creep feeding, creep feeding energy source (soybean hulls, SC, or corn, CC) and interactive effects of creep feed with backgrounding dietary energy source (soybean hulls, SBR, or corn, CBR) on calf growth performance, carca...

  14. Growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of Mubende and Mubende×Boer crossbred goats under different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, D.; Mpairwe, D.; Kabi, F.

    2014-01-01

    A surge in the demand for goats׳ meat both locally and internationally has prompted many goat farmers in Uganda to venture into commercial goat production. However, goat production is highly challenged by breed characteristics and extreme fluctuations in feed quantity and quality. This study...... evaluated the effects of supplementing grazing Mubende goats and their crossbreds (Mubende×Boer) with concentrates on growth, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. A 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement was used to randomly allocate 96 pure Mubende and Mubende×Boer castrates (mean±SE; 31.3±2.2 kg initial...... regardless of concentrate type, however, inclusion of molasses resulted in lower concentrate intake. The Mubende goats were more efficient in utilising concentrate with molasses while the crossbreds utilised concentrate without molasses more efficiently. Average daily gain (ADG) was higher (P

  15. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  16. The effect of different feed restriction programs on reproductive performance, efficiency, frame size, and uniformity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Coon, C N

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feed restriction programs on breeder reproductive performance. In experiment 1, every day (ED), skip-a-day (SK), 4-3, and 5-2 programs were compared. Diets did not differ, and feed intake was identical in all groups. Four hundred twenty pullets were reared on each program. At 21 wk, 80 breeders from each program were individually housed to record performance parameters. Body weight and frame size were larger in ED pullets than SK, 4-3, or 5-2 despite equal intakes. Hens fed ED reached sexual maturity at a younger age than other groups. Hens fed ED also produced more total and settable eggs than SK hens. Egg weight was heavier in 5-2 hens than in ED with 4-3 and SK intermediate. Efficiency of feed utilization was best in ED hens. In experiment 2 the same programs were tested, but pullets were reared to reach equal BW. One hundred seventy-five pullets were reared on each program, of which 60 were housed. Feed intake was greater for SK, 4-3, and 5-2 than ED pullets to reach the same BW. Frame size did not differ, indicating that BW was the cause of differences in experiment 1. In experiment 2, differences in performance were attenuated but not eliminated by feeding to reach equal BW, suggesting that metabolic factors aside from BW are altered by feeding programs. The 5-2 produced larger eggs than ED with the trend among programs being identical to that in experiment 1. These results suggest that metabolic changes such as increased lipogenesis or alterations in body composition may result in larger eggs in feeding programs that include off-feed days. Mortality, fertility, and hatchability were not affected by feeding programs in either experiment. Body composition analysis indicated the importance of total lean protein mass as a threshold for the onset of sexual maturity. Programs like SK are less efficient than ED and may result in reduced performance.

  17. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, hematology, metabolism, and immunocompetence of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C K; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Karrow, N A

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, hematology, metabolism, and immunological parameters of turkeys. The efficacy of polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) in preventing these adverse effects was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, contaminated grains, and contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Feeding contaminated grains significantly decreased BW gains during the grower and developer phases, and GMA supplementation prevented these effects. There was no effect of diet, however, on feed intake or feed efficiency. The feeding of contaminated grains reduced total lymphocyte counts at wk 3 (P effect. Feeding contaminated grains significantly increased the percentage of CD4(+) lymphocyte populations during wk 6; however, there was no change in the percentage of CD8(+) and B-lymphocyte populations. Contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, which is a CD8(+) T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, was significantly decreased after 24 and 72 h by feedborne mycotoxins compared with controls. Supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented the decrease in response after 24 h. Secondary antibody (IgG titer) response against SRBC antigens (CD4(+) T cell-dependent) was significantly decreased after feeding contaminated grains compared with controls. It was concluded that turkey performance and some blood and immunological parameters were adversely affected by feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins, and GMA prevented many of these effects.

  18. Feeding Response of Tree Fodder Bhimal (Grewia optiva on Growth Performance of Castrated Male Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Nidhi Pandey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhimal (Grewia optiva is a fodder tree mostly found in mid hills of mid and far western region of Nepal. Bhimal could constitutes one of the main livestock green fodders, especially for goats when fresh green fodder become limited during the winter dry season. However, the feeding value of Bhimal leaves on growth performance of castrated goats probably has not been evaluated so far. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bhimal leaves feeding on growth performance of castrated male goats for 90 days. Altogether 16 growing castrated male goats of same breed, age and body weight were selected and equally divided into four treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 with four replications by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Four types of experimental diets were prepared having various levels (0 to 100% of Bhimal leaves as fodder. Experimental animals of Treatment 1 were fed with seasonal fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture, Treatment 2 with 100% Bhimal fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture, Treatment 3with 75% Bhimal fodder + 25% seasonal fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture, while Treatment 4 with 50% Bhimal fodder + 50% season fodder + 100 g concentrate mixture. All diets were fed ad-lib and experimental animals had free access to drinking water. The diets offered and refusal was measured daily and weight change was observed fortnightly. The result showed that fodder intake (g/d/animal and total dry matter intake (TDMI g/kg live weight of goats differed significantly (P<0.01, but concentrate intake was not differed significantly (P<0.01 among treatments. The highest dry matter intake per animal /day was in Treatment 2 (52.75 g/kg live weight followed by Treatment 4, Treatment 3 and Treatment 1 (51.7, 48.56 and 32.69 g/kg live weight, respectively.The average daily gain in body weight was observed highest in Treatment 2 (66.66 g/d followed by Treatment 3 (31.66 g/d and Treatment 4 (30.83 g. The growth rate was significantly (P<0

  19. Comparison of how different feed phosphates affect performance, bone mineralization and phosphorus retention in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hamdi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the comparative P bio-avalability of different sources of phosphate based on their effects on animal performance, bones mineralization and mineral retention in broilers. To achieve this goal, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, twenty diets were prepared including five different phosphorus sources, either mono-calcium phosphate (MCP or 4 different batches of di-calcium phosphate, to supplement non phytic P (NPP levels at 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg in the diets. In Experiment 2, three treatments were used: the low MCP diet was deficient in NPP (3.1 g/kg for the starter phase and 2.8 g/kg for the grower phase; the high MCP diet and the high TCP (tri-calcium phosphate diet included adequate levels of NPP (4.4-4.7 g/kg for the starter phase and 4.2-4.3 g/kg for the grower phase. Phytase was not added to experimental diets. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that an increase of NPP in the diet from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg increased weight gain and feed intake between d 1 and d 21 (Trial 1. Alternatively, tibia weight and ash percentage at d 21 responded up to the level of 4.5 g/kg and showed significant difference with birds of the 4.0 g/kg NPP group. In Trial 2, chickens fed with the high MCP and TCP had improved growth performances and bone mineralization. No differences were observed on the P availability among different mineral P sources. A level of 4.5 g/kg, NPP is recommended when phytase is not included to maximize both performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens up to d 21.

  20. Behavioral, Performance, Carcass Traits and Hormonal Changes of Heat Stressed Broilers Feeding Black and Coriander Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan D.M. EL-Shoukary

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done to determine the effects of feeding heat stressed broilers (Ross308 diets contain Nigella Sativa seeds or coriander seeds on Ingestive, panting behaviors, feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio, live body weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage, corticosterone, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4. Three groups were used; the first one is the control group, which fed on basal diet only and the second fed diet contains 1% Nigella Sativa seeds (black seed while the third group fed diet contain 2% coriander seeds. The previous parameters were recorded daily or weekly during the experiment or after slaughtering to collecting blood parameters. The results explained that, there was a significant increase in feeding behavior, feed consumption, weight gain and dressing percentage while there was a significant decrease in panting behavior, water to feed ratio, T3 level and corticosterone level. Moreover, there was no significance difference in drinking behavior live body weight, slaughter weight, feed conversion rate and T4 level (P<0.05. It could be concluded that, black seeds and coriander seeds can be used to alleviate the negative effect of heat stress in broiler during summer seasons in Egypt.

  1. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana Janampet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. Results: There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (p<0.05 in kids fed T2 ration with 50% replacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. Conclusion: It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  2. SuperLig® 639 Resin Performance using 8 Molar LAW Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-15

    All prior testing with SuperLig® 639 has been done with the aqueous concentration of LAW at ~5 M [Na+], where the resin sinks, and can be used in a conventional down-flow column orientation. However, the aqueous LAW stream from the Waste Treatment Plant is expected to be ~8 M [Na+]. The resin would float in this higher density liquid, potentially disrupting the ability to achieve a good decontamination due to poor packing of the resin that leads to channeling. Testing was completed with a higher salt concentration in the feed simulant (7.8 M [Na+]) in an engineering-scale apparatus with two columns, each containing ~0.9 L of resin. Testing of this system used a simulant of the LAW solution, and substituted ReO4 - as a surrogate for TcO4 -. Results were then compared using computer modeling. Bench-scale testing was also performed, and examined an unconstrained resin bed, while engineering-scale tests used both constrained and unconstrained beds in a two-column, lead and lag sequential arrangement.

  3. SuperLig® 639 Resin Performance using 8 Molar LAW Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.; Williams, M.; Restivo, M.; Hamm, L.; McCabe, D.

    2016-01-01

    All prior testing with SuperLig® 639 has been done with the aqueous concentration of LAW at ~5 M [Na+], where the resin sinks, and can be used in a conventional down-flow column orientation. However, the aqueous LAW stream from the Waste Treatment Plant is expected to be ~8 M [Na+]. The resin would float in this higher density liquid, potentially disrupting the ability to achieve a good decontamination due to poor packing of the resin that leads to channeling. Testing was completed with a higher salt concentration in the feed simulant (7.8 M [Na+]) in an engineering-scale apparatus with two columns, each containing ~0.9 L of resin. Testing of this system used a simulant of the LAW solution, and substituted ReO4 - as a surrogate for TcO4 -. Results were then compared using computer modeling. Bench-scale testing was also performed, and examined an unconstrained resin bed, while engineering-scale tests used both constrained and unconstrained beds in a two-column, lead and lag sequential arrangement.

  4. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on growth performance, digestibility, and gut integrity in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of peroxidized oils has been shown to affect pig performance and oxidative status through the development of compounds which differ according to how oils are thermally processed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding varying degrees of peroxidized soybean oil ...

  5. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were

  6. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2

  7. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  8. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the incidence of ascites in broilers in response to feed restriction and litter oiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-04-01

    The effect of feed restriction and the application of canola oil to broiler straw litter to contain respirable dust on growth performance, carcass traits, and the incidence of ascites was evaluated with 800 male broilers studied in two 6-wk periods. Two pens of birds were feed restricted. Two pens of birds received feed ad libitum for the 6-wk trial. One restricted and one ad libitum pen received biweekly addition of canola oil to the litter. At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fat pad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for the incidence of ascites at processing. A cross sectional image of each heart was digitally recorded and, using image analysis, the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. The right ventricular wall was removed and its weight was expressed as a percentage of total heart weight (PRVW). The 40-d BW was significantly greater in the ad libitum birds (2.07 kg) than in the feed-restricted birds (1.86 kg). The right ventricular weight (RVW) (1.69 and 1.92 g) and the RVA (0.35 and 0.40 cm2) were also significantly different between the two feeding treatments. The ascites score was significantly correlated to the RVW (r = 0.50) and RVA (r = 0.52). The RVA was also correlated to the RVW (r = 0.63). Oiling the litter did not result in differences in carcass characteristics. Litter oiling significantly reduced the RVA of the ad libitum birds (0.36 cm2) compared to the ad libitum birds that did not have oiled litter (0.44 cm2). Feed restriction reduced the incidence of ascites, but also reduced gain. Litter oiling in the feed-restricted groups reduced the RVA, but did not reduce mortality.

  9. Optimization of arc-start performance by wire-feeding control for GMA welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jong Gu; Ryu, Gyeong Su; Rhee, Se Hun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Cheol; Kang, Mun Jin [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Whan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The wire feeding system for gas metal arc welding usually consists of a wire feeder and a torch. In many industries, the distance between the wire feeder and the torch is generally 3 m to 5 m. In a conventional wire feeder, a direct current (DC) motor is used for wire feeding. However, a significant problem with this system is the impossibility of feedback control because of inner or outer impedance. In this paper, a digital wire feeder was developed by using a DC encoder motor and a push-pull torch. An optimized wire-feeding system was also developed by experiment. The welding process was observed using a high-speed camera. The resulting wire-feeding system exhibits low spatter generation and arc stability.

  10. Creep feeding effects on male Nellore calves influencing behavior and performance of their dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Leandro Soares; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; Detmann, Edenio; de Almeida, Daniel Mageste; Ortega, Roman Maza; Moreno, Deilen Paff Sotelo; Cárdenas, Javier Enrique Garces

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different schemes of calves' supplementation in a creep feeding system, on the behavior of Bos indicus calves and dams, and also the influence of the calves' supplementation on dams' performance. Forty-eight Nellore male calves (147 ± 7 kg body weight and 3 months of age) in the suckling phase and their dams (476 ± 9 kg and 6 years of age) were studied in a completely randomized design. The experiment was divided into two periods of 71 days. The treatments were 5- and 10-g supplement dry matter (DM)/kg BW day offered in periods 1 and 2, respectively (5S/10S); 10- and 5-g supplement DM/kg BW day offered in periods 1 and 2, respectively (10S/5S); 7.5-g supplement DM/kg BW day in both periods 1 and 2 (7.5S); and mineral mix ad libitum in both periods 1 and 2 (MM). No differences (P  0.05) in the first evaluated period. Calves from 10S/5S treatment spent more time suckling and less time eating supplements (P < 0.05) than 5S/10S treatment animals, in the second evaluated period. Dams of MM treatment's calves had more idle time and lower grazing time when compared with the mothers of calves from 5S/10S and 10S/5S treatments. It was concluded that different schedules of Nellore calves' supplementation on pasture do not affect their mothers' performance, and supplementation decreases the grazing time of calves in the suckling phase.

  11. Performance of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico during the dry season under traditional feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando; Anaya-Ortega, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Prospero-Bernal, Fernando; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, small-scale dairy systems (SSDS) represent over 78 % of dairy farms and contribute with 37 % of national milk production; however, they face high feeding costs. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of SSDS during the dry season in terms of milk yields, milk composition and feeding costs under traditional feeding strategies, to identify areas of opportunity for improving their profitability. The information was collected from 22 SSDS every month during dry season. Feeds were classified in quality forages (QF), supplements (SU) and straws (ST). Two factors were identified: factor 1-a positive relationship among QF, SU, milk yield and ration cost and factor 2-represented straw usage. Four feeding strategies were identified: (1) low-cost feeding strategy; (2) home-grown feeding strategy; (3) high-cost feeding strategy; and (4) straw-based feeding strategy. There were differences (P  0.05) differences among feeding strategies for fat and protein contents in milk. It is concluded that to improve performance and profitability and enhance sustainability in SSDS, farmers should base feeding strategies on home-grown quality forages, as it was the case in group 2 which showed lower feeding cost and better milk yield. It is also recommended to increase the inclusion of quality forages like grazing pastures and maize silages during the dry season and to avoid the inclusion of straws.

  12. Feed intake and growth performance of goats supplemented with soy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplemental feeding of soy waste on the feed intake and growth rate of goats. Twenty male crossbred (Boer x local goats were assigned to two isonitrogenous diet groups: one of commercial pellet and the other of soy waste. The commercial pellet (1.0% and soy waste (0.8% were provided on the dry matter basis of body weight (BW per day, to the respective group of each diet. The soy waste group had lower daily intakes of total dry matter (0.79 vs. 0.88 kg and organic matter (665.71 vs. 790.44 g than the group fed pellet; however, the differences on daily intakes for grass (0.62 vs. 0.64 kg, crude protein (96.81 vs. 96.83 g, and neutral detergent fibre (483.70 vs. 499.86 g were not significant. No differences were observed between groups for BW gain. The feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram of BW gain were lower for the group fed soy waste than for the one fed pellet. Goats fed supplemental soy waste have a lower total dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, and feed cost per kilogram of body weight gain than those fed commercial pellets.

  13. Reproductive performance and larval quality of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus broodstock, fed with different feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vutthichai Oniam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity, hatching rate and crab larvae quality of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, broodstock reared inearthen ponds, fed with different feeds, were studied for about 150 days. Results showed that average fecundity ofP. pelagicus broodstock fed with trash fish (569,842±243,173 eggs, shrimp feed (464,098±188,884 eggs, mixed feeds(544,875.3±169,357.3 eggs and hatching rate (50.78±25.19%, 62.33±26.79% and 50.86±20.76% were not significantly different(P>0.05. Zoea produced by female broodstock fed with mixed feeds had a significantly higher survival rate (89.47±5.03%,P<0.05 compared to those produced by female broodstock fed with trash fish (73.40±14.61% and shrimp feeds (67.33±12.80%, but the survival rate of megalopa and first crab stages was not affected. This study recommends that the mixed feedwas suitable feed for rearing of P. pelagicus broodstock in an earthen pond as evidenced by the quality of zoea I or 1 dayafter hatching and growth of female broodstock.

  14. Effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera and Leucaena leucocephala and growth performance of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ricalde, R; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E; Novelo-Ucan, W; Martinez-Romero, P; Segura-Correa, J

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera (MO) or Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and growth of rabbits. In experiment one, 45 rabbits (male and female) weighing 1.18 ± 0.15 kg were used. They were randomly distributed to three feed restriction treatments (20, 30, and 40%) with 15 rabbits each (9 females and 6 males) and they were offered M. oleifera (MO) ad libitum. In experiment two, 45 growing male rabbits weighing 0.63 ± 0.113 kg were used. They were randomly assigned to 0, 20, and 30% feed restriction diets, and they have free access to L. leucocephala (LL). Intake of MO increased (P  0.05), and economic efficiency was similar among treatments. Consumption of LL increased (P  0.05). Economic efficiency improved twice in feed-restricted rabbits (2.0 and 2.3 for 20 and 30%, respectively) in contrast to that of the control 0% group (1.1). The results suggest that rabbits restricted up to 30% and supplemented with either MO or LL did not affect growth performance and reduced feed cost.

  15. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (Pdepth of crypts, which might be involved in the compensatory growth and defence mechanism.

  16. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  17. Effects of the feeding system and breed on the growth performance, biometric features, and ruminal development of feedlot goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Sobolow de Souza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of 2 feeding systems and 5 breeding groups on the growth performance, biometric features, and stomach morphology of feedlot goat kids. The experiment utilized gender as a randomized blocking factor in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme. The study goats were from the Alpine, Anglo-Nubian, 1/2 Boer x Alpine, 3/4 Boer x Alpine, and 7/8 Boer x Alpine breeds. Half of the goats were fed an experimental diet, whereas the other half were given the same diet supplemented with 1.5 L milk daily. The kids were slaughtered after they attained 30 kg body weight. The 1/2 Boer x Alpine goats showed superior growth performance because they exhibiting considerable heterosis. These animals are especially easy to use given that there is no need to maintain cross-bred females (½ Boer x Alpine e ¾ Boer x Alpine in the flock. Using milk in the feed the animals does not adversely affect growth performance or biometric features. Moreover, it helps to reduce the total weight of the stomach and leads to a 51.39% savings on feed. Dietary supplementation of milk in goat feed is recommended so long as there is excess milk available on the property.

  18. Effects of fasting and feeding on the fast-start swimming performance of southern catfish Silurus meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G J; He, X K; Cao, Z D; Fu, S J

    2015-01-21

    This study investigated the effects of fasting and feeding on the fast-start escape swimming performance of juvenile southern catfish Silurus meridionalis, a sit-and-wait forager that encounters extreme fasting and famine frequently during its lifespan. Ten to 30 days of fasting resulted in no significant change in most of the variables measured in the fast-start response except a 20-30% decrease in the escape distance during the first 120 ms (D 120ms ) relative to the control group (48 h after feeding). The ratio of the single-bend (SB) response (lower energetic expenditure) to the double-bend (DB) response increased significantly from 0% in the control group to 75 and 82·5% in the 20 and 30 day fasting groups, respectively. Satiated feeding (25% of body mass) resulted in a significantly lower (36·6%) maximum linear velocity (V max ) and a significantly lower (43·3%) D 120ms than in non-fed fish (control group, 48 h after feeding). Half-satiated feeding (12·5% of body mass), however, showed no significant effects on any of the measured variables of the fast-start response relative to control fish. It is suggested that the increase in the ratio of SB:DB responses with fasting in S. meridionalis may reflect a trade-off between energy conservation and maintaining high V max , while variables of fast-start performance were more sensitive to feeding than fasting might be an adaptive strategy to their foraging mode and food availability in their habitat. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbugua, P N; Gachuiri, C K; Wahome, R G; Wanyoike, M M; Abate, A [Department of Animal Production, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Munyua, S J.M. [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, J M.Z. [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi (Kenya)

    1999-07-01

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author) 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbugua, P.N.; Gachuiri, C.K.; Wahome, R.G.; Wanyoike, M.M.; Abate, A.; Munyua, S.J.M.; Kamau, J.M.Z.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

  1. Feeding of Whitefly on Tobacco Decreases Aphid Performance via Increased Salicylate Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Zhao

    Full Text Available The feeding of Bemisia tabaci nymphs trigger the SA pathway in some plant species. A previous study showed that B. tabaci nymphs induced defense against aphids (Myzus persicae in tobacco. However, the mechanism underlying this defense response is not well understood.Here, the effect of activating the SA signaling pathway in tobacco plants through B. tabaci nymph infestation on subsequent M. persicae colonization is investigated. Performance assays showed that B. tabaci nymphs pre-infestation significantly reduced M. persicae survival and fecundity systemically in wild-type (WT but not salicylate-deficient (NahG plants compared with respective control. However, pre-infestation had no obvious local effects on subsequent M. persicae in either WT or NahG tobacco. SA quantification results indicated that the highest accumulation of SA was induced by B. tabaci nymphs in WT plants after 15 days of infestation. These levels were 8.45- and 6.14-fold higher in the local and systemic leaves, respectively, than in controls. Meanwhile, no significant changes of SA levels were detected in NahG plants. Further, biochemical analysis of defense enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POD, β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase demonstrated that B. tabaci nymph infestation increased these enzymes' activity locally and systemically in WT plants, and there was more chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase activity systemically than locally, which was opposite to the changing trends of PPO. However, B. tabaci nymph infestation caused no obvious increase in enzyme activity in any NahG plants except POD.In conclusion, these results underscore the important role that induction of the SA signaling pathway by B. tabaci nymphs plays in defeating aphids. It also indicates that the activity of β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase may be positively correlated with resistance to aphids.

  2. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  3. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van Reenen, C G; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2 successive 12-wk periods (period 1 and period 2). In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, effects of partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 and partially replacing dry matter (DM) intake from maize silage and barley straw by concentrate during period 2 were tested. Solid feed during period 1 consisted of maize silage, barley straw, and concentrate (25:25:50 on a DM basis). Solid feed during period 2 consisted of maize silage and barley straw (50:50 ratio on DM basis) for the nonconcentrate groups, and maize silage, barley straw and concentrates (25:25:50 on a DM basis) for the concentrate groups. At the end of period 1 (n=16) and at the end of period 2 (n=90), parameters of animal performance, rumen development, rumen fermentation, ruminal drinking, and abomasal damage were examined. Partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 resulted in early rumen development (ERD) at the end of period 1, characterized by increased rumen weight, and an increased epithelial and absorptive surface area. Both ERD and partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased the rumen development score at the end of period 2. Although ERD calves consumed more solid feed and less milk replacer during period 1 and 2 than non-ERD calves, carcass weight gains at 25 wk were identical, and utilization of the solid feed provided appeared similar to that of milk replacer. Partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased dressing percentage and warm carcass weight. Plaque formation at the rumen mucosa was unaffected by ERD or partially replacing roughage by concentrates and generally low in all calves. The prevalence of large scars in

  4. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling (Tor tambra fingerlings fed a formulated diet with different doses of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlisin Zainal A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol in the diet of keureling, Tor tambra (Val. fingerlings for optimal growth performance and feed utilization. Five doses of vitamin E were tested: 0 mg kg−1 feed (control; 150 mg kg−1 feed; 300 mg kg−1 feed; 450 mg kg−1 feed; 600 mg kg−1. The feed ratio was 5% body weight, which was delivered twice daily at 08:00 and 17:00 for 60 days. The results showed that higher growth performance, feeding conversion ratios, feed efficiency, protein retention, and protein digestibility were obtained at 600 mg kg−1 feed, but the value was not significantly different from the other doses. The optimal dose in terms of the hepatosomatic index and survival rate was 300 mg kg−1. Hence, it was concluded that the optimum, most economical dose of vitamin E supplement for keureling (T. tambra was 150 mg kg−1 feed, because this value was not significantly different from the doses of 300 and 600 mg kg−1 feed.

  5. Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P hens. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. A PERFORMANCE MODELING AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR A FEED WATER UNIT OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The present paper discusses the performance modeling and decision support system for a feed water unit of a thermal power plant using the concept of performance analysis and modeling. A feed water unit ensures a proper supply of water for the sound functioning of a thermal power plant. The decision support system for a feed water unit has been developed with the help of performance modeling using a probabilistic approach. After drawing a transition diagram, differential equations are generated. After that, steady state probabilities are determined. Some decision matrices are also developed, which provide various performance levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates of all subsystems. Based upon various availability values obtained in decision matrices and plots of failure rates / repair rates of various subsystems, the performance of each subsystem is analyzed, and maintenance decisions are made for all subsystems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vertoningsanalise en –modellering word gedoen vir die toevoerwatersisteem van ‘n termiese kragstasie. Toevoerwater is ‘n belangrike factor vir die doeltreffende bedryf van ‘n kragstasie. Die vertoningsanalise en –model is probalisties van aard. ‘n Toestandoorgangsdiagram en bypassende differensiaalvergelykings word gebruik, gevolg deur bepaling van die bestandige sisteemtoestand. Bykomende aandag word gegee aan relevante subsisteme. Die vertoning van subsisteme word gebasseer op verskeie beskikbaarheidswaardes om sodoende instandhouding to optimiseer.

  8. Low nitrous oxide production in intermittent-feed high performance nitritating reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Qingxian; Jensen, Malene M.; Smets, Barth F.

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production from autotrophic nitrogen removal processes, especially nitritating systems, is of growing concern. N2O dynamics were characterized and N2O production factors were quantified in two lab-scale intermittent-feed nitritating SBRs. 93 ± 14% of the oxidized ammonium...... was converted to nitrite, with the average total net N2O production of 2.1 ± 0.7% of the ammonium oxidized. Operation with intermittent feeding appears an effective optimization approach to mitigate N2O emissions from nitritating systems. Net N2O production rates transiently increased with a rise in pH after...

  9. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246...... periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy...... of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability...

  10. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A K

    2015-07-01

    This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (pChayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  11. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lalthansanga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1 on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration at 0% (G1, 20% (G2, 30% (G3, and 40% (G4. Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05, although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01 as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  12. Feeding kinematics and performance of Hawaiian stream gobies, Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor: linkage of functional morphology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Wilson, Megan P; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-03-01

    Distributions of Hawaiian stream fishes are typically interrupted by waterfalls that divide streams into multiple segments. Larvae hatch upstream, are flushed into the ocean, and must climb these waterfalls to reach adult habitats when returning back to freshwater as part of an amphidromous life cycle. Stream surveys and studies of climbing performance show that Lentipes concolor Gill can reach fast-flowing upper stream segments but that Awaous guamensis Valenciennes reaches only slower, lower stream segments. Gut content analyses for these two species indicate considerable overlap in diet, suggesting that feeding kinematics and performance of these two species might be comparable. Alternatively, feeding kinematics and performance of these species might be expected to differ in relation to the different flow regimes in their habitat (feeding in faster stream currents for L. concolor versus in slower currents for A. guamensis). To test these alternative hypotheses, we compared food capturing kinematics and performance during suction feeding behaviors of A. guamensis and L. concolor using morphological data and high-speed video. Lentipes concolor showed both a significantly larger gape angle and faster jaw opening than A. guamensis. Geometric models calculated that despite the inverse relationship of gape size and suction pressure generation, the fast jaw motions of L. concolor allow it to achieve higher pressure differentials than A. guamensis. Such elevated suction pressure would enhance the ability of L. concolor to successfully capture food in the fast stream reaches it typically inhabits. Differences in jaw morphology may contribute to these differences in performance, as the lever ratio for jaw opening is about 10% lower in L. concolor compared with A. guamensis, suiting the jaws of L. concolor better for fast opening. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Prediction of Improved Performance of Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactor by Periodic Modulation of the Feed Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staněk, Vladimír; Hanika, Jiří; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Stavárek, Petr; Tukač, V.; Lederer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 251-257 ISSN 1451-9372 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : trickle bed * feed modulation * catalytic reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Characterization of feed channel spacer performance using geometries obtained by X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Haaksman, Viktor A.; Siddiqui, Amber; Schellenberg, Carsten; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    design from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The method revealed that the filaments of industrial spacers have a highly variable cross-section size and shape, which impact the flow characteristics in the feed channel. The pressure drop and friction

  15. Environmental quality and natural food performance at feeding sites in a carp (Cyprinus carpio) pond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Z.; Mrkvová, Markéta; Zukal, Jan; Roche, Kevin Francis; Mikl, Libor; Šlapanský, Luděk; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1591-1606 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Pond aquaculture * Supplemental feeding * Zooplankton * Macrozoobenthos * Oxygen * Turbidity Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  16. Fishmeal with different levels of biogenic amines in Aquafeed: Comparison of feed protein quality, fish growth performance, and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh; Wagner, Liane; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of fishmeal quality (low (LB) and high (HB) levels of endogenous biogenic amines) and feed extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) on protein oxidation indicators and amino acids racemization (AAR) in extruded fish feed. Furthermore, the study investigated......, secondary oxidation products, and racemized methionine correlated positively with a low content of biogenic amines, whereas the primary oxidation product, protein hydroperoxides, and in vivo AAs digestibility correlated positively with high content of biogenic amines. At an extrusion temperature of 100 °C......, the growth performance of the fish decreased when the content of biogenic amines increased. In contrast, at an extrusion temperature of 130 °C, the growth performance was unaffected by the level of biogenic amines. The latter could be a consequence of the higher level of protein oxidation of LB fishmeal...

  17. Impact of hygiene of housing conditions on performance and health of two pig genetic lines divergent for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelet, A; Gondret, F; Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Friggens, N C; Le Floc'h, N

    2018-02-01

    Pigs selected for high performance may be more at risk of developing diseases. This study aimed to assess the health and performance of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) (low RFI (LRFI) v. high RFI (HRFI)) and housed in two contrasted hygiene conditions (poor v. good) using a 2×2 factorial design (n=40/group). The challenge period (Period 1), started on week zero (W0) when 12-week-old pigs were transferred to good or poor housing conditions. At week 6 (W6), half of the pigs in each group were slaughtered. During a recovery period (Period 2) from W6 to W13 to W14, the remaining pigs (n=20/group) were transferred in good hygiene conditions before being slaughtered. Blood was collected every three (Period 1) or 2 weeks (Period 2) to assess blood indicators of immune and inflammatory responses. Pulmonary lesions at slaughter and performance traits were evaluated. At W6, pneumonia prevalence was greater for pigs housed in poor than in good conditions (51% v. 8%, respectively, Phygiene conditions, lung lesion scores were lower for LRFI pigs than for HRFI pigs (P=0.03). At W3, LRFI in poor conditions had the highest number of blood granulocytes (hygiene×line, P=0.03) and at W6, HRFI pigs in poor conditions had the greatest plasma haptoglobin concentrations (hygiene×line, P=0.02). During Period 1, growth rate and growth-to-feed ratio were less affected by poor hygiene in LRFI pigs than in HRFI pigs (hygiene×line, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). Low residual feed intake pigs in poor conditions ate more than the other groups (hygiene×line, P=0.002). Irrespective of the line, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were higher in poor conditions, whereas fasting free fatty acids concentrations were lower than in good conditions. At the end of Period 2, pneumonia prevalence was similar for both housing conditions (39% v. 38%, respectively). During Period 2, plasma protein concentrations were greater for pigs previously housed in poor than

  18. Corn defense responses to nitrogen availability and subsequent performance and feeding preferences of beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-Li; Hardy, Giles; Liu, Zhu-Dong; Wei, Wei; Dai, Hua-Guo

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have reported the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on plant constitutive defense responses; however, little is known about their effects on plant induced defense patterns and its consequence for insect herbivores. In our experiments, the effects of N availability on growth, nutritional quality (N content, protein/carbohydrate [P:C] ratio, modified gross energy [MGE]), and constitutive phenolics of corn, Zea mays L. were quantified. Moreover, the indirect effects of N fertilization on the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner through larval performance and feeding preference were examined. N fertilization increased plant growth, and depressed defense traits by increasing N content and the P:C ratio, as well as decreasing the constitutive concentration of phenolics. Subsequently, beet armyworm showed higher performance and preferentially fed on high-N corn because of its low defense traits. After beet armyworm feeding, high-N corn significantly deterred larval feeding, and had negative effects on the performance of beet armyworm through decreasing P:C ratio and increasing induced phenolics. On the contrary, there were no significant changes in P:C ratio and phenolics in low-N corn after feeding damage. Larval performance and preference were also not affected by induced compounds in low-N corn, which suggested that the expression of induced defense was dependent on N availability. The result indicates that N availability can exert a variety of bottom-up effect on plant defense patterns to influence insect population dynamics, and thereby may represent a source of variation in plant-insect interactions.

  19. German mires - Utilisation and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderfeld, H.

    1996-01-01

    Mires in Germany are mainly used for agriculture. Peat mining is important regionally, but forest utilisation less so. Twenty years ago in the former West Germany, the first steps from peatland utilisation to peatland protection were taken. Bog protection programmes were developed first. Nowadays research directed to fen protection has begun, prompted by the decreasing importance of agriculture in Central Europe and an increasing environmental awareness. The situation regarding mire protection in Germany is presented for each Federal State individually. A rough estimate suggests 45 000 ha of protected bogs and 25 000 ha of protected fens. These areas include natural and semi-natural mires as well as rewetted mires. (30 refs.)

  20. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  1. Population performance of collembolans feeding on soil fungi from different ecological niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Johansen, A.; Larsen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    The potential reproductive value of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Gloinus intraradices and Glomus invermaium), root pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum) and saprotrophic fungi (Penicillium hordei and Trichoderma harzianum) were examined for the collembolans Folsomia candida....... Different quality indicators such as the C:N ratio of the fungal food sources as well as other biological parameters are discussed in relation to their reproductive value and Collembola preferential feeding. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Influence of global atmospheric change on the feeding behavior and growth performance of a mammalian herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Habeck

    Full Text Available Global atmospheric change is influencing the quality of plants as a resource for herbivores. We investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 and ozone (O3 on the phytochemistry of two forbs, Solidago canadensis and Taraxacum officinale, and the subsequent feeding behavior and growth performance of weanling prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster feeding on those plants. Plants for the chemical analyses and feeding trials were harvested from the understory of control (ambient air, elevated CO2 (560 µl CO2 l(-1, and elevated O3 (ambient × 1.5 rings at the Aspen FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. We assigned individual voles to receive plants from only one FACE ring and recorded plant consumption and weanling body mass for seven days. Elevated CO2 and O3 altered the foliar chemistry of both forbs, but only female weanling voles on the O3 diet showed negative responses to these changes. Elevated CO2 increased the fiber fractions of both plant species, whereas O3 fumigation elicited strong responses among many phytochemical components, most notably increasing the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio by 40% and decreasing N by 26%. Consumption did not differ between plant species or among fumigation treatments. Male voles were unaffected by the fumigation treatments, whereas female voles grew 36% less than controls when fed O3-grown plants. These results demonstrate that global atmospheric change has the potential to affect the performance of a mammalian herbivore through changes in plant chemistry.

  3. Influence of global atmospheric change on the feeding behavior and growth performance of a mammalian herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, Christopher W; Lindroth, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Global atmospheric change is influencing the quality of plants as a resource for herbivores. We investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the phytochemistry of two forbs, Solidago canadensis and Taraxacum officinale, and the subsequent feeding behavior and growth performance of weanling prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) feeding on those plants. Plants for the chemical analyses and feeding trials were harvested from the understory of control (ambient air), elevated CO2 (560 µl CO2 l(-1)), and elevated O3 (ambient × 1.5) rings at the Aspen FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. We assigned individual voles to receive plants from only one FACE ring and recorded plant consumption and weanling body mass for seven days. Elevated CO2 and O3 altered the foliar chemistry of both forbs, but only female weanling voles on the O3 diet showed negative responses to these changes. Elevated CO2 increased the fiber fractions of both plant species, whereas O3 fumigation elicited strong responses among many phytochemical components, most notably increasing the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio by 40% and decreasing N by 26%. Consumption did not differ between plant species or among fumigation treatments. Male voles were unaffected by the fumigation treatments, whereas female voles grew 36% less than controls when fed O3-grown plants. These results demonstrate that global atmospheric change has the potential to affect the performance of a mammalian herbivore through changes in plant chemistry.

  4. Simultaneous determination of diaveridine, trimethoprim and ormetoprim in feed using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Xi-Wang; Li, Bing; Li, Shi-Hong; Kong, Xiao-Jun; Qin, Zhe; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-12-01

    This study developed and validated a simple and reliable method for detecting and quantifying DVD, TMP and OMP in feed using dichloromethane extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. A matrix effect evaluation was performed using the post-extraction spiking method, and levels were less than ±15% in all three feeds with their corresponding concentrations. LOD and LOQ, CCα and CCβ were 20μgkg(-1) and 40μgkg(-1), 8.68-15.55μgkg(-1) and 10.61-18.92μgkg(-1) for all analytes, respectively. Calibration curves were linear for DVD, TMP and OMP with R(2)⩾0.990 and r⩾0.995, respectively. Recoveries of low, medium and high concentrations using the proposed method ranged from 74.4 to 105.2%. Repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were <7.4% (RSD). The chosen seven factors had no a significant influence on robustness. The method showed good performance when it was applied to analyze other laboratory-prepared or actual feed samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Competing Role of Bioactive Constituents in Moringa oleifera Extract and Conventional Nutrition Feed on the Performance of Cobb 500 Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Karthivashan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Moringa oleifera (MO leaf extract as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and antioxidant parameters was evaluated on broiler meat and the compounds responsible for the corresponding antioxidant activity were identified. 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/v of MO leaf aqueous extracts (MOLE were prepared, and nutritional feed supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/w of MO leaf meal (MOLM extracts were also prepared and analysed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the treated broiler groups (control (T1 and treatment (T2, T3, and T4 were evaluated for performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status. The results of this study revealed that, among the broilers fed MOLM, the broilers fed 0.5% w/w MOLM (T2 exhibited enhanced meat quality and antioxidant status (P<0.05. However, the antioxidant activity of the MOLE is greater than that of the MOLM. The LC-MS/MS analysis of MOLM showed high expression of isoflavones and fatty acids from soy and corn source, which antagonistically inhibit the expression of the flavonoids/phenols in the MO leaves thereby masking its antioxidant effects. Thus, altering the soy and corn gradients in conventional nutrition feed with 0.5% w/w MO leaves supplement would provide an efficient and cost-effective feed supplement.

  6. The influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Molette, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of ducks. In total, 624 one-day-old male mule ducks (Cairina moschata × Anas platyrhynchos) were divided into 3 groups differing in the diet they received between 56 and 84 d of age: a commercial complete pelleted diet (control group; AMEn 12.1 MJ/kg, CP 15%), or corn whole seeds (AMEn 14.4 MJ/kg, CP 7.3%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 9.9 MJ/kg, CP 22.7%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with corn (CFC) group]; or triticale whole seeds (AMEn 13.0 MJ/kg, CP 10.5%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 11.2 MJ/kg, CP 19.5%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with triticale (CFT) group]. From 85 to 96 d, 96 birds/group were overfed with corn. Feed intake (complete pellets or cereal and protein-rich pellets) per pen was measured at 60, 62, 65, 69, 78, and 84 d of age. Body weight and body traits were measured at 56 to 84 d of age. Over the entire period, from 56 to 84 d, the feed intake of the CFC group was 7% lower than the control group, and 5% lower than that in the CFT group (P = 0.002). Whatever the diet tested, at 56 and 84 d of age, the BW (4,099 and 4,779 g, P = 0.42 and P = 0.35, respectively) and the carcass traits (P > 0.05) of ducks were similar in the 3 groups. During and after overfeeding, the performances of the ducks were also similar (P > 0.05). The present results suggest that CFC during the finishing period is a solution to reduce the cost of diet destined to ducks. Indeed, using locally grown grains could reduce the economic and environmental impacts of duck feeding, reducing the transportation and crushing processes. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Impact of feeder space on laying hen feeding behavior and production performance in enriched colony housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J L; Xin, H; Wu, H

    2018-05-30

    Current feeder space recommendations in laying hen welfare guidelines are inconsistent among and within countries. One determining criterion forming the recommendations (e.g. 12.0 cm/hen for the EU guideline) is that all birds can feed simultaneously. However, if there are other resources in the environment, as in enriched colony housing (ECH), it is unknown whether group-housed hens will choose to feed simultaneously. This study assesses the impact of feeder space on feeding behavior of 60 laying hens (W-36) in ECH using a ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification-based tracking system. The feeder spaces investigated were 12.0, 9.5, 8.5 and 6.5 cm/hen, achieved by blocking portions of the overall feeder access to keep hens at the same stocking density. Each feeder space treatment, randomly assigned over the course of the experiment, lasted for 7 consecutive days. Feeding behaviors were characterized as daily time spent at the feeder (TS, min/hen-day), daily frequency of visits to the feeder (FV, #/hen-day), and maximum or average percentage of hens feeding simultaneously (MPB, APB, %). Group-average daily feed intake (FI, g/hen-day), water use (WU, g/hen-day), and hen-day egg production (HDEP, %) were also measured. The results revealed that at 12.0 cm/hen, where unoccupied feeder space was present, a maximum of 59.0±1.4% (average of 31.7±0.3%) hens fed simultaneously. No significant differences were detected among 12.0, 9.5 and 8.5 cm/hen in TS (293±10, 286±10 and 281±10 min/hen-day) and MPB (59.0±1.4, 57.3±1.4 and 53.3±1.4%) (P>0.05). The outcome of no significant differences also held true between 12.0 and 9.5 cm/hen in APB (31.7±0.3 v. 30.8±0.3%) and between 9.5 and 8.5 cm/hen in all response variables measured (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences in APB between 6.5 cm/hen and all other treatments; in TS and FV between 6.5 and 9.5 cm/hen; and in MPB between 6.5 and 12 cm/hen (P0.05). The results revealed that synchronous

  8. The utilization of endopower β in commercial feed which contains palm kernel cake on performance of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, S. S. A.; Tafsin, M.; Ginting, S. P.; Khairani, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Palm kernel cake is an agricultural waste that can be used as raw material in the preparation of poultry rations. The design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Level endopower β used 0 % (R0), 0.02% (R1), 0.04% (R2) and 0.06% (R3). The results showed that R0a and R0b were significantly different from R3 in terms of diet consumption, body weight gain and the conversion ratio The utilization of endopower β in commercial diets containing palm kernel cake in broilers can increase body weight gain, feed consumption, improve feed use efficiency and even energy. It is concluded that utilization endpower β improve performances of broiler chicken fed by diet containing palm kernel cake.

  9. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers...... with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.......An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15...

  10. Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Herrera-Melián

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF. The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day and Total Suspended Solids (84%; 29 g/m2·day. The second stage was composed of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF that were employed to study the effect of substrate (gravel vs. mulch, feeding mode (continuous vs. intermittent and the number of stages (1 vs. 2 on performance. High hydraulic and organic surface loadings (513–583 L/m2·day and 103–118 g/m2·day of COD were applied to the reactors. The mulch was more efficient than gravel for all the parameters analyzed. The continuous feeding allowed a 3 to 6-fold reduction of the surface area required.

  11. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM) and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird) were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control) and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets) were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of re...

  12. An early feeding regime and a high-density amino acid diet on growth performance of broilers under subclinical necrotic enteritis challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chake Keerqin; Shu-Biao Wu; Birger Svihus; Robert Swick; Natalie Morgan; Mingan Choct

    2017-01-01

    Broilers that have early access to feed have been shown to have enhanced immune system and gut development and heightened resilience against necrotic enteritis (NE). This study examined the effect of early feeding a high amino acid density diet on performance of broilers under a sub-clinical NE challenge model. Ross 308 broilers (n = 576) were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 feeding regimes (feed access either within 6 h post-hatch or after 48 h post-hatch), 2 diets (control d...

  13. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  14. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  15. Characterization of feed channel spacer performance using geometries obtained by X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Haaksman, Viktor A.

    2016-09-09

    Spiral-wound membrane modules used in water treatment for water reuse and desalination make use of spacer meshes for keeping the membrane leaves apart and for enhancing the mass transfer. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has gained importance in the design of new spacers with optimized hydrodynamic characteristics, but this requires a precise description of the spacer geometry. This study developed a method to obtain accurate three-dimensional (3-D) geometry representations for any given spacer design from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The method revealed that the filaments of industrial spacers have a highly variable cross-section size and shape, which impact the flow characteristics in the feed channel. The pressure drop and friction factors were calculated from numerical simulations on five commercially available feed spacers used in practice. Model solutions compared well to experimental data measured using a flow cell for average velocities up to 0.2 m/s, as used in industrial reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane operations. A newly-proposed spacer geometry with alternating strand thickness was tested, which was found to yield a lower pressure drop while being highly efficient in converting the pumping power into membrane shear. Numerical model solutions using CFD with geometries from CT scans were closer to measurements than those obtained using the traditional circular cross-section strand simplification, indicating that CT scans are very well suitable to approximate real feed spacer geometries. By providing detailed insight on the spacer filament shape, CT scans allow better quantification of local distribution of velocity and shear, possibly leading to more accurate estimations of fouling and concentration polarization. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effect of feeding spent coffee grounds on the feedlot performance and carcass quality of fattening pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S S; Chawla, J S

    1986-01-01

    Twelve fattening pigs of large white Yorkshire breed, divided into three equal groups, were fed isonitrogenous concentrate mixture containing 0, 10 and 15% spent coffee grounds (SCG) for 70 days. The crude fibre and ether extract content increased while that of nitrogen-free extract decreased with the increase in the level of SCG. The daily live weight gain and the feed conversion efficiency were depressed significantly at a 15% level of SCG. However, the inclusion of SCG in the rations did not have any adverse effect on carcass quality. It was concluded that SCG at 10% can be included in the ration of pigs safely without affecting their health. 10 references.

  17. Simultaneous determination of ten illegal azo dyes in feed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowska Marta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper presents the method of simultaneous determination of 10 illegal azo dyes in feed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. Material and Methods: The dyes were extracted with hexane, evaporated to dryness, and analysed. Separation was achieved in 7 min in a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A and 0.1% formic acid (B as a mobile phase. Results: The validation results showed the repeatability of the method, which was evaluated at three levels (50, 500, and 5,000 μg/kg. All the matrix calibration curves for the working ranges were linear (R2 0.9904 to 1.0, the repeatability was between 2.1% and 24%, and recoveries ranged from 77.9% to 120%. The LOD and LOQ were at 1-2 and 5-10 μg/kg for different dyes, respectively. Furthermore, the method was applied in the homogeneity tests of the in-house prepared feed containing Sudan I at the levels of 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg. Conclusions: A sensitive, selective, and fast multiresidue method was successfully developed and validated. Its robustness was confirmed by the analysis of an experimental feed containing Sudan I.

  18. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.

  19. The effects of particle size, milling method, and thermal treatment of feed on performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and pH of the digesta in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Krämer, Carolin; Goodarzi Boroojeni, Farshad; Knorr, Fanny; Mader, Anneluise; Schulze, Erin; Hafeez, Abdul; Neumann, Konrad; Löwe, Rainer; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 4×2 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P=0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P=0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Condensation heat transfer of a feed-water heater and improvement of its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Kazuhide; Murase, Michio; Baba, Yoshikazu; Aihara, Tsuyoshi

    1995-01-01

    In this study, a condensation heat transfer model, coupled with a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, was developed. In the heat transfer model, the liquid film flow rate on the heat transfer tubes was calculated by a mass balance equation and the liquid film thickness was calculated from the liquid film flow rate using Nusselt's laminar flow model and Fujii's equation for the steam velocity effect. The model was verified by condensation heat transfer experiments. In the experiments, 112 horizontal, staggered tubes with an outer diameter of 16mm and length of 0.55m were used. The calculated over-all heat transfer coefficients agreed with the data within ±5% under the inlet quality conditions of 13-100%. Based on a three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis, an improved feed-water heater with support plates, which have flow holes between the upper and lower tube bundles, was designed. The total heat exchange capacity of the improved feed-water heater increased about 6%. (author)

  1. Milk Production, Physiological Condition and Performance of Etawa Crossbreed Goats Feed by Ration Supplemented with Mangosteen Peel Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzarnisa; Rachmadi, D.; Azhar, A.; Fakhrur Riza, R.; Hidayati, A.

    2018-02-01

    Study on the effect of the addition of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel flour on physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats was done. This was to grant the use of mangosteen peel flour that rich of antioxidants and has variety good benefits for health as feed additive for cattle. This study used a Complete Randomized Block Design consisting of 4 treatment groups and 4 replications each. Subjects were 16 female Etawa crossbreed goats randomly designed into treatments group based on lactation periods. Subjects were feed with traditional rations (control, A), traditional rations and 2.5% mangosteen peel flour (B), tradition rations and 5% mangosteen peel flour (C), and traditional rations and 7,5 % mangosteen peel flour (D). Data on performance (milk production) and physiological condition (respiratory frequency, rectal temperature, and heart rate) obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the addition of mangosteen peel flour as food additive in the rations resulted in variations in the milk production, physiological condition (rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration frequency) and performances (daily weigh gain, food consumption, ration conversion and breast volume) of Etawa crossbreed goats, but significant effect was only observed in the respiration frequency. The addition of 2.5% mangosteen peel flour in the ration caused the best, expected effects on milk production physiological condition and performance of Etawa crossbreed goats.

  2. Effects of feeding system on growth performance, plasma biochemical components and hormones, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sung Chung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.

  3. LFCM [liquid-fed eramic melter] emission and off-gas system performance for feed component cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.; Andersen, C.M.

    1986-09-01

    Except for volatile off-gas effluents, overall adequacy of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) system depends most upon its effectiveness in dealing with cesium. However, the mechanism responsible for melter cesium losses has proved insensitive to many LFCM operating and processing conditions. As a result, variations in inleakage, plenum temperature, feeding rate and waste loading do not significantly influence melter cesium performance. Feed composition, specifically halogen content, is the only processing variable that has had a significant effect. Due to the submicron nature of LFCM-generated aerosols, melter disengagement design features are not expected to be particularly effective in reducing cesium emission rates. For the same reason, the cesium performance of conventional quench scrubbers is quite low, being dependent only upon the magnitude of melter entrainment losses. Although a deep bed washable filter has been effective in removing submicron aerosols from the process exhaust, high performance has only been achieved under dry operating conditions. The melter's idling state does not appear to place additional demands upon the off-gas treatment system

  4. Crosslinkable mixed matrix membranes with surface modified molecular sieves for natural gas purification: II. Performance characterization under contaminated feed conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jason K.

    2011-07-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) composed of the crosslinkable polyimide PDMC and surface modified (SM) SSZ-13 have recently been shown to enhance carbon dioxide permeability and carbon dioxide/methane selectivity versus neat PDMC films by as much as 47% and 13%, respectively (Part I). The previous film characterization, however, was performed using ideal, clean mixed gas feeds. In this paper, PDMC/SSZ-13 MMMs are further characterized using more realistic mixed gases containing low concentrations (500 or 1000. ppm) of toluene as a model contaminant. Mixed matrix membranes are shown to outperform pure PDMC films in the presence of toluene with 43% greater carbon dioxide permeability and 12% greater carbon dioxide/selectivity at 35 °C and 700 psia feed pressure. These results suggest that MMMs-in addition to exhibiting enhanced transport properties-may mitigate performance degradation due to antiplasticization effects. Moreover, the analyses presented here show that the reduction in separation performance by trace contaminant-accelerated physical aging can be suppressed greatly with MMMs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue based complete ration on growth performance and feeding behavior of murrah buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study is to know the effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue (SSCR based complete ration on growth, feeding behavior and cost of gain in Murrah buffalo calves in order to compare the feeding value of SSCR with sorghum straw (SS and also find out the efficient way of utilization of SSCR in the diets of growing buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Experimental complete rations were formulated with SSCR and concentrate in 50:50 ratio and processed in to SSCR chopped and concentrate (SSCRC, mash (SSCRM and expander extruder pellets (SSCRP. The control ration was SS based complete feed processed in to mash (SSM. 24 Murrah buffalo calves (Average 137 kg body weight and aged 1 year 2 months were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design and the experimental rations were offered to 4 groups randomly for a period of 150 days. A 7 day digestion trial was conducted at the end of 150 day growth trial to find out the nutrient digestibility of experimental rations. Eating and ruminating activities were noted every 5 minutes, and each activity was assumed to persist for the entire 5 minutes. Sorting behavior in the calves was observed physically at the time of feeding. The cost of the rations was calculated on the basis of processing cost and the prevailing market prices of the feed ingredients. Results: The DM intake (g/d, digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein and nitrogen free extract and nitrogen (N balance were higher (P<0.05 in buffalo calves fed SSCRP ration but, comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Higher (P<0.01 average daily gain (g, lower feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed in calves fed SSCRP ration, while comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Eating, rumination and total chewing time (minutes/d,minutes/kg DMI and minutes/kg NDFI and number of chews for eating, rumination

  6. Effect of feeding olive-pulp ensiled with additives on feedlot performance and carcass attributes of fat-tailed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rowghani, Ebrahim; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Feed cost has a significant effect on the economic efficiency of feedlot lambs; therefore, the use of low-cost non-conventional feedstuffs, such as olive pulp (OP), has the potential to decrease the production costs. Because optimum inclusion of OP-treated silages has not been determined in feedlot lambs, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of inclusion of OP ensiled with additives in the diet on the feedlot performance and carcass attributes of feedlot lambs. Ram lambs of Mehraban and Ghezel breeds (n = 50 lambs per breed) were randomly allotted to 10 groups and fed with one of the nine diets containing OP silage or a control diet. Silage treatments were: (1) OP silage without additives (OPS), (2) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses and 0.4 % formic acid (OP-MF), and (3) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses, 0.4 % formic acid and 0.5 % urea (OP-MFU). The control diet contained 50 % alfalfa hay and 50 % barley grain. Three levels from each silage were chosen to replace the barley grain (10, 20, or 30 % dry matter basis). The lambs were slaughtered after 92 days, and the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass characteristics were determined. Feeding OPS to fat-tailed lambs, at an inclusion level of 30 %, decreased the carcass dressing percentage, mainly as a result of decreased brisket percentage, but the ADG and FCR values were not adversely affected. Ghezel lambs had higher ADG than Mehraban lambs, but the visceral fat weight percentage, flap weight percentage, and back fat depth were higher in Mehraban. The crude protein content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was higher in Ghezel, but the dry matter percentage was higher in Mehraban (P 0.05). Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS feeding; therefore, feeding OPS (up to 30 %) can be economical for feedlot lambs. Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS levels used in this experiment; therefore

  7. Molt performance and bone density of cortical, medullary, and cancellous bone in laying hens during feed restriction or alfalfa-based feed molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W K; Donalson, L M; Bloomfield, S A; Hogan, H A; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of alfalfa-based molt diets on molting performance and bone qualities. A total of 36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were used for the study. There were 6 treatments: pretrial control (PC), fully fed (FF), feed withdrawal (FW), 90% alfalfa:10% layer ration (A90), 80% alfalfa:20% layer ration (A80), and 70% alfalfa:30% layer ration (A70). For the PC treatment, hens were euthanized by CO(2) gas, and bones were collected before molt was initiated. At the end of the 9-d molt period, hens were euthanized, and femurs and tibias were collected to evaluate bone qualities by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, mechanical testing, and conventional ash weights. The hens fed alfalfa-based molt diets and FW stopped laying eggs within 5 d after molt started, and all hens in these groups had reduced ovary weights compared with those of the FF hens. In the FW and A90 groups, total femur volumetric bone mineral densities (vBMD) at the midshaft were significantly lower, but those of the A80 and A70 groups were not significantly different from the values for the PC and FF hens. In cortical bone density, the midshaft tibial vBMD were significantly higher for FF and A70 hens than for PC hens. The medullary bone densities at the midshaft femur or tibia of the FW, A90, A80, and A70 hens were reduced compared with those of the PC hens. Femur cancellous densities at the distal femur for the FW and A90 hens were significantly reduced compared with those of the PC and FF hens. The FW, A80, and A70 hens yielded significantly higher elastic moduli, and the A80 hens had higher ultimate stress compared with the PC hens, suggesting that the mechanical integrity of the midshaft bone was maintained even though the medullary vBMD was reduced. These results suggest that alfalfa-based molt diets exhibit molt performance similar to FW, that medullary and cancellous bones are labile bone compartments during molting, and that alfalfa-based molt diets

  8. Consequences of dietary calcium and phosphorus depletion and repletion feeding sequences on growth performance and body composition of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, E; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Bernier, J F; Pomar, C

    2018-06-01

    The effect of a calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) depletion and repletion strategy was studied in four consecutive feeding phases of 28 days each. In all, 60 castrated male pigs (14±1.6 kg initial BW) received 60% (low (L) diet; depletion) or 100% (control (C) diet; repletion) of their Ca and digestible P requirements according to six feeding sequences (CCCC, CCCL, CLCC, CCLC, LCLC and LLLL; subsequent letters indicate the diet received in phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Pigs bone mineral content in whole-body (BMCb) and lumbar vertebrae L2 to L4 (BMCv) was measured in every feeding phase by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Growth performance was slightly (depletion, however, dietary treatments did not affect overall growth. Compared with control pigs, depletion reduced BMCb (34%, 38%, 33% and 22%) and BMCv (46%, 54%, 38% and 26%) in phases 1 to 4, respectively. Depletion increased however digestible P retention efficiency from the second to the fourth phases allowing LLLL pigs to present no differences in BMCb and BMCv gain compared with CCCC pigs in phase 4. Growth performance in repleted compared with control pigs was lower in phase 2, was no different in phase 3 and was lower in CLCC pigs in phase 4. Repletion increased body P and Ca retention efficiency when compared with control pigs (respectively, 8% and 10% for LC v. CC, Pdepletion and repletion sequences than BMCb especially in the first phase probably due to a higher proportion of metabolically active trabecular bone in vertebrae than in the whole skeleton. Dietary Ca was, however, oversupply in L compared with C diets (3.1 v. 2.5 Ca:digestible P ratio, respectively) suggesting that P has probably driven the regulations. Phosphorus and Ca depletion and repletion increases dietary P utilization efficiency and can help to reduce dietary P supply, but the underlying mechanisms need elucidation before its practical application.

  9. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Oltramari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO or glucose syrup (GS in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO; ii starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO; iii starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO; and iv starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS. Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids, divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h. Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA. At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05 concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  10. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  11. Responses of broilers to Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive: The effect of different forms and levels of bioactives on performances of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feed additives are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promotors or to improve feed efficiency. Previous results showed that Aloe vera bioactives could improve feed efficiency in broilers. Therefore, a further study was designed in order to obtain optimum doses and application methods of bioactives for broiler chickens. Aloe vera was prepared in different forms (fresh gel, dry gel, fresh whole leaf or dry whole leaf. The aloe was supplemented into the feed with concentrations of 0.25; 0.5 and 1 g/kg (equal to dry gel. Standard diets with or without antibiotics were also included as control. The diets were fed to broilers from day old to 5 weeks and the performances were observed. Results showed that the aloe-bioactives did not significantly (P>0.05 affect final body weight of broilers as compared with the control. Supplementation of 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel significantly improved feed convertion by 4.7; 4.8 and 8.2%, respectively as compared with the control. This improvement was a result of reduction in feed intake or dry matter intake without reducing the weight gain. However, supplementation of whole aloe leafs could not improve feed convertion in boilers. It is concluded that the bioactives of Aloe vera could be used as feed supplement to improve feed efficiency in broilers with no deleterious effect on weight gain, carcass yield, abdominal fat levels and internal organs. The effective concentrations of aloe gell as a feed supplement based on dry matter convertion were from 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel.

  12. River Protection Project waste feed delivery program technical performance measurement assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan establishes a formal technical performance-monitoring program. Technical performance is assessed by establishing requirements based performance goals at the beginning of a program and routinely evaluating progress in meeting these goals at predetermined milestones throughout the project life cycle

  13. Use of Vitamin D and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  14. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance and feeding behavior of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...

  15. Fabrication and impact performance of three-dimensionally integrated microstrip antennas with microstrip and coaxial feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Fujun; Zhao, Da; Jiang, Muwen; Qiu, Yiping

    2009-01-01

    A conformal load-bearing antenna structure (CLAS) combines the antenna into a composite structure such that it can carry the designed load while functioning as an antenna. In this paper, two types of new 3D integrated microstrip antennas (3DIMAs) with different feeding methods are designed to work at the radar L-band. Different from the conventional CLAS, the radiating patch and the ground plane of the 3DIMA are both composed of woven conductive wires and are bonded into the 3D composite physically by Z-yarns, greatly improving the damage tolerance of the antenna. The return loss of the coaxial-fed antenna is −13.15 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.872 GHz, while that of the microstrip-fed antenna is −31.50 dB with a resonant frequency of 1.33 GHz. Both of the 3DIMAs have similar radiation patterns to that of the traditionally designed microstrip antenna. In addition, an experimental investigation of the impact response of the coaxial-fed 3DIMA was carried out and the results showed the radiation pattern had almost no change even when the antenna received an impact energy of 15 J, exhibiting superior impact resistance to that of a conventional microstrip antenna

  16. A high-performance aluminum-feed microfluidic fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a six-cell microfluidic fuel cell (MFC) stack is demonstrated. Low-cost aluminum is fed directly to the stack, which produces hydrogen fuel on site, through the Al-H2O reaction. This design is not only cost-efficient, but also eliminates the need for hydrogen storage. Unlike the conventional MFC stacks which generally require complex electrolyte distribution and management, the present Al-feed MFC stack requires only a single electrolyte stream, flowing successively through individual cells, which is finally utilized for hydrogen generation. In this manner, the whole system is greatly simplified while the operational robustness is also improved. With 2 M sodium hydroxide solution as electrolyte and kitchen foil Al as fuel, the present six-cell stack (in series) exhibits an open circuit voltage of nearly 6 V and a peak power density of 180.6 mWcm-2 at room temperature. In addition, an energy density of 1 Whg-1(Al) is achieved, which is quite high and comparable with its proton exchange membrane-based counterparts. Finally, pumpless operation of the present stack, together with its practical applications are successfully demonstrated, including lightening LED lights, driving an electric fan, and cell phone charging.

  17. Poultry performance in different grazing densities: forage characteristics, losses due to grazing and feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cristiano França

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of three forage species grazed by rustic poultry in stocking were evaluated. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes were planted in 33-m2 paddocks with two densities (m2/animal: D1 = 3m2/animal and D2 = 1m2/animal. The design was a randomized complete block with a 3 x 2 factorial (three grasses and two densities and three replications. Grass canopy height, grass mass, morphological composition (leaf, stem, and dead material, losses due to grazing, poultry weight gain and consumption, and concentrate feed conversion ratio and efficiency were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, forage and leaves masses were considered low to stylosanthes in D2 (0.28 to 0.03 kg/m2 and to kikuyu grass in D1 (0.13 to 0.05 kg/m2 and in D2 (0.11 and 0.03 kg/m2, respectively. In addition, the grass canopy height was considered low for stylosanthes (6.50 cm that could jeopardize the entry of new poultry lot. The three grass species had similar weight gain and revealed better results for 3m²/ chicken (3.20 kg/animal. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes, with some exceptions, can be considered suitable for grazing fattening poultry at 3m2/animal at the evaluated time of the year (autumn.

  18. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  19. The use of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a feed ingredient on air emissions and performance from laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of feeding diets containing 0, 10, or 20% distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS) to laying hens (21 to 26 wk of age) on emissions of NH3 and H2S. Hy-Line W-36 hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental rooms for a 5-wk period (hens in 3 rooms were offered the 10% and 20% DDGS diets each; hens in 2 rooms were offered the 0% DDGS diet). Diets were formulated to contain similar CP levels (18.3%), nonphytate P (0.46%), and Ca (4.2%). On an analyzed basis, the 0, 10, and 20% DDGS diets contained 0.22, 0.27, and 0.42% S. Egg weight (50.9 g), egg production (85%), and feed intake (87.9 g/hen per d) were unaffected by diet (P > 0.05) over the study period. Daily NH3 emissions from hens fed diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 105.4, 91.7, and 80.2 mg/g of N consumed, respectively (P hens fed commercial diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 2.6, 2.4, and 1.1 mg/g of S consumed, respectively. Overall, feeding 21- to 26-wk-old laying hens diets containing 20% DDGS decreased daily NH3 emissions by 24% and H2S emissions by 58%. Each hen emitted approximately 280 mg of NH3 and 0.5 mg of H2S daily when fed a control diet containing 18% CP and 0.2% S. The results of this study demonstrate that 20% DDGS derived from ethanol production can be fed to laying hens, resulting in lower emissions of NH3 and H2S with no apparent adverse effects on hen performance.

  20. On the Performance Optimization of Two-Level Three-Phase Grid-Feeding Voltage-Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam A. Smadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance optimization of the two-level, three-phase, grid-feeding, voltage-source inverter (VSI is studied in this paper, which adopts an online adaptive switching frequency algorithm (OASF. A new degree of freedom has been added to the employed OASF algorithm for optimal selection of the weighting factor and overall system optimization design. Toward that end, a full mathematical formulation, including the impact of the coupling inductor and the controller response time, is presented. At first, the weighting factor is selected to favor the switching losses, and the controller gains are optimized by minimizing the integral time-weighted absolute error (ITAE of the output active and reactive power. Different loading and ambient temperature conditions are considered to validate the optimized controller and its fast response through online field programmable gate array (FPGA-in-the-loop. Then, the weighting factor is optimally selected to reduce the cost of the L-filter and the heat-sink. An optimization problem to minimize the cost design at the worst case of loading condition for grid-feeding VSI is formulated. The results from this optimization problem are the filter inductance, the thermal resistance of the heat-sink, and the optimal switching frequency with the optimal weighting factor. The VSI test-bed using the optimized parameters is used to verify the proposed work experimentally. Adopting the OASF algorithm that employs the optimal weighting factor for grid-feeding VSI, the percentages of the reductions in the slope of the steady state junction temperature profile compared to fixed frequencies of 10 kHz, 14.434 kHz, and 20 kHz are about 6%, 30%, and 18%, respectively.

  1. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    OpenAIRE

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves...

  2. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... or the outcome of three fear tests were found. The results indicate that the unintended individual variation in feed intake in sows group-housed in commercial herds may be large enough to affect the reproduction performance. This calls for management initiatives to reduce unequal feed intake in group-housed sows....

  3. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... the individual variation in feed intake and the level of stress and fear under commercial conditions is severe enough to impair the reproduction performance is not known. In a detailed farm study including 14 herds with different layouts the relations between various indicators of feed intake, stress and fear...

  4. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Effect of moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf supplementation on growth performance and feed utilization of Bocourti's catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Puycha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimal level of dietary moringa leaf was determined on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestibility and serum biochemistry of Bocourti's catfish with mean wet weights of 3.72 ± 0.06 g per fish. Fish were fed with diets containing isonitrogenouse (350 g/kg crude protein and isoenergetic (3000 kcal/kg supplemented with dietary moringa leaf at 0 g/kg fish, 100 g/kg fish, 150 g/kg fish and 200 g/kg fish for 60 d. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiation twice a day. At the end of the experiment, a significant (p  0.05. The study indicated that dietary moringa leaf could be included in the Bocourti's catfish diet at possibly not over 100 g/kg fish without a negative effect on the growth, feed utilization, digestibility and serum biochemistry.

  6. Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

    eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

  7. Effect of feeding rate and ammonia build-up on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -up on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles in the Wet Laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Completely Randomized Design was used; each treatment was ...

  8. Shelf-life extension of preservative-free hydrated feed using gamma pasteurization and its effect on growth performance of eel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Minho; Song, Duseop; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish by increasing the efficiency of digestion. However, the shelf-life of HF is a concern due to its relatively higher water content. In this study, radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. Preservative-free HF containing 25% moisture was gamma-irradiated and its microbiological and nutritional properties evaluated in addition to a practical feeding trial carried out using eel. The viable counts of bacteria and fungi in HF were 10 6 and 10 4 CFU/g, respectively. All coliform bacteria and yeast in HF were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy, and total aerobic bacteria were eliminated at 10 kGy. The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. The nutritional composition of HF was stable up to 10 kGy of irradiation. Based on a feeding trial, it was proven that eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed. - Highlights: ► Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish but shelf-life is a concern. ► Radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. ► The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. ► Eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed in feeding trial.

  9. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, D.M.; Klein, van der S.A.S.; Linde, van de I.B.; Wijtten, P.J.A.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.; Lammers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are

  10. Effects of a short-term feed restriction on growth performance, blood metabolites and hepatic IGF-1 levels in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 weaned hybrid HYLA rabbits (40-day-old were randomly divided into 4 groups, to investigate the effects of the intensity of one week’s feed restriction on short- and medium-term growth performance, blood metabolites and hepatic IGF-1 in growing rabbits. Restricted groups were fed with 30% (Group L30, 50% (Group L50 70% (Group L70 of ad libitum feeding for 1 wk and then fed ad libitum until the end of the experiment (75 d of age. The control group (Group AL was fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Total feed intake (–15.8% and feed conversion ratio (–13.2% were lower in the L50 than in the AL group (P0.05 for these parameters. Total weight gain did not significantly differ among the 4 experimental groups (38.5 g/d; P>0.05. At the end of the feed restriction period, the total serum protein level (P=0.01 was higher in restricted rabbits than AL rabbits (P0.05 throughout the experiment. In conclusion, a short-term feed restriction improves feed conversion ratio in a lasting way, transiently alters serum protein and IFG-1 levels and leads to compensatory growth in growing rabbits.

  11. Effect of feeding varying levels of corn cob meal on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) Anak broiler birds were used to study the effect offeeding Corn cob meal on the growth performance, organ weights and serum metabolites. The birds were divided into 4 treatment groups. Four finisher diets were formulated with 0, 5, 10 and 15% Corn cob meal inclusion and fed to the birds in ...

  12. Feeding behavior and productive performance of steers fed pearl millet grain-based diets containing proportions of babassu mesocarp bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Martins Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior and feedlot productive performance of dairy-origin steers fed for 84 days ground pearl millet grain-based diets with 0, 120, 240, 360, and 480 g kg-1 of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB and a standard diet based on ground corn. Thirty Holstein-Zebu steers with average initial body weight of 371.02±27 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. Dry matter intake showed better fit with the quadratic regression equation with the inclusion of BMB, reaching a maximum value in diets with 360 g of this by-product. There was no difference for dry matter intake between pearl millet- and corn-based diets. There was no difference in total digestible nutrients intake between diets. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter decreased linearly with the increase in the dietary level of BMB. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not different between corn and millet diets. There was no difference in feeding time between diets. Total requirement of metabolizable energy increased linearly with inclusion of BMB. However, total requirements of metabolizable energy did not differ between the corn- and pearl millet-based diets. Average daily gain decreased linearly with the increase in BMB, with adjustment forced by the sharp decline of this variable in diets with 480 g of BMB. There was no difference in average daily gain between corn- and pearl millet-based diets. The inclusion of levels above 360 g of babassu mesocarp bran in pearl millet-based diets reduces the supply of metabolizable energy and the productive performance of feedlot dairy steers.

  13. The influence of different feed additives to performances and immune response in broiler chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tokić Vesna; Lazarević Miodrag; Sinovec Z.; Tokić A.

    2007-01-01

    Our investigations were conducted in order to determine the influence of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) based prebiotics and polysaccharide microelement complexes on the performance and immune response of Arbor Acre broiler chickens. Total of 186 chickens was included in the study which lasted 42 days. Birds were fed ad libitum three different complete food mixtures (from days 1- 21, 21 - 35 and 35-42) according to the standard fattening procedure. Mixtures for chickens from the first group wer...

  14. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  15. Alternatives to antibiotics for maximizing growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, U; Kim, W H; Oh, S T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions. The classes of alternatives described include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, enzymes, phytogenics, antimicrobial peptides, hyperimmune egg antibodies, bacteriophages, clay, and metals. A brief description of the mechanism of action, efficacy, and advantages and disadvantages of their uses are also presented. Though the beneficial effects of many of the alternatives developed have been well demonstrated, the general consensus is that these products lack consistency and the results vary greatly from farm to farm. Furthermore, their mode of action needs to be better defined. Optimal combinations of various alternatives coupled with good management and husbandry practices will be the key to maximize performance and maintain animal productivity, while we move forward with the ultimate goal of reducing antibiotic use in the animal industry.

  16. TheInfluence of Extruded Feed with a high Protein Level Upon the Bioproductive Performances Obtained on the Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ancuta Boaru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The succes ofartificial reproduction in the rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss, the development of gonads and the results obtained at incubation are significantly affected by the feeding of the breeders. The use of quality sexual  products is decisive for the assurance of the production of viable larvae and further of the estimated fish production, so that in addition to the assurance of optimal environmental parameters, the proper feeding of the breeders is required. Starting from the current stage of knowledge in the field,the main objective of the working paperwas to highlight the way the differentiatedfeeding of the rainbow trout females (Oncorhynchus mykiss influences their growth and development. The extruded peeled feed with a high protein level upon theegg weightand the gonosomatic index were followed. The extruded peeled feed with 53% protein proved to be highly effective, materialized trough high growth performances, a better conversion and the growth of gonadal  weight.

  17. Effect of Sex-linked Feathering Genes on Body Weight, Age At Sexual Maturity, Feed Intake and Subsequent Laying Performance of Baladi Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AI-Sobayel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 320 twenty week-old slow and rapid feathering Saudi Arabian Baladi pullers were used to assess the effect of sex-linked feathering genes on body weight, age at sexual maturity, feed intake and subsequent laying performance. Similar numbers of rapid feathering Leghorns pullets were included in the study for the purpose of comparison. The experimental birds of each genotypic group were randomly divided into four replicates and subjected to standard management practices. Slow feathering Baladi pullers had higher (P<0.05 adult body weight, rate of mortality, and feed intake and a similar age at sexual maturity but showed lower (P< 0.05 hen-day, and hen-housed egg production and feed conversion compared with rapid feathering Baladi pullets. Rapid feathering Leghorns had higher (P<0.05 adult body weight. age at sexual maturity, hen-day egg production, rate of mortality and feed intake and lower feed intake/kg eggs than rapid and slow feathering Baladi. However, rapid feathering Baladi and Leghorns had similar hen-housed egg production and feed intake per dozen eggs and had better (l’<0.05' performance than slow feathering Baladi.

  18. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  19. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  20. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  1. The Minimum reporting package – Using standardised indicators to analyse the performance of Supplementary Feeding Programmes in 7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Susan; Andert, Christoph; Keane, Emily; Navarro-Colorado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: The 2008 HPN Network Paper ‘Measuring the effectiveness of Supplementary Feeding Programmes in emergencies’ highlighted the inconsistencies, inadequacies and bias associated with reporting of Supplementary Feeding Programmes (SFP) and outlined the lack of existing tools to support all reporting needs for Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programmes. The ‘Minimum Reporting Package’ (MRP) was developed in response to this paper, and has evolved to a concise and comprehensive management tool which uses standardised indicators to improve the reporting and monitoring of the treatment components of community based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). The aim of the tool is to provide a contextualised overview of the CMAM programmes to improve programme management decisions, improve accountability and assist urgently needed learning in the effectiveness of this programme approach. Methods: Data is collected regularly by a group of MRP partners and feeds into a central database. Analysis is on-going and leading to a larger analysis planned for the end of 2013/early 2014. The aims of these analyses are: • To describe the characteristics of CMAM programmes • To describe and assess the effect of CMAM programmes on rehabilitating malnourished individuals • To compare programme performance and outcomes according to contextual factors, differences in protocols or approaches. A preliminary analysis was run on Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) data collected between January 2012 and July 2013. The length of programme data differs but is generally above 3 months in order to be able to analyse programme results (a full contextual analysis will be conducted in early 2014 to be presented). Results: SFP data was available from 4 NGOs, supporting 10 programmes in 7 countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, India, Kenya, Somalia). After data cleaning, a total of 23,584 admissions and 15,496 were included. The

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet-photodiode array detection method for aflatoxin B1 in cattle feed supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochamad, Lazuardi; Hermanto, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the current study is to determine the concentration of aflatoxin B1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Materials and Methods: Aflatoxin B1 certified reference grade from Trilogy Analytical Laboratory dissolved acetonitrile (ACN) at 10 µg/mL was using standard assessment. HPLC instruments such as ultraviolet-PDA detector used a Shimadzu LC-6AD pump with DGU-20A5 degasser, communication module-20A, and PDA detector SPD-M20A with FRC-10A fraction collector. The HPLC was set isocratic method at 354 nm with a reverse-phase ODS C18 column (LiChrospher® 100 RP-18; diameter, 5 µm) under a 20°C controlled column chamber. Rheodyne® sample loops were performed in 20 µL capacities. The mobile phase was performed at fraction 63:26:11 H2O: methanol:ACN at pH 6.8. A total of 1 kg of feed contained 10% bread crumbs and 30% concentrated, 40% forage, and 20% soybean dregs were using commercials samples. Samples were extracted by ACN and separated with solid phase extraction ODS 1 mL than elution with mobile phase to collect at drying samples performed. The samples were ready to use after added 1 mL mobile phase than injected into the system of HPLC. Results: We found that the retention time of aflatoxin B1 was approximately 10.858 min. Linearity of 0.01-0.08 µg/mL aflatoxin B1 dissolved in mobile phase was obtained at R2=0.9. These results demonstrate that these methods can be used to analyze aflatoxin B1 and gain 89-99% recovery. The limit of detection of this assay was obtained at 3.5 × 10−6 µg/mL. Conclusion: This method was easy to apply and suitable to analyzing at small concentrations of aflatoxin B1 in formulated product of feed cattle. PMID:28919686

  3. Effects of feeding diets varying in energy and nutrient density to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens on production performance and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. The Effect of Growth Promoter Feed Additives on Performance of Broilers Challenged With Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Valipouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 528 day-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effect of antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic and organic acid on performance, cecal Coliform load and internal organs’ weight. The chickens were placed into 6 groups with 4 replicates and 22 chickens per pen. Six dietary treatments included: 1 negative control as basal diet without any antibiotic growth promoter and coccidiostat (Control, 2 Diet 1+ 0.9 g/kg Primalac® (Primalac, 3 Diet 1+0.1 g/kg Bactocell® (Bactocell, 4 Diet 1+15ppm virginiamycin (Virginiamycin, 5 Diet 1+2 g/kg Fermacto® (Fermacto, and 6 Diet 1+2 g/kg Formycin Gold® (Formycin. At day 7 all chickens were orally gavaged with a 0.5 mL of 107 cfu/mL of mixed culture of pathogenic E. coli (O2K12 and O78K80 verified for presence of genes including stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. Eight chickens from each group were euthanized for detection of the challenged bacteria in liver, spleen and cecum content at days 14, 28 and 42. Overall weight gain (P

  5. Coccidiosis and performance in broilers with anticoccidial medicated feed starting at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa C.A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of age, litter reutilization, and anticoccidial programs were studied in broilers. The oocyst counts increased with litter reutilization up to third use, and T1 (no anticoccidial drug over the entire 42-day-period and T4 (anticoccidial medication starting from the first day showed the highest counts. The scores for Eimeria acervulina increased up to third use of litter and declined by the fourth use. The scores for E. maxima increased from first to second litter use, and from this to third and fourth use. The scores for E. tenella increased from first and second litter use to third litter use, and declined on fourth use. With high coccidial contamination, as in third use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting from the 1st, 7th (T3 and 14th (T2 day of age presented similar results of lesion scores and average weight gain. When coccidial contamination was low or moderate, as in first, second and fourth use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting at 14 days of age tended to result in a better broiler performance. These data suggest that, with low coccidial challenge, as in broilers raised in first use litter and in farms with single bird age, the delayed anticoccidial medication may provide advantages over the full medication starting from the first day of age.

  6. Effect of N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation in parturition feed for sows on metabolism, nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, A; Maes, D; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Vandermeiren, J-A; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    The current pilot study assessed the influence of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) on insulin sensitivity, glucose and fat metabolism, nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of sows in the peripartal period. At day 105 of gestation, 25 sows were randomly assigned to the control (n = 13) or the DMG group (n = 12). Sows from the DMG group were supplemented with 1 g DMG/kg feed until day 3 of lactation. After an overnight fast 1 day after farrowing, a blood sample of each sow was drawn. The plasma was analyzed for insulin, glucose, fructosamine, leptin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triglycerides (TG) and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. A rectal feces sample was collected and the apparent fecal digestibility (AFD) of crude fat (CFAT), crude protein (CP) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was calculated after proximate analyses. Finally, a colostrum sample was collected from each sow and analyzed for the presence of DMG. Reproductive performance parameters were recorded. The results showed an improvement in the AFD of CFAT, CP and NFE when DMG was supplemented. This beneficial effect confirms the hypothesis that DMG acts as an emulsifying agent. The improvement in digestibility in the DMG group was accompanied by a numerical increase in plasma TG (P = 0.067). Plasma NEFA concentrations were not different between treatment groups. DMG supplementation neither affected glucose clearance nor influenced plasma insulin, glucose, fructosamine or leptin levels. TBARS and FRAP also remained unaffected, despite previously reported anti-oxidative properties of DMG. Furthermore, no significant impact on reproductive performance could be recorded. In conclusion, DMG supplementation significantly improved nutrient digestibility. Possible beneficial effects on energy metabolism and reproductive performance of sows should be tested when DMG is supplemented for a longer

  7. EFFECT OF FEEDING COOKED HATCHERY WASTE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan and Bashir Mahmood Bhatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw hatchery waste was cooked with water at 2:1 ratio for 15 minutes and then oven dried at 65C and ground. Hatchery waste meal (HWM thus prepared contained 32% crude protein, 16% ether extract, 0.9% crude fibre, 40% total ash, 11.1% nitrogen free extract, 20% calcium and 0.6 % available phosphorous with no E.Coli and Salmonella. In biological evaluation trail, non significant differences was observed among rations in which HWM replaced the fish meal at 0(A, 25(B, 50(C and 75 (D levels in broiler rations. These rations showed that protein efficiency ratios were 1.68, 1.79, 1.65,and 1.64 apparent biological value 59.96, 60.25, 59.75 and 58.32% respectively, indicating better balance of amino acid in HWM to be replaced with fish meal,. In 6 weeks performance trail, the body weight gains were 1807.69, 1916.39, 1788.39 and 1635.66 gm in A, B, C and D rations, respectively. Whereas, FCR values were 2.59, 2.32, 2.43 and 2.63 in the corresponding groups, which shows no significant difference among all rations. The cost per chick to market age was lowest in ration containing high level of HWM (7.5% and highest in ration containing high level of fish meal (10% indicating maximum replacement of fish meal by HWM in broiler ration is economical. Similarly, slaughtering data revealed no significant difference among all rations in all parameters. It may be concluded that the HWM can completely replace fish meal in commercial broiler rations.

  8. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  9. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effects of feed form and dietary coarse ground corn on broiler live performance, body weight uniformity, relative gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2015-07-01

    In this 14-d cage study, the effects of feed form (mash and crumble) and 6 coarse ground corn ( CC: ) inclusions [0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% CC that replaced fine corn ( FC: )] on broiler live performance, BW uniformity, gizzard weight, excreta nitrogen, and particle size preference were investigated. The geometric mean diameter by mass ( DGW: ) of mash diets increased from 422 μm to 431, 471, 509, 542, and 640 μm, respectively, as the percentage of CC increased. Feed intake and BW were decreased by CC and mash at 7 d. Interactions between feed form and CC were observed for feed conversion ratio ( FCR: ) at 7 d of age (P nitrogen was increased (P < 0.01) by crumble diets. These data demonstrated that pelleting and crumbling reduced the impact of CC, produced a more consistent feed intake, and reduced selective feeding, and that CC stimulated gizzard weight in a linear manner in mash diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidin Muchlisin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the optimum level of papain in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra. The complete random design was utilized in this study. Six levels of papain dosage were tested in triplicates, i.e. 0 (control; 17.5 mg kg-1,  20.0 mg kg-1, 22.5 mg kg-1, 25.0 mg kg-1 and 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish were fed the experimental diet two times a day at 8 AM and 5 PM at feeding level of 5% body weight for 90 days. The Anova test result showed that papain enzyme  gave a significant effect on the weight gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency (P<0.05. The Duncan multi-rage test result showed that the higher values for all measured parameters were obtained at the dosage of 27.5 mg kg-1. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimum dosage of papain enzyme for keureling fish was 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed.How to CiteMuchlisin, Z. A., Afrido, F., Murda, T., Fadli, N., Muhammadar, A. A., Jalil, Z., & Yulvizar, C. (2016. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 172-177.

  12. Muscle physiology changes induced by every other day feeding and endurance exercise in mice: effects on physical performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rodríguez-Bies

    Full Text Available Every other day feeding (EOD and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage.

  13. An early feeding regime and a high-density amino acid diet on growth performance of broilers under subclinical necrotic enteritis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chake Keerqin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Broilers that have early access to feed have been shown to have enhanced immune system and gut development and heightened resilience against necrotic enteritis (NE. This study examined the effect of early feeding a high amino acid density diet on performance of broilers under a sub-clinical NE challenge model. Ross 308 broilers (n = 576 were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 feeding regimes (feed access either within 6 h post-hatch or after 48 h post-hatch, 2 diets (control diet or the control diet with an additional 10% digestible amino acids [HAA] and either presence or absence of NE challenge. Oral administrations of Eimeria species (d 9 and a field strain of Clostridium perfringens (d 14 were used to induce NE. Broiler performance was analysed at d 13, 23, 30 and 35. Intestinal lesion score and bacterial count were analysed on d 16. The NE challenge reduced overall bird performance and induced severe intestinal lesions, without causing notable mortality. At d 23 bird weight was significantly lower (P < 0.001 in the challenged birds compared with the unchallenged birds, but by d 30 the challenged birds had recovered and challenge no longer had an impact on bird performance. Birds fed the HAA diet had greater body weight by d 35 and heightened Lactobacillus content in the ileum at d 16 (P < 0.05. Birds that were fed the HAA diet after a period of fasting performed better in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR under challenge. The findings from this study suggest there are beneficial effects of feeding high amino acid diets to birds in response to external stresses, such as post-hatch fasting and subclinical NE.

  14. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  15. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  16. Effects of feeding untreated, pasteurized and acidified waste milk and bunk tank milk on the performance, serum metabolic profiles, immunity, and intestinal development in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Wang, Yajing; Deng, Youfei; Cao, Zhijun; Li, Shengli; Wang, Jiufeng

    2017-01-01

    The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of different sources of milk on the growth performance, serum metabolism, immunity, and intestinal development of calves. Eighty-four Holstein male neonatal calves were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: those that received bunk tank milk (BTM), untreated waste milk (UWM), pasteurized waste milk (PWM), and acidified waste milk (AWM) for 21 d. Calves in the BTM and AWM groups consumed more starter ( P  feeding on BTM had lower ( P  waste milk. The efficiency of feeding pasteurized and acidified waste milk are comparable, and the acidification of waste milk is an acceptable labor-saving and diarrhea-preventing feed for young calves.

  17. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezovska, M.

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  18. Effects of nanoencapsulated aloe vera, dill and nettle root extract as feed antibiotic substitutes in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    A. Meimandipour; A. Nouri Emamzadeh; A. Soleimani

    2017-01-01

    Aloe vera, nettle and dill are herbs that have been used in the poultry diet as feed additives to utilise their benefits in improving performance, immune response and health of broiler chickens. However, reactive and volatile properties of bioactive compounds in herbal extracts cause limitations on direct usage of them in the diet. The use of chitosan (CS) nanoparticles for the entrapment of active components has gained interest in the last few years due to its mucous adhesi...

  19. Feeding broiler breeders a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period impairs reproductive performance but enhances broiler offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Leblois, J; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian studies have shown that nutritional constraints during the perinatal period are able to program the progeny (metabolism, performance). The presented research aimed to investigate if broiler breeders and their offspring performance could be influenced by reducing the dietary crude protein (CP) level with 25%. A total of 160 day-old pure line A breeder females were randomly divided over 2 dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial diets, whereas the reduced balanced protein (RP) breeders received an isoenergetic diet that was decreased with 25% in dietary CP and amino acid during their entire lifespan. The RP birds required an increased feed allowance, varying between 3 and 15%, to meet the same BW goals as their control fed counterparts. The difference in feed allocations and reduction of the dietary CP level resulted in a net protein reduction varying between 14 and 23%. At wk 27 and 40, the body composition of the breeders was changed as a result of the dietary treatment. At both ages, the proportional abdominal fat pad weight of the RP breeders was increased (P < 0.001), whereas the proportional breast muscle weight was only higher at wk 27 in the control group compared to the RP group (P < 0.001). Egg weight (P < 0.001) and egg production (P < 0.001) was decreased for the RP fed birds. The lower dietary CP level reduced the proportional albumen weight of the RP eggs (P = 0.006). Male offspring from RP breeders were characterized by an increase in BW from 28 d until 35 d of age (P = 0.015). Moreover, female progeny of RP breeders showed a reduced FCR (P = 0.025), whereas male progeny showed a tendency (P = 0.052) towards a lower FCR at 5 wk of age. In conclusion, lowering dietary CP levels in rearing and laying phase of breeders had a negative effect on breeder performance but enhanced live performance of the offspring. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Attraction, Feeding Preference, and Performance of Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Two Varieties of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa-Cancino, Wilmar; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-Lopez, Leopolodo; Castillo, Alfredo; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of maize and other crops in the Americas. Studies suggest that modern varieties of maize lost some of their natural defense mechanisms against herbivores during domestication and agricultural selection. In the present study, we evaluated the attraction, feeding preference (host fidelity and consumption rate), and performance of S. frugiperda larvae reared on hybrid (Pioneer P4063W) and landrace (Tuxpeño) varieties of maize. We also evaluated the damage caused by S. frugiperda to Pioneer and Tuxpeño maize plants in the field. We found that fifth-instar larvae were more attracted to Pioneer plants than to Tuxpeño plants in a Y-tube olfactometer. Additionally, the fall armyworm larvae showed more fidelity to Pioneer leaves than to Tuxpeño leaves. However, the larval consumption rate was similar for both types of maize plants. The life cycle of S. frugiperda was significantly longer when the larvae were reared on Tuxpeño leaves than on Pioneer leaves. In the field, the Pioneer variety was infested with more S. frugiperda larvae than the Tuxpeño variety. Thus, our results provide evidence that modern varieties of maize may have lost some of their defensive traits during selective breeding. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effects of feeding condensed distillers solubles and crude glycerin alone or in combination on finishing beef cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding condensed distillers solubles (DS) and crude glycerin alone or in combination on performance of finishing beef cattle and in vitro fermentation. In both experiments, dietary treatments consisted of a steam flaked corn (SFC) based diet...

  3. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of rearing and the count of floor primary feathers formed the major response criteria. Birds fed the control commercial diet consumed more feed and gained more weight (P0.05 between the control and enzyme supplemented CRLM groups. There was no dietary effect (P>0.05 on the weight of the first egg among the 3 groups. Feed cost of rearing was reduced (P0.05 between the two test diets as well as between the enzyme supplemented and the control diets. It was concluded that CRLM and copra meal can be used as major energy and protein sources respectively in growing pullets? diets. Enzyme supplementation may however, be needed to maintain performance of the birds.

  4. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc, averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg, and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G-2finishing(F phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement. Results In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2 at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06 and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09. In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01 and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07 as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to

  5. Smart Sensing of the Aux. Feed-water Pump Performance in NPP Severe Accidents Using Advanced GMDH Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to develop and verify the models, a number of data obtained by simulating station black out (SBO) scenario for the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) using MARS code were used. Most of monitoring systems for component have been suggested by using the directly measured data. However, it is very difficult to acquire data related to safety-critical component' status. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the new method that combines the data-based equipped with learning system and data miming technique. Many data-based modeling methods have been applied successfully to nuclear engineering area, such as signal validation, plant diagnostics and event identification. Also, the data miming is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. In this study, the smart sensing technique was developed using advanced group method of data handing (GMDH) model. The original GMDH is an inductive self organizing algebraic model. The advanced GMDH model is equipped with a fuzzy concept. The proposed advanced GMDH model enhances the original GMDH model by reducing the effect of outliers and noise. The advanced GMDH uses different weightings according to their importance which is specified by the fuzzy membership grade. The developed model was verified using SBO accident simulation data for the OPR1000 nuclear power plant acquired with MARS code. Also, the advanced GMDH model was trained using the simulated development data and verified with simulated test data. The development and test data sets were independent. The simulation results show that the performance of the developed advanced GMDH model was very satisfactory, as shown in Table 1. Therefore, if the developed model can be optimized using diverse and specific data, it will be possible to predict the performance of Aux. feed water pump accurately.

  6. Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S; Buckley, F; Pierce, K; Byrne, N; Patton, J; Dillon, P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences among Holstein-Friesian (HF), Montbéliarde (MB), Normande (NM), Norwegian Red (NRF), Montbéliarde x Holstein-Friesian (MBX), and Normande x Holstein-Friesian (NMX) across 2 seasonal grass-based systems of milk production. The effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, fertility performance, hormone parameters, ovarian function, and survival were determined by using mixed model methodology, generalized linear models, and survival analysis. The 5-yr study comprised up to 749 lactations on 309 cows in one research herd. The HF produced the greatest yield of solids-corrected milk, the MB and NM produced the least yields, and NRF, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. The NRF had the lowest body weight throughout lactation, the NM had the highest, and the other breeds were intermediate. Body condition score was greatest for MB and NM, least for HF, and intermediate for NRF, MBX, and NMX. The HF had a lower submission rate and overall pregnancy rate compared with the NRF. The NRF survived the longest in the herd, the HF survived the shortest, and the NM, MB, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. Breed of dairy cow had no effect on selected milk progesterone parameters from 5 d postpartum until 26 d after first artificial insemination. Breed of dairy cow did not influence insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 around parturition or at the start of the breeding season. Animals offered a high-concentrate diet had greater milk yield, but they did not have improved reproductive performance. Differences observed between the different breeds in this study are a likely consequence of the past selection criteria for the respective breeds.

  7. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  8. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, L.; Jeppsson, B.; Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A.; Valind, S.; Luts, A.; Wollmer, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of 18 FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. 18 FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  9. Thermal Performance and Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection Outside Feed-In Operating Hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Reactive power support by photovoltaic (PV) systems is of increasingly interest, when compared to the conventional reactive power compensation devices. PV inverters can exchange reactive power with the utility grid in a decentralized manner even outside feed-in operation, especially at nights when...... there is no solar irradiance. However, reactive power injection causes additional power losses in the switching components leading to a temperature rise in the devices. Thus, this paper analyses the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance...... of their power switching components. A thermal analysis based on the mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature) has been incorporated, so as to determine the additional temperature rise in the components induced by the operation outside feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model has been...

  10. Shelf-life extension of preservative-free hydrated feed using gamma pasteurization and its effect on growth performance of eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Minho; Song, Duseop; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Hydrated feed (HF) promotes the growth performance and shortens the feeding time of fish by increasing the efficiency of digestion. However, the shelf-life of HF is a concern due to its relatively higher water content. In this study, radiation pasteurization was applied to improve the shelf-life and microbiological quality of HF for fish farming. Preservative-free HF containing 25% moisture was gamma-irradiated and its microbiological and nutritional properties evaluated in addition to a practical feeding trial carried out using eel. The viable counts of bacteria and fungi in HF were 106 and 104 CFU/g, respectively. All coliform bacteria and yeast in HF were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy, and total aerobic bacteria were eliminated at 10 kGy. The shelf-life of the preservative-free and irradiated (10 kGy) HF was estimated as 6 months under ambient conditions. The nutritional composition of HF was stable up to 10 kGy of irradiation. Based on a feeding trial, it was proven that eel fed HF had about 20% higher growth rate than that fed dried feed.

  11. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on growth performance, digestibility, and gut integrity in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Martin F; Dilger, Anna C; Boler, Dustin D; Kerr, Brian J

    2018-05-26

    Consumption of peroxidized lipids has been shown to reduce pig performance and energy and lipid digestibility. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of feeding soybean oil (SO) with different levels of peroxidation on growth performance, lipid, N, and GE digestibility, plasma Trp, and gut integrity in finishing pigs. Fifty-six barrows (46.7 ± 5.1 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to one of four diets in each of two dietary phases, containing either 10% fresh SO (22.5 °C) or thermally processed SO (45 °C for 288 h, 90 °C for 72 h, or 180 °C for 6 h), each infused with of 15 L/min of air. Peroxide values were 2.0, 17.4, 123.6, and 19.4 mEq/kg; 2,4-decadienal values were 2.07, 1.90, 912.15, and 915.49 mg/kg; and 4-hydroxynonenal concentrations were 0.66, 1.49, 170.48, and 82.80 mg/kg, for the 22.5, 45, 90, and 180 °C processed SO, respectively. Pigs were individually housed and fed ad libitum for 81 d to measure growth performance, including a metabolism period to collect urine and feces for determination of GE, lipid, N digestibility, and N retention. Following the last day of fecal and urine collection when pigs were in the metabolism crates, lactulose and mannitol were fed and subsequently measured in the urine to evaluate gut permeability, while markers of oxidative stress were evaluated in plasma, urine, and liver. There were no differences observed in ADFI (P = 0.91), but average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed G:F were decreased in pigs fed 90 °C SO diet (P ≤ 0.07) compared to pigs fed the other SO diets. Pigs fed the 90 and 180 °C SO had the lowest (P = 0.05) DE as a % of GE compared to pigs fed the 22.5 °C SO, with pigs fed the 45 °C SO being intermediate. Lipid digestibility was similarly affected (P = 0.01) as energy digestibility, but ME as a % of DE was not affected by dietary treatment (P = 0.16). There were no effects of lipid peroxidation on N digested, N retained, or the urinary lactulose:mannitol ratio (P ≥ 0

  12. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  13. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  14. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  15. The effect of aloe vera bioactive level as feed additive on the egg performances of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of aloe vera bioactives as feed additive in layer ration was conducted. One hundred and twenty pullets strain Isa Brown were allocated into 5 treatments with 6 replicates and 4 birds/replicate. The treatments were: control,control+antibiotic (50 ppm zinc bacitracin, and control+ aloe vera at three levels (0.25; 0.50 and 1.00 g/kg. The treatments were conducted in a completely randomized design. Parameter measured were first initial body weight, age at 1st lay, feed intake, egg weight, hen day (%HD and feed conversion ratio. The results showed that antibiotic and aloe vera used as additive for 9 months production did not significantly (P<0.05 affect all parameter measured, except feed intake of hens fed diet containing 0.5 g/kg aloe vera was significantly (P<0.05 higher than control. The addition of aloe vera at 1.0 g/kg significantly (P<0.05 reduced the feed intake as compared with the control, aloe vera 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg. The used of aloe vera (1.00 g/kg produced egg weight significantly (P<0.05 higher than the control, and feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05 better than the control and aloe vera (0.25 g/kg. It is concluded that the best treatment was the diet with aloe vera level at 1.00 g/kg. This treatment improved feed efficiency 8.40%.

  16. Dietas para frangos de corte contendo quirera de arroz Performance of broiler feed with broken rice in diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berilo de Souza Brum Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o uso da quirera de arroz na dieta de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 240 pintos machos, alojados em galpão, contendo 12 boxes de 2m² de área. Cada box continha comedouro tubular, bebedouro pendular e campânula nos 21 dias iniciais. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, as quais receberam dietas contendo 0, 20 e 40% de inclusão de quirera de arroz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e à análise de variância e, quando houve diferença, aplicou-se o teste de Tukey. O ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de 1-21, 1-35 e 1-42 dias (P>0,05 não foram afetados pela substituição do milho por quirera de arroz. A umidade de cama, o índice de eficiência produtivo, o rendimento de carcaça quente, de fígado, coração, coxa, sobre-coxa e peito não apresentaram diferença (P>0,05. No entanto, os rendimentos de moela, bem como a pigmentação da canela e do bico, diminuíram linearmente com o aumento do nível de quirera de arroz na dieta. Conclui-se que a quirera de arroz pode ser incluída nas dieta, substituindo o milho, para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried to evaluate the performance of broilers fed with diferent levels of broken rice. The experiment was conducted with 240 males broilers chicks, Cobb 500, were distributed in floor pens of 2m² each, with one tubular feeder, one pendular drinker, an electrical brooder and on the top of rice hulls. An entirely randomized experimental design was used, with 3 treatments and 4 replicates with 20 birds each, which received, diets containing 0, 20 and 40% of broken rice. Data were submitted to Analisis of regression. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion to the1- 21, 1- 35 and 1-42 days of age, litter humidity, carcass, liver, breast, thigh and drumstick yield did not present significant difference. The gizzard and the

  17. Effective utilisation of generation Y Quantity Surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together and tested by means of open interview discussions with senior QS professionals. ... employers could better utilise generation Y employees. 2. Literature review .... Literature was reviewed by using search engines (Emerald, Business.

  18. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  19. Enhancing Cloud Resource Utilisation using Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sijin He; Li Guo; Yike Guo

    2014-01-01

    Resource provisioning based on virtual machine (VM) has been widely accepted and adopted in cloud computing environments. A key problem resulting from using static scheduling approaches for allocating VMs on different physical machines (PMs) is that resources tend to be not fully utilised. Although some existing cloud reconfiguration algorithms have been developed to address the problem, they normally result in high migration costs and low resource utilisation due to ignoring the multi-dimens...

  20. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  1. Effects of liquid feeding of corn condensed distiller's solubles and whole stillage on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and sensory traits of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojian; Nath, Carissa; Doering, Alan; Goihl, John; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2017-01-01

    The immense growth in global bioethanol production has greatly increased the supply of by-products such as whole stillage and condensed distiller's solubles, which could be potentially used for animal feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of liquid feeding high levels of corn condensed distiller's solubles (CCDS) and whole stillage (CWS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, belly firmness and meat sensory traits of pigs. A total of 256 pigs were blocked by sex and initial BW (13.5 ± 2.5 kg), and pens of pigs (8 pigs/pen) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (8 pens/treatment): 1) corn-soybean meal based diet as control, 2) 25% CWS + 5% CCDS, 3) 19.5% CWS + 10.5% CCDS, and 4) 19.5, 26, and 32.5% CWS + 10.5, 14, and 17.5% CCDS in phases 1 (28 d), 2 (38 d), and 3 (60 d), respectively. Inclusion levels of CCDS and CWS for Treatments 1, 2, and 3 were fixed during all the three phases of the experiment. Inclusion levels of CWS and CCDS were on 88% dry matter basis. The liquid feeding system delivered feed from the mixing tank to feed troughs by high-pressure air, had sensors inside feed troughs, and recorded daily feed intake on the basis of a reference feed intake curve. The pigs were fed 5 to 10 times per day with increasing frequency during the experiment. Control pigs had greater ( P   0.10) dressing percentage, loin muscle depth, and lean percentage were observed among the four treatments. Inclusion of CWS and CCDS reduced ( P   0.10) the overall like, flavor, tenderness and juiciness of loin chops when compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results indicate that including 30-50% of a mixture of whole stillage and condensed distiller's solubles in the growing-finishing diets may reduce growth performance, carcass weight and belly firmness, but does not affect pork sensory traits.

  2. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    operation. The market is expected to move forward but the available public information is very limited, especially concerning the technologies used and volumes produced. Woody feedstocks will be the main raw material source. The utilisation rate of forest industry residues and by-products is relatively high in the EU and wood supply in Central Europe remains more or less stable, hence the price of the raw material is at a fairly high level. The utilities' capability to pay for the product depends mainly on the national feed-in tariffs of green electricity. The energy price for the user is at least twice as high as that of coal. (orig.)

  3. The effect of feeding wheat varieties with different grain pigmentation on growth performance, texture, colour and meat sensory traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šťastník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding effect of of three spring wheat genotypes (Vánek, Konini and UC66049 with different grain colour on growth performance, body composition and meat quality parameters of broiler chickens was tested. Ninety chickens were divided into three groups (control, Konini and UC with 30 chickens in each. The tested genotypes were compares with standard variety Vánek (control with common (red grain colour. The two experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 38.2% of wheats with different grain colour: groups Konini (n = 30 and UC (n = 30 with. The third group (n = 30 had 38.2% of common wheat Vánek cultivar (Control group. The live weight of chickens between the experimental groups and control group was not significant different, as well as body composition and chemical analysis of breast and thigh meat of chickens. The feeding of wheat with different grain colour had no effect on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Breast meat tenderness according to the Razor Blade Shear Force was higher in control group against experimental groups. The colour change was not significantly different in all coordinates. pH values (measured after 1-hour post mortem were found significantly higher in the group fattening with Konini wheat than control and UC groups. Chickens meat from the experimental group was characterised by steady overall quality. The effect of various feeding had no effect on meat quality in terms of relevance to consumers.

  4. Performance and Meat Quality of Thin Tailed Sheep in Supplementary Feeding Lemuru Fish Oil Protected By Saponification with Different NaOH Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinah Setyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to obtain oil and the exact saponification with different NaOH concentration to protect unsaturated fats, which does can result in good production performance and lamb meat quality with low saturated fatty acid. Stage one studied the performance of sheep production on supplementing lemuru fish oil (LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twenty lambs aged 5-6 months early weighing 8-14 kg were divided into 4 treatments, namely P0 basal feed (50% elephant grass + 50% concentrate, P1 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 10%, P2 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 20% and P3 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 30% with completely randomized design and 5 replication for performance and 3 replication for meat quality. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P>0.05 on the consumption of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrien (TDN, daily gain and blood cholesterol. P2 yield the highest daily gain 130.95 ± 19.29 g/head/day of cholesterol at the same time low of 58.67 mg/dl. Stage two studied the criteria of lamb carcass and meat quality in supplementary feeding LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twelve sheeps were slaughtered for P0, P1, P2 and P3. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P> 0.05 to slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, the physical quality of meat (pH, water holding capacity, cooking losses and tenderness, and chemical quality of the meat (DM levels, CP , EE, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids except in EPA and DHA increased very significantly (P<0.01. Conclusively, giving soap LFO with different optimization did not significantly affect the appearance and quality of sheep meat production, except in EPA and DHA which were significantly increased

  5. Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiassa, E.; Higgins, J.P.T.; Frampton, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimise biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all......Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods...... parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritising systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment....

  6. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finstad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår unders

  7. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  8. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  9. Effect of feeding tannin degrading bacterial culture (Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406) on nutrient utilization, urinary purine derivatives and growth performance of goats fed on Quercus semicarpifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Chaudhary, L C; Agarwal, N; Kamra, D N

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of supplementation of tannin degrading bacterial culture (Streptococcus gallolyticus strain TDGB 406) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and urinary purine derivatives of goats fed on oak (Quercus semicarpifolia) leaves. For growth study, eighteen billy goats (4 month old, average body weight 9.50 ± 1.50 kg) were distributed into three groups of six animals each. The animals of group 1 served as control while animals of groups 2 (T1) and 3 (T2) were given (@ 5 ml/kg live weight) autoclaved and live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (10(6) cells/ml) respectively. The animals were fed measured quantity of dry oak leaves as the main roughage source and ad libitum maize hay along with fixed quantity of concentrate mixture. The feeding of live culture of isolate TDGB 406 (probiotic) did not affect dry matter intake and digestibility of nutrients except that of dry matter and crude protein, which was higher in T2 group as compared to control. All the animals were in positive nitrogen balance. There was no significant effect of feeding isolate TDGB 406 on urinary purine derivatives (microbial protein production) in goats. The body weight gain and average live weight gain was significantly higher (p = 0.071) in T2 group as compared to control. Feed conversion efficiency was also better in the goats fed on live culture of TDGB 406 (T2). The feeding of tannin degrading bacterial isolate TDGB 406 as probiotic resulted in improved growth performance and feed conversion ratio in goats fed on oak leaves as one of the main roughage source. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Malnutrition, School Feeding and Educational Performance. Notes, Comments...No. 186 = Malnutrition, alimentation scolaire et resultats educatifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Beryl

    Studies reviewed in this paper analyze the relationship between School Feeding Programme (SFP) participation and cognitive development in both developing and industralized countries. Contents concern: (1) the relationship betweeen diet and cognitive development; (2) limitations of intelligence quotient tests and the need for more adequate…

  12. Effects feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, fillet yeild, and body composition of rainbow trout, nile, tilapia, and channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is a potent ß-adrenergic agonist (BAA) that has been used in feedlot cattle to increase average daily gain, feed efficiency, yield of trimmed cuts, and dress out percent. While positive effects of ZH have been observed in cattle, there have been no reports of this prod...

  13. What is good for small piglets might not be good for big piglets: The consequences of cross-fostering and creep feed provision on performance to slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huting, A M S; Almond, K; Wellock, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2017-11-01

    Major improvements in sow prolificacy have resulted in larger litters but, at the same time, increased the proportion of piglets born light weight. Different management strategies aim to enhance the performance of, and limit light-weight piglet contribution to, BW variation within a batch; however, consequences on heavy-weight littermates are often neglected. This study investigated the effects of different litter compositions, created through cross-fostering, and the provision of creep feed on preweaning behavior and short- and long-term performance of piglets born either light weight (≤1.25 kg) or heavy weight (1.50-2.00 kg). Piglets were cross-fostered at birth to create litters with only similar-sized piglets (light weight or heavy weight; UNIFORM litters) and litters with equal numbers of light-weight and heavy-weight piglets (MIXED litters); half of the litters were offered creep feed and the remaining were not. Piglet behavior during a suckling bout and at the creep feeder was assessed; a green dye was used to discern between consumers and nonconsumers of creep feed. The interaction between litter composition and birth weight (BiW) class influenced piglet BW at weaning ( Creep feed provision did not affect BW at weaning ( > 0.05) for either BiW class. However, litter composition significantly affected daily creep feed consumption ( = 0.046) and fecal color ( = 0.022), with heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters consuming the highest amount of creep feed and having the greenest feces. In addition, a lower number of heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters were classified as nonconsumers ( = 0.002). The weight advantage heavy-weight and light-weight piglets had at weaning when reared in MIXED and UNIFORM litters, respectively, was sustained throughout the productive period. In conclusion, reducing BW variation within litter (UNIFORM litters) was beneficial for piglets born light weight but not for piglets born heavy weight; the latter were disadvantaged up

  14. Effects of Adult Feeding and Overwintering Conditions on Energy Reserves and Flight Performance of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Dylan A; Aukema, Brian H; Charvoz, Anthony M; Venette, Robert C

    2018-04-02

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states. Two studies sought to measure the effects of adult feeding on lipid content and flight capacity. Adult A. planipennis were fed shamel ash, Fraxinus uhdei Wenzig, leaves for 0-20 d after emergence, and half were flown on a custom flight mill for 24 h, before being frozen for comparative lipid analysis with a control group. The second study compared the effects of adult feeding on energy reserves and flight capacity of A. planipennis that were originally from St. Paul, Minnesota but overwintered in infested logs placed in Grand Rapids, Minnesota (low winter temperature, -34°C) or St. Paul, Minnesota (-26.3°C). Live adults consumed foliage at a constant rate, but lipid content (percentage of fresh mass) did not change with increases in feeding or flight. Adult glycogen content declined with flight and increased only slightly with feeding. Overwintering location affected survival rates but not energy reserves or flight capacity. These results suggest that the flight capacity of A. planipennis is largely determined before emergence, with no differences in energy reserves after cryoprotectant investment.

  15. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata link extract: the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance and product properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. F. Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance (accumulation rate, product recovery, elutriation and thermal efficiency and product properties (moisture content, size distribution, flavonoid degradation and flow properties during spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata Link extract are evaluated. The parameters studied were the position of the atomizer system (top spray or bottom spray, the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150oC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 100%. Higher accumulation rate values were obtained with the atomizer placed at the bottom of the bed. In this configuration, the accumulation rate increases with the increase in the Ws/Wmax ratio. The best drying performance was obtained for the top spray configuration.

  17. Duodenum Histomorphology and Performance as Influenced by Dietary Suplementation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Garlic (Allium sativum) and its Combinations as a Feed Additives in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanti, Sri; -, Zuprizal; Yuwanta, Tri; -, Supadmo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric water extract, garlic and combination turmeric and garlic as a feed additive in the broiler diet on performance, and duodenum histomorphology. Affectivity of treatments was assessed by addition of phytobiotic (control, 015% zinc bacitracin, 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE, 2.5% TGE) which were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications. The variables measured were duodenum histomorphology (villi height, villi surfac...

  18. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  19. Effects of creep feeding and supplemental glutamine or glutamine plus glutamate (Aminogut) on pre- and post-weaning growth performance and intestinal health of piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Creep feeding is used to stimulate piglet post-weaning feed consumption. L-Glutamine (GLN) is an important source of fuel for intestinal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of creep feeding and adding GLN or AminoGut (AG; containing glutamine + glutamate) to pre- and post-weaning diets on pig performance and intestinal health. Litters (N = 120) were allotted to four treatments during 14–21 d of lactation: 1) No creep feed (NC, n = 45); 2) creep fed control diet (CFCD, n = 45); 3) creep fed 1% GLN (CFGLN, n = 15); 4) creep fed .88% AG (CFAG, n = 15). After weaning, the NC and CFCD groups were sub-divided into three groups (n = 15 each), receiving either a control nursery diet (NC-CD, CFCD-CD) or a diet supplemented with either GLN (NC-GLN, CFCD-GLN) or with AG (NC-AG, CFCD-AG). Litters that were creep fed with diets containing GLN or AG also were supplemented with those amino acids in the nursery diets (CFGLN-GLN, CFAG-AG). Glutamine was added at 1% in all three post-weaning diet phases and AG was added at .88% in phase 1 and 2 and at .66% in phase 3. Results Feed conversion (feed/gain) showed means among treatment means close to significance (P = 0.056) and Tukey’s test for pairwise mean comparisons showed that Pigs in the CFGLN-GLN group had the best feed conversion (feed/gain) in the first three-week period post-weaning, exceeding (P = 0.044) controls (CFCD-CD) by 34%. The NC-AG group had (P = 0.02) the greatest feed intake in the last three week of the study, exceeding controls (CFCD-CD) by 12%. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and sow reared (SR) pigs had the greatest (P = 0.049) villi height exceeding the CFCD-AG group by 18%, 20% and 19% respectively. The CFAG-AG group had the deepest (P = 0.001) crypts among all treatments. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and SR groups had the greatest (P = 0.001) number of cells proliferating (PCNA) exceeding those in the NC-CD group by 43%, 54

  20. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to test the effects of ad libitum feeding of whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR) versus restrictive feeding of MR during the first 4 wk of life on growth performance and on milk yield in the first lactation. We studied 57 German Holstein calves (29 females, 28 males) from birth until d 110 of life (trial 1). The 28 females from trial 1 were further studied during their first lactation (trial 2). In trial 1, all calves were randomly allocated at birth to 1 of 3 groups: MR-res [n = 20, 6.78 kg MR (11.5% solids)/calf per day], MR-ad lib (n = 17, 13.8% solids) or WM-ad lib (n = 20). All calves received colostrum ad libitum from their dam until d 3 of age. From d 4 to 27, calves were fed according to their group regimen. From d 28 to 55, all calves received MR-res feeding and were then gradually weaned until d 69. We recorded body weight (until d 110) and feed intake (amount, metabolizable energy, and frequency of liquid feed intake until weaning). We estimated the profitability of the different feeding regimens, taking into account income from milk yield (trial 2) and feed costs during rearing. In trial 1, the calves from WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib had total metabolizable energy intakes 2.02- and 1.65-fold greater than the MR-res group during the first 4 wk of life. During this period, concentrate intake did not differ among groups, but tended to be greater in WM-ad lib than in MR-ad lib calves from d 28 to 69. The MR-res calves visited the automatic feeders more often than the ad libitum-fed groups during differential feeding, but 70% of the visits were unrewarded (calves). When all calves were fed at the MR-res level, the average proportion of unrewarded visits was 65% in all groups. Average daily gain and body weight were greater among MR-ad lib and WM-ad lib calves than among MR-res animals during the first 4 wk of life, but not from d 1 to 110. In trial 2, age at first calving, dry matter intake, and body weight over the first 10 mo of lactation were not

  1. Effects of creep feeding and supplemental glutamine or glutamine plus glutamate (Aminogut) on pre- and post-weaning growth performance and intestinal health of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Usry, James L; Arrellano, Consuelo; Nogueira, Eduardo T; Kutschenko, Marianne; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2013-08-03

    Creep feeding is used to stimulate piglet post-weaning feed consumption. L-Glutamine (GLN) is an important source of fuel for intestinal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of creep feeding and adding GLN or AminoGut (AG; containing glutamine + glutamate) to pre- and post-weaning diets on pig performance and intestinal health. Litters (N = 120) were allotted to four treatments during 14-21 d of lactation: 1) No creep feed (NC, n = 45); 2) creep fed control diet (CFCD, n = 45); 3) creep fed 1% GLN (CFGLN, n = 15); 4) creep fed .88% AG (CFAG, n = 15). After weaning, the NC and CFCD groups were sub-divided into three groups (n = 15 each), receiving either a control nursery diet (NC-CD, CFCD-CD) or a diet supplemented with either GLN (NC-GLN, CFCD-GLN) or with AG (NC-AG, CFCD-AG). Litters that were creep fed with diets containing GLN or AG also were supplemented with those amino acids in the nursery diets (CFGLN-GLN, CFAG-AG). Glutamine was added at 1% in all three post-weaning diet phases and AG was added at .88% in phase 1 and 2 and at .66% in phase 3. Feed conversion (feed/gain) showed means among treatment means close to significance (P = 0.056) and Tukey's test for pairwise mean comparisons showed that Pigs in the CFGLN-GLN group had the best feed conversion (feed/gain) in the first three-week period post-weaning, exceeding (P = 0.044) controls (CFCD-CD) by 34%. The NC-AG group had (P = 0.02) the greatest feed intake in the last three week of the study, exceeding controls (CFCD-CD) by 12%. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and sow reared (SR) pigs had the greatest (P = 0.049) villi height exceeding the CFCD-AG group by 18%, 20% and 19% respectively. The CFAG-AG group had the deepest (P = 0.001) crypts among all treatments. CFGLN-GLN, CFCD-GLN and SR groups had the greatest (P = 0.001) number of cells proliferating (PCNA) exceeding those in the NC-CD group by 43%, 54% and 63% respectively

  2. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed. Based on the results, the undergraduates’ utilisation level of smartphones for communication and collaboration tool was at a high level. Meanwhile, utilisation for operations and concepts tool and research and information fluency tool were at moderate level. Finally, smartphones utilisation as digital citizenship tool and critical thinking, problem solving and creativity tool were both at a low level. Hence, more training and workshops should be given to the students in order to encourage them to fully utilise smartphones in enhancing the higher order thinking skills.

  3. The Effects of Age of Grafted Larvae and of Supplemental Feeding on Performance of Iranian Honey Bee Colonies (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobi Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bee colonies greatly depends on the quality of the queens. The current research was conducted at the apiary of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, in Zanjan, Iran. Together, 24 rearing colonies were assigned to 4 grafting larvae age groups: 1-day-old, 2-day-old, 3-day-old, and emergency queens. Two feeding groups, fed and not fed, were created. The effects of reared queens on biological characteristics and performance of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera meda headed by those queens were measured. Age of grafted larvae significantly influenced the results. The performance ratios of the most efficient colonies headed by queens reared from 1-day-old larvae compared with the least-efficient queens reared from 3-day-old larvae were 118% in brood production, 140% in bee population, and 154% in honey production. However, the age of grafted larvae did not affect colony defense behavior. Supplemental feeding of rearing colonies increased brood production to 111%, bee population to 116%, and honey production to 115%. A combination of the effect of age of larvae and supplemental feeding resulted in twice as much honey (12 kg produced by colonies with queens reared from 1-day-old larvae in fed rearing colonies compared to those with queens raised from 3-day-old larvae in unfed rearing colonies.

  4. Effects of intermittent feeding of tylosin phosphate during the finishing period on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, antimicrobial resistance, and incidence and severity of liver abscesses in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H C; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Ogunrinu, O J; Amachawadi, R G; Scott, H M; Drouillard, J S

    2018-04-27

    feedlot performance and carcass characteristics to the same extent as feeding tylosin phosphate throughout the finishing phase; further, we hypothesize that enteric antimicrobial resistance is a result of longer term antibiotic usage in a particular environment rather than a direct short-term result of the treatment during any given feeding period.

  5. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  6. Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal, a positive control (Zn-bacitracin and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS, and acidifier. Two holding times included (a immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED and (b access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD. Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE, whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05 proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05 IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05. All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05. The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05. The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05. It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

  7. The Effects of Feeding Raw Fiber Concentrate on Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites of Suckling Holstein Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky; Fridoon Niazi; Mohsen Ghiasvand

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen female Holstein calves allocated in three treatments including: 1: control, 2: fed raw fiber concentrate (RFC) for 45 days and 3: fed RFC for 90 days. RFC supplement (Vitacel® 200) was added to milk immediately before feeding (10 g/L milk). Withers height and body weights of calves were measured monthly. Individual dry matter intake was recorded daily. Blood samples were taken monthly. The result showed that calves consumed RFC had significantly greater weaning an...

  8. Tiamulin feed premix in the improvement of growth performance of pigs in herds severely affected with enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, D G

    1984-03-03

    Four field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding tiamulin hydrogen fumarate at 20 and 30 ppm to fattening pigs over an eight week period, on farms with histories of severe, complicated, enzootic pneumonia problems. These farms had a prevalence of pigs with pneumonic lesions from 81 to 94 per cent and a range between individual batches of 69 to 96 per cent. The results of the first three trials showed that tiamulin at 30 ppm significantly improved the weight gains and feed conversion efficiency of pigs, in comparison with controls and was superior to the groups fed 20 ppm tiamulin. A further trial with tiamulin at 30 ppm and controls only, confirmed the original findings. The overall average results showed that tiamulin improved average daily gain by 33 g (4.7 per cent) and feed conversion efficiency by 0.138 (4.7 per cent). This effect did not appear to result from a reduction in the total extent of pneumonic lesions and the possible reasons for this are discussed, but in the fourth trial the number of pigs requiring parenteral treatment was noticeably reduced.

  9. Fermented Apple Pomace as a Feed Additive to Enhance Growth Performance of Growing Pigs and Its Effects on Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran M. Ajila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace is a by-product from the apple processing industry and can be used for the production of many value-added compounds such as enzymes, proteins, and nutraceuticals, among others. An investigation was carried out to study the improvement in the protein content in apple pomace by solid-state fermentation using the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium by tray fermentation method. The effect of this protein in terms of how it enriched apple pomace as animal feed for pigs has also been studied. There was a 36% increase in protein content in the experimental diet with 5% w/w fermented apple pomace. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food was increased from 43.5 ± 2.5 to 83.1 ± 4.4 in the control group and the efficiency of conversion of feed increased from 55.4 ± 4.5 to 92.1 ± 3.6 in the experimental group during the animal feed experiment. Similarly, the effect of a protein enriched diet on odor emission and greenhouse gas emission has also been studied. The results demonstrated that the protein enrichment of apple pomace by solid state cultivation of the fungus P. chrysosporium makes it possible to use it as a dietary supplement for pigs.

  10. Investigation of the performance behavior of a forward osmosis membrane system using various feed spacer materials fabricated by 3D printing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanar, Numan; Son, Moon; Yang, Eunmok; Kim, Yeji; Park, Hosik; Nam, Seung-Eun; Choi, Heechul

    2018-07-01

    Recently, feed spacer research for improving the performance of a membrane module has adopted three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. This study aims to improve the performance of membrane feed spacers by using various materials and incorporating 3D printing. The samples were fabricated after modeling with 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software to investigate the mechanical strength, water flux, reverse solute flux, and fouling performances. This research was performed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polypropylene (PP), and natural polylactic acid (PLA) as printing material, and the spacer model was produced using a diamond-shaped feed spacer, with a commercially available product as a reference. The 3D printed samples were initially compared in terms of size and precision with the 3D CAD model, and deviations were observed between the products and the CAD model. Then, the spacers were tested in terms of mechanical strength, water flux, reverse solute flux, and fouling (alginate-based waste water was used as a model foulant). Although there was not much difference among the samples regarding the water flux, better performances than the commercial product were obtained for reverse solute flux and fouling resistance. When comparing the prominent performance of natural PLA with the commercial product, PLA was found to have approximately 10% less fouling (based on foulant volume per unit area and root mean square roughness values), although it showed similar water flux. Thus, another approach has been introduced for using bio-degradable materials for membrane spacers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. leaf with ratio of 100:0 (Group A = control, 75:25 (Group B, 50:50 (Group C and 0:100 (Group D. Forages were given 2.5-3% (dry matter of liveweight. All groups were supplemented with 100g/head/day concentrate (crude protein = 16%, but during late pregnancy and lactation they were supplemented at 200 g/head/day. Results showed that feeding gliricidia 25-100% of total forages improved body weight due to the increasing protein intake. The maximum concentration of progesteron increased from 0.81 to 2.78 ng/ml. The ovulation rate and prolification also increased significantly (P<0.05 from 1.6 to 3.0 and 1.33 to 2.38, respectively. Individual birth and weaning weights of the lambs were not affected. It is concluded that feeding gliricidia continuously up to 100% as forages and supplemented with concentrate gives positive effect on bodyweight gain, reproduction and production performances in second breeding of JFT sheep.

  12. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  13. Effect of field pea-based creep feed on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and performance by nursing calves grazing native range in western North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelvin, A A; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Landblom, D G; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated digestive and performance effects of field pea-based creep feed in nursing calf diets. In Exp.1, eight nursing steer calves (145 +/- 27 kg initial BW) with ruminal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of supplementation and advancing season on dietary composition, intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Treatments were unsupplemented control (CON) and field pea-based creep (SUP; 19.1% CP, DM basis) fed at 0.45% BW (DM basis) daily. Calves grazed native range with their dams from early July through early November. Periods were 24 d long and occurred in July (JUL), August (AUG), September (SEP), and October (OCT). Experiment 2 used 80 crossbred nursing calves, 48 calves in yr 1 and 32 calves in yr 2 (yr 1 = 144 +/- 24 kg; yr 2 = 121 +/- 20 kg initial BW), to evaluate effects of field pea-based creep on calf performance. Treatments included unsupplemented control (CON); field pea-based creep feeds containing either 8% (LS); or 16% (HS) salt; and soybean meal/field pea-based creep containing (as-fed basis) 16% salt (HIPRO). Masticate samples from SUP calves in Exp.1 had greater CP (P = 0.05) than those from CON calves. Forage CP and ADIN decreased linearly with advancing season (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). In vitro OM digestibility of diet masticate decreased from JUL to OCT (P feed to increase calf weight gain without negatively affecting ruminal fermentation and digestion.

  14. Outpatient echocardiography in the evaluation of innocent murmurs in children: utilisation benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Patricio A; Oster, Matthew; Daley, Patricia A; Boris, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-01

    We sought to benchmark the utilisation of echocardiography in the outpatient evaluation of heart murmurs by evaluating two large paediatric cardiology centres. Although criteria exist for appropriate use of echocardiography, there are no benchmarking data demonstrating its utilisation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of outpatients aged between 0 and 18 years at the Sibley Heart Center Cardiology and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology, given a sole diagnosis of "innocent murmur" from 1 July, 2007 to 31 October, 2010. Using internal claims data, we compared the utilisation of echocardiography according to centre, patient age, and physician years of service. Of 23,114 eligible patients (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 12,815, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 10,299), 43.1% (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 45.2%, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 40.4%; p1-5 years had the lowest utilisation (32.7%). In two large paediatric cardiology practices, the overall utilisation of echocardiography by physicians with a sole diagnosis of innocent murmur was similar. There was significant and similar variability in utilisation by provider at both centres. Although these data serve as initial benchmarking, the variability in utilisation highlights the importance of appropriate use criteria.

  15. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coa...

  16. Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infect-ed Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekayode Olarinwaju SONIBARE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds.Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1 low energy low protein, group 2 (G2 low energy high protein, group 3 (G3 high energy low protein and group 4 (G4 high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC, worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (Hb and red blood cell count (RBC were determined using standard methods.Results: Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309 among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups, while haematological parameters increased significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups.Conclusion: Lambs in G2 followed by G4 showed improved parameters and superior performance when compared to the other groups. It is therefore recommended that feed high in protein content is capable of mitigating deleterious effect of gastrointestinal helminth parasitism.

  17. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  18. Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation in animal feed can negatively affect growth performance and meat quality. Weanling pigs (n = 432; BW = 6.6 ± 0.4 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding a peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) source with three levels of vitamin E (a-tocopheryl acetate)...

  19. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  20. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

  1. Energetic utilisation of biomass in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barotfi, I.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic utilisation of biomass has been known since prehistoric times and was only pushed into the background by the technological developments of the last century. The energy crisis and, more recently, environmental problems have now brought it back to the fore, and efforts are being made worldwide to find modern technical applications for biomass and contribute to its advance. (orig.) [de

  2. Missed Opportunities: Emergency Contraception Utilisation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although contraceptives, including emergency contraceptives, are widely available free at public health facilities in South Africa, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy are high. This paper analyses awareness and utilisation of emergency contraception amongst 193 young women (aged 15-24 years) attending public ...

  3. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  4. Effect of design and operation of modern ammonia plants on the performance of integrated heavy water plants (Paper No. 2.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Haldar, T.K.; Gupta, S.K.; Ramamurty, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The heavy water plant being parasitic in nature, its design, operation and performance is affected to a great extent by the design, performance and operation of the ammonia plant. Some of the factors which affect the performance of heavy water plant such as on-stream hours and capacity utilisation of the ammonia plant, deuterium concentration (D/D+H) in feed synthesis gas, operating pressure of synthesis loop of ammonia plant, composition of feed synthesis gas, and level of oxygenated impurities in feed synthesis gas are described in this paper. (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Dose-response feeding study of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in laying hens: effects on laying performance and tissue distribution, accumulation and elimination kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven; Matthes, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    Technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 with 60% chlorine) were fed to 93 laying hens from 24 to 32 weeks of age in increasing concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg feed. No significant influence on health, relative organ weights or performance (laying intensity, egg weight, feed consumption) was noted. The chlorinated paraffin content of the tissues was linearly related to the concentration of short chain paraffins of the feed. The highest concentrations were found in abdominal fat, egg yolk and fatty tissues. Breast muscle, egg albumen and bile fluid contained minimal or no residues. Less than 1% of the chlorinated paraffins ingested were incorporated into the body (without head, feet, gut and feathers), whereas about 1.5% were eliminated with the egg yolk and 30% were excreted with urine and faeces. A six-week kinetic depuration study revealed a biphasic elimination with half-lifes of 4-40 min (liver, kidneys, legs, fat, blood) for the initial rapid phase, and 15-30 days (blood, fat, liver, yolk, kidneys, legs) for the terminal slow phase.

  6. Improving Performance and Operational Stability of Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris with Combinational Induction Strategy of Low Temperature and Methanol/Sorbitol Co-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Various induction strategies were investigated for effective porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) production by Pichia pastoris in a 10 L fermenter. We found that pIFN-α concentration could be significantly improved with the strategies of low-temperature induction or methanol/sorbitol co-feeding. On this basis, a combinational strategy of induction at lower temperature (20 °C) with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding has been proposed for improvement of pIFN-α production. The results reveal that maximal pIFN-α concentration and antiviral activity reach the highest level of 2.7 g/L and 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mg with the proposed induction strategy, about 1.3-2.1 folds higher than those obtained with other sub-optimal induction strategies. Metabolic analysis and online multi-variable measurement results indicate that energy metabolic enrichment is responsible for the performance enhancement of pIFN-α production, as a large amount of ATP could be simultaneously produced from both formaldehyde oxidation pathway in methanol metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in sorbitol metabolism. In addition, the proposed combinational induction strategy enables P. pastoris to be resistant to high methanol concentration (42 g/L), which conceivably occur associating with the error-prone methanol over-feeding. As a result, the proposed combinational induction strategy simultaneously increased the targeted protein concentration and operational stability leading to significant improvement of pIFN-α production.

  7. The effect of chronic feeding of diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin on performance, health, small intestinal physiology and antibody production in turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklan, D; Shelly, M; Makovsky, B; Geyra, A; Klipper, E; Friedman, A

    2003-03-01

    1. The effects of feeding T-2 toxin or diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) at levels up to 1 ppm for 32 d on performance, health, small intestinal physiology and immune response to enteral and parenteral immunisation were examined in young poults. 2. Slight improvement in growth was observed in some groups of poults fed T-2 or DAS mycotoxins for 32 d, with no change in feed efficiency. Feeding both T-2 and DAS resulted in oral lesions which had maximal severity after 7-15 d. 3. Mild intestinal changes were observed at 32 d but no pathological or histopathological lesions were found. Both mycotoxins altered small intestinal morphology, especially in the jejunum where villi were shorter and thinner. In addition, both DAS and T-2 mycotoxins enhanced the proportion of proliferating cells both in the crypts and along the villi. Migration rates were reduced in the jejunum of poults fed T-2 toxin but did not change in the duodenum or in poults fed DAS. 4. No significant effects of T-2 or DAS were observed on antibody production to antigens administered by enteral or parenteral routes. 5. This study indicates that tricothecene toxins at concentrations of up to 1 ppm for more than 30 d influenced small intestinal morphology but did not affect growth or antibody production.

  8. Effect of dietary calcium level and source on mineral utilisation by piglets fed diets containing exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, P; Gutzwiller, A

    2017-10-01

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO 3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration. The apparent total tract digestibility of minerals was also assessed in the two diets with 7 g Ca/kg, using 12 additional pigs. Regardless of Ca source, increasing dietary Ca impaired feed conversion ratio, increased urinary pH, increased serum and urinary Ca, decreased serum and urinary P, decreased serum Mg and increased urinary Mg, increased serum AP activity, decreased bone Mg increased bone Zn. Bone breaking strength was improved with 7 compared to 4 g Ca/kg. Compared to CaCO 3 , Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum increased serum Mg and with, 10 g Ca/kg, it limited body weight gain. The dose response of Ca in a diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg and including exogenous phytase indicated that: (i) a low dietary Ca was beneficial for piglet growth, but was limiting the metabolic use of P; (ii) a high dietary Ca level impaired P utilisation; (iii) the optimal P utilisation and bone breaking strength was obtained with a dietary Ca-to-digestible P ratio of 2.1 to 2.4:1; (iv). Increasing dietary Ca reduced Mg utilisation, but not Zn status, when fed at adequate level. Finally, Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum had similar effects on Ca and P metabolism as CaCO 3 , but impaired growth when fed at the highest inclusion level. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  10. Short communication: Effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture on feeding behavior and performance of calves during the weaning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadam, D; Kański, J; Burakowska, K; Penner, G B; Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture (SM) on feeding behavior and performance of calves during weaning transition. A total of 36 female Holstein calves of a mean age 14.9±1.6 d and body weight 40.1±4.2 kg (mean ± SD) were allocated to 1 of 3 treatments differing in the main source of protein for the SM (12 calves per treatment): (1) soybean meal (TSBM); (2) soybean meal and canola meal (TSBM/TCM); and (3) canola meal (TCM). The SM was offered for ad libitum consumption beginning on the first day of the study, whereas milk replacer (MR) was fed in amounts equal to 900 g (as fed) per day from d 1 to 35 and 450 g/d from d 36 to 42 of the study. Calves were completely weaned on d 43 of the study (57.9±1.6 d of age; mean ± SD), and their performance was monitored for an additional 2 wk. Calf body weight was recorded weekly, and MR and SM intake and fecal fluidity were recorded daily. Feeding behavior of calves during weaning transition, including frequency (no./d), time (min/d), and rate (g/min) of eating the SM as well as frequency and time of drinking water, was monitored on 6 calves per treatment for 2 consecutive days before MR step-down (d 34-35), at MR step-down (d 41-42), and after weaning (d 48-49 of study). Starter mixture intake tended to be higher for TSBM calves as compared with TSBM/TCM calves from d 1 to 35 of the study but was not different between TSBM and TCM calves and was not different between treatments in the whole study period. Calves from TCM treatment had reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (g of ADG/kg of dry matter intake) and a higher fecal score in the period from d 1 to 35 of the study and had lower feed efficiency and tended to have lower ADG in the whole study period as compared with TSBM calves. Average daily gain and feed efficiency did not differ between TSBM and TSBM/TCM calves. Frequency of eating the SM and drinking water as well as time

  11. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  12. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  13. Utilization of cinnamon Cinnamomum burmannii leaves and shrimp head in the feed on growth performance of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suclyadi Dairun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCatfish farming has confronted with the problem of slow growth to reach the fillet size and less tender of fish fillets. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon leaf flour and shrimp head flour in formulated diets on growth of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalamus. Catfish with an initial weight of 207.04 ± 2.70 g/fish reared in 12 cages with a dimension of  2×1×1.5 m3 (L×W×H  and its fish density was 15 fishes for 60 days. Fish were fed with following experimental diets: (1 Control; (2 cinnamon leaf (1% (CL; (3 45% of protein source from shrimp head (SH; (4 CL+SH mix.  The fishes fed twice a day with feeding rate 3.5% of fish biomass. The study found that the use of cinnamon leaf and shrimp head increased the specific growth rate 1.67-1.70%, the feed efficiency 57.55-57.67%, and protein retention 55.61% compared to its control (P<0.05. Triglyceride level, cholesterol, and blood HDL were 416.00-524.05 mg/dL, 139.65-156.68 mg/dL, 73.18-103.70 mg/dL (P>0.05, respectively. HSI value ranged between 0.3-1.9% compared to its control (P<0.05.Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, feed, growth, Pangasianodon hypopthalmus, shrimp head.  ABSTRAKBudidaya ikan patin dihadapkan pada permasalahan pertumbuhan dan kualitas daging yaitu pertumbuhan yang lambat untuk mencapai ukuran fillet serta tekstur daging kurang kompak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh penggunaan tepung daun kayu manis dan tepung kepala udang dalam pakan terhadap pertumbuhan ikan patin Pangasianodon hypopthalmus. Ikan patin dengan bobot 207,04 ± 2,70 g/ekordipelihara selama 60 hari di hapa sebanyak 12 buah (berukuran 2×1×1,5 m3dengan padat tebar 15 ekor/jaring. Ikan diberi pakan perlakuan yang terdiri dari: (1 Kontrol; (2 daun kayu manis 1% (DKM; (3 45% sumber protein dari kepala udang (TKU; dan (4 campuran DKM+TKU. Pemberian pakan sebanyak 2 kali sehari dengan feeding rate 3,5% dari biomassa ikan. Hasil dari penelitian penggunaan daun kayu manis

  14. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    from P. stipitis and the endogenous XKS1 gene under control of the PGKI promoter, into the HIS3 locus of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7A. The strain was stable for more than forty generations in continuous fermentation. The metabolic fluxes during xylose metabolism were quantitatively analysed and anaerobic ethanol formation from xylose in recombinant S. cerevisiae was demonstrated for the first time. The xylose uptake rate increased with increasing xylose concentration in the feed. However, with a feed of 15 g/l xylose and 5 g/l glucose, the xylose flux was 2.2 times lower than the glucose flux, indicating that transport limits the xylose flux. The role of mitochondria in ethanol formation from xylose was investigated using cells of recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae with two different respiratory capacities and cells from P. stipitis grown under conditions of optimal ethanol formation. Different inhibitors were used either to inhibit the electron transport chain and simulate oxygen limitation, or to inhibit the tricarboxylic acid cycle while not disturbing the electron transport chain. The response to the inhibitors differed significantly for glucose and xylose and the effect was more pronounced for S. cerevisiae. The results indicate that mitochondria play a significant role in the maintenance of the cytoplasmic redox balance during xylose fermentation, through the action of cytoplasmically directed NADH dehydrogenase activity. Thus, more carbon was directed towards ethanol in chemostat cultivations of xylose/glucose mixtures by S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, in the presence of low amounts of oxygen. P. stipitis possesses a second, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase, the alternative oxidase, which seems to be of particular importance for efficient ethanol formation from xylose. The highest activity of cyanide-insensitive respiration (CIR), the highest ethanol productivity and lowest xylitol formation were all observed with cells grown under oxygen-limited conditions

  15. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  16. Utilisation des "algues-fourrage" en aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Robert, Rene; His, Edouard

    1986-01-01

    Les travaux concernant l'utilisation d'algues unicellulaires pour la nutrtion de larves et de juvéniles de bivalves d'intérêt commercial sont analysés. Sur une cinquantaine d'espèces d'algues testées, un dizaine seulement sont produites en grande quantité dans des écloseries commerciales sous le non "d'algues fourrage". Les principales espèces employées sont décrites et leurs caractéristiques majeures illustrées. Les critères permettant de retenir une espèce pour son utilisation en aquacultur...

  17. Effect of dietary protein level on retention of nutrients, growth performance, litter composition and NH3 emission using a multi-phase feeding programme in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of dietary protein level on the retention of nutrients, growth performance, litter composition and NH3 emission in broiler chickens kept under laboratory conditions (housed in cages, Exp.1 or in commercial conditions (in pens, Exp.2; or whole houses of a farm, Exp.3. All the trials were performed according to a factorial experimental design, involving a 4-stage feeding programme and two levels of dietary crude protein (CP for each period: control vs. low crude protein (CP reduced by 1.5%. In Exp.1, the coefficients of total tract apparent retention of dry matter and CP were higher in the birds fed the low CP diet (p<0.05. On average, reducing the CP of the diet led to a 4.8% reduction in the nitrogen excreted per CP intake. In Exp.2, the feed conversion ratio was higher in birds fed the low CP diet from 22 to 35d (p<0.05, from 35 to 42d (p<0.01, and over the whole experimental period (p<0.01. In Exp.3, low CP diets decreased the nitrogen content of the litter in the finisher period (p<0.05. The average NH3 concentration and emission from 33 to 42d were lower in the low CP house (p<0.01, with a 16% decrease in the cumulative NH3 emission. Therefore, the reduction in dietary CP content by 1.5% reduced the potential environmental impact, although it had a negative effect on the feed efficiency of broilers.

  18. Feed handling of lactating crossbred cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season: physiological parameters, ingestive behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Marcílio; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro; Urbano, Stela Antas; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; de Lima Silva, Janaina

    2017-01-01

    The effects of time of feed delivery (14.00 hours; 14.00 and 20.00 hours; 16.00 and 18.00 hours) on the physiological parameters, ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and production of lactating cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season were evaluated. Regardless of treatment, all animals received the first feeding supply at 06.00 hours. Eight cows with an average body weight of 600 kg, average milk yield of 20 kg/day and 80 days in milk were utilized. The rectal temperature, respiratory rate and sweating rate were not affected (P > 0.05), with average values of 38.5°C, 53.8 movements/min and 104 g/m 2 /h respectively. There was no effect (P > 0.05) on the eating time (314 min/day), ruminating time (564 min/day), drinking time (61 min/day) and idle time (502 min/day). Similarly, the intake of nutrients and performance of lactating cows were not affected (P > 0.05), with average dry matter intake of 19.8 kg/day, 4% fat-corrected milk of 20.6 kg/day and milk fat concentration of 4.03 g/100 g. Since the behavior and performance have not altered, any times of feed delivery evaluated could be used to crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows maintained on a feedlot in semi-arid regions during the hot season. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-01-01

    The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S) among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total ...

  20. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  1. Soybean meal enriched with microelements by biosorption--a new biological feed supplement for laying hens. Part I. Performance and egg traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Z; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Świniarska, M; Saeid, A; Opaliński, S; Dobrzański, Z

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of soybean meal enriched with Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) by biosorption on egg traits (egg weight, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, yolk colour, albumen height) and performance of laying hens. Also, the effect of increased microelement doses in biological form on egg quality parameters and hens performance was investigated. A consumer questionnaire was undertaken to evaluate the organoleptic parameters of the eggs. Generally, our study showed that in the groups fed with the new biological supplement, egg quality parameters improved, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, albumen height and yolk colour. The biological form of microelements also improved the feed conversion rate, especially in the group fed with a biological form of Cr(III). Moreover, the new supplement improved organoleptic parameters of the eggs, in comparison to the inorganic form of microelements as well as to chelate. Enriched soybean meal could constitute an alternative for currently used feed additives with microelements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  3. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  4. Inflation and capacity utilisation in Nigeria's manufacturing sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the relationship between inflation and capacity utilisation empirically leaning on the model employed by Baylor (2001). It utilised time series secondary data using least square multiple regression technique. The quarterly data utilised were tested for stationarity using ADF test. The multiple regression ...

  5. Rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and growth performance of calves during transition from liquid to solid feed: Effects of dietary level and particle size of alfalfa hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, M; Amanlou, H; Khorvash, M; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of particle size (PS) and dietary level of alfalfa hay (AH) on rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, eating behavior, and growth performance in dairy calves during transition from liquid to solid feed. Sixty newborn dairy calves (41 ± 2.5,kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary AH level (medium, 12.5%, or high, 25%, on DM basis) and PS (fine = 1mm or medium = 3mm, as geometric means) of AH. Hence, the dietary treatments were (1) medium level of AH with fine PS (M-FPS), (2) medium level of AH with medium PS (M-MPS), (3) high level of AH with fine PS (H-FPS), and (4) high level of AH with medium PS (H-MPS). Particle size of AH did not affect total DMI (TDMI) during the preweaning period, although TDMI was greater for calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS during the postweaning and overall periods. Calves fed MPS spent more time eating solid feed and ruminating and less time on nonnutritive oral behaviors compared with FPS calves. The dietary level of AH did not affect behavioral parameters. Average daily gain of calves was not affected by dietary treatment before weaning. During the postweaning and overall periods, average daily gain was greater in calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS at the 25% AH level, but this effect was absent with 12.5% AH. Furthermore, the rumen pH values on d 35 and 70 of the study were greater for MPS than for FPS, regardless of the dietary level of AH. Effects of AH level, PS, and their interaction did not affect blood glucose concentrations in developing calves. These results indicate that feed intake, feeding behavior, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration may be affected by rations differing in forage PS; thus, providing calves with MPS can improve calf performance and reduce their nonnutritive oral behaviors. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  8. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  9. Effect of oat hulls as a free choice feeding on broiler performance, short chain fatty acids and microflora under a mild necrotic enteritis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbast K. Kheravii

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure of fibre has been reported to enhance performance, intestinal function and modify the composition and quantity of the microbial population in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. It is hypothesised that insoluble fibre in oat hulls may improve gut health and reduce intestinal Clostridium perfringens number. This research assessed the effect of free choice oat hulls (OH on performance and gut microbiota in broilers during a mild (subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE challenge. A total of 240 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 24 cages in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were challenge − or +; and OH − or +. On d 16, challenged broilers had lower weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05 compared with unchallenged broilers. On d 16, broilers given OH had lower feed intake (P < 0.05 and tended to have lower (P = 0.062 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared with those without access to OH. Broiler performance, however, was not affected by OH nor by challenge on d 24 and 35. The broilers given OH had heavier gizzards (P < 0.05 compared with those without OH at d 35 but not at d 13 or 16. Increased numbers of C. perfringens (P < 0.001 and reduced numbers (P < 0.05 of Lactobacillus and Salmonellae were observed in the caecal contents of challenged broilers on d 16. Challenged broilers had a lower concentration of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.01 compared with unchallenged broilers at d 16. The broilers given OH had lower concentrations of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.05, propionic acid (P < 0.05, and valeric acid (P < 0.01 compared with those without access to OH. An OH by challenge interaction on succinic acid concentration was observed on d 16 (P < 0.05. Oat hulls elevated the caecal succinic acid concentration only in the unchallenged broilers. This study indicated a positive role of OH through improved gizzard function and increased succinic acid in the gut but its role in

  10. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Young-Kuk, E-mail: ykim@cnu.ac.kr [Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation.

  11. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Neto, André C.; Wallander, Anders; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation

  12. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  13. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  14. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A J; Bridgwater, A V [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C P; Watters, M P [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D J [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  15. Effects of Defatting Combined or not to Heating of Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal on Feed Intake and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens and Chicks in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesseim, TDT.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family whose cultivation has been largely promoted in recent years for the production of biofuels. The kernel of the seed contains approximately 55% lipid in dry matter and the meal obtained could be an exceptional source of proteins for family poultry farming, after treatments to remove toxic and anti-nutritional compounds. The ingestion and the growth performance of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM, obtained after partial physico-chemical de-oiling combined or not with heating was evaluated in broiler chickens and chicks. Sixty unsexed broiler chickens, 30 day-old, divided into three groups as well as twenty broiler chicks, 1 day-old, divided into two groups were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, jatropha kernel was de-oiled and incorporated into a control fattening feed at 40 and 80g/kg (diets 4JKM1 and 8JM1. In experiment 2, jatropha kernel meal obtained in experiment 1 was heat treated and incorporated into a growing diet at 80g/kg (diet 8JKM2. Daily dietary intakes as well as weight gain of the animals were affected by the incorporation of jatropha kernel meal in the ration. In experiment 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI1 of 139.2, 55.2 and 23.4g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG1 of 61.9, 18.5 and -7.7g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM1, 4JKM1 and 8JKM1. In experiment 2, Average daily feed intake (ADFI2 of 18.7 and 3.1g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG2 of 7.1 and 1.9g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM2 and 8JKM2. In both experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR was also affected by the dietary treatments and the overall mortality rate showed an increase according to levels of jatropha kernel meal in diet.

  16. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic. [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal A. Muchlisin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg-1 (control, 5 ml kg-1, 10 ml kg-1 and 15 ml kg-1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic to 10 ml kg-1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg-1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg-1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg-1 of feed.

  17. On the effects of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions: A 2D numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Vera, M.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions is explored by means of a 2D/1D multiphysics across-the-channel model. The numerical formulation incorporates a comprehensive 2D description of the anode GDL, including two-phase phenomena, non-uniform anisotropic transport properties, and electrical contact resistances at the GDL/BPP interface. GDL effective properties are evaluated using empirical data corresponding to Toray® carbon paper. A simplified but physically sound 1D description, locally coupled to the 2D anode GDL model, is adopted to describe transport processes in the MPLs, membrane and cathode GDL, whereas the catalyst layers are treated as infinitely thin surfaces. Good agreement is found between the numerical results and previous experimental data. The interplay between assembly compression, bipolar plate material, and channel configuration is also investigated. The results show that there is an optimum GDL compression ratio in terms of overall power density, the optimal compression level being strongly dependent on bipolar plate material. Beyond the optimum, the detrimental effect of compression is larger in non-parallel flow fields due to the additional reduction of methanol transported by under-rib convection. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, this transport mechanism could be more important than diffusion in the anode of liquid-feed DMFCs.

  18. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  19. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: Results from a school feeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Rahmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. Methods: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each. Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven′s Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. Results: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05. Psychological tests′ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05 at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05. Conclusions: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran.

  20. Effects of selected feed additives on the performance of laying hens given a diet rich in maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkiewicz, S; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Krawczyk, J; Puchała, M; Józefiak, D

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 192 ISA Brown hens were given diets containing a high concentration of maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and egg quality was determined. 2. Birds were allocated to 8 treatment groups with 12 replicates (cages) of two hens and were given, from week 26 to 55, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets with or without a high concentration of DDGS (200 g/kg). The diet containing DDGS was not supplemented or supplemented with enzymes (xylanase and phytase), sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius) and a mixture of herbal extracts (Taraxaci siccum, Urticae siccum and Salviae siccum), inulin or chitosan. 3. The inclusion of DDGS in the diet had no effect on number of eggs produced, total egg mass, mean egg weight, feed intake or feed conversion ratio. Egg and eggshell quality parameters were also unaffected by dietary DDGS. The yolk colour score (points in Roche scale) was significantly increased by DDGS inclusion. DDGS in the diet caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were rather unfavourable from a dietary perspective (an increase of cholesterol content, and PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio). 4. During the experimental period (26-55 weeks of age) supplementation of the diet containing a high concentration of DDGS with enzymes, inulin as well as chitosan, increased number of eggs produced and daily egg mass. In older hens (50 weeks of age) inulin positively affected eggshell quality parameters, i.e. shell percentage, thickness and density. Diet supplementation with herb extracts, inulin or chitosan, decreased the content of cholesterol in yolks. 5. The results of this study suggest that DDGS may be incorporated up to a concentration of 200 g/kg in the diet of laying hens without any negative effects on egg performance. Moreover, supplementation of xylanase and phytase, as well as inulin and chitosan, can positively affect the performance of

  1. Substrate utilisation by plant-cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M W

    1982-01-01

    Plant cell cultures have been grown on a wide range of carbon sources in addition to the traditional ones of sucrose and glucose. Biomass yields and growth rates vary greatly between the different carbon sources and there is a variation in response between different cell cultures to individual carbon sources. Some attempts have been made to grow cell cultures on 'waste' and related carbon sources, such as lactose, maltose, starch, molasses and milk whey. Only maltose was found to support growth to anything near the levels observed with glucose and sucrose. In the case of molasses carbon source cell growth was either non-existent or only just measurable. All the data point to glucose as being the most suitable carbon source, principally on the grounds of biomass yield and growth rate. It should be noted, however, that other carbon sources do appear to have a major (positive) influence on natural product synthesis. Uptake into the cell is an important aspect of carbohydrate utilisation. There is strong evidence that from disaccharides upwards, major degradation to smaller units occurs before uptake. In some cases the necessary enzymes appear to be excreted into the culture broth, in others they may be located within the cell wall; invertase that hydrolyses sucrose is a good example. Once the products of carbohydrate degradation and mobilisation enter the cell they may suffer one of two fates, oxidation or utilisation for biosynthesis. The precise split between these two varies depending on such factors as cell growth rate, cell size, nutrient broth composition and carbohydrate status of the cells. In general rapidly growing cells have a high rate of oxidation, whereas cells growing more slowly tend to be more directed towards biosynthesis. Carbohydrate utilisation is a key area of study, underpinning as it does both biomass yield and natural product synthesis. (Refs. 13).

  2. Science Teachers' Utilisation of Innovative Strategies for Teaching Senior School Science in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelekan, Oloyede Solomon; Igbokwe, Emoyoke Faith; Olorundare, Adekunle Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria, yet, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects. Many innovative teaching strategies have been developed by educators and found to impact significantly on students' academic performance when utilised. Hence, this study was aimed at examining science…

  3. Logistics and feed preparation of straw for gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The system for supply of biomass comprises the entire chain from harvest to feeding. The subsequent energy process makes demands on the quality of the biomass that is supplied. The process, moreover, makes a number of demands on the preceding pretreatment and the equipment subsequently utilised. The straw delivery and handling system ought therefore to be considered as a coherent unit whole consisting of the following: harvesting and collection; storage; transportation; fragmentizing; drying; densification; handling at the plants; feeding; `subsequent process`. (EG)

  4. Vegetable and cereal protein exploitation for fish feed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available cultivated fish (Naylor et al., 2000). Therefore, considerable amounts of resources are currently being used worldwide to evaluate the nutritional quality and possible health implications of alternative plant-based feed- stuffs with the potential... and storage. All of this needs to be implemented without excessive costs, as the feed costs usually make up around 40–75% of the total running cost of rearing fish (Young and Muir, 2000). As the challenges for utilising legume and cereal protein sources...

  5. Effect of various fiber types and choice feeding of fiber on performance, gut development, humoral immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Amin; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abasali

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fibrous materials with one single diet or by choice feeding on performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 240-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to one of 4 treatments, comprising 5 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: a basal diet (control) or 30 g/kg sugar beet pulp (SBP), 30 g/kg rice hull (RH), or 30 g/kg equal combination of them (SBP/RH) added to the basal diet. Results showed SBP and SBP/RH impaired daily weight gain (DWG) in the growing period compared with control (P immunity. In addition, broilers had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencoglu, H.; Shaver, R.D.; Steinberg, W.; Ensink, J.; Ferraretto, L.F.; Bertics, S.J.; Lopes, J.C.; Akins, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/-

  7. Lactating performance, water and feed consumption of rabbit does reared under a Mediterranean summer circadian cycle of temperature v. comfort temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, M H; Tusell, L; Rafel, O; Terré, M; Sánchez, J P; Piles, M

    2015-07-01

    The general aim of this research was to study the effect of high ambient temperature on the performance of does during lactation, specifically the following factors: average daily feed (ADFI) and water (ADWI) intakes, daily milk yield (DMY); milk composition: dry matter (DM), CP and gross energy (GE); doe BW (DW); individual kit weaning weight (IWW) and litter survival rate during lactation (SR). The study was undertaken comparing the performance of two groups of contemporary does reared under the same management, feeding regime and environmental conditions, except the environmental temperature and humidity. A total of 80 females were randomly allocated, at 60 days of age, into two identical and continuous rooms. In one room, the temperature was maintained permanently within the thermo-neutral zone (between 18°C to 22°C); thus, environmental conditions in this room were considered as comfort conditions. In the second room, the environmental temperature pattern simulated the daily temperature cycles that were characteristic of the summer in Mediterranean countries (24°C at 0800 h, increasing up to 29°C until 1100 h; maintenance at 29°C to 31°C for 4 h and decreasing to about 24°C to 26°C around 1700 h until 0800 h of the following day), which were considered as thermal stress conditions. Females followed a semi-intensive reproductive rhythm, first artificial insemination at 4.5 months of age, with subsequent 42-day reproductive cycles. Traits were recorded from a total of 138 lactations. Does were controlled up to the 5th lactation. Data were analyzed using linear and linear mixed models. High ambient temperature led to a lower ADFI (-9.4%), DW (-6.2%) and IWW (-8%), but it did not affect ADWI. No significant difference was found either for DMY, milk composition (DM, CP and GE) and SR during the lactation period. Heat stress was moderate, and does were able to adapt to it behaviorally by decreasing feed intake (to reduce heat production), but also live

  8. Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Serum Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Sodium and Sodium Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A basal diet (0.8 g/kg dNa was formulated in which each of the two sources (NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 were supplemented in such a way to attain four levels (1.7, 2.6, 3.5, and 4.4 g/kg of total dNa, respectively, under 4×2 factorial arrangement. Eight dietary treatments were replicated four times, with 40 birds in each replicate (n = 1,280. The diets supplemented with Na2SO4 to attain higher levels of dNa showed highest BW gain and feed intake (FI during d 1 to 10 (interaction effects while 2.6 g/kg dNa exhibited improved BW gain and gain:feed (FG during d 11 to 20. Linear rise in daily water intake (DWI was associated with diets containing increasing dNa during d 1 to 42 (p≤0.036. During the first 10 d, DWI:FI was found highest in NaHCO3 diets while Na2SO4 diets showed highest DWI:FI during last 10 d of the experiment (p≤0.036. Increasing dNa and changing Na2SO4 with NaHCO3 salt increased pH and resulted in poor growth performance. Dressing weight (p≤0.001 and abdominal fat (p≤0.001; quadratic effect were reduced, whereas breast (p≤0.001 and thigh (p<0.001 weights were aggravated with increasing dNa (linear effects. Present findings suggested higher levels of dNa from Na2SO4 as the supplemental salt in broiler diets would produce better growth performance, especially in first ten days of life, and improve carcass and body organ characteristics.

  9. Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Ryan; Walsh, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: → Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. → Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. → Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. → Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. → Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

  10. Performance of a Highly Sensitive, 19-element, Dual-polarization, Cryogenic L-band Phased-array Feed on the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, D. Anish; Shillue, W.; Simon, B.; Warnick, K. F.; Jeffs, B.; Pisano, D. J.; Prestage, R.; White, S.; Fisher, J. R.; Morgan, M.; Black, R.; Burnett, M.; Diao, J.; Ruzindana, M.; van Tonder, V.; Hawkins, L.; Marganian, P.; Chamberlin, T.; Ray, J.; Pingel, N. M.; Rajwade, K.; Lorimer, D. R.; Rane, A.; Castro, J.; Groves, W.; Jensen, L.; Nelson, J. D.; Boyd, T.; Beasley, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    A new 1.4 GHz, 19-element, dual-polarization, cryogenic phased-array feed (PAF) radio astronomy receiver has been developed for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as part of the Focal L-band Array for the GBT (FLAG) project. Commissioning observations of calibrator radio sources show that this receiver has the lowest reported beam-formed system temperature (T sys) normalized by aperture efficiency (η) of any phased-array receiver to date. The measured T sys/η is 25.4 ± 2.5 K near 1350 MHz for the boresight beam, which is comparable to the performance of the current 1.4 GHz cryogenic single-feed receiver on the GBT. The degradation in T sys/η at ∼4‧ (required for Nyquist sampling) and ∼8‧ offsets from the boresight is, respectively, ∼1% and ∼20% of the boresight value. The survey speed of the PAF with seven formed beams is larger by a factor between 2.1 and 7 compared to a single-beam system, depending on the observing application. The measured performance, both in frequency and offset from the boresight, qualitatively agrees with predictions from a rigorous electromagnetic model of the PAF. The astronomical utility of the receiver is demonstrated by observations of the pulsar B0329+54 and an extended H II region, the Rosette Nebula. The enhanced survey speed with the new PAF receiver will enable the GBT to carry out exciting new science, such as more efficient observations of diffuse, extended neutral hydrogen emission from galactic inflows and searches for fast radio bursts.

  11. Energy analysis of various grassland utilisation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Ržonca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004 was carried out the energy analysis of the different types of permanent grassland utilization on the Hrubý Jeseník locality. There were estimated values of the particular entrances of additional energy. Energy entrances moved according to the pratotechnologies from 2.17 GJ. ha–1 to 22.70 GJ.ha–1. The biggest share on energy entrances had fertilizers. It was 84.93% by the nitrogen fertilisation. The most energy benefit of brutto and nettoenergy was marked by the low intensive utilisation (33.40 GJ.ha–1 NEL and 32.40 GJ.ha–1 NEV on average. The highest value of energy efficiency (13.23% was marked by the low intensive utilization of permanent grassland. By using of higher doses of industrial fertilizers has energy efficiency decreased. From view of energy benefit and intensiveness on energy entrances it appears the most available utilisation of permanent grassland with three cuts per year (first cut on May 31st at the latest, every next after 60 days or two cuts per year (first cut on July 15th, next cuts after 90 days.

  12. Contextual and individual factors associated with dental services utilisation by Brazilian adults: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkrath, Fernando José; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    Inequalities in the utilisation of dental services in Brazil are remarkable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of contextual and individual factors with the utilisation of dental services by Brazilian adults using the Andersen's behavioural model. Individual-level data from 27,017 adults residents in the State capitals who were interviewed in the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey were pooled with contextual city-level data. The outcomes were non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. Individual predisposing variables were age, sex, race/skin colour, schooling and social network. Individual enabling variables included income, health insurance and registration in primary health care. Individual need variables were self-perceived dental health and self-reported missing teeth. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of the association of contextual and individual predisposing, enabling and need-related variables with dental services outcomes. Predisposing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and enabling (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.85-0.96) contextual factors were associated with non-utilisation of dental services. Individual predisposing (sex, race/skin colour, schooling), enabling (income, health insurance) and need (self-perceived oral health, missing teeth) were associated with non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. The latter was also associated with other individual predisposing (age, social network) and need (eating difficulties due to oral problems) characteristics. Individual and contextual determinants influenced dental services utilisation in Brazilian adults. These factors should be on the policy agenda and considered in the organisation of health services aiming to reduce oral health inequalities related to access and utilisation of dental services.

  13. Effects of phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer of pesticides from environment to animal products is inevitable, so the purpose of the present work was to evaluate phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite (SB on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep. Methods Twenty Baluchi ewes were divided into four treatments (P1 as control, P2, P3, and P4 of five animals in which phosalone, an organophosphate pesticide, was given via diet (only for P2 and P3 at a dose of 280 mg/sheep/day for 63 consecutive days. The SB (32 g/sheep/day; for P3 and P4 was also evaluated for its ability to reduce deleterious effects of phosalone in the sheep diets. The control group (P1 did not receive any phosalone and SB during the experiment. Sampling was conducted in two periods of time including weeks 5 and 9. Results Phosalone residues were observed in the milk samples of P2 and P3 groups during two sampling periods. During period 1, the transfer rate of phosalone from feed to milk was 0.23 and 0.02%, respectively for the contaminated diets (P2 and P3, which is relatively similar to period 2 (0.22 and 0.02%. Only 0.34 (period 1 and 0.36% (period 2 of phosalone residue are excreted in the feces of P2 group following its daily consumption. Transfer of phosalone from feed to milk was affected (P  0.05 on the dry matter intake (DMI and body weight (BW gain, but feed efficiency, milk production, milk fat, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, albumin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC affected by the treatments in period 1 or 2 (P < 0.05. The Hb, RBC, and MCHC were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 by about 9.72, 20.77, and 9.71%, respectively in the group P2 as compared to those of the control group during period 1

  14. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dietary fiber is largely used in pig production but some contradictions appear in the literature regarding the effects on performance and health. Objectives. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the effects of a diet rich in sugar beet pulp on animal behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Method. Two successive batches of 24 fattening pigs were each divided into two groups fed ad libitum either a standard diet based on cereals (STD, 19% NSP [non-starch-polysaccharides] or a fibrous diet based on 23% sugar beet pulp (HFD, 31% NSP. Results. Pigs activity rate and feeder occupancy duration were increased by 57% and 165% for group fed HFD, respectively (P < 0.05. The fecal bacteria counts showed increases with HFD for Lactobacillus (10.21 vs 9.84 log10 of cfu·g-1 of feces dry matter, P < 0.05 and Bifidobacterium (9.49 vs 8.88, P < 0.01 but decreases for Enterobacteriaceae (4.85 vs 5.97, P < 0.001. Reductions of the average daily gain (788 vs 876 g per day, P < 0.001 and the dressing percentage (75.7 vs 78.9%, P < 0.001 were observed with HFD. Gastric lesion score was decreased with HFD (0.82 vs 1.55, P < 0.05. For pigs fed HFD, the proportion of surface area occupied by goblet cells was increased in the jejunum (10.06 vs 7.99%, P < 0.01 and the number of CD3 lymphocytes was increased in the colon (1.24 vs 0.90·mm-², P < 0.05. Conclusions. HFD contributes to strengthen the gut health of fattening pigs, but it impairs growth performance and carcass traits.

  16. Effect of three mycotoxin adsorbents on growth performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y L; Meng, G Q; Wang, H R; Zhu, H L; Hou, Y Q; Wang, W J; Ding, B Y

    2011-04-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of an esterified glucomannan (EGM), a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and a compound mycotoxin adsorbent (CMA) on performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed. Mould-contaminated diets were prepared by replacing half of the non-contaminated maize in the basal diets with mould-contaminated maize, which contained 450·6 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1, 68·4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A and 320·5 µg/kg of T-2 toxin. 2. The mould-contaminated diet significantly decreased body weight gain (BWG) between 10 and 21 d, feed intake (FI) between 35 and 42 d, the apparent retention of crude lipid and phosphorus, and the lightness (L*) value of breast and thigh muscle. It also significantly increased the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) value in breast muscle and the b* value in thigh muscle. 3. The addition of 0·2% HSCAS significantly increased FI between 35 and 42 d and the apparent retention of phosphorus. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly improved BWG from 10 to 21 d, and increased FI from 35 to 42 d and from 10 to 42 d. CMA also significantly increased the apparent retention of crude lipid, crude protein, ash and phosphorus. All three mycotoxin-adsorbent treatments significantly improved the L* values of breast and thigh muscle when compared with the mould-contaminated group. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly decreased b* value and improved tenderness in thigh muscle. 0·05% EGM significantly decreased b* value of thigh muscle compared to mould-contaminated group. 4. The results indicated that mycotoxins in contaminated feed retard growth, nutrient retention and meat quality, whereas the addition of 0·05% EGM, 0·2% HSCAS or 0·1% CMA prevents the adverse effects of mycotoxins to varying extents, with 0·1% CMA being the most effective adsorbent treatment.

  17. Effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes, and postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-he; Ye, Chao-xia; Ye, Ji-dan; Shen, Bi-duan; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, An-li

    2014-10-01

    other diets. Plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations showed a significant difference at 2 and 4 h after a meal and varied between dietary treatments. According to regression analysis of weight gain against dietary AM/AP ratio, the optimum dietary AM/AP ratio for maximum growth of obscure puffer was 0.25. The present result indicates that dietary AM/AP ratio could affect growth performance and feed utilization, some plasma parameters, digestive enzyme as well as hepatic glucose metabolic enzyme activities in juvenile obscure puffer.

  18. Effect of Feeding Low-Oil Ddgs to Laying Hens and Broiler Chickens on Performance and Egg Yolk and Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cortes-Cuevas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of two sources of low-oil distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and their pigmenting ability for broiler chicken skin and egg yolks. In Experiment 1, 360 Bovan-White hens between 69 and 77 weeks of age were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 hens each. In Experiment 2, 375 Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five treatments with three replicates of 25 birds each. The chickens were fed the experimental diets from one to 42 d of age. In both experiments, treatments consisted of a basal diet with no DDGS, and diets with 6% or 12% inclusion of DDGS from two sources. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in performance were detected among treatments (p> 0.05. Egg yolk pigmentation, according to CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter redness (a and yellowness (b, linearly increased (p0.05 were detected among treatments in growth performance, carcass yield, or abdominal fat at 42 d of age. Yellowness linearly increased (p<0.05 in the skin and abdominal fat of the birds that consumed diets with DDGS. The results of the current study indicate that feeding two sources of low-oil DDGS to broiler chicks or laying hens does not negatively affect egg production or growth performance while improves egg yolk and skin yellowness.

  19. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-04-01

    School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p performances specifically among girls in Iran.

  20. Combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex on performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanhini Neto, Roberto; N'Guetta, Eric; Gady, Cecile; Francesch, Maria; Preynat, Aurélie

    2017-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effect of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for nutritional evaluation of feed ingredients and the addition of non-starch polysaccharide carbohydrase complex (NSP enzymes) on the growth performance of broilers fed diets produced with low-quality wheat and soybean meal. A 2 × 2 trial design was performed, with seven replicates of 40 male Ross 308 broilers per treatment, evaluating the effect of the addition of NSP enzymes and the ingredients' nutritional matrix based on table values or NIRS values. Diets without added enzymes were formulated to reach nutritional requirements, whereas diets with enzymes were reformulated, reducing the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) by 85 kcal/kg. In the overall period (days 0-35), broilers fed diets formulated using NIRS values had higher (P nutritional approaches are efficient in improving broilers' performances by themselves and even more so when they are combined. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  2. Effect of nutrient density, NSP source, coarseness of NSP and feed form on performance and behaviour of hens at early lay.

    OpenAIRE

    Krimpen, van, M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Andre, G.; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.; Hartog, den, L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Feather pecking in layers is a multi factorial problem, which can be caused by environmental, genetic or nutritional factors. From the literature it has been shown that nutritional factors may positively or negatively affect feather pecking behaviour in laying hens. Nutritional factors seem to reduce feather pecking behaviour in laying hens if these factors increase the time spent on feeding behaviour, by affecting foraging and feed intake. Laying hens may spend more time on these feeding beh...

  3. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner-Thomas, R A; Back, P J; Kenyon, P R; Hickson, R E; Ridler, A L; Stafford, K J; Morris, S T

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of controlled ryegrass-white clover herbage availability from day 128 until day 142 of pregnancy in comparison to unrestricted availability, on the performance of twin-bearing ewes of varying body condition score (BCS; 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0) and their lambs. It was hypothesised that under conditions of controlled herbage availability, the performance of lambs born to ewes with a greater BCS would be greater than those born to ewes with a lower BCS. During the period that the nutritional regimens were imposed, the pre- and post-grazing herbage masses of the Control regimen (1,070±69 and 801±30 kg dry matter [DM]/ha) were lower than the ad libitum regimen (1,784±69 and 1,333±33 kg DM/ha; pewe live weight, BCS and back fat depth or on lamb live weight, indices of colostrum uptake, maximal heat production, total litter weight weaned or survival to weaning (p>0.05). The difference in ewe BCSs and back fats observed among body condition groups was maintained throughout pregnancy (pewes from the BCS2.0 group had lower BCS and live weight (2.4±0.2, 74.3±2.6 kg) than both the BCS2.5 (2.6±0.2, 78.6±2.4 kg) and BCS3.0 ewes (2.7±0.2, 79.0±2.6 kg; p0.05). Ewe BCS group had no effect on lamb live weight at birth or weaning or on maximal heat production (p>0.05). Serum gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations of lambs born to BCS3.0 ewes were higher within 36 hours of birth than lambs born to BCS2.0 ewes and BCS2.5 ewes (51.8±1.9 vs 46.5±1.9 and 45.6±1.9 IU/mL, respectively [pewe body condition on lamb plasma glucose concentration (p>0.05). Lamb survival was the only lamb parameter that showed an interaction between ewe nutritional regimen and ewe BCS whereby survival of lambs born to BCS2.5 and BCS3.0 ewes differed but only within the Control nutritional regimen ewes (pewes with pre- and post-grazing ryegrass-white clover herbage covers of approximately 1,100 and 800 kg DM/ha in late pregnancy, provided that herbage covers are 1400

  4. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  5. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps

  6. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  7. Online Database Allows for Quick and Easy Monitoring and Reporting of Supplementary Feeding Program Performance: An Analysis of World Vision CMAM Programs (2006-2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emary, Colleen; Aidam, Bridget; Roberton, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Despite the widespread implementation of interventions to address moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), lack of robust monitoring systems have hindered evaluation of the effectiveness of approaches to prevent and treat MAM. Since 2006, World Vision (WV) has provided supplementary feeding to 280,518 children 6-59 months of age (U5) and 105,949 pregnant and lactating women (PLW) as part of Community Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programming. The Excel-based system initially used for monitoring individual site programs faced numerous challenges. It was time consuming, prone to human error, lost data as a result of staff turnover and hence use of data to inform program performance was limited. In 2010, World Vision International (WVI)’s Nutrition Centre of Expertise (NCOE) established an online database to overcome these limitations. The aim of the database was to improve monitoring and reporting of WV’s CMAM programs. As of December 2013, the database has been rolled out in 14 countries Burundi, Chad, DRC, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan, Pakistan, South Sudan, Somalia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Methods: The database includes data on admissions (mid-upper arm circumference, weight for height, oedema, referral) and discharge outcomes (recovered, died, defaulted, non-recovered, referral) for Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) for children U5 as well as PLWs. A quantitative analysis of the data sets available was conducted to identify issues with data quality and draw findings from the data itself. Variations in program performance as compared to Sphere standards were determined by country and aggregated over the 14 countries. In addition, time trend analyses were conducted to determine significant different and seasonality effects. Results: Most data was related to program admissions from 2010 to July 2013, though some retrospective program data was available from 2006 to 2009. The countries with the largest number

  8. Design of neutron detectors utilising luminescent glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spowart, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Impetus for the development of new neutron detector designs has derived from the worldwide commissioning of neutron spallation sources. The design concepts, and principal methods of utilisation of these major installations, have been recently reviewed. Their principal feature of interest is their broadband neutron emission allowing neutron investigations of all types of structure in materials from biological molecules to steels. Conventional neutron detectors are gas-filled devices, based on BF/sub 3/ or /sup 3/He gas. Their major advantage is their intrinsically low background count. Their principal disadvantage is their slow response time (10-100 μs), high cost and relative lack of flexibility in design to cope with large areas or complex geometry detection. They are, however, long established and the research facilities around the world have a heavy investment in the interpretative hardware for gas detectors

  9. Optimum utilisation of the uranium resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S. E.; Wilson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many challenges, notably to maximise safety, secure an adequate energy supply, manage wastes satisfactorily and achieve political acceptability. One way forward is to optimise together the various interdependent stages of the fuel cycle - the now familiar 'holistic approach'. Many of the issues will demand large R and D expenditure, most effectively met through international collaboration. Sustainable development requires optimum utilisation of energy potential, to which the most accessible key is recycling uranium and the plutonium bred from it. Realising anything like this full potential requires fast-neutron reactors, and therefore BNFL continues to sustain the UK involvement in their international development. Meanwhile, current R and D programmes must aim to make the nuclear option more competitive against fossil resources, while maintaining and developing the necessary skills for more advanced technologies The paper outlines the strategies being pursued and highlights BNFL 's programmes. (author)

  10. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...

  11. Functional redundancy ensures performance robustness in 3-stage PHA-producing mixed cultures under variable feed operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gilda; Pedras, Inês; Karst, Soren M; Oliveira, Catarina S S; Duque, Anouk F; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2018-01-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be produced by mixed microbial cultures using wastes or industrial by-products, which represent an economical and environmental advantage over pure culture processes. The use of alternate feedstocks enables using seasonal by-products, providing that the process is resilient to transient conditions. The mixed microbial communities of a 3-stage PHA producing system fed initially with molasses and then cheese whey were investigated through amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The transition in feedstock resulted in an adaptation of the acidogenic community, where Actinobacteria dominated with sugarcane molasses (up to 93% of the operational taxonomic units) and Firmicutes, with cheese whey (up to 97%). The resulting fermentation products profile also changed, with a higher fraction of HV precursors obtained with molasses than cheese whey (7.1±0.5 and 1.7±0.7 gCOD/L, respectively). As for the PHA storing culture, the genera Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus were enriched with fermented molasses (average 89% of Bacteria). Later, fermented cheese whey fostered a higher diversity, including some less characterised PHA-storers such as the genera Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus. Although the microbial community structure was significantly affected by the feedstock shift, the acidogenic and PHA storing performance of the 3-stage system was very similar once a pseudo steady state was attained, showing that a reliable level of functional redundancy was attained in both mixed cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the anode feeding composition on the performance of a continuous-flow methane-producing microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppilli, Marco; Villano, Marianna; Aulenta, Federico; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Majone, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    A methane-producing microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was continuously fed at the anode with a synthetic solution of soluble organic compounds simulating the composition of the soluble fraction of a municipal wastewater. The MEC performance was assessed at different anode potentials in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, methane production, and energy efficiency. As a main result, about 72-80% of the removed substrate was converted into current at the anode, and about 84-86% of the current was converted into methane at the cathode. Moreover, even though both COD removed and methane production slightly decreased as the applied anode potential decreased, the energy efficiency (i.e., the energy recovered as methane with respect to the energy input into the system) increased from 54 to 63%. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed a high diversity in the anodic bacterial community with the presence of both fermentative (Proteiniphilum acetatigenes and Petrimonas sulphurifila) and aerobic (Rhodococcus qingshengii) microorganisms, whereas only two microorganisms (Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus and Methanosarcina mazei), both assignable to methanogens, were observed in the cathodic community.

  13. Effect of concentrate supplementation during the dry period on colostrum quality and effect of colostrum feeding regimen on passive transfer of immunity, calf health, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A; Ashfield, A; Earley, B; Welsh, M; Gordon, A; McGee, M; Morrison, S J

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n=37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day (GSC). Both treatment groups were offered identical levels of mineral and vitamin supplementation. Calves from these cows were weighed immediately after birth and fed either 5% (5BW) or 10% (10BW) of their BW in colostrum from their own dams within 2.5h of birth. Calves in the 10BW group received their second feed of colostrum from first-milking colostrum. Concentrate supplementation during the dry period had no effect on colostral IgG concentration, first-milking IgG yield, or fat, protein, and lactose contents. However, cows in GSC produced a greater mean milk yield over the first 8 milkings compared with cows in the GS group. Concentrate supplementation had no effect on calf BW or BW gain, serum IgG, or apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) at 24h after birth. However, offspring from the GSC group had fewer cases of enteritis during the first 56d of life compared with offspring from the GS group. Calves in the 10BW group had greater mean serum IgG concentration for the first 3d following birth; however, at 24h after birth, we observed no treatment effect on AEA. The rate of enteritis was greater for calves in the 5BW treatment compared with 10BW. The colostrum-feeding regimen had no effect on BW gain or on the incidence of pneumonia among calf treatment groups. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation

  14. High efficiency pool filtering systems utilising variable frequency drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameiri, Z.; Sproul, A.B. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Spooner, T. [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Over 1 year, private swimming pools in Australia will typically consume 1680 GWh of electricity, producing 2130 kt of CO{sub 2}. Redesigning a pool's filtration system and using it more efficiently can reduce the energy use, and hence the CO{sub 2} production, by a significant amount. This paper describes experimental measurements carried out on a new design of pool pump system. Initial experiments using a variable frequency drive (VFD) with a standard, single phase pump/motor system have achieved energy savings of 40%. Utilising a VFD and a three phase pump/motor energy savings of 61% have been achieved, without degrading the system performance. (author)

  15. Experimental on fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding to improve the performance of a circulating fluidized bed boiler co-burning coal sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lunbo; Xu, Guiling; Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Changsui [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of reducing carbon content in fly ash, fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding (FARBF) technology was applied to a 75 t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler burning mixture of coal and coal sludge. And industrial experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of FARBF technology on the combustion performance and pollutant emission characteristics of the CFB boiler. Results show that as the recirculation rate of fly ash increases, the CFB dense bed temperature decreases while the furnace outlet temperature increases, and the temperature distribution in the furnace becomes uniform. Compared with the conditions without fly ash recirculation, the combustion efficiency increases from 92 to 95% when the recirculation rate increases to 8 t/h, and the desulfurization efficiency also increases significantly. As the recirculation rate increases, the emissions of NO and CO decrease, but the particulate emission increases. The present study indicates that FARBF technology can improve the combustion performance and desulfurization efficiency for the CFB boilers burning coal sludge, and this can bring large economical and environmental benefits in China.

  16. Studies on the incorporation of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) as an alternative protein source in poultry feed and its effect on growth performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Pugalenthi, Muthiah

    2010-10-01

    The effect of replacement of soybean meal by the velvet bean meal as an alternative protein ingredient on the growth performance of broiler chickens was investigated. The raw seeds of velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck], an under-utilized food legume collected from South India, was found to contain appreciable levels of crude protein (273.2 g/kg DM), lipid (60.61 g/kg DM), neutral detergent fiber (84.3 g/kg DM), and ash content (56.04 g/kg DM). Soaking in 0.2% sodium bicarbonate solution + autoclaving treatment caused a substantial reduction on the levels of various antinutritional compounds such as tannins (84%), L: -Dopa (79%), phytic acid (87%), raffinose (93%), stachyose (83%), verbascose (73%), haemagglutinating activity (84%), trypsin inhibitor activity (77%), and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity (78%) without affecting the nutritional quality of velvet bean seeds. The processed velvet bean meal was incorporated as an alternative protein source by replacing soybean meal protein at 0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% levels in the broiler diets. Replacement of soybean meal protein up to 40% level, which corresponds to the inclusion of velvet bean meal up to 15.7% and 11% in the starter and finisher phase poultry feeds, respectively, exhibited better growth performance of broiler birds without any adverse effects.

  17. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Growth performance, innate immune responses and disease resistance of fingerling blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala adapted to different berberine-dietary feeding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Na; Chen, Dan-Hong; Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2017-09-01

    A 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different berberine-dietary feeding modes on growth, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (average initial weight 4.70 ± 0.02 g) were fed two fat levels (5% and 10%) diets in three berberine-feeding modes (supplementing 50 mg/kg berberine continuously, two-week or four-week intervals) with four replicates, respectively. Then, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded for the next 96 h after feeding trial. The results showed that different feeding modes of berberine significantly influenced growth, innate immunity and antioxidant capability of fish. Fish fed normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine at two-week interval mode reflected remarkably (P complement component 3 (C3) and complement component 4 (C4) concentrations were significantly (P feeding modes. Based on fish healthy improvement and feeding cost saving, blunt snout bream fed normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine at two-week interval or fed high-fat diet with berberine at two-week or four-week intervals were optimal feeding mode, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkya, R.; Kessy, B.M.; Shem, M.N.; Mwanga, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P 0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate

  20. Effects of feeding ground redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) to gestating ewes on pre- and postpartum performance, serum metabolites and hormones, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W C; Whitney, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Hallford, D M; Walker, J W; Adams, R P; Naumann, H D

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of replacing sorghum × Sudangrass hay with ground juniper in gestating ewe supplements on pre- and postpartum growth performance, serum metabolites and hormonal concentrations, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance. In a completely randomized design, commercial Rambouillet ewes (age = 3 to 5 yr; initial BW = 65.2 ± 1.6 kg) on a base diet of long-stem sorghum × Sudangrass hay were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary supplements in which ground juniper replaced 0% (CNTL), 33% (18JUN), 66% (36JUN), or 100% (54JUN) of the ground sorghum × Sudangrass hay in a pelleted supplement with ground juniper from d 38 ± 4 of gestation to 2 d postpartum. Treatment DM diet intake overall (g/kg BW) in ewes receiving no juniper was similar ( ≥ 0.38) to that of those receiving increasing concentrations of juniper. Changes in ewe BW and BCS were similar ( ≥ 0.24) in ewes throughout gestation. All serum metabolites and hormones were within normal clinical ranges; however, serum IGF-1 decreased linearly ( = 0.003), alanine increased (linear; = 0.003), and serum Na decreased (linear; = 0.049) as the percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Ewe milk fatty acid composition was similar ( > 0.05) for the majority of fatty acids across treatment groups, with the exception of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) being greater ( hormones measured pre- and postpartum. Lamb birth weight and preweaning performance appeared unaffected by maternal consumption of ground juniper containing supplements. Results also provide novel information regarding the effects of plant secondary compound consumption throughout pregnancy on ewe and progeny performance and health.

  1. Improving productive performance and mitigating harmful emissions from laying hen excreta via feeding on graded levels of corn DDGS with or without Bacillus subtilis probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Mahgoub, S A; Alagawany, M; Ashour, E A

    2017-10-01

    An experiment that included some inclusions of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without supplementation of probiotic bacteria to Hi-sex Brown laying hen diets was conducted to evaluate the impacts on performance, egg quality, blood metabolites and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in the manure. A total of 216 twenty-two-week-old Hi-sex Brown laying hens were randomly divided into eight treatment groups in a factorial design (4 × 2) experiment, which included four levels of DDGS (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg diet) plus two levels of Bacillus subtilis probiotic (0 or 1000 mg/kg diet, with a concentration of 1.5 × 108 CFU/g of dried product). The experimental period extended from 22 to 34 weeks of age. The results showed that linear increase in DDGS level up to 150 g/kg improved (p ≤ 0.01) the values of feed consumption, egg shape index and yolk colour compared to the control and other treatment groups. Inclusion of dietary DDGS up to 150 g/kg in layer diets led to a significant decrease in egg mass and a significant increase in Haugh unit score compared to other groups. In the bacillus group, the values of feed conversion, egg weight and egg mass enhanced by 6.45, 3.27 and 7.60% respectively compared with the control diet. Total protein, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium and ammonia in serum were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) influenced by DDGS inclusion. The excreted nitrogen decreased by 8.62 and 4.31% in hens fed 50 or 100 g/kg of DDGS respectively, while excreted phosphorous decreased by 3.33, 7.22 and 10.56% in hens fed 50, 100 or 150 g/kg of DDGS respectively as compared to the control group. It could be concluded that increasing DDGS inclusion level in the diet up to 10% and the supplementation of probiotic bacteria improved the productive performance of laying hens and mitigated the harmful emissions from chicken manure; this means better production within environmentally friendly conditions. Journal of Animal

  2. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos para bezerros Nelore em creep-feeding: desempenho produtivo, consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Energy sources in multiple supplements for Nellore calves in creep-feeding: productive performance, nutrient intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo, o consumo e a digestibilidade em bezerros Nelore em fase de amamentação em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementada com diferentes fontes de energia. A área foi dividida em cinco piquetes de 6,8 ha, com disponibilidade média de matéria seca e matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 4,10 e 2,38 t/ha, respectivamente. Foram utilizados 45 bezerros Nelore, com peso e idade iniciais de 96,0 ± 11,0 kg e 101 ± 12 dias, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5 × 2 (cinco suplementos e dois sexos. Os suplementos foram: MM - mistura mineral (controle; GM - farelo de soja (FS + grão de milho triturado (GM e mistura mineral; FTGM - farelo de soja + farelo de trigo + grão de milho triturado e mistura mineral; FA - farelo de soja + farelo de arroz e mistura mineral; GMS - farelo de soja + grão de milho triturado + grão de sorgo triturados e mistura mineral, fornecidos diariamente na quantidade de 60 g/animal para o grupo controle e 500 g/animal para os demais suplementos. Os animais que receberam suplemento múltiplo com milho e sorgo como fonte de energia proporcionaram ganho diário médio adicional de 100 g/animal (16,39% em comparação à mistura mineral. O uso do suplemento múltiplo à base de grão de milho como fonte de energia reduziu o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica de pasto e fibra em detergente neutro em relação às fontes energéticas farelo de arroz e à combinação de milho com sorgo. A suplementação com as fontes de energia, sobretudo as combinações de farelo de trigo e milho ou de milho e sorgo, podem proporcionar ganhos adicionais em animais em creep-feeding. A suplementação múltipla aumenta o consumo de pasto quando se utilizam grão de milho e sorgo combinados como fonte de energia.The performance, intake and digestibility were evaluated in Nellore beef calves supplemented with different energy sources in Brachiaria decumbens pasture

  3. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P content of WCW silage. A quadratic (P content of WCW; however, linear decreases were observed when expressed relative to DMI (P = 0.01) and CG (P rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments.

  4. System factors influencing utilisation of Research4Life databases by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comprehensive investigation of the influence of system factors on utilisation of Research4Life databases. It is part of a doctoral dissertation. Research4Life databases are new innovative technologies being investigated in a new context – utilisation by NARIs scientists for research. The study adopted the descriptive ...

  5. Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. AAG Jimoh. Abstract. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utilisation of antenatal care at the Provincial Specialist Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria, paying close attention to the confounding factors affecting ...

  6. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the influence of globalisation on labour utilisation in Nigeria using the construction industry as a case study. It reveals that the era of globalisation has given rise to profound changes in the way labour is utilised, specifically in terms of employment patterns as well as the related issues of earnings, job ...

  7. An alternative to antibiotic-based drugs in feed for enhancing performance of broilers grown on Eimeria spp.-infected litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, V G; Gray, C; Daley, M; Krueger, W F; Sefton, A E

    2004-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lasalocid, an anticoccidial feed additive (90.7 kg/ton); bacitracin, a growth-promoter (50 g/ton); and yeast culture residue (YCR) (1 kg/ton) on the performance of broiler chicks reared to 42 d of age on recycled litter. Recycled litter consisted of pine wood shavings containing droppings from chicks infected with 3 select strains of coccidia (Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina). Response variables (BW, intestinal tract and litter coliform counts, cecal and liver relative weights, and litter moisture content) were recorded biweekly. Mean BW of chicks fed the diet supplemented with YCR was higher than that of the controls (P litter aged and moisture content increased. The mean intestinal coliform population from YCR-treated chicks was lower (P litter coliform counts increased with increased use of the litter. Cecal and liver relative weights calculated from the chicks in trial 3 showed that only the liver was significantly affected by treatments. YCR appeared to be a viable alternative to bacitracin and lasalocid medication in enhancing growth of broiler chicks reared on recycled litter.

  8. Utilization of plant bioactives as feed additives for poultry: The effect of Aloe vera gel and its extract on performance of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed additives are commonly added in poultry feed as a growth promotant or to improve feed efficiency. The most common feed additive used is antibiotic at sub-therapheutic doses, although there is a controversy on its impact on human health. Previous results showed that Aloe vera gel could improve feed efficiency in broilers and an in vitro study showed that the extract have an antibacterial effect. Therefore, a further experiment was designed to study the response of broilers to Aloe vera gel or its extract as feed additives. Aloe vera was prepared in dry gel or chloroform-extract and included in the diet at levels of 0.25; 0.50 and 1.00 g/kg (equal to dry gel. Standard diets with or without antibiotic were also formulated as control and a commercial diet was included for comparison. The diets were fed to broilers from day old to 5 weeks. Each treatment has 9 replicates and 6chicks/replicate. Parameters observed were: feed consumption, weight gain and feed convertion ratios. Carcass yield, abdominal fat levels, relative weight of liver, gizzard, tractus digestivus and length of tractus digestivus were also measured at the end of feeding trial. The results showed that Aloe gel and its extract did not influence body weight gain and feed consumption of broilers significantly (P>0.05, but improved feed convertion slightly (3.50%. The response in this trial was similar as thosecommercial diet and diet added with antibiotic. There was no significant (P>0.05 effect of Aloe vera bioactives on carcass yield, abdominal fat level and relative weight of liver. However, Aloe vera gel and its extract tend to increase gizzard weight, gastro intestinal weight and length. The Aloe vera gel and its extract also reduced the total count of aerobic bacteria in the digesta of tractus digestivus. It is concluded that the Aloe vera gel improve feed efficiency in broilers by increasing the size of tractus digestivus and reducing the total count of aerobic bacteria in

  9. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  10. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  11. Carp feeding activity and habitat utilisation in relation to supplementary feeding in a semi-intensive aquaculture pond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Adámek, Zdeněk; Roche, Kevin Francis; Mrkvová, Markéta; Štarhová, Dagmar; Prášek, Václav; Zukal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1627-1640 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cyprinus carpio * telemetry * fish diet * fat content * pond aquaculture * water quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  12. Inclusion of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody to backgrounding diets on performance, feed efficiency, in vitro fermentation, and the acute-phase response of growing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-01-01

    In Exp. 1, individual performance and daily DMI was measured on 70 crossbred weaned calves during a 70-d period using a GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada) at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center Feed Efficiency Facility (FEF). Calves were fed a low-concentrate (LC) growing diet, blocked by weight and sex, and then randomly assigned to pens to receive either no additional supplement (CON; n = 35) or receive a supplement of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody (aPLA2) at an inclusion rate of 0.6% of the diet DM (n = 35). After the 70-d feed efficiency (FE) trial (Phase 1), calves were loaded into a commercial livestock trailer and were driven for approximately 1,600 km during 24 h. Upon return to the FEF (Phase 2), calves were relocated to the same pens and groups and received the same diets and treatments for 28 d. Blood samples from each calf were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 relative to initiation of transportation and were analyzed for determination of concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin. In Phase 1, initial BW (242.0 ± 3.7 kg; P = 0.92), BW at d 70 (313.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.79), and ADG (1.01 ± 0.02 kg; P = 0.95) were similar between treatments. However, daily DMI was greater (P = 0.01) for CON (9.18 ± 0.15 kg) than aPLA2 (8.53 ± 0.15 kg). In addition, residual feed intake was greater (P = 0.002) for CON (0.389 ± 0.110 kg/d) than aPLA2 calves (-0.272 ± 0.110 kg/d). In Phase 2, after transportation, there were no differences between treatments on BW loss due to transportation shrink (26.0 ± 0.6 kg; P = 0.86), BW at d 28 (339.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.72), ADG (1.28 ± 0.03 kg/d; P = 0.72), G:F (0.164 ± 0.004; P = 0.83), and concentrations of plasma haptoglobin (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/mL; P = 0.41). However, concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin were greater (P calves (14.3 ± 0.3 mg/dL) compared to aPLA2 calves (13.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL). In Exp. 2, the effects of aPLA2 inclusion on LC and

  13. Trends, determinants and inequities of 4+ ANC utilisation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Begum, Tahmina; Ahmed, Sayem; Alam, Nurul; Anwar, Iqbal

    2017-01-13

    The objectives of this study are to document the trend on utilisation of four or more (4 + ) antenatal care (ANC) over the last 22 years period and to explore the determinants and inequity of 4 + ANC utilisation as reported by the last two Bangladesh Demographic and Health surveys (BDHS) (2011 and 2014). The data related to ANC have been extracted from the BDHS data set which is available online as an open source. STATA 13 software was used for organising and analysing the data. The outcome variable considered for this study was utilisation of 4 + ANC. Trends of 4 + ANC were measured in percentage and predictors for 4 + ANC were measured through bivariate and multivariable analysis. The concentration index was estimated for assessing inequity in 4 + ANC utilisation. Utilisation of 4 + ANC has increased by about 26% between the year 1994 and 2014. Higher level of education, residing in urban region and richest wealth quintile were found to be significant predictors. The utilisation of 4 + ANC has decreased with increasing parity and maternal age. The inequity indices showed consistent inequities in 4 + ANC utilisation, and such inequities were increased between 2011 and 2014. In Bangladesh, the utilisation of any ANC rose steadily between 1994 and 2014, but progress in terms of 4 + ANC utilisation was much slower as the expectation was to achieve the national set target (50%: 4 + ANC utilisation) by 2016. Socio-economic inequities were observed in groups that failed to attend a 4 + ANC visit. Policymakers should pay special attention to increase the 4 + ANC coverage where this study can facilitate to identify the target groups whom need to be intervened on priority basis.

  14. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  15. Chemical composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  16. Lipid composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  17. Growth - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  18. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  19. Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Kwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of