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Sample records for performance assessment tspa

  1. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  2. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  3. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: open-quotes wetclose quotes with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and open-quotes dryclose quotes with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a open-quotes hot repositoryclose quotes) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone

  4. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Spectra Research, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel.

  5. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel

  6. Comment Response on the Final Report: Peer Review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    The Management and Operating Contractor established a Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (hereinafter ''the Panel'') at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office. The objectives of the peer review were to provide: (1) A formal, independent evaluation and critique of Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain: Total System Performance Assessment, Volume 3 (DOE 1998a; hereinafter ''Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment'') that was conducted in support of the Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain (DOE 1998b). (2) Suggestions for improvements as the U.S. Department of Energy prepares to develop the documentation for a Total System Performance Assessment to support a potential License Application. The Panel conducted a phased review over a two-year period to observe the development and, ultimately, to review the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). During the development of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Panel submitted three Interim Reports (Whipple et al., 1997a, 1997b, and 1998) to the Management and Operating Contractor with recommendations and comments on the process models, model abstractions, and draft documentation for the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). The Panel's Final Report Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (Whipple et al. 1999; hereinafter ''Final Report'') on the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a) is based primarily on the completed Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998), and the cited references. The Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) includes the major points from the three Interim Reports (Whipple et al. 1997a, 1997b, and 1998

  7. Important parameters in the performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain (TSPA-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, J.E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Lee, J.H.; Andrews, R.W.; McNeish, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A total system performance assessment (TSPA) was conducted to determine how a potential repository at Yucca Mountain would behave. Using the results of this TSPA, regression was done to determine which parameters had the most important effect on the repository performance. These results were consistent with the current conceptual understanding of the repository

  8. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W.; Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models

  9. International Review Team (IRT) Safety Case Recommendations for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Supporting the Site Recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham E.

    2004-01-01

    The session started with Abe Van Luik (IGSC Chair, US-DOE-YM, USA) who presented the feedback of the international peer review of the US-DOE Yucca Mountain TSPA (Total System Performance Assessment) supporting the successful designation of the site by the Congress and the President of the U.S. In particular, he listed key implications of the IRT (International Review team) recommendations on the forthcoming US-DOE documentation of its case for safety to be submitted to the regulator, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mainly: - The documentation submitted to the licensing authority should address technical aspects and compliance with regulatory criteria. - That documentation should reflect sound science and good engineering practice; it should present detailed and rigorous modelling. - In addition, it should present both quantitative and qualitative arguments, make a statement on why there can be confidence in the face of uncertainty, acknowledge remaining issues and provide the strategy to resolve them. - Demonstrating understanding is as important as demonstrating compliance. - There is a need to provide a clear explanation of the case made to the regulator for more general audiences to complement the large amount of technical documents that will be produced. The US-DOE response to these recommendations for the License Application, which is under preparation, is that the recommendations will be implemented to the maximum extent possible. In subsequent discussion, with respect to the License Application, it was acknowledged that detailed guidance from the U.S. regulator was very useful, and guidance of this type would be generally useful. At the current time, the words 'safety case' are not mentioned in U.S. regulations, but if one reads both the regulation and guidance documents it becomes evident that all aspects of a safety case need to be provided in the License Application and its accompanying documents

  10. Treatment of uncertainty in the US department of energy's yucca mountain repository total system performance assessment (TSPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.; Zwahlen, E.

    2004-01-01

    The regulatory requirements being addressed in the US geological repository programme for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste specify that performance assessment is to be used to address probabilistically defined mean-value dose constraints. Dose was chosen as the preferred performance measure because an acceptable dose limit could be selected through the regulation-setting process, based on a defined acceptable risk. By setting a dose limit, arguments about the conversion of a potential dose to a potential risk was taken off the table as a potential licensing issue. However, the probabilistic approach called for actually delivers a 'risk of a dose', a risk of a potential given dose value to a hypothetical person living at a set distance from the repository, with a set lifestyle, between the time of permanent closure and 10 000 years. Analyses must also be shown for the peak dose if it occurs after 10 000 years, essentially to a million years. For uncertain parameters that are important to system performance, the goal is to present an analysis that, in accord with applicable regulation, focuses on the mean value of the performance measure but also explores the 'full range of defensible and reasonable parameter distributions'.... System performance evaluations should not be unduly influenced by... 'extreme physical situations and parameter values'. These disclosure requirements are to be met by showing a range of potential outcomes and designating the mean value within that range. (author)

  11. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models.

  12. Risk and uncertainty assessment for a potential HLW repository in Korea: TSPA 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.; Kang, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    KAERI has worked on the concept development on permanent disposal of HLW and its total system performance assessment since 1997. More than 36 000 MT of spent nuclear fuel from PWR and CANDU reactors is planned to be disposed of in crystalline bed-rocks. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) tools are under development. The KAERI FEP encyclopedia is actively developed to include all potential FEP suitable for Korean geo- and socio conditions. The FEPs are prioritized and then categorized to the intermediate level FEP groups. These groups become elements of the rock engineering system (RES) matrix. Then the sub-scenarios such as a container failure, groundwater migration, solute transport, etc are developed by connecting interactions between diagonal elements of the RES matrix. The full scenarios are developed from the combination of sub-scenarios. For each specific scenario, the assessment contexts and associated assessment method flow charts are developed. All information on these studies is recorded into the web based programme, FEAS (FEP to Assessment through Scenarios.) KAERI applies three basic programmes for the post closure radionuclide transport calculations; MASCOT-K, AMBER, and the new MDPSA under development. The MASCOT-K originally developed by Serco for a LLW repository has been extended extensively by KAERI to simulate release reactions such as congruent and gap releases in spent nuclear fuel. The new MDPSA code is dedicated for the probabilistic assessment of radio-nuclides in multi-dimensions of a fractured porous medium. To acquire input data for TSPA domestic experiment programmes as well as literature survey are performed. The data are stored in the Performance Assessment Input Data system (PAID.) To assure the transparency, traceability, retrievability, reproducibility, and review (T2R3) the web based KAERI QA system is developed. All tasks in TSPA are recorded under the concept of a 'Project' in this web system. Currently, FEAS, PAID

  13. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.; Rechard, R.

    2001-01-01

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR

  14. The use of performance assessment for the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon H.; Andrews, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the introduction and overview of the Yucca Mountain site, the overview of waste package and EBS design, the organization of CRWMS M and O, the overview of total system performance assessment (TSPA), the components of TSPA model, the examples results of TSPA component models, and the example results of TSPA scoping sensitivity analyses. 22 figs

  15. DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Information in Support of TSPA-SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. H. Loo

    1999-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has started the recommendation (SR) effort to show that Yucca Mountain could be selected as the first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. One component of the site recommendation will be a total system performance assessment (TSPA), based on the design concept and the scientific data and analysis available, describing the repository's probable behavior relative to the overall system performance standards. Thus, all the data collected from the Exploratory Studies Facilities to-date have been incorporated into the latest TSPA model. To ensure that the DOE-owned SNF continues to be acceptable for disposal in the repository, it will be included in the TSPA-SR evaluation. A number of parameters are needed in the TSPA-SR models to predict the performance of the DOE-owned SNF materials placed into the potential repository. This report documents all of the basis and/or derivation for each of these parameters. A number of properties were not readily available at the time the TSPA-SR data were requested. Thus, expert judgement and opinion were used to determine a best property value. The performance of the DOE-owned SNF will be published as part of the TSPA-SR report.

  16. Reproduction of the Yucca Mountain Project TSPA-LA Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses and Preliminary Upgrade of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis

    2016-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) continued evaluation of total system performance assessment (TSPA) computing systems for the previously considered Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). This was done to maintain the operational readiness of the computing infrastructure (computer hardware and software) and knowledge capability for total system performance assessment (TSPA) type analysis, as directed by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE 2010. This work is a continuation of the ongoing readiness evaluation reported in Lee and Hadgu (2014) and Hadgu et al. (2015). The TSPA computing hardware (CL2014) and storage system described in Hadgu et al. (2015) were used for the current analysis. One floating license of GoldSim with Versions 9.60.300, 10.5 and 11.1.6 was installed on the cluster head node, and its distributed processing capability was mapped on the cluster processors. Other supporting software were tested and installed to support the TSPA-type analysis on the server cluster. The current tasks included verification of the TSPA-LA uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, and preliminary upgrade of the TSPA-LA from Version 9.60.300 to the latest version 11.1. All the TSPA-LA uncertainty and sensitivity analyses modeling cases were successfully tested and verified for the model reproducibility on the upgraded 2014 server cluster (CL2014). The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses used TSPA-LA modeling cases output generated in FY15 based on GoldSim Version 9.60.300 documented in Hadgu et al. (2015). The model upgrade task successfully converted the Nominal Modeling case to GoldSim Version 11.1. Upgrade of the remaining of the modeling cases and distributed processing tasks will continue. The 2014 server cluster and supporting software systems are fully operational to support TSPA-LA type analysis.

  17. TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases, Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters

  18. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HO, CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH, JIM; WILSON, MICHAEL L.

    1999-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided

  19. FY17 Status Report on the Computing Systems for the Yucca Mountain Project TSPA-LA Models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reynolds, John Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garland, Jason P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) continued evaluation of total system performance assessment (TSPA) computing systems for the previously considered Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). This was done to maintain the operational readiness of the computing infrastructure (computer hardware and software) and knowledge capability for total system performance assessment (TSPA) type analysis, as directed by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE 2010. This work is a continuation of the ongoing readiness evaluation reported in Lee and Hadgu (2014), Hadgu et al. (2015) and Hadgu and Appel (2016). The TSPA computing hardware (CL2014) and storage system described in Hadgu et al. (2015) were used for the current analysis. One floating license of GoldSim with Versions 9.60.300, 10.5, 11.1 and 12.0 was installed on the cluster head node, and its distributed processing capability was mapped on the cluster processors. Other supporting software were tested and installed to support the TSPA- type analysis on the server cluster. The current tasks included preliminary upgrade of the TSPA-LA from Version 9.60.300 to the latest version 12.0 and address DLL-related issues observed in the FY16 work. The model upgrade task successfully converted the Nominal Modeling case to GoldSim Versions 11.1/12. Conversions of the rest of the TSPA models were also attempted but program and operational difficulties precluded this. Upgrade of the remaining of the modeling cases and distributed processing tasks is expected to continue. The 2014 server cluster and supporting software systems are fully operational to support TSPA-LA type analysis.

  20. Total system performance predictions (TSPA-1995) for the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S.D.; Andrews, R.W.; McNeish, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The management and operating contractor for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been recently completed a new performance assessment of the ability of the repository to isolate and contain nuclear waste for long time periods (up to 1,000,000 years). Sensitivity analyses determine the most important physical parameters and processes, using the most current information and models

  1. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  2. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.

    2003-01-01

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  3. Igneous Consequence Modeling for the TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, John

    2001-01-01

    code is not run within this AMR and any sensitivity runs will be performed within the TSPA-SR. This change has no impact on the technical output from this AMR. The objectives of the work are to: (1) Develop TSPA-SR conceptual models for volcanic eruptive and igneous intrusion groundwater transport releases from igneous activity consistent with the available conceptual models and data; (2) Document support from conceptual models and data; (3) Deliver conceptual model parameter inputs to the TSPA-SR Model; (4) Provide appropriate documentation for conceptual models, data, and parameters to relevant project databases; and (5) Recommend an appropriate mathematical model for the volcanic eruption release scenario and provide appropriate parameter values for this model which will be run within the TSPA-SR Model

  4. Tabulated In-Drift Geometric and Thermal Properties Used In Drift-Scale Models for TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.D. Francis

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to provide in-drift physical properties required by the drift-scale models (both two- and three-dimensional) used in total system performance assessments (TSPA). The physical properties include waste package geometry, waste package thermal properties, emplacement drift geometry including backfill and invert geometry and properties (both thermal and hydrologic), drip shield geometry and thermal properties, all tabulated in a single source

  5. Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-02

    As mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development of the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 directed that only Yucca Mountain be characterized to evaluate the site's suitability. Three main components of the DOE site characterization program are testing, design, and performance assessment. These program components consist of: Investigation of natural features and processes by analyzing data collected from field tests conducted above and below ground and from laboratory tests of rock, gas, and water samples Design of a repository and waste packages tailored to the site features, supported by laboratory testing of candidate materials for waste packages and design related testing in the underground tunnels where waste would be emplaced Quantitative estimates of the performance of the total repository system, over a range of possible conditions and for different repository configurations, by means of computer modeling techniques that are based on site and materials testing data and accepted principles of physics and chemistry. To date, DOE has completed and documented four major iterations of total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site: TSPA-91 (Barnard et al. 1992), TSPA-93 (Wilson et al. 1994; CRWMS M and O 1994), TSPA-95 (CRWMS M and O 1995), and the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) (DOE 1998a, Volume 3). Each successive TSPA iteration has advanced the technical understanding of the performance attributes of the natural features and processes and enhanced engineering designs. The next major iteration of TSPA is to be conducted in support of the next major programmatic milestone for the DOE, namely the

  6. Time-series panel analysis (TSPA): multivariate modeling of temporal associations in psychotherapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Kupper, Zeno; Caspar, Franz; Znoj, Hansjörg; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Processes occurring in the course of psychotherapy are characterized by the simple fact that they unfold in time and that the multiple factors engaged in change processes vary highly between individuals (idiographic phenomena). Previous research, however, has neglected the temporal perspective by its traditional focus on static phenomena, which were mainly assessed at the group level (nomothetic phenomena). To support a temporal approach, the authors introduce time-series panel analysis (TSPA), a statistical methodology explicitly focusing on the quantification of temporal, session-to-session aspects of change in psychotherapy. TSPA-models are initially built at the level of individuals and are subsequently aggregated at the group level, thus allowing the exploration of prototypical models. TSPA is based on vector auto-regression (VAR), an extension of univariate auto-regression models to multivariate time-series data. The application of TSPA is demonstrated in a sample of 87 outpatient psychotherapy patients who were monitored by postsession questionnaires. Prototypical mechanisms of change were derived from the aggregation of individual multivariate models of psychotherapy process. In a 2nd step, the associations between mechanisms of change (TSPA) and pre- to postsymptom change were explored. TSPA allowed a prototypical process pattern to be identified, where patient's alliance and self-efficacy were linked by a temporal feedback-loop. Furthermore, therapist's stability over time in both mastery and clarification interventions was positively associated with better outcomes. TSPA is a statistical tool that sheds new light on temporal mechanisms of change. Through this approach, clinicians may gain insight into prototypical patterns of change in psychotherapy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  8. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k d ) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone

  9. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k{sub d}) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone.

  10. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    to each other. Section 6 also discusses the DOE assessment of potential activities to increase the confidence in future TSPAs based on the results of TSPA-VA, gives a synopsis of the insights provided by the TSPA Peer Review Panel, includes a discussion of comments received by DOE from NRC, and closes with concluding remarks.

  11. Methods and Techniques Used to Convey Total System Performance Assessment Analyses and Results for Site Recommendation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattie, Patrick D.; McNeish, Jerry A.; Sevougian, S. David; Andrews, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) is used as a key decision-making tool for the potential geologic repository of high level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada USA. Because of the complexity and uncertainty involved in a post-closure performance assessment, an important goal is to produce a transparent document describing the assumptions, the intermediate steps, the results, and the conclusions of the analyses. An important objective for a TSPA analysis is to illustrate confidence in performance projections of the potential repository given a complex system of interconnected process models, data, and abstractions. The methods and techniques used for the recent TSPA analyses demonstrate an effective process to portray complex models and results with transparency and credibility

  12. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ''uranium'' and 4n+3 ''actinium'' decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides

  13. Effective Thermal Conductivity For Drift-Scale Models Used In TSPA-SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.D. Francis

    2001-01-25

    The objective of this calculation is to develop a time dependent in-drift effective thermal conductivity parameter that will approximate heat conduction, thermal radiation, and natural convection heat transfer using a single mode of heat transfer (heat conduction). In order to reduce the physical and numerical complexity of the heat transfer processes that occur (and must be modeled) as a result of the emplacement of heat generating wastes, a single parameter will be developed that approximates all forms of heat transfer from the waste package surface to the drift wall (or from one surface exchanging heat with another). Subsequently, with this single parameter, one heat transfer mechanism (e.g., conduction heat transfer) can be used in the models. The resulting parameter is to be used as input in the drift-scale process-level models applied in total system performance assessments for the site recommendation (TSPA-SR). The format of this parameter will be a time-dependent table for direct input into the thermal-hydrologic (TH) and the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) models.

  14. Effective Thermal Conductivity For Drift-Scale Models Used In TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.D. Francis

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to develop a time dependent in-drift effective thermal conductivity parameter that will approximate heat conduction, thermal radiation, and natural convection heat transfer using a single mode of heat transfer (heat conduction). In order to reduce the physical and numerical complexity of the heat transfer processes that occur (and must be modeled) as a result of the emplacement of heat generating wastes, a single parameter will be developed that approximates all forms of heat transfer from the waste package surface to the drift wall (or from one surface exchanging heat with another). Subsequently, with this single parameter, one heat transfer mechanism (e.g., conduction heat transfer) can be used in the models. The resulting parameter is to be used as input in the drift-scale process-level models applied in total system performance assessments for the site recommendation (TSPA-SR). The format of this parameter will be a time-dependent table for direct input into the thermal-hydrologic (TH) and the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) models

  15. Tailored model abstraction in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs) are likely to be one of the most significant parts of making safety cases for the continued development and licensing of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Thus, it is critical that the TSPA model capture the 'essence' of the physical processes relevant to demonstrating the appropriate regulation is met. But how much detail about the physical processes must be modeled and understood before there is enough confidence that the appropriate essence has been captured? In this summary the level of model abstraction that is required is discussed. Approaches for subsystem and total system performance analyses are outlined, and the role of best estimate models is examined. It is concluded that a conservative approach for repository performance, based on limited amount of field and laboratory data, can provide sufficient confidence for a regulatory decision

  16. Performance Assessment and Sensitivity Analyses of Disposal of Plutonium as Can-in-Canister Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Senger

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine whether there is a justification for using high-level waste (HLW) as a surrogate for plutonium disposal in can-in-canister ceramic in the total-system performance assessment (TSPA) model for the Site Recommendation (SR). In the TSPA-SR model, the immobilized plutonium waste form is not explicitly represented, but is implicitly represented as an equal number of canisters of HLW. There are about 50 metric tons of plutonium in the U. S. Department of Energy inventory of surplus fissile material that could be disposed. Approximately 17 tons of this material contain significant quantities of impurities and are considered unsuitable for mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. This material has been designated for direct disposal by immobilization in a ceramic waste form and encapsulating this waste form in high-level waste (HLW). The remaining plutonium is suitable for incorporation into MOX fuel assemblies for commercial reactors (Shaw 1999, Section 2). In this analysis, two cases of immobilized plutonium disposal are analyzed, the 17-ton case and the 13-ton case (Shaw et al. 2001, Section 2.2). The MOX spent-fuel disposal is not analyzed in this report. In the TSPA-VA (CRWMS M and O 1998a, Appendix B, Section B-4), the calculated dose release from immobilized plutonium waste form (can-in-canister ceramic) did not exceed that from an equivalent amount of HLW glass. This indicates that the HLW could be used as a surrogate for the plutonium can-in-canister ceramic. Representation of can-in-canister ceramic as a surrogate is necessary to reduce the number of waste forms in the TSPA model. This reduction reduces the complexity and running time of the TSPA model and makes the analyses tractable. This document was developed under a Technical Work Plan (CRWMS M and O 2000a), and is compliant with that plan. The application of the Quality Assurance (QA) program to the development of that plan (CRWMS M and O 2000a) and of this Analysis is

  17. Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Vallikat, V.; McNeish, J.

    1998-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation's radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated

  18. Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of performance assessment is to show that the repository is expected to serve its stated function - disposing of radioactive waste safely both during operation and for the postclosure period. Performance assessment is a straightforward concept, but its application may be very complicated. The concept of performance assessment has been clarified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in their Draft Generic Technical Position on Licensing Assessment Methodology for High-Level Waste Geologic Repositories (NRC, 1984). This document has gone a long way toward defining the criteria that the NRC will use to determine whether or not information from site characterization is adequate to meet the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A favorable determination is required for issuance of a construction authorization, which is the first major regulatory requirement for developing a working repository. It is, therefore, essential that a research program be developed that not only resolves the outstanding technical issues, but also does it in such a way that the results are clearly applicable to the formal performance assessment and licensing procedures. The definitions of performance assessment are reviewed and the current NRC thinking is summarized

  19. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  20. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-01

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  1. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  2. Use of One-On Analysis to Evaluate Total System Performance of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Lee, K.P.; Mehta, S.; Sevougian, S.D.; Kalinich, D.; McNeish, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the future performance of the proposed U.S. high-level nuclear waste repository. Using the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model, a stylized analysis was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of natural and engineered barriers to movement of radionuclides from the proposed repository. These stylized ''one-on'' analyses consist of sequentially adding features, components, and processes, associated with the natural and engineered barriers, incorporated within the TSPA model and evaluating the effect of these elements on repository performance, as measured by the total mean annual dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The analyses are ''stylized'' in the sense that they are performed to gain insight only. They are not meant to represent a real physical system in most cases, and in some cases allow the TSPA model to simulate results using parameter ranges outside the normal bounds of the TSPA model. In particular, the analyses provide insight into the relative contributions of repository features and processes in a way that is not possible using the full TSPA performance-assessment model. For example, in the nominal scenario of the TSPA model, the contribution of the natural system is masked by the contribution of the engineered system

  3. Performance assessment analyses unique to Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, H.H.; Duguid, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the iterative process of grouping and performance assessment that has led to the current grouping of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The unique sensitivity analyses that form the basis for incorporating DOE fuel into the total system performance assessment (TSPA) base case model are described. In addition, the chemistry that results from dissolution of DOE fuel and high level waste (HLW) glass in a failed co-disposal package, and the effects of disposal of selected DOE SNF in high integrity cans are presented

  4. Confidence building on the total system performance assessment code, MASCOT-K for permanent disposal of HLW in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. G.; Kang, C. H

    2002-12-01

    To perform Total System Performance Assessment(TSPA) of a potential HLW repository, it is necessary to develop the TSPA code. KAERI has developed the one-dimensional PSA code MASCOT-K since 1997 and verified special modules dedicated for the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel. In the second R and D phase, MASCOT-K is once again verified as a part of the confidence building for TSPA. The AMBER code based on the totally different mathematical approach, compartment theory is used together with MASCOT-K to assess the annual individual doses for given K- and Q- scenarios. Results indicate that both AMBER and MASCOT-K simulate the annual individual doses to a potential biosphere. And the MASCOT-K is more flexible to describe the natural barrier such as a fracture for sensitivity studies. In the third R and D phase, MASCOT-K will be actively used to check whether the proposed KAERI reference disposal concept is solid or not.

  5. Confidence building on the total system performance assessment code, MASCOT-K for permanent disposal of HLW in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. G.; Kang, C. H.

    2002-12-01

    To perform Total System Performance Assessment(TSPA) of a potential HLW repository, it is necessary to develop the TSPA code. KAERI has developed the one-dimensional PSA code MASCOT-K since 1997 and verified special modules dedicated for the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel. In the second R and D phase, MASCOT-K is once again verified as a part of the confidence building for TSPA. The AMBER code based on the totally different mathematical approach, compartment theory is used together with MASCOT-K to assess the annual individual doses for given K- and Q- scenarios. Results indicate that both AMBER and MASCOT-K simulate the annual individual doses to a potential biosphere. And the MASCOT-K is more flexible to describe the natural barrier such as a fracture for sensitivity studies. In the third R and D phase, MASCOT-K will be actively used to check whether the proposed KAERI reference disposal concept is solid or not

  6. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, B00000000-01717-2200-00099, Rev. 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during the site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. A parallel effort was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and is reported in Wilson et al. (1994, in press)

  7. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, James; Senger, R.; Leem, J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) is categorized into eleven different spent fuel groups. Group 7, is predominantly uranium metal spent fuel from N Reactor that could oxidize rapidly in the presence of air when a waste package is breached. Such rapid oxidation constitutes a pyrophoric event. The consequences of a post closure pyrophoric event were evaluated in terms of its potential to damage adjacent waste packages and consequences of it in terms of long-term dose to humans. This work was conducted as part of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) of DOE spent fuel for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. These analyses were performed in support of the site recommendation for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  8. ERUPTION TO DOSE: COUPLING A TEPHRA DISPERSAL MODEL WITHIN A PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. N. Keating, J. Pelletier

    2005-01-01

    The tephra dispersal model used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to evaluate the potential consequences of a volcanic eruption through the waste repository must incorporate simplifications in order to function within a large Monte-Carlo style performance assessment framework. That is, the explicit physics of the conduit, vent, and eruption column processes are abstracted to a 2-D, steady-state advection-dispersion model (ASHPLUME) that can be run quickly over thousands of realizations of the overall system model. Given the continuous development of tephra dispersal modeling techniques in the last few years, we evaluated the adequacy of this simplified model for its intended purpose within the YMP total system performance assessment (TSPA) model. We evaluated uncertainties inherent in model simplifications including (1) instantaneous, steady-state vs. unsteady eruption, which affects column height, (2) constant wind conditions, and (3) power-law distribution of the tephra blanket; comparisons were made to other models and published ash distributions. Spatial statistics are useful for evaluating differences in these model output vs. results using more complex wind, column height, and tephra deposition patterns. However, in order to assess the adequacy of the model for its intended use in TSPA, we evaluated the propagation of these uncertainties through FAR, the YMP ash redistribution model, which utilizes ASHPLUME tephra deposition results to calculate the concentration of nuclear waste-contaminated tephra at a dose-receptor population as a result of sedimentary transport and mixing processes on the landscape. Questions we sought to answer include: (1) what conditions of unsteadiness, wind variability, or departure from simplified tephra distribution result in significant effects on waste concentration (related to dose calculated for the receptor population)? (2) What criteria can be established for the adequacy of a tephra dispersal model within the TSPA

  9. Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Kalinich; K.P. Lee; J.A. McNeish

    2005-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final version of the model

  10. Implementation of Localized Corrosion in the Performance Assessment Model for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Jain, S.; David Sevougian; Patrick D. Mattie; Kevin G. Mon; Robert J. Mackinnon

    2006-01-01

    A total system performance assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to analyze the ability of the natural and engineered barriers of the Yucca Mountain repository to isolate nuclear waste over the 10,000-year period following repository closure. The principal features of the engineered barrier system (EBS) are emplacement tunnels (or ''drifts'') containing a two-layer waste package (WP) for waste containment and a titanium drip shield to protect the waste package from seeping water and falling rock, The 20-mm-thick outer shell of the WP is composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The barrier function of the EBS is to isolate the waste from migrating water. The water and its associated chemical conditions eventually lead to degradation of the waste packages and mobilization of the radionuclides within the packages. There are five possible waste package degradation modes of the Alloy 22: general corrosion, microbially influenced corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, early failure due to manufacturing defects, and localized corrosion. This paper specifically examines the incorporation of the Alloy-22 localized corrosion model into the Yucca Mountain TSPA model, particularly the abstraction and modeling methodology, as well as issues dealing with scaling, spatial variability, uncertainty, and coupling to other sub-models that are part of the total system model

  11. Feature, Event, and Process Screening and Scenario Development for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.; Barr, G.; Burch, P.; Freeze, G.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Swift, P.

    1999-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of post-closure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited

  12. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-01-01

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  13. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, A.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Robey, T.H.; Rautman, C.A.; Barnard, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales

  14. Definition of the Radionuclide Inventory for the DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Used in the TSPA-VA Base Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.J. Smith

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the details of the calculations used to define the radionuclide inventory for the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) used in the TSPA-VA calculations

  15. Development of GoldSim Program Template for Safety Assessment of an LILW Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a methodology, by which an assessment of safety and performance for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository could be effectively made has been carried out. With normal or abnormal nuclide release cases associated with the various FEPs and scenarios involved in the performance of the proposed repository in view of nuclide transport and transfer both in geosphere and biosphere, a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program has been developed by utilizing a commercial development tool program, GoldSim. The report especially deals much with a detailed conceptual modeling scheme by which a GoldSim program modules, all of which are integrated into a TSPA program template were able to be developed. Degradation effects of the near-field such manmade barriers as waste container and the silo on the performance of the repository are also modeled and quantitatively and deterministically/probabilistically evaluated with input data set currently available or assumed. In-depth system models that are conceptually and rather practically described and then ready for implementing into a GoldSim TSPA program are introduced with illustrations. The GoldSim TSPA template program developed through this study is expected to be successfully applied to the post closure safety assessment required for an LILW repository such as Gyeongju repository

  16. Microbial Communities Model Parameter Calculation for TSPA/SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Jolley

    2001-01-01

    This calculation has several purposes. First the calculation reduces the information contained in ''Committed Materials in Repository Drifts'' (BSC 2001a) to useable parameters required as input to MING V1.O (CRWMS M and O 1998, CSCI 30018 V1.O) for calculation of the effects of potential in-drift microbial communities as part of the microbial communities model. The calculation is intended to replace the parameters found in Attachment II of the current In-Drift Microbial Communities Model revision (CRWMS M and O 2000c) with the exception of Section 11-5.3. Second, this calculation provides the information necessary to supercede the following DTN: M09909SPAMING1.003 and replace it with a new qualified dataset (see Table 6.2-1). The purpose of this calculation is to create the revised qualified parameter input for MING that will allow ΔG (Gibbs Free Energy) to be corrected for long-term changes to the temperature of the near-field environment. Calculated herein are the quadratic or second order regression relationships that are used in the energy limiting calculations to potential growth of microbial communities in the in-drift geochemical environment. Third, the calculation performs an impact review of a new DTN: M00012MAJIONIS.000 that is intended to replace the currently cited DTN: GS9809083 12322.008 for water chemistry data used in the current ''In-Drift Microbial Communities Model'' revision (CRWMS M and O 2000c). Finally, the calculation updates the material lifetimes reported on Table 32 in section 6.5.2.3 of the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M and O 2000c) based on the inputs reported in BSC (2001a). Changes include adding new specified materials and updating old materials information that has changed

  17. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  18. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  19. Methodology Used for Total System Performance Assessment of the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Devibec; S.D. Sevougian; P.D. Mattie; J.A. McNeish; S. Mishra

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model [1]. Process models included in the TSPA model are unsaturated zone flow and transport, thermal hydrology, in-drift geochemistry, waste package degradation, waste form degradation, engineered barrier system transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere transport. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. The environmental impact is measured primarily by the annual dose received by an average member of a critical population group residing 20 km down-gradient of the potential repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates

  20. Transparency of the Total System Performance Assessment through the Development of the FEAS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.; Seo, E.J.; Kang, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    Transparency on the total system performance assessment (TSPA) is the key issue to enhance the public acceptance for a permanent high level radioactive repository. Throughout the lessons accumulated in international projects, it turns out to be important to translate technical languages to more understandable ones. One of the key consolidated statements of the RISCOM project was 'the public should know you have a model, which is clear to everybody about value judgments, facts, uncertainties and questions'. In fact, the final assessment is the integration of identifying and clarifying facts, expert judgment, uncertainties, value judgment, level of significance, and open questions, which cannot be easily understood. Traditionally, the study on features, events, and processes (FEPs) and associated scenarios has been regarded as the starting point to open the communicative discussion on TSPA such as what to evaluate, how to evaluate and how to translate outcomes into more friendly language that many stakeholders can easily understand and react with. However, in most cases, it is difficult for stakeholders outside the performance assessment field to assess the details on the story of the safety assessment; scenario and technical background of it. Fortunately, the advent of the internet era opens up the possibility of two way communication from the beginning of the performance assessment so that every stake bolder can exchange their keen opinions on the safety issues. To achieve it, KAERI develops the systematic approach from the FEPs to Assessment method flow chart, through the formation of integrated FEPs corresponding to the elements in the RES matrix. All information is integrated into the web based program named FEAS (FEp to Assessment through Scenario development) under development in KAERI. In parallel, two independent systems are also under development, the web based quality assurance system and the performance assessment input database. Throughout the next phase

  1. Methodology used for total system performance assessment of the potential nuclear waste repository at yucca mountain (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devonec, E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Mattie, P.D.; Mcneish, J.A.; Mishra, S.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates the performance of the repository when various natural or engineered barriers are assumed to be degraded. The objective of these analyses is to evaluate the performance of the potential repository system under conditions ranging from expected to highly unlikely, though physically possible conditions. (author)

  2. Methodology used for total system performance assessment of the potential nuclear waste repository at yucca mountain (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devonec, E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Mattie, P.D.; Mcneish, J.A. [Duke Engineering and Services, Town Center Drive, Las Vegas (United States); Mishra, S. [Duke Engineering and Services, Austin, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates the performance of the repository when various natural or engineered barriers are assumed to be degraded. The objective of these analyses is to evaluate the performance of the potential repository system under conditions ranging from expected to highly unlikely, though physically possible conditions. (author)

  3. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  4. Performance assessment calculational exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ''expected'' and also ''disturbed'' conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs

  5. Context for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In developing its recommendations on performance assessment for disposal of low-level radioactive waste, Scientific committee 87-3 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has considered a number of topics that provide a context for the development of suitable approaches to performance assessment. This paper summarizes the Committee' discussions on these topics, including (1) the definition of low-level waste and its sources and properties, as they affect the variety of wastes that must be considered, (2) fundamental objectives and principles of radioactive waste disposal and their application to low-level waste, (3) current performance objectives for low-level waste disposal in the US, with particular emphasis on such unresolved issues of importance to performance assessment as the time frame for compliance, requirements for protection of groundwater and surface water, inclusion of doses from radon, demonstrating compliance with fixed performance objectives using highly uncertain model projections, and application of the principle that releases to the environment should be maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (4) the role of active and passive institutional controls over disposal sites, (5) the role of the inadvertent human intruder in low-level waste disposal, (6) model validation and confidence in model outcomes, and (7) the concept of reasonable assurance of compliance

  6. Texas' performance assessment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Hertel, N.E.; Pollard, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits

  7. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  8. 2003 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference Breached Drip Shield Test and Validation of a TSPA Sub-Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, Z.P.; Kam, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) represents the system of human engineered barriers in the isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. It is designed to complement and enhance the natural barriers to isolate and prevent the transport of radionuclides into the surrounding environment. The transport mechanism most frequently postulated for radionuclides is liquid water flux that has penetrated the EBS through corrosion breaches in the drip shield and waste packages (WP). A water flux-splitting model is used to predict flow through WP and drip shield breaches and is documented in the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction''. A future revision of the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' will be one component of the total system performance assessment--license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The flux-splitting model is conservative based on the following assumptions: (1) Drip impact occurs without a loss of water mass. (2) Dripping flux falls exactly at the crown of the drip shield as opposed to different locations on the curved surface, which will effect splashing and flow patterns. (3) The flux passing through a drip shield patch is proportional to the ratio of the length of the penetration in the axial direction to the total axial length of the drip shield. In this assumption all fluid that drips and flows from the drip shield crown toward a penetration will be collected if the axial locations of the source and patch coincide. (4) The potential for evaporation is ignored. Because of these conservatisms, the current version of the flux-splitting model is incapable of accounting for water that has been splashed from the impact location, the deviation of water paths (rivulets) from the axis of impact, and water loss due to evaporation. This paper will present the results of a series of breached drip shield tests used to collect empirical data for the initial validation and further

  9. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  10. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993.

  11. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S.; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993

  12. TURVA-2012: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellae, Pirjo; Snellman, Margit; Marcos, Nuria; Pastina, Barbara; Smith, Paul; Koskinen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. Posiva's safety concept is based on long-term isolation and containment, which is achieved through a robust engineered barrier system (EBS) design and favourable geological conditions at the repository site. The reference design considered in the TURVA-2012 safety case is the KBS-3V design, with the EBS consisting of a copper-iron canister, a buffer of swelling clay material, a backfill in the deposition tunnels of low-permeability material and closure of the central tunnels and other underground openings. The host rock acts as a natural barrier. Each barrier contributes to safety through one or more safety function. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the EBS and the target properties for the host rock. The performance assessment (Posiva, 2013), which is a key component of TURVA-2012, analyses the ability of the repository system to provide containment and isolation of the spent nuclear fuel during the long-term evolution of the system and the site. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the engineered barriers and target properties for the host rock, for example properties related to the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength of the canister as well as groundwater flow and composition. The analyses take into account the uncertainties in the initial state, the subsequent thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical evolution of the repository system and uncertainties in the evolution. The conclusions of the performance assessment are based mostly on the output of key modelling activities. Whenever modelling is not possible the conclusions

  13. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews.

  14. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews

  15. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  16. OLEM Performance Assessment Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a variety of data sets that measure the performance of Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) programs in support of the Office of the...

  17. Simply Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.; McLaughlin, Felecia C.; Pringle, Rose M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of Miss Felecia McLaughlin, a fourth-grade teacher from the island of Jamaica who used the model proposed by Bass et al. (2009) to assess conceptual understanding of four of the six types of simple machines while encouraging collaboration through the creation of learning teams. Students had an opportunity to…

  18. Implementation of Localized Corrosion in the Performance Assessment Model for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; SEVOUGIAN, D.S.; MATTIE, P.D.; MACKINNON, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    A total system performance assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to analyze the ability of the natural and engineered barriers of the Yucca Mountain repository to isolate nuclear waste for the 10,000-year period following repository closure. The principal features of the engineered barrier system (EBS) are emplacement tunnels (or ''drifts'') containing a two-layer waste package (WP) for waste containment and a titanium drip shield to protect the waste package from seeping water and falling rock. The 20-mm-thick outer shell of the WP is composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy, while the 50-mm inner shell is composed of 316 stainless steel (modified with lower carbon and nitrogen compositions), whose primary purpose is to provide structural strength. The barrier function of the EBS is to isolate the waste from the migrating water with its associated chemical conditions that eventually lead to degradation of the waste packages and mobilization of the radionuclides within the packages

  19. Introduction to radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, G.

    1995-02-01

    A radiological performance assessment is conducted to provide reasonable assurance that performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal will be met. Beginning in the early stages of development, a radiological performance assessment continues through the operational phase, and is instrumental in the postclosure of the facility. Fundamental differences exist in the regulation of commercial and defense LLW, but the radiological performance assessment process is essentially the same for both. The purpose of this document is to describe that process in a concise and straightforward manner. This document focuses on radiological performance assessment as it pertains to commercial LLW disposal, but is applicable to US Department of Energy sites as well. Included are discussions on performance objectives, site characterization, and how a performance assessment is conducted. A case study is used to illustrate how the process works as a whole. A bibliography is provided to assist in locating additional information

  20. The process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    An introductory review of the subject of ''Performance Assessment'' will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which will be discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment will be addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the ''system/site/technology'' issues as the focal point of this symposium will be reviewed

  1. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  2. Feature, event, and process screening and scenario development for the yucca mountain total system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Barr, G.; Barnard, R.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Freeze, G.; Burck, P.

    2001-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of postclosure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). To ensure clear documentation of the treatment of potentially relevant future states of the system in the Yucca Mountain license application (LA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to adopt a scenario development process based on the methodology developed by Cranwell et al. (1990) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although the process, described below, has been modified somewhat as a result of experience gained in the last decade, the underlying methodology is consistent with that outlined by the DOE in the 1988 Site Characterization Plan for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) (U.S. DOE, 1988). The approach is fundamentally the same as that used in many performance assessments, including the most recent analysis of the Yucca Mountain repository by the NRC (Wescott et al., 1995). The approach has also been used by the DOE for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (U.S. DOE, 1996), by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), and by other radioactive waste programs internationally. Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited. (authors)

  3. Performance Assessment National Review Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.A.; Davis, S.N.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Performance assessment involves predicting the potential radiological impact of a nuclear waste disposal system, taking into account all of the natural and engineered components of the system. It includes the analysis and evaluation of predicted system and component performance to determine compliance with regulatory performance criteria. In the context of the nuclear waste management program, performance assessment has five major purposes: to assist in the evaluation and selection of repository sites; to guide the research, development, and testing programs; to assist in the evaluation of repository designs; to assist in the evaluation of the design and performance of engineered barriers; and to show regulatory compliance and support repository licensing. Current performance assessment methodologies are still in the developmental stage. Only the simplest of bounding calculations have produced quantitative predictions of radionuclide releases. The methodologies require considerable extension and validation before they can provide answers suitable for project decisions and licensing. 135 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Performance assessment: a peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.A.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale, membership, operation and major observations of the Performance Assessment National Review Group. The Group was assembled by Weston at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to review performance assessment work in the US basalt, salt and tuff repository projects. The purposes were to evaluate the adequacy of the current methods, identify deficiencies, and suggest potential improvement on repository performance assessment. To perform the review, Weston retained a group of distinguished consultants who have had extensive experience in disciplines pertinent to management of radioactive wastes including mathematical modeling of fluid transport. Topics reviewed included flow and transport, source term and uncertainty analysis. While the emphasis was on methodologies, the Projects were specifically requested to show currently available results so that the way they utilized familiar methodologies could be evaluated. This paper will highlight some of the technical observations of the Group as well as some managerial and institutional issues

  5. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-25

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]) contain detailed description of the model input parameters. This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs and conversion factors for the TSPA. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

  6. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  7. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  8. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  9. Power performance assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, S.

    1998-12-01

    In the increasingly commercialised wind power marketplace, the lack of precise assessment methods for the output of an investment is becoming a barrier for wider penetration of wind power. Thus, addressing this problem, the overall objectives of the project are to reduce the financial risk in investment in wind power projects by significantly improving the power performance assessment methods. Ultimately, if this objective is successfully met, the project may also result in improved tuning of the individual wind turbines and in optimisation methods for wind farm operation. The immediate, measurable objectives of the project are: To prepare a review of existing contractual aspects of power performance verification procedures of wind farms; to provide information on production sensitivity to specific terrain characteristics and wind turbine parameters by analyses of a larger number of wind farm power performance data available to the proposers; to improve the understanding of the physical parameters connected to power performance in complex environment by comparing real-life wind farm power performance data with 3D computational flow models and 3D-turbulence wind turbine models; to develop the statistical framework including uncertainty analysis for power performance assessment in complex environments; and to propose one or more procedures for power performance evaluation of wind power plants in complex environments to be applied in contractual agreements between purchasers and manufacturers on production warranties. Although the focus in this project is on power performance assessment the possible results will also be of benefit to energy yield forecasting, since the two tasks are strongly related. (au) JOULE III. 66 refs.; In Co-operation Renewable Energy System Ltd. (GB); Centre for Renewable Energy (GR); Aeronautic Research Centre (SE); National Engineering Lab. (GB); Public Power Cooperation (GR)

  10. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final

  11. Methodology for NDA performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, M.; Franklin, M.; Guardini, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the RandD programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, a considerable effort is being dedicated to performance assessment of NDA techniques taking account of field conditions. By taking account of field conditions is meant measurement samples of the size encountered in practice and training which allows inspectors to design cost efficient verification plans for the real situations encountered in the field. Special laboratory facilities referred to as PERLA are being constructed for this purpose. These facilities will be used for measurement experiments and for training. In this paper, performance assessment is discussed under the headings of measurement capability and in-field effectiveness. Considerable emphasis is given to the role of method specific measurement error models. The authors outline the advantages of giving statistical error models a sounder basis in the physical phenomenology of the measurement method

  12. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design

  13. Total System Performance Assessment Sensitivity Analyses for Final Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2001-01-01

    This Letter Report presents the results of supplemental evaluations and analyses designed to assess long-term performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The evaluations were developed in the context of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) final public regulation, or rule, 10 CFR Part 63 (66 FR 55732 [DIRS 156671]), which was issued on November 2, 2001. This Letter Report addresses the issues identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) technical direction letter dated October 2, 2001 (Adams 2001 [DIRS 156708]). The main objective of this Letter Report is to evaluate performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository using assumptions consistent with performance-assessment-related provisions of 10 CFR Part 63. The incorporation of the final Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, 40 CFR Part 197 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216]), and the analysis of the effect of the 40 CFR Part 197 EPA final rule on long-term repository performance are presented in the Total System Performance Assessment--Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain--Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156460]), referred to hereafter as the FEIS/SSE Letter Report. The Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses conducted and documented prior to promulgation of the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (66 FR 55732 [DIRS 156671]), were based on the NRC proposed rule (64 FR 8640 [DIRS 101680]). Slight differences exist between the NRC's proposed and final rules which were not within the scope of the FEIS/SSE Letter Report (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156460]), the Preliminary Site Suitability Evaluation (PSSE) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 155743]), and supporting documents for these reports. These differences include (1) the possible treatment of ''unlikely'' features, events and processes (FEPs) in evaluation of both the groundwater protection standard and the human-intrusion scenario of the individual

  14. Performance Assessment Institute-NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Joesph [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment’s intention is to purchase a multi-purpose computer cluster in support of the Performance Assessment Institute (PA Institute). The PA Institute will serve as a research consortium located in Las Vegas Nevada with membership that includes: national laboratories, universities, industry partners, and domestic and international governments. This center will provide a one-of-a-kind centralized facility for the accumulation of information for use by Institutions of Higher Learning, the U.S. Government, and Regulatory Agencies and approved users. This initiative will enhance and extend High Performance Computing (HPC) resources in Nevada to support critical national and international needs in "scientific confirmation". The PA Institute will be promoted as the leading Modeling, Learning and Research Center worldwide. The program proposes to utilize the existing supercomputing capabilities and alliances of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as a base, and to extend these resource and capabilities through a collaborative relationship with its membership. The PA Institute will provide an academic setting for interactive sharing, learning, mentoring and monitoring of multi-disciplinary performance assessment and performance confirmation information. The role of the PA Institute is to facilitate research, knowledge-increase, and knowledge-sharing among users.

  15. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  16. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2001-01-01

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios

  17. The DECADE performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Thompson, J.; Rowley, J.E.; Filios, P.; Babineau, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs

  18. The DECADE performance assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, B V; Ottinger, P F; Commisso, R J [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; Goyer, J R; Kortbawi, D [Physics International Co., Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, J [Maxwell Labs., San Diego, CA (United States); Rowley, J E; Filios, P [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Babineau, M A [Sverdlup Technology, Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs.

  19. Performance assessment of coupled processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author considers all processes to be coupled. For example, a waste package heats the surrounding rock and its pore water, creating gradients in density and pressure that result in increased water flow. That process can be described as coupled, in that the flow is a consequence of heating. In a narrower sense, one speaks also of the more weakly coupled transport processes, expressed by the Onsager reciprocal relations, that state that a transport current, i.e., flux, of heat is accompanied by a small transport current of material, as evidenced in isotope separation by thermal diffusion, the Thompson effect in thermoelectricity, etc. This paper presents a performance assessment of coupled processes

  20. Technical Approach for Determining Key Parameters Needed for Modeling the Performance of Cast Stone for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) and its contractors at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are conducting a development program to develop / refine the cementitious waste form for the wastes treated at the ETF and to provide the data needed to support the IDF PA. This technical approach document is intended to provide guidance to the cementitious waste form development program with respect to the waste form characterization and testing information needed to support the IDF PA. At the time of the preparation of this technical approach document, the IDF PA effort is just getting started and the approach to analyze the performance of the cementitious waste form has not been determined. Therefore, this document looks at a number of different approaches for evaluating the waste form performance and describes the testing needed to provide data for each approach. Though the approach addresses a cementitious secondary aqueous waste form, it is applicable to other waste forms such as Cast Stone for supplemental immobilization of Hanford LAW. The performance of Cast Stone as a physical and chemical barrier to the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) from solidification of Hanford liquid low activity waste (LAW) and secondary wastes processed through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) is of critical importance to the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) total system performance assessment (TSPA). The effectiveness of cementitious waste forms as a barrier to COC release is expected to evolve with time. PA modeling must therefore anticipate and address processes, properties, and conditions that alter the physical and chemical controls on COC transport in the cementitious waste forms over time. Most organizations responsible for disposal facility operation and their regulators support an iterative hierarchical safety/performance assessment approach with a general philosophy that modeling provides

  1. Designing Second Language Performance Assessments. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Brown, James Dean; Hudson, Thom; Yoshioka, Jim

    This technical report focuses on the decision-making potential provided by second language performance assessments. First, performance assessment is situated within the broader discussion of alternatives in language assessment and in educational assessment in general. Next, issues in performance assessment design, implementation, reliability, and…

  2. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  3. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  4. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  5. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S; Antoniou, I; Dahlberg, J A [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  6. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Mark [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Building 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  7. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  8. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  9. Alternative approaches to assessing the performance and suitability of Yucca Mountain for spent fuel disposal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, R.; Smith, G.; Klos, R.

    1998-11-01

    Significant resources and effort have been expended by EPRI over the past few years in modeling and understanding issues related to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Previous reports have documented the general model used in the EPRI work and specific inputs to that model for examination of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Modeling of the potential Yucca Mountain site is an on-going process, and new data are being collected with which to evaluate and modify models of physical processes. This report is divided into two parts. The first part presents results from specific calculational cases of repository performance, updated for the most recent data and conceptual models. The second part discusses possible alternatives for the components of the assessment context for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Part 2 also presents additional information on time frames and a interaction matrix method of documenting TSPA model interactions. The main purposes of Part of this report is to describe the subsystem and total system performance models and present results and analysis of the results. Part 1 includes presentation of new models of waste container failure that accounts for new container material, a new model of the effect of hydrothermal activity and heterogeneous groundwater flow in the unsaturated zone on temperatures and the distribution of groundwater capable of dripping into the repository drifts. Part 1 also: identifies the key technical components of the candidate spent fuel and HLW disposal facility at Yucca Mountain using IMARC Phase 4; makes recommendations regarding the prioritization of the technical development work remaining; and provides an assessment of the overall technical suitability of the candidate HLW disposal facility at Yucca Mountain

  10. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance assessments; Performance standards. 115.206 Section 115.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.206 Performance assessments; Performance...

  11. Making Performance Assessments a Part of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Billy

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to describe recent efforts in Virginia to develop and use performance assessments, including the challenges that emerged during this process and key considerations for states that integrate performance assessment into their systems. Performance assessments can play an important role in preparing students for…

  12. Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CPARS is a web-based system used to input data on contractor performance. Reports from the system are used as an aid in awarding contracts to contractors that...

  13. Performance Assessment in Courts - The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Performance assessments have become commonplace in management, even in the public sector. With the increasing pressure on courts to perform while making efficient use of resources, performance assessments in the justice system are also gaining in importance. However, the need for judicial independence poses special challenges for performance assessments in courts. Against this background, this article conducts a constitutional appraisal, and contrasts the need for judicial independence with the principles governing effectiveness and efficiency, self-government and supervision, and appointment and re-appointment. A duty to guarantee justice can be derived from this that does not in principle exclude the performance assessment of judges, but even renders it essential, subject to compliance with certain requirements. In these circumstances, it seems hardly surprising that numerous countries conduct performance assessments of judges and also that various international institutions have developed principles for this purpose, a summary of which is presented – in Switzerland’s case based on a recently conducted survey. In the field of conflict between the guaranteeing justice and protecting the judiciary, the following key questions arise in particular: What is the purpose of performance assessments and what are the consequences?What is subjected to a performance assessment and what are the assessment criteria?How is performance recorded as the basis for the performance assessment?Who is subjected to a performance assessment, and must a distinction be made between judges in higher and lower courts?Who carries out the performance assessment and what methods of protecting one’s rights are available?Who should receive the results of the performance assessment?The contribution sketches out possible answers to these key questions and aims to encourage academics and practitioners to give further consideration to this subject.

  14. VISUAL ART TEACHERS AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    qualitative research design; an aspect of descriptive survey research aiming at ... the competence and use of assessment strategies is determined by the type of ... Visual Art Teachers and Performance Assessment Methods in Nigerian Senior ...

  15. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  16. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  17. Assessing school performance and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelková, Isabella; Kubíková, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We verify the theoretical hypothesis that individual reference norm helps the development of positive achievement motivation and lowers the performance fear of pupils. The research was carried out with pupils aged 9 to 12 years. The article presents the results of the research in using reference norms with 61 teachers in connection with achievement motivation of their 1144 pupils. The research also mapped the real school situations for the teachers involved, based partly on observation during...

  18. Performance assessment in algebra learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestariani, Ida; Sujadi, Imam; Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of research to describe the implementation of performance assessment on algebra learning process. The subject in this research is math educator of SMAN 1 Ngawi class X. This research includes descriptive qualitative research type. Techniques of data collecting are done by observation method, interview, and documentation. Data analysis technique is done by data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results showed any indication that the steps taken by the educator in applying the performance assessment are 1) preparing individual worksheets and group worksheets, 2) preparing rubric assessments for independent worksheets and groups and 3) making performance assessments rubric to learners’ performance results with individual or groups task.

  19. Development of database and QA systems for post closure performance assessment on a potential HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. G.; Kang, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    In TSPA of long-term post closure radiological safety on permanent disposal of HLW in Korea, appropriate management of input and output data through QA is necessary. The robust QA system is developed using the T2R3 principles applicable for five major steps in R and D's. The proposed system is implemented in the web-based system so that all participants in TSRA are able to access the system. In addition, the internet based input database for TSPA is developed. Currently data from literature surveys, domestic laboratory and field experiments as well as expert elicitation are applied for TSPA

  20. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  1. Performance assessment of a microsprinkler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Lopes Thomaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface hydrological processes are essential to the understanding and prediction of soil erosion. Several equipments are used to measure infiltration rate, runoff and soil loss. However, researchers build their own equipment due to the specific sites where the measurements are performed. This study evaluated the performance of a microsprinkler developed to measure the hydrological processes on unpaved rural roads. The microsprinkler is portable, lightweight, easy to operate, and also low cost. The measured parameters refer to different physical aspects of the rainfall produced as: intensity, drop size, kinetic energy and the simulation area. The microsprinkler was tested at different heights and pressures. The main results obtained: the intensity of simulated rainfall was 71.4 - 148.3 mmh-1, the drop size ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 mm (mean 0.7 mm, the kinetic energy of rainfall varied between 51 and 77% compared with a natural rainfall of similar intensity, and the simulation area had 0.28 - 0.56 m2 (mean 0.40 m2. The parameters obtained in this study are within the limit of others simulators reported in the literature.

  2. Competency Assessment Using Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Toader; Laura Brad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for computing the scores of the key performance indicators resulted in the competency assessment process. The key performance indicators are estimated considering four performance levels that an IT professional can obtain at the end of the assessment process. We suggest as the best approach for estimating the performance key indicators an online questionnaire filled by 60 employees that work in IT Romanian companies. The results provide evidence that the difference...

  3. Probabilistic assessments of fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelppe, S.; Ranta-Puska, K.

    1998-01-01

    The probabilistic Monte Carlo Method, coupled with quasi-random sampling, is applied for the fuel performance analyses. By using known distributions of fabrication parameters and real power histories with their randomly selected combinations, and by making a large number of ENIGMA code calculations, one expects to find out the state of the whole reactor fuel. Good statistics requires thousands of runs. A sample case representing VVER-440 reactor fuel indicates relatively low fuel temperatures and mainly athermal fission gas release if any. The rod internal pressure remains typically below 2.5 MPa, which leaves a large margin to the system pressure of 12 MPa Gap conductance, an essential parameter in the accident evaluations, shows no decrease from its start-of-life value. (orig.)

  4. Performance Assessment of Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    on the performance measures and benchmarks adopted in M&A research field and the relevant empirical results. We find that the definitions of performance varied in terms of accounting, financial, operational and perceptual metrics. And performance assessment is sensitive to the definition of performance, methodology......Corporate mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have been increasing popular during these decades. However, a majority of research show failure rate (40% - 80%) has not significantly changed. This “success paradox” triggers us to reflect on performance assessment of M&As: how the performance of M...

  5. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  6. A Conceptual Modeling for a GoldSim Program for Safety Assessment of an LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-12-01

    Modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program, by which an assessment of safety and performance for a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal repository with normal or abnormal nuclide release cases associated with the various FEPs involved in the performance of the proposed repository could be made has been carrying out by utilizing GoldSim under contract with KRMC. The report deals with a detailed conceptual modeling scheme by which a GoldSim program modules, all of which are integrated into a TSPA program as well as the input data set currently available. In-depth system models that are conceptually and rather practically described and then ready for implementing into a GoldSim program are introduced with plenty of illustrative conceptual models and sketches. The GoldSim program that will be finally developed through this project is expected to be successfully applied to the post closure safety assessment required both for the LILW repository and pyro processed repository by the regulatory body with both increased practicality and much reduced uncertainty

  7. Review of SR 97 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This review has identified many technical problems in the SR 97 performance assessment. The general impression of this reviewer is that SKB has been disingenuous in its performance assessment effort. It has not cited important differences of opinion with its own views. Furthermore, there are many inconsistencies in the SR 97 report that all together leave the impression that there are many more uncertainties in the SR 97 performance assessment than SKB would perhaps care to admit. Additionally, despite SKB's statements to the contrary, many of the analyses conducted for the SR 97 performance assessment can be clearly shown not to have been based on 'conservative' assumptions. Finally, SKB has made little effort to consider possible coupling effects between their different scenarios in SR 97. This is a serious flaw in the SR 97 performance assessment. The comments in this review should not be taken to imply that the KBS-3 nuclear waste disposal method will not be able to meet the safety and radiation protection requirements which SKI and SSI have specified in recent years. Instead, my conclusion is simply that the SR 97 performance assessment of the KBS-3 method would have been more believable had it been based on a forthright and comprehensive discussion of facts, uncertainties and opinions, and on a more conservative choice of assumptions. As it stands, the SR 97 performance assessment is not very credible

  8. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

  9. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle

  10. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  11. VISUAL ART TEACHERS AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    Senior Secondary school visual art teachers constituted the sample of this ... and Performance Assessment Methods in Nigerian Senior Secondary Schools – Bello .... definition includes knowledge, skills, attitudes, metacognition and strategic ...

  12. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.

  13. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  14. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  15. Physician Performance Assessment: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S.; Weng, Weifeng; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Hess, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the rising burden of healthcare costs, both patients and healthcare purchasers are interested in discerning which physicians deliver quality care. We proposed a methodology to assess physician clinical performance in preventive cardiology care, and determined a benchmark for minimally acceptable performance. We used data on eight…

  16. Assessing irrigation performance by using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandara, K.M.P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Performance indicators, performance assessment, diagnostic approach, SEBAL, target level, grain yield, water productivity, error estimation, spatio-temporal resolution.

    In

  17. Performing the lockout/tagout risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W Jon

    2007-03-01

    Lockout/tagout provides the greatest level routine, repetitive, and integral to the production process, a risk assessment should be performed. If the task performed poses an unacceptable risk, acceptable risk reduction methods should be implemented to reduce the risk to acceptable levels.

  18. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolster, A.A.; Waddington, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera's computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author)

  19. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  20. 5th Total System Performance Assessment Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-07-01

    Research items on safety assessment of high-level waste repository have been proposed by external invited experts outside KAERI and discussed extensively during the annual 5th performance assessment workshop prepared by safety assessment group in KAERI. This could be useful to set up R and D plans necessary for the next phase of mid- and long-term reaserch area regarding the safety assessment of high-level waste repository. Through the research and the presentation, HLW-related research and development area including such specific research items as current status of HLW safety assessment research, current requirement for the licensing of the repository system, priority on research area, data base building for the safety assessment, source-term modeling as well as safety case, among many others, have been discussed and summarized

  1. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  2. Performance success from self-assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on and successes of self-assessments completed at the Callaway plant. It stresses the vital needs and substantial benefits from these continual self-improvement efforts. The Callaway plant staff use a variety of methods and techniques to do self-assessments with the focus on performance outcomes. Self-assessments help Callaway focus on the priority issues and direct resources properly. Callaway's success has been due to this learning culture. The Callaway plant is a Westinghouse four-loop plant in the state of Missouri and has been operational since 1984

  3. Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social, natural, and human. A number of principles can be derived for each capital asset; indicators for assessing system performance should cover all of the principles. To cater for multiple stakeholders, participatory selection of indicators is appropriate, although when cross-site comparability is required, some generic indicators are suitable. Because of the high degree of context specificity of natural resource management systems, a typology of landscapes or resource management domains may be useful to allow extrapolation to broader systems. The problems of nonlinearities, uncertainty, and time lags in natural resource management systems suggest that systems modeling is crucial for performance assessment, in terms of deriving "what would have happened anyway" scenarios for comparison to the measured trajectory of systems. Given that a number of indicators are necessary for assessing performance, the question becomes whether these can be combined to give an integrative assessment. We explore five possible approaches: (1 simple additive index, as used for the Human Development Index; (2 derived variables (e.g., principal components as the indices of performance; (3 two-dimensional plots of

  4. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill). © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  5. Performance assessment of gamma cameras. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, A.T.; Short, M.D.; Potter, D.C.; Barnes, K.J.

    1980-11-01

    The Dept. of Health and Social Security and the Scottish Home and Health Dept. has sponsored a programme of measurements of the important performance characteristics of 15 leading types of gamma cameras providing a routine radionuclide imaging service in hospitals throughout the UK. Measurements have been made of intrinsic resolution, system resolution, non-uniformity, spatial distortion, count rate performance, sensitivity, energy resolution and shield leakage. The main aim of this performance assessment was to provide sound information to the NHS to ease the task of those responsible for the purchase of gamma cameras. (U.K.)

  6. Performance Assessment Position Paper: Time for Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    2003-01-01

    This study lays out the historical development of the time frame for a low-level waste disposal facility to demonstrate compliance with the DOE performance objectives and requirements. The study recommends that 1,000 years should be used as the time for compliance for all of the performance objectives and requirements (i.e., for the all-pathways, air pathway, radon emanation, water resource protection and inadvertent intruder analyses) for all low-level waste disposal facility performance assessments at the Savannah River Site

  7. Assessing the Performance of Business Unit Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 140 managers, we investigate the use of various performance metrics in determining the periodic assessment, bonus decisions, and career paths of business unit managers.We show that the weight on accounting return measures is associated with the authority of these managers, and we

  8. The Visible Hand of Research Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Far from allowing a governance of universities by the invisible hand of market forces, research performance assessments do not just measure differences in research quality, but yield themselves visible symptoms in terms of a stratification and standardization of disciplines. The article illustrates this with a case study of UK history departments…

  9. Performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG strain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health ...

  10. An overview of performance assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongnian Jow

    2010-01-01

    The definition of performance assessment (PA) within the context of a geologic repository program is a post-closure safety assessment; a system analysis of hazards associated with the facility and the ability of the site and the design of the facility to provide for the safety functions. For the last few decades, PA methodology bas been developed and applied to different waste disposal programs around the world. PA has been used in the safety analyses for waste disposal repositories for low-level waste, intermediate level waste, and high-level waste including spent nuclear fuels. This paper provides an overview of the performance assessment methodology and gives examples of its applications for the Yucca Mountain Project. (authors)

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  12. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations

  13. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  14. Putting HLW performance assessment results in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neall, F.; Smith, P.; Sumerling, T.; Umeki, H.

    1995-01-01

    According to performance assessment results for the different disposal concepts investigated, the maximum radiation doses to the population lie well below the limit set in the official Swiss Protection Objective and below the level of present-day natural background radiation. A comparison of different performance assessments has shown that the following key factors determine radionuclide release from a repository: radionuclide inventory, canister material and failure mode, nuclide solubility limits, the permeability of the buffer material, retardation during transport through the near-field, the presence of an excavation disturbed zone in the rock, the distance to the nearest major water-bearing fracture zone, the conceptual model for transport in fractured rock and near-surface dilution and dose factors. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Assessing the performance of dynamical trajectory estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Estimating trajectories and parameters of dynamical systems from observations is a problem frequently encountered in various branches of science; geophysicists for example refer to this problem as data assimilation. Unlike as in estimation problems with exchangeable observations, in data assimilation the observations cannot easily be divided into separate sets for estimation and validation; this creates serious problems, since simply using the same observations for estimation and validation might result in overly optimistic performance assessments. To circumvent this problem, a result is presented which allows us to estimate this optimism, thus allowing for a more realistic performance assessment in data assimilation. The presented approach becomes particularly simple for data assimilation methods employing a linear error feedback (such as synchronization schemes, nudging, incremental 3DVAR and 4DVar, and various Kalman filter approaches). Numerical examples considering a high gain observer confirm the theory.

  16. ASSESSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE ON INTERPRETING THROUGH PEER-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismailia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of translation interpreting is translating spoken discourse orally. It needs some requirements like ability to speak clearly, clarity, fluency, eye contact, and self-confidence. It also needs linguistic proficiency, analytical skill, listening and recall, interpersonal skills, ethical behaviour, speaking skills, cultural knowledge, and subject knowledge. Evaluating students performance on interpreting can be done through peer assessment. Peer- assessment is one of alternative assessment to grade the peers in group or individuals by commenting on and judging other students work. To do this process there is a join work between listening and speaking, and two students. The first student as a speaker and the second student as an interpreter. Both of them should do the same quality on speak clearly as a speaker and as an interpreter should able to listen and translating the spoken discourse orally. Evaluation can use analytical grade that allows teacher to set clear criteria for correction like fluency, grammar, terminology, general content, and mechanics. Students and teacher can give comment on every criteria based on their own competency. During the process on making criteria, students and teacher can discuss and give reasonable suggestion to make the assessment suitable to the students competency. At the end, a rubric of assessment with the score from 0 to 100 and criteria and also the comment included in the paper of assessment.

  17. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  19. Statistical analysis in MSW collection performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos Afonso; Avelino, Catarina; Ferreira, Fátima; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The increase of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated over the last years forces waste managers pursuing more effective collection schemes, technically viable, environmentally effective and economically sustainable. The assessment of MSW services using performance indicators plays a crucial role for improving service quality. In this work, we focus on the relevance of regular system monitoring as a service assessment tool. In particular, we select and test a core-set of MSW collection performance indicators (effective collection distance, effective collection time and effective fuel consumption) that highlights collection system strengths and weaknesses and supports pro-active management decision-making and strategic planning. A statistical analysis was conducted with data collected in mixed collection system of Oporto Municipality, Portugal, during one year, a week per month. This analysis provides collection circuits' operational assessment and supports effective short-term municipality collection strategies at the level of, e.g., collection frequency and timetables, and type of containers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tax Performance Assessment in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunescu Liliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal policy performance level in Nordic countries of Europe by quantifying the gap between their performance and an optimum benchmark value. In this study it was selected Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. These countries occupy the first places in the ranking of countries with the highest rate of tax burden in Europe. The first part of paper contains general aspects of fiscal performance in international research and an overview of the Nordic tax systems model. The second part of paper focuses on evaluation of tax policy performance in these countries by using OptimTax scoring analysis. The research is based on a multivariate analysis instrument that uses quantitative data on various aspects of tax policy. OptimTax achieves a score for assessing the degree of optimization of fiscal policy. The results reveal high levels of tax performance in Scandinavian countries and a trend that seems to be more constant than ascending, except Norway.

  1. Performance assessment modeling of pyrometallurgical process wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.; Hill, R.N.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment analyses have been completed to estimate the behavior of high-level nuclear wasteforms generated from the pyrometallurgical processing of liquid metal reactor (LMR) and light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. Waste emplaced in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is investigated as the basis for the study. The resulting cumulative actinide and fission product releases to the accessible environment within a 100,000 year period from the various pyrometallurgical process wasteforms are compared to those of directly disposed LWR spent fuel using the same total repository system model. The impact of differing radionuclide transport models on the overall release characteristics is investigated

  2. Building Confidence in LLW Performance Assessments - 13386

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustick, Joseph H.; Kosson, David S.; Krahn, Steven L.; Clarke, James H. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Nashville, Tennessee, 37235 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The performance assessment process and incorporated input assumptions for four active and one planned DOE disposal sites were analyzed using a systems approach. The sites selected were the Savannah River E-Area Slit and Engineered Trenches, Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, Idaho Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, and Nevada National Security Site Area 5. Each disposal facility evaluation incorporated three overall system components (1) site characteristics (climate, geology, geochemistry, etc.), (2) waste properties (waste form and package), and (3) engineered barrier designs (cover system, liner system). Site conceptual models were also analyzed to identity the main risk drivers and risk insights controlling performance for each disposal facility. (authors)

  3. Building Confidence in LLW Performance Assessments - 13386

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustick, Joseph H.; Kosson, David S.; Krahn, Steven L.; Clarke, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The performance assessment process and incorporated input assumptions for four active and one planned DOE disposal sites were analyzed using a systems approach. The sites selected were the Savannah River E-Area Slit and Engineered Trenches, Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, Idaho Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, and Nevada National Security Site Area 5. Each disposal facility evaluation incorporated three overall system components (1) site characteristics (climate, geology, geochemistry, etc.), (2) waste properties (waste form and package), and (3) engineered barrier designs (cover system, liner system). Site conceptual models were also analyzed to identity the main risk drivers and risk insights controlling performance for each disposal facility. (authors)

  4. Performance assessment of nuclear waste isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A number of concepts have been proposed for the isolation of highly radioactive wastes, and it will be necessary to demonstrate the safety of such systems. In many countries including the U.S., the waste isolation system of choice is deep mined geologic repositories. Because of the complex nature of the multiple isolation barriers afforded by mined geologic disposal systems, and the long isolation periods involved, this demonstration can only be indirect. In recent years this indirect demonstration, mostly through mathematical modeling, is called performance assessment. Performance Assessment can be defined to mean the development, testing, and application of a series of mathematical models and computer codes which traces the movement of radionuclides from a waste isolation system to the biosphere and any resultant dose to man. In modeling such a repository system, it is often convenient to divide it into a number of subsystems, there may be several different processes that need to be modeled, individually and interactively. For instance, this waste package will probably consist of a waste form such as borosilicate glass containing the radioisotopes, a canister, an overpack material such as steel or copper, and a buffer material such as bentonite. The processes to be modeled at the waste package scale include radioisotope inventory and decay, thermal radiation, radiolysis effects, corrosion, leading and fluid flow. In tracing radionuclide transport through rock, the processes of importance are probably groundwater flow, and sorption and retardation of radionuclide movement

  5. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  6. Performance assessment task team progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

  7. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Thorne, M.; Egan, M.; Calvez, M.; Kautsky, U.

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example

  8. Supplemental Performance Analyses for the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S. D.; McNeish, J. A.; Coppersmith, K.; Jenni, K. E.; Rickertsen, L. D.; Swift, P. N.; Wilson, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. Based on internal reviews of the S and ER and its key supporting references, the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (2) and the Analysis Model Reports and Process Model Reports cited therein, the DOE has recently identified and performed several types of analyses to supplement the treatment of uncertainty in support of the consideration of a possible site recommendation. The results of these new analyses are summarized in the two-volume report entitled FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis (SSPA) (3,4). The information in this report is intended to supplement, not supplant, the information contained in the S and ER. The DOE recognizes that important uncertainties will always remain in any assessment of the performance of a potential repository over thousands of years (1). One part of the DOE approach to recognizing and managing these uncertainties is a commitment to continued testing and analysis and to the continued evaluation of the technical basis supporting the possible recommendation of the site, such as the analysis contained in the SSPA. The goals of the work described here are to provide insights into the implications of newly quantified uncertainties, updated science, and evaluations of lower operating temperatures on the performance of a potential Yucca Mountain repository and to increase confidence in the results of the TSPA described

  9. Scientific performance assessments through a gender lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2018-01-01

    The focus on excellence and quality assurance in the academy has spawned a signifi cant increase in the use of bibliometric measures in performance assessments of individual researchers. This article investigates the organizational consequences of this development through a gender lens. Based...... scholars, evaluators using bibliometrics risk disadvantaging candidates diverging from the norm with implications for gender stratifi cation. Despite these potential biases, bibliometric measures come to function as technologies supporting a managerial narrative of the gender-blind organization....... They adhere to the prevailing ethos of the academic meritocracy by standardizing the criteria for organizational advancement and ensuring transparency and accountability in the selection process. While bibliometric tools in this sense may lead to the recruitment of scientists with a strong CV and track record...

  10. Performing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alfonsi; C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. Kinoshita

    2013-06-01

    The Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment (RAVEN) code is a software tool that acts as the control logic driver and post-processing engine for the newly developed Thermal-Hydraulic code RELAP-7. RAVEN is now a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities: Derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures), allowing on-line monitoring/controlling in the Phase Space Perform both Monte-Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Dynamic Event Tree based analysis Facilitate the input/output handling through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data mining module

  11. Probabilistic Radiological Performance Assessment Modeling and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.

    2004-12-01

    A generic probabilistic radiological Performance Assessment (PA) model is presented. The model, built using the GoldSim systems simulation software platform, concerns contaminant transport and dose estimation in support of decision making with uncertainty. Both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require assessments of potential future risk to human receptors of disposal of LLW. Commercially operated LLW disposal facilities are licensed by the NRC (or agreement states), and the DOE operates such facilities for disposal of DOE-generated LLW. The type of PA model presented is probabilistic in nature, and hence reflects the current state of knowledge about the site by using probability distributions to capture what is expected (central tendency or average) and the uncertainty (e.g., standard deviation) associated with input parameters, and propagating through the model to arrive at output distributions that reflect expected performance and the overall uncertainty in the system. Estimates of contaminant release rates, concentrations in environmental media, and resulting doses to human receptors well into the future are made by running the model in Monte Carlo fashion, with each realization representing a possible combination of input parameter values. Statistical summaries of the results can be compared to regulatory performance objectives, and decision makers are better informed of the inherently uncertain aspects of the model which supports their decision-making. While this information may make some regulators uncomfortable, they must realize that uncertainties which were hidden in a deterministic analysis are revealed in a probabilistic analysis, and the chance of making a correct decision is now known rather than hoped for. The model includes many typical features and processes that would be part of a PA, but is entirely fictitious. This does not represent any particular site and is meant to be a generic example. A

  12. E-Area Performance Assessment Interim Measures Assessment FY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, M

    2006-01-31

    After major changes to the limits for various disposal units of the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) last year, no major changes have been made during FY2005. A Special Analysis was completed which removes the air pathway {sup 14}C limit from the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). This analysis will allow the disposal of reactor moderator deionizers which previously had no pathway to disposal. Several studies have also been completed providing groundwater transport input for future special analyses. During the past year, since Slit Trenches No.1 and No.2 were nearing volumetric capacity, they were operationally closed under a preliminary closure analysis. This analysis was performed using as-disposed conditions and data and showed that concrete rubble from the demolition of 232-F was acceptable for disposal in the STs even though the latest special analysis for the STs had reduced the tritium limits so that the inventory in the rubble exceeded limits. A number of special studies are planned during the next years; perhaps the largest of these will be revision of the Performance Assessment (PA) for the ELLWF. The revision will be accomplished by incorporating special analyses performed since the last PA revision as well as revising analyses to include new data. Projected impacts on disposal limits of more recent studies have been estimated. No interim measures will be applied during this year. However, it is being recommended that tritium disposals to the Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches be suspended until a limited Special Analysis (SA) currently in progress is completed. This SA will give recommendations for optimum placement of tritiated D-Area tower waste. Further recommendations for tritiated waste placement in the CIG Trenches will be given in the upcoming PA revision.

  13. Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations.

  14. Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gross

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations

  15. Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The Performance ... had very high significant effect on performance of health workers which was independent of ... Keywords: Health Worker Performance Factors Hospitals Nigeria ...

  16. Assessing Ecosystem Model Performance in Semiarid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Dietze, M.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In ecosystem process modelling, comparing outputs to benchmark datasets observed in the field is an important way to validate models, allowing the modelling community to track model performance over time and compare models at specific sites. Multi-model comparison projects as well as models themselves have largely been focused on temperate forests and similar biomes. Semiarid regions, on the other hand, are underrepresented in land surface and ecosystem modelling efforts, and yet will be disproportionately impacted by disturbances such as climate change due to their sensitivity to changes in the water balance. Benchmarking models at semiarid sites is an important step in assessing and improving models' suitability for predicting the impact of disturbance on semiarid ecosystems. In this study, several ecosystem models were compared at a semiarid grassland in southwestern Arizona using PEcAn, or the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer, an open-source eco-informatics toolbox ideal for creating the repeatable model workflows necessary for benchmarking. Models included SIPNET, DALEC, JULES, ED2, GDAY, LPJ-GUESS, MAESPA, CLM, CABLE, and FATES. Comparison between model output and benchmarks such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) tended to produce high root mean square error and low correlation coefficients, reflecting poor simulation of seasonality and the tendency for models to create much higher carbon sources than observed. These results indicate that ecosystem models do not currently adequately represent semiarid ecosystem processes.

  17. Thermodynamics, data estimation and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenthe, I.

    2002-01-01

    Performance assessment provides a narrative of a system and its development. One may use a literary metaphor; the procedure is like writing a novel where the 'chapters' are the various sub-systems and where both the 'plot' and the 'grammar' are based on scientific and other information, some hard facts and other more or less reliable guesses. I will begin with some general remarks on models, which may provide a useful starting point for what follows. - Models never provide complete descriptions of real systems; they are used to highlight certain aspects of them and to answer 'what-if' questions; - Modelling is an iterative process that provides guidance as to what are important phenomena and what is less relevant for the description of the system and its function; - It is necessary to distinguish between model uncertainties and parameter uncertainties; - It is often better to estimate a quantity for which no data are available than to exclude the particular process where it is needed. Thermodynamics provide not only numerical values for different chemical processes, but more important a theory framework that can be used for the estimation of data. I will not discuss activity coefficient corrections of thermodynamic data, an important area that has already been addressed by Professor Fanghaenel. In the following overview I will be using examples of estimations of different kinds to illustrate what can be accomplished using thermodynamics in combination with chemical theories. (author)

  18. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  19. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  20. Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes performance-based assessment as expounded by its proponents, comments on these conceptions, reviews evidence regarding the technical quality of performance-based assessment, and considers its validity under various policy options. (JDD)

  1. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir

    2000-10-01

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  2. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that is affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  3. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that i s affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  4. Teachers' Views on Performance-Based Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Provides personal perspectives from teachers about the prospects and problems illuminated by Stanford University's Teacher Assessment Project. Teacher remarks address the portfolio development process, assessment centers, implications for national board certification for teachers, personal thoughts and perspectives on teaching, and the future of…

  5. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, Ursula; Monien, Dirk; Duminil, Éric; Nouvel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  6. Performance Assessment Strategy Plan for the Geologic Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations to assess compliance with the performance requirements in the regulations for a geologic repository and to support the development of the repository. The strategy for these evaluations has been documented in the Performance Assessment Strategy Plan (DOE, 1989). The implementation of the performance assessment strategy is defined in this document. This paper discusses the scope and objectives of the implementation plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans, summarizes the performance assessment areas and the integrated strategy of the performance assessment program. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Structure, conduct and performance paradigm in assessing travel agency performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănciulescu Gabriela Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present and exemplify traditional and neoclassical approaches to market structure and tourism firm performance analysis. The paper tackles some of the industrial economic thinking trends which were meant to fill the gaps left by the traditional approaches. Two approaches stand out from among the industrial economic trends: SCP paradigm and game theory. The results show that the strategy tourism operators prefer is to practise high prices; however there is no certainty that the competitors would adhere to such an idea at the beginning or during the season.

  8. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  9. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N'Guessan

    2008-01-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation

  10. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  11. Performance assessment of Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhan, S [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, NB (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station, a 680 MWe CANDU unit, is located about 40 km southwest of the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. It was declared in-service on 1 February, 1983 and, since then, has demonstrated an average cross capacity factor of over 93% up to the end of 1990. This paper compared the performance of the station with other sister CANDU units and the Light Water Reactors world-wide using the following ten performance indicators, as applicable: - gross capacity factor; - fuel burn-up; - heavy water upkeep; - unplanned reactor trips while critical; - forced outage rate; - fuel handling performance; - derived emission of radioactive effluents to environment; - personnel radiation dose; - industrial safety; - low-level solid radioactive wastes. The paper examines various areas of station activities including management and organization, operations and maintenance, technical support, fuel handling and health physics in order to highlight some of the 'good practices' which are believed to have made a significant contribution towards achieving the demonstrated performance of Point Lepreau G.S. In addition, several areas of potential improvement are discussed in order to maintain and enhance, where practicable, the safety, reliability and economic performance of the station. In this context, a careful review of the operating experiences, both in-house and at other stations, and a judicious application of lessons learned plays a significant role. (author)

  12. Performance assessment of Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station, a 680 MWe CANDU unit, is located about 40 km southwest of the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. It was declared in-service on 1 February, 1983 and, since then, has demonstrated an average cross capacity factor of over 93% up to the end of 1990. This paper compared the performance of the station with other sister CANDU units and the Light Water Reactors world-wide using the following ten performance indicators, as applicable: - gross capacity factor; - fuel burn-up; - heavy water upkeep; - unplanned reactor trips while critical; - forced outage rate; - fuel handling performance; - derived emission of radioactive effluents to environment; - personnel radiation dose; - industrial safety; - low-level solid radioactive wastes. The paper examines various areas of station activities including management and organization, operations and maintenance, technical support, fuel handling and health physics in order to highlight some of the 'good practices' which are believed to have made a significant contribution towards achieving the demonstrated performance of Point Lepreau G.S. In addition, several areas of potential improvement are discussed in order to maintain and enhance, where practicable, the safety, reliability and economic performance of the station. In this context, a careful review of the operating experiences, both in-house and at other stations, and a judicious application of lessons learned plays a significant role. (author)

  13. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN OPERATING DRY PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciortescu Cezar-Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for recognizing and defining correct and operable performance will be presented with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of processes in dry ports (inland intermodal hubs. The challenge in evaluating the possible improvements of the underlying processes lies in the special nature and the complex structure of dry ports. It is important to consider that all the processes are highly interconnected and that changes in parameters in one process also have an impact on parameters in other processes. Furthermore, the performance of dry ports, seen as the backbone of the system, has a significant impact on the overall performance of the whole transportation network.

  14. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  15. Using urbanization profiles to assess screening performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Kok, LP

    The large Dutch data sets acquired as a result of population-based cervical smear screening programs can be further exploited to obtain an urbanization-weighted score to gain insight into the quality of the performance of the individual cytology laboratories. Based on the first four digits of the

  16. Assessing heat exchanger performance data using temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, any calculated performance acceptance criteria must also consider uncertainty and error in the experimental measurements of temperature and flow. However, most statistical methods are complex and not easily applied to heat exchangers such as those that serve the power plant industry where data are difficult ...

  17. Tajikistan - Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Assessment : Performance Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This assessment is based on work undertaken between October 2006 and May 2007. The summary assessment covers the following three areas: an integrated assessment of PFM performance based on the 28+3 PEFA indicators, an assessment of the impact of PFM weaknesses, and the prospects for reform planning and implementation. The main report consists of four sections: an introduction, the country ...

  18. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  19. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m 2 of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000 degree C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component

  20. Some viewpoints on reference biospheres in Finnish performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V.; Vieno, T.; Vuori, S.

    2002-01-01

    Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)

  1. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included

  2. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  3. Tools for Performance Assessment of OLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ikeda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the performance of Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol by experimental and simulation results. The experiments are carried out by using our implemented testbed and the simulations by using ns-2 simulator. We also designed and implemented a new interface for the ad-hoc network testbed in order to make more easier the experiments. The comparison between experimental and simulation results shows that for the same parameters set, in the simulation we did not notice any packet loss. On the other hand, in the experiments we experienced packet loss because of the environment effects and traffic interference.

  4. Thorium fuel performance assessment in HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allelein, H.-J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Kania, M.J.; Nabielek, H. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Verfondern, K., E-mail: k.verfondern@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Thorium as a nuclear fuel is receiving renewed interest, because of its widespread availability and the good irradiation performance of Th and mixed (Th,U) oxide compounds as fuels in nuclear power systems. Early HTR development employed thorium together with high-enriched uranium. After 1980, most HTR fuel systems switched to low-enriched uranium. After completing fuel development for AVR and THTR with BISO coated particles, the German program expanded efforts on a new program utilizing thorium and high-enriched uranium TRISO coated particles for advanced HTR concepts for process heat applications (PNP) and direct-cycle electricity production (HHT). The combination of LTI inner and outer pyrocarbon layers surrounding a strong, stable SiC layer greatly improved manufacturing conditions and the subsequent contamination and defective particle fractions in production fuel elements. In addition, this combination provided improved mechanical strength and a higher degree of solid fission product retention, not known previously with HTI-BISO coatings. The improved performance of the HEU (Th,U)O{sub 2} TRISO fuel system was successfully demonstrated in three primary areas of development: manufacturing, irradiation testing under normal operating conditions, and accident simulation testing. In terms of demonstrating performance for advanced HTR applications, the experimental failure statistic from manufacture and irradiation testing are significantly below the coated particle requirements specified for PNP and HHT designs at the time. Covering a range to 1300 °C in normal operations and 1600 °C in accidents, with burnups up to 13% FIMA and fast fluences to 8 × 10{sup 25} m{sup −2} (E > 16 fJ), the results exceed the design limits on manufacturing and operational requirements for the German HTR Modul concept, which were: <6.5 × 10{sup −5} for manufacturing; <2 × 10{sup −4} for normal operating conditions; and <5 × 10{sup −4} for accident conditions. These

  5. Performance Assessment as a Diagnostic Tool for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, Patricia; Oostdam, Ron; van den Berg, Ed; Schuitema, Jaap

    2018-04-01

    Information on students' development of science skills is essential for teachers to evaluate and improve their own education, as well as to provide adequate support and feedback to the learning process of individual students. The present study explores and discusses the use of performance assessments as a diagnostic tool for formative assessment to inform teachers and guide instruction of science skills in primary education. Three performance assessments were administered to more than 400 students in grades 5 and 6 of primary education. Students performed small experiments using real materials while following the different steps of the empirical cycle. The mutual relationship between the three performance assessments is examined to provide evidence for the value of performance assessments as useful tools for formative evaluation. Differences in response patterns are discussed, and the diagnostic value of performance assessments is illustrated with examples of individual student performances. Findings show that the performance assessments were difficult for grades 5 and 6 students but that much individual variation exists regarding the different steps of the empirical cycle. Evaluation of scores as well as a more substantive analysis of students' responses provided insight into typical errors that students make. It is concluded that performance assessments can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring students' skill performance as well as to support teachers in evaluating and improving their science lessons.

  6. Performance Assessment of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Enterprise Workflows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurley, M. B; Jones, P. B

    2007-01-01

    ... on how to assess the performance of these systems. The framework delineates how measurements from laboratory tests, operational experiments, and field deployments can be analyzed to produce accurate, quantitative descriptions of system performance...

  7. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-08

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Assessing The Performance of Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knijff, Johan

    The performance of hydrological models is often characterized using the coefficient of efficiency, E. The sensitivity of E to extreme streamflow values, and the difficulty of deciding what value of E should be used as a threshold to identify 'good' models or model parameterizations, have proven to be serious shortcomings of this index. This paper reviews some alternative performance indices that have appeared in the litera- ture. Legates and McCabe (1999) suggested a more generalized form of E, E'(j,B). Here, j is a parameter that controls how much emphasis is put on extreme streamflow values, and B defines a benchmark or 'null hypothesis' against which the results of the model are tested. E'(j,B) was used to evaluate a large number of parameterizations of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, using 6 different combinations of j and B. First, the effect of j and B is explained. Second, it is demonstrated how the index can be used to explicitly test hypotheses about the model and the data. This approach appears to be particularly attractive if the index is used as a likelihood measure within a GLUE-type analysis.

  9. Assessing Bus Performance Rating in Kajang, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhisham, S.; Ismail, A.; Sidek, L. M.; Borhan, M. N.; Zaini, N.; Yen, A. T. G.

    2018-04-01

    The Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) was chosen based on the review with four manuals and guidelines for the method will be applied. Six (6) attributes, namely Hours of Service, Passenger Load, Transit Auto Travel Time, Service Frequency, Punctuality Performance and Service Coverage were chosen for evaluation.[6][7][8]. A total of three (3) operators with seven (7) routes were identified in Kajang. Based on the final results, the Quality of Service (QOS) findings was rated as D, which was regarded as minimum or satisfactory. Most stakeholders’ recommendations were: for the operators to provide information on bus scheduling and have accurate information for the passengers. It was suggested that in future this study can be extended to all routes and could be repeated after the opening of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations in Kajang, so as to provide a comparison and better evaluation of the public buses in Kajang.

  10. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  11. Assessing ventilation system performance in isolation rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balocco, Carla [Department of Energy Engineering ' ' Sergio Stecco' ' , via S. Marta 3, Firenze (Italy); Lio, Pietro [Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 15 JJ Thompson Avenue, CB03FD Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper numerical transient simulations were used to investigate the air flow patterns, distribution and velocity, and the particulate dispersion inside an existing typical hospitalization room equipped with an advanced Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC), with Variable Air Volume (VAV) primary air system designed for immune-suppressed patients never modelled before. The three-dimensional models of the room consider different, most typical, positions of the patients. Results indicate the best conditions for the high induction air inlet diffuser and the scheme of pressures imposed in the room to provide the effective means of controlling flows containing virus droplets. We believe that our work exemplifies the usefulness of numerical investigations of HVAC performances in real situations and provides important recommendations towards disease control and careful design and optimization of ventilation in hospital settings. (author)

  12. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  13. Peer mentoring in doctor performance assessment: strategies, obstacles and benefits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, K.; Driessen, E.W.; Arah, O.A.; Lombarts, K.M.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mentors are increasingly involved in doctor performance assessments. Mentoring seems to be a key determinant in achieving the ultimate goal of those assessments, namely, improving doctor performance. Little is known, however, about how mentors perceive and fulfil this role. OBJECTIVE: The

  14. Peer mentoring in doctor performance assessment: strategies, obstacles and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, Karlijn; Driessen, Erik W.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Wollersheim, Hub C.; Grol, Richard P. T. M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mentors are increasingly involved in doctor performance assessments. Mentoring seems to be a key determinant in achieving the ultimate goal of those assessments, namely, improving doctor performance. Little is known, however, about how mentors perceive and fulfil this role. OBJECTIVE: The

  15. Performance Assessment Framework for Private Finance Initiative Projects in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lop Nor Suzila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Private Finance Initiative (PFI is viewed as restructuring the previous privatisation concept in delivering value for money for the Malaysian public infrastructure. Among the restructuring efforts in the privatisation is specifying the standard assessment of private concessionaires’ performance through the execution of key performance indicators (KPIs where the private concessionaires’ performance is benchmarked against the government’s standard. KPIs have served as useful tools in assessing performance of PFI projects. However, there is still lacking on determination methods performed to define and measure this KPIs and the absence of guidelines or a framework is also an issue in the implementation of the PFI procurement in Malaysia. Therefore, the objectives of this paper is to investigate the notion of performance assessment model approaches globally (i.e. UK, China, Australia, Serbia and Malaysia and to identify direction for PFI performance assessment tools (KPIs to be practiced in Malaysia. Based on the consideration of these models, this research paper propose an initial framework of performance assessment for PFI projects in Malaysia. The framework is deliberate to cover the performance of PFI at the operation and maintenance phase. The outcomes of this paper can serve as a theoretical base for the development of comprehensive and effective performance assessment for PFI projects in Malaysia.

  16. Determination of Safety Performance Grade of NPP Using Integrated Safety Performance Assessment (ISPA) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2000, the safety regulation of nuclear power plant (NPP) has been challenged to be conducted more reasonable, effective and efficient way using risk and performance information. In the United States, USNRC established Reactor Oversight Process (ROP) in 2000 for improving the effectiveness of safety regulation of operating NPPs. The main idea of ROP is to classify the NPPs into 5 categories based on the results of safety performance assessment and to conduct graded regulatory programs according to categorization, which might be interpreted as 'Graded Regulation'. However, the classification of safety performance categories is highly comprehensive and sensitive process so that safety performance assessment program should be prepared in integrated, objective and quantitative manner. Furthermore, the results of assessment should characterize and categorize the actual level of safety performance of specific NPP, integrating all the substantial elements for assessing the safety performance. In consideration of particular regulatory environment in Korea, the integrated safety performance assessment (ISPA) program is being under development for the use in the determination of safety performance grade (SPG) of a NPP. The ISPA program consists of 6 individual assessment programs (4 quantitative and 2 qualitative) which cover the overall safety performance of NPP. Some of the assessment programs which are already implemented are used directly or modified for incorporating risk aspects. The others which are not existing regulatory programs are newly developed. Eventually, all the assessment results from individual assessment programs are produced and integrated to determine the safety performance grade of a specific NPP

  17. Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices TEA HI Threat Headset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0076 Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset Hilary L. Gallagher...of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6501 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...technology in military applications. Objective performance data provided an assessment of the performance of these devices. The TEA HI Threat headset

  18. The Empirical Testing of a Musical Performance Assessment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of aurally perceived performer-controlled musical factors that influence assessments of performance quality. Previous research studies on musical performance constructs, musical achievement, musical expression, and scale construction were examined to identify the factors that influence…

  19. The link between performance assessment and quality of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    Performance assessments, using both individual and cumulative inventories, produce estimates of the risk or dose consequences for repository concepts. Unacceptable risk or dose for a given contaminant identify it as a problem contaminant. While risk or dose consequences are common outputs of safety assessments, results can also be reported as estimates of the safe inventory limit for each contaminant in a repository scenario. Once problem contaminants are identified, it may be useful to: validate the data used in the performance assessment; restrict contaminant inventories in the repository; or, improve the containment capability of the repository (including improved packaging). A key point is that performance assessments define the quality of data to be collected. If a contaminant's inventory will be far below its estimated safe inventory limit for a repository, then it is reasonable to accept inventory estimates that have high variances and low confidence. For contaminants that have a significant impact upon performance assessments, efforts must be made to provide the best inventory (source term) estimates practicable. One important goal of characterization programs should be to establish the adequacy of data used in performance assessments. There is little value in striving to improve confidence in data for some waste streams if they are assessed to have a minor impact upon repository performance. Streams that have a major impact upon performance deserve the time, attention and money to be characterized adequately. Waste acceptance must be linked to the quality of characterization data provided by generators. This link sets compliance monitoring requirements

  20. How Do States Integrate Performance Assessment in Their Systems of Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosich, Elizabeth Leisy; Snyder, Jon; Wilczak, Katie

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews state strategies for incorporating performance assessment in policy and practice. Specifically, the paper reviews the use of performance assessment in 12 states in the Innovation Lab Network, a group committed to developing systems of assessment that provide meaningful measures of college and career readiness. This review…

  1. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Performance assessment review for DOE LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, Elmer L.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 500 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. The panel of experts is used in two ways to assure the technical quality of performance assessment. A preliminary (generally 2 day) review by the panel is employed in the late stages of development to provide guidance on finalizing the performance assessment. The comments from this review are communicated to the personnel responsible for the performance assessment for consideration and incorporation. After finalizing the performance assessment, it is submitted for a formal review. The formal review is accomplished by a much more thorough analysis of the performance assessment over a multi-week time period. The panel then formally reports their recommendations to the US DOE waste management senior staff who make the final determination on acceptability of the performance assessment. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance

  3. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  4. [Teaching performance assessment in Public Health employing three different strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Adrián; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Ponce-Rosas, Efrén Raúl; Martínez-Franco, Adrián Israel; Urrutia-Aguilar, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    The educational system depends upon the quality and performance of their faculty and should therefore be process of continuous improvement. To assess the teaching performance of the Public Health professors, at the Faculty of Medicine, UNAM through three strategies. Justification study. The evaluation was conducted under a mediational model through three strategies: students' opinion assessment, self-assessment and students' academic achievement. We applied descriptive statistics, Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Twenty professors were evaluated from the Public Health department, representing 57% of all them who teach the subject. The professor's performance was highly valued self-assessment compared with assessment of student opinion, was confirmed by statistical analysis the difference was significant. The difference amongst the three evaluation strategies became more evident between self-assessment and the scores obtained by students in their academic achievement. The integration of these three strategies offers a more complete view of the teacher's performance quality. Academic achievement appears to be a more objective strategy for teaching performance assessment than students' opinion and self-assessment.

  5. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  6. Development of Integrated Assessment Technology of Risk and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun Eon; Kang, Dae Il; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2010-04-01

    The main idea and contents are summarized as below 1) Development of new risk/performance assessment system innovating old labor-intensive risk assessment structure - New consolidated risk assessment technology from various hazard(flood, fire, seismic in NPP) - BOP model development for performance monitoring - Consolidated risk/performance management system for consistency and efficiency of NPP 2) Resolution technology for pending issues in PSA - Base technology for PSA of digital I and C system - Base technology for seismic PSA reflecting domestic seismic characteristics and aging effect - Uncertainty reduction technology for level 2 PSA and best estimation of containment failure frequency 3) Next generation risk/performance assessment technology - Human-induced error reduction technology for efficient operation of a NPP

  7. performance assessment of substation site earthing using fluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Earthing is the fundamental requirement for protection in all electrical ... for the performance assessment of this instrument as compare to the conventional system. ... tem and the reference earth at a given operating fre- quency ...

  8. Organic migration forms of radionuclides and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gouqing

    2010-01-01

    Much attention is paid to inorganic migration forms of radionuclides in groundwater during performance assessment before and organic migration forms, are seldom noted. Therefore some question may come into confidence level in performance assessment. This paper mainly discusses the distribution of organic substances in groundwater and their potential effect on performance assessment. The results obtained in recent years show that clay rocks are generally impermeable to water, but in some cases the interstitial water may be observed in them and the concentration of DOC, HA and FA is rather higher than that in granitic groundwater. The concentration of DOC is relatively low in granitic groundwater, but up to now the effect of organic migration forms of radionuclides in granitic groundwater on performance assessment is not finally determined, it is necessary to make further investigations. (authors)

  9. economic assessment of the performance of private sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Economic and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria ... This paper critically attempts to assess the performance of the private sector ... economy would depend to a large extent on the quantity ..... New York, USA: McGraw.

  10. An assessment of organisational values, culture and performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of organisational values, culture and performance in Cape Town's ... confusion, control, manipulation, blame, power, results orientation, hierarchy, ... Conclusion: The organisational culture of the Metro District Health Services is ...

  11. ASSESSING INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION: A NEW MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Hari Suryaningrum

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to propose a new model in assessing individual performance on information technology adoption. The new model to assess individual performance was derived from two different theories: decomposed theory of planned behavior and task-technology fit theory. Although many researchers have tried to expand these theories, some of their efforts might lack of theoretical assumptions. To overcome this problem and enhance the coherence of the integration, I used a theory from social scien...

  12. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  13. Conceptual framework for performance assessment: competency, competence and performance in the context of assessments in healthcare--deciphering the terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Ramachandran, Sankaranarayanan

    2012-01-01

    The definitions of performance, competence and competency are not very clear in the literature. The assessment of performance and the selection of tools for this purpose depend upon a deep understanding of each of the above terms and the factors influencing performance. In this article, we distinguish between competence and competency and explain the relationship of competence and performance in the light of the Dreyfus model of skills acquisition. We briefly critique the application of the principles described by Miller to the modern assessment tools and distinguish between assessment of actual performance in workplace settings and the observed performance, demonstrated by the candidates in the workplace or simulated settings. We describe a modification of the Dreyfus model applicable to assessments in healthcare and propose a new model for the assessment of performance and performance rating scale (PRS) based on this model. We propose that the use of adapted versions of this PRS will result in benchmarking of performance and allowing the candidates to track their progression of skills in various areas of clinical practice.

  14. Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…

  15. Visual art teachers and performance assessment methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the competencies of visual arts teachers in using performance assessment methods, and to ascertain the extent to which the knowledge, skills and experiences of teachers affect their competence in using assessment strategies in their classroom. The study employs a qualitative research design; ...

  16. Data on Student Performance Under Different Forms of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell

    1976-01-01

    Recognition of various abilities and skills in university degree work, and the development of an appropriate range of assessment modes to test these abilities, presupposes that students will perform differently under the various forms of assessment. The limited data available to test this supposition are reviewed and analysis of one geography…

  17. Performance Assessment of the Masses in 30 Seconds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Performance assessment does not have to be a time-consuming ordeal; it is a great way to assess our students' skills. It is essential to create a rubric that is simple, quick, and objective. This article discusses the process of creating a rubric as well as showing a rubric used by the author in her general music classroom for several years.…

  18. Self- and peer-assessments of ambulance drivers' driving performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sundström

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and examine the quality of the Ambulance Driver Self-assessment Questionnaire (ADSQ and the Ambulance Driver Peer-assessment Questionnaire (ADPQ measuring aspects of, driving performance, driving style and driving competence. In addition the ADSQ measures self-reflection and safety-attitudes. The aim of the study was also to examine ambulance drivers' self- and peer-assessments as well as to examine the accuracy of self-assessments by comparing self-assessed and peer-assessed driving performance, driving style and competence. 76 ambulance drivers employed at two ambulance stations in northern Sweden completed ADSQ and ADPQ. Item analyses were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the items, and based on the results some revisions were made to improve the questionnaires. The revised questionnaires were functioning rather well, although some subscale demonstrated low internal consistency. Subscale inter-correlations provided support for construct validity. Self- and peer-assessments indicated safe driving performance and good driver competence, which is positive from a traffic safety perspective. A comparison of mean self- and peer-assessment ratings, controlling for age, gender and driving experience showed no significant differences, except for the subscale overtaking. This indicates that ambulance drivers' self-assessments are realistic in most areas.

  19. Performance Objective for Tank Farm Closure Risk Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.; KNEPP, A.J.; BADDEN, J.

    2003-01-01

    To be meaningful, results from a numeric risk assessment of the consequences of an action must be compared against the standards for such an action. That is, before one disposes of waste or closes a facility with waste, one must show that the disposal or closure action protects the public health and safety and the environment. These standards are called performance objectives. Regulations requiring performing performance assessments, (whether federal ones like the Department of Energy [DOE] Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management and its implementing guides or Washington State ones like the regulations implementing the Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340 ''Model Toxics Control Act - Cleanup''), usually require that the determination of performance objectives be one of the first steps performed. These performance objectives not only set comparison level for the numeric results, but also define the media, pathways, exposure scenarios (receptors), spatial locations, and times that the performance assessment must consider. Thus, a performance objective consists of a compliance level, place(s) of compliance, and time(s) of compliance. Performance objectives are not the levels that a regulatory agency will enforce in a permit or authorization. Those levels, often called enforcement levels, will be set in the permit or authorization. Rather, performance objectives are those levels against which the results of the numeric simulation will be compared to judge the success of the proposed cleanup or disposal actions. Additional comparison levels may be requested for information purposes, but are not officially part of the decision on the adequacy of the proposed action. To emphasize that the performance objectives discussed in this document are not regulatory performance objectives, the three components of the performance objective will be renamed in this document as assessment standard, point(s) of assessment, and time(s) of assessment. However, whenever

  20. Subjective and objective performance assessment : Performance pay at Trelleborg Forsheda AB

    OpenAIRE

    Luotonen, David; Hasselström, Markus

    2009-01-01

      The purpose of this thesis is to understand the opinions and potential effects of objective and subjective assessments of performance as a basis for performance pay for blue-collar workers. The study takes a qualitative approach to find out how and why four companies - Trelleborg Forsheda, Finnveden Powertrain, Isaberg Rapid and Parker Hannifin- work with salaries, incentive system and performance assessment the way they do. The concept of individual salary is central in this thesis, and in...

  1. 10 CFR 63.114 - Requirements for performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processes of engineered barriers in the performance assessment, including those processes that would adversely affect the performance of natural barriers. Degradation, deterioration, or alteration processes of... surrounding region to the extent necessary, and information on the design of the engineered barrier system...

  2. The Concept of Performance Levels in Criterion-Referenced Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Mal

    The concept of performance levels in criterion-referenced assessment is explored by applying the idea to different types of tests commonly used in schools, mastery tests (including diagnostic tests) and achievement tests. In mastery tests, a threshold performance standard must be established for each criterion. Attainment of this threshold…

  3. The assessment and treatment of performance anxiety in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D B; Agras, W S

    1991-05-01

    Performance anxiety in musicians may be severe enough to require intervention but has been the subject of relatively little clinical research. The authors' objectives were to describe the results of a comprehensive clinical and laboratory assessment and to perform a double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing buspirone, cognitive-behavior therapy, and the combination of these treatments for performance anxiety. Ninety-four subjects were recruited by mass media announcements and were seen in a university-based outpatient psychiatric clinic. Assessments were 1) questionnaires for all 94 subjects, 2) diagnostic interview of 50 subjects, and 3) laboratory performance of 34 subjects. Treatment conditions were 1) 6 weeks of buspirone, 2) 6 weeks of placebo, 3) a five-session, group cognitive-behavior therapy program with buspirone, or 4) the cognitive-behavior therapy program with placebo. Treatment outcome measures included subjective anxiety ratings and heart rate measures during a laboratory performance, a questionnaire measure of performance confidence, and a blind rating of musical performance quality. All subjects fulfilled criteria for DSM-III-R social phobia. Of the 15 full-time professional musicians, ten had tried propranolol and three had stopped performing. Most of the subjects had substantial anxiety and heart rate increases during laboratory speech and musical performances. Cognitive-behavior therapy resulted in statistically significant reductions in subjective anxiety, improved quality of musical performance, and improved performance confidence. Buspirone was not an effective treatment. Cognitive-behavior therapy is a viable treatment approach for performance anxiety in musicians.

  4. ANALYSING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN PUBLIC SERVICES: HOW USEFUL IS THE CONCEPT OF A PERFORMANCE REGIME?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve; Nutley, Sandra; Downe, James; Grace, Clive

    2016-03-01

    Approaches to performance assessment have been described as 'performance regimes', but there has been little analysis of what is meant by this concept and whether it has any real value. We draw on four perspectives on regimes - 'institutions and instruments', 'risk regulation regimes', 'internal logics and effects' and 'analytics of government' - to explore how the concept of a multi-dimensional regime can be applied to performance assessment in public services. We conclude that the concept is valuable. It helps to frame comparative and longitudinal analyses of approaches to performance assessment and draws attention to the ways in which public service performance regimes operate at different levels, how they change over time and what drives their development. Areas for future research include analysis of the impacts of performance regimes and interactions between their visible features (such as inspections, performance indicators and star ratings) and the veiled rationalities which underpin them.

  5. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  6. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  7. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  8. Treatment of uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.; Rao, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainties arise from a number of different sources in low-level waste performance assessment. In this paper the types of uncertainty are reviewed, and existing methods for quantifying and reducing each type of uncertainty are discussed. These approaches are examined in the context of the current low-level radioactive waste regulatory performance objectives, which are deterministic. The types of uncertainty discussed in this paper are model uncertainty, uncertainty about future conditions, and parameter uncertainty. The advantages and disadvantages of available methods for addressing uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment are presented. 25 refs

  9. Performance Assessment for Pump-and-Treat Closure or Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, Dave J. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Environmental and Munitions Center of Expertise, Huntsville, AL (United States); Lee, Michelle H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nimmons, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    A structured performance assessment approach is useful to evaluate pump-and-treat (P&T) groundwater remediation, which has been applied at numerous sites. Consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Groundwater Road Map, performance assessment during remedy implementation may be needed, and should consider remedy optimization, transition to alternative remedies, or remedy closure. In addition, a recent National Research Council study examined groundwater remediation at complex contaminated sites and concluded that it may be beneficial to evaluate remedy performance and the potential need for transition to alternative approaches at these sites. The intent of this document is to provide a structured approach for assessing P&T performance to support a decision to optimize, transition, or close a P&T remedy. The process presented in this document for gathering information and performing evaluations to support P&T remedy decisions includes use of decision elements to distinguish between potential outcomes of a remedy decision. Case studies are used to augment descriptions of decision elements and to illustrate each type of outcome identified in the performance assessment approach. The document provides references to resources for tools and other guidance relevant to conducting the P&T assessment.

  10. Performance Analysis of the Capability Assessment Tool for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Crossin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the performance of a novel capability assessment tool, developed to identify capability gaps and associated training and development requirements across the supply chain for environmentally-sustainable manufacturing. The tool was developed to assess 170 capabilities that have been clustered with respect to key areas of concern such as managing energy, water, material resources, carbon emissions and waste as well as environmental management practices for sustainability. Two independent expert teams used the tool to assess a sample group of five first and second tier sports apparel and footwear suppliers within the supply chain of a global sporting goods manufacturer in Asia. The paper addresses the reliability and robustness of the developed assessment method by formulating the expected links between the assessment results. The management practices of the participating suppliers were shown to be closely connected to their performance in managing their resources and emissions. The companies’ initiatives in implementing energy efficiency measures were found to be generally related to their performance in carbon emissions management. The suppliers were also asked to undertake a self-assessment by using a short questionnaire. The large gap between the comprehensive assessment and these in-house self-assessments revealed the suppliers’ misconceptions about their capabilities.

  11. Assessing performance and validating finite element simulations using probabilistic knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

    2002-01-01

    Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.

  12. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Frederick W.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  13. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Frederick W., E-mail: frederick.w.bryan@vanderbilt.edu; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Reich, Daniel S. [Translational Neuroradiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); and Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  14. Assessment of Student Music Performances Using Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashis Pati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance assessment is a highly subjective task often relying on experts to gauge both the technical and aesthetic aspects of the performance from the audio signal. This article explores the task of building computational models for music performance assessment, i.e., analyzing an audio recording of a performance and rating it along several criteria such as musicality, note accuracy, etc. Much of the earlier work in this area has been centered around using hand-crafted features intended to capture relevant aspects of a performance. However, such features are based on our limited understanding of music perception and may not be optimal. In this article, we propose using Deep Neural Networks (DNNs for the task and compare their performance against a baseline model using standard and hand-crafted features. We show that, using input representations at different levels of abstraction, DNNs can outperform the baseline models across all assessment criteria. In addition, we use model analysis techniques to further explain the model predictions in an attempt to gain useful insights into the assessment process. The results demonstrate the potential of using supervised feature learning techniques to better characterize music performances.

  15. Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Linn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

  16. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J B; Van de Wiel, M W J; Schuwirth, L W T; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Muijtjens, A M M

    2013-08-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person perception, we explored raters' implicit performance theories, use of task-specific performance schemas and the formation of person schemas during WBA. We used think-aloud procedures and verbal protocol analysis to investigate schema-based processing by experienced (N = 18) and inexperienced (N = 16) raters (supervisor-raters in general practice residency training). Qualitative data analysis was used to explore schema content and usage. We quantitatively assessed rater idiosyncrasy in the use of performance schemas and we investigated effects of rater expertise on the use of (task-specific) performance schemas. Raters used different schemas in judging trainee performance. We developed a normative performance theory comprising seventeen inter-related performance dimensions. Levels of rater idiosyncrasy were substantial and unrelated to rater expertise. Experienced raters made significantly more use of task-specific performance schemas compared to inexperienced raters, suggesting more differentiated performance schemas in experienced raters. Most raters started to develop person schemas the moment they began to observe trainee performance. The findings further our understanding of processes underpinning judgment and decision making in WBA. Raters make and justify judgments based on personal theories and performance constructs. Raters' information processing seems to be affected by differences in rater expertise. The results of this study can help to improve rater training, the design of assessment instruments and decision making in WBA.

  17. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading

  18. Effect of Engaging Trainees by Assessing Peer Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loumann Krogh, Charlotte; Ringsted, Charlotte; Kromann, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    during training. Outcome measures were in-training performance and performance, both of which were measured two weeks after the course. Trainees' performances were videotaped and assessed by two expert raters using a checklist that included a global rating. Trainees' satisfaction with the training...... was also evaluated. RESULTS: The intervention group obtained a significantly higher overall in-training performance score than the control group: mean checklist score 20.87 (SD 2.51) versus 19.14 (SD 2.65) P = 0.003 and mean global rating 3.25 SD (0.99) versus 2.95 (SD 1.09) P = 0.014. Postcourse...

  19. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  20. Current perspectives on performance assessment at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Federline, M.V.; Randall, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is engaging in a number of activities involving performance assessment in order to support NRC's program in high-level waste management. Broad areas of activity include: (1) reactive work responding to products and activities of the Department of Energy (DOE), (2) proactive work, including development of an independent performance assessment capability, development of guidance for DOE, support for technical and programmatic integration, (3) a program of regulatory research, and (4) participation in a number of international activities. As the U.S. high-level waste program continues to mature, performance assessment is seen as playing a more prominent role in evaluating safety and focussing technical activities

  1. Assessment of Work Performance (AWP)--development of an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Jan L; Törnquist, Kristina B; Henriksson, Chris M

    2006-01-01

    Adequate work assessments are a matter of importance both for individuals and society [5,29,31,38,40,46,52]. However, there is a lack of adequate and reliable instruments for use in work rehabilitation [14,15,20,21,31,44]. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an observation instrument for assessing work performance, the AWP (Assessment of Work Performance). The purpose of the 14-item instrument is to assess the individual's observable working skills in three different areas: motor skills, process skills, and communication and interaction skills. This article describes the development and results of preliminary testing of the AWP. The testing indicates a satisfactory face validity and utility for the AWP and supports further research and testing of the instrument.

  2. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  3. User's guide for remote access of the Performance Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.R.; Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-03-01

    The Performance Assessment Center (PAC) was established by the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide technical assistance to support the development of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This user's manual provides guidance to remote users of the PAC. Information is presented on how remote users may most effectively access and use the systems available at the Performance Assessment Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Access requirements and operating procedures are presented to assist the first-time PAC user. This manual also provides brief descriptions of each code available on the system

  4. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  5. Building quality into performance and safety assessment software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance is integrated throughout the development lifecycle for performance and safety assessment software. The software used in the performance and safety assessment of a Canadian deep geological repository (DGR) follows the CSA quality assurance standard CSA-N286.7 [1], Quality Assurance of Analytical, Scientific and Design Computer Programs for Nuclear Power Plants. Quality assurance activities in this standard include tasks such as verification and inspection; however, much more is involved in producing a quality software computer program. The types of errors found with different verification methods are described. The integrated quality process ensures that defects are found and corrected as early as possible. (author)

  6. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  7. THE NEED AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella KECZER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivating employees is one of the highly important areas of human resources management (HRM. As people are best motivated by their intention to satisfy their own needs, the task of HRM is to satisfy the employees’ need for remuneration in a fair and just manner. This can be achieved if an organization operates a formal and professional system of performance assessment. The importance of having such a system in place is further confirmed by the fact that six out of the seven large Hungarian corporations reviewed operate a global system of performance assessment. In areas where intellectual activity plays a dominant role, as is the case with higher education, omitting an evaluation of the performance of „white collar workers” is, of course, out of the question. Satisfying the employees’ need for fair remuneration in the public sphere, including higher education (HE, is essentially hindered by a lack of evaluating individual performance and, hence, performance-dependent wages and financial benefits derived from extra performance. Given the centrally determined and uniform wage schedule, there is almost no opportunity to differentiate between the performance of one person in a given wage category and another. This entails, at least for a large part of public employees and public servants, a lack of drive to perform better than average. These people could be forced to make greater efforts only by way of measuring their performance on an individual basis and applying a wage system that would rely on individual output and represent a system of wages that would be both differentiated and motivating. In the first part of my paper, I will present the performance assessment methods applied by the large Hungarian enterprises included in the investigation. The second part will deal with the issue of how all of this can be actually implemented in HE.

  8. Assessing the impact of blended learning on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Do Won Kwak; Flavio Menezes; Carl Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses quantitatively the impact on student performance of a blended learning experiment within a large undergraduate first year course in statistics for business and economics students. We employ a differences- in-difference econometric approach, which controls for differences in student characteristics and course delivery method, to evaluate the impact of blended learning on student performance. Although students in the course manifest a preference for live lectures over online...

  9. Guidance on the Technology Performance Level (TPL) Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). Lab. of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neilson, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bittencourt, Claudio [DNV GL, London (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Malins, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dykes, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document presents the revised Technology Performance Level (TPL) assessment methodology. There are three parts to this revised methodology 1) the Stakeholder Needs and Assessment Guidance (this document), 2) the Technical Submission form, 3) the TPL scoring spreadsheet. The TPL assessment is designed to give a technology neutral or agnostic assessment of any wave energy converter technology. The focus of the TPL is on the performance of the technology in meeting the customer’s needs. The original TPL is described in [1, 2] and those references also detail the critical differences in the nature of the TPL when compared to the more widely used technology readiness level (TRL). (Wave energy TRL is described in [3]). The revised TPL is particularly intended to be useful to investors and also to assist technology developers to conduct comprehensive assessments in a way that is meaningful and attractive to investors. The revised TPL assessment methodology has been derived through a structured Systems Engineering approach. This was a formal process which involved analyzing customer and stakeholder needs through the discipline of Systems Engineering. The results of the process confirmed the high level of completeness of the original methodology presented in [1] (as used in the Wave Energy Prize judging) and now add a significantly increased level of detail in the assessment and an improved more investment focused structure. The revised TPL also incorporates the feedback of the Wave Energy Prize judges.

  10. The balanced scorecard: sustainable performance assessment for forensic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Max; Speaker, Paul J; Fleming, Arron Scott; Riley, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of the balanced scorecard into the laboratory management environment. The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement matrix designed to capture financial and non-financial metrics that provide insight into the critical success factors for an organization, effectively aligning organization strategy to key performance objectives. The scorecard helps organizational leaders by providing balance from two perspectives. First, it ensures an appropriate mix of performance metrics from across the organization to achieve operational excellence; thereby the balanced scorecard ensures that no single or limited group of metrics dominates the assessment process, possibly leading to long-term inferior performance. Second, the balanced scorecard helps leaders offset short term performance pressures by giving recognition and weight to long-term laboratory needs that, if not properly addressed, might jeopardize future laboratory performance. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Residents Readiness to Perform Lumbar Puncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Wienecke, Troels; Thagesen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    and 18 novices performing the procedure in a simulated, ward-like setting with a standardized patient. Procedural performance was assessed by three content experts. We used generalizability theory to explore reliability. The discriminative ability of the tool was explored by comparing performance scores......Background: Lumbar puncture is a common procedure in many specialties. The procedure serves to diagnose life-threatening conditions, often requiring rapid performance. However, junior doctors possess uncertainties regarding performing the procedure and frequently perform below expectations. Hence...... between the two groups. The contrasting groups method was used to set a pass/fail standard and the consequences of this was explored. Key results: The interviews identified that in addition to the technical aspects of the procedure, non-technical elements involving planning and conducting the procedure...

  12. Peer assessment of aviation performance: inconsistent for good reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Mavin, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Research into expertise is relatively common in cognitive science concerning expertise existing across many domains. However, much less research has examined how experts within the same domain assess the performance of their peer experts. We report the results of a modified think-aloud study conducted with 18 pilots (6 first officers, 6 captains, and 6 flight examiners). Pairs of same-ranked pilots were asked to rate the performance of a captain flying in a critical pre-recorded simulator scenario. Findings reveal (a) considerable variance within performance categories, (b) differences in the process used as evidence in support of a performance rating, (c) different numbers and types of facts (cues) identified, and (d) differences in how specific performance events affect choice of performance category and gravity of performance assessment. Such variance is consistent with low inter-rater reliability. Because raters exhibited good, albeit imprecise, reasons and facts, a fuzzy mathematical model of performance rating was developed. The model provides good agreement with observed variations. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Assessing vocal performance in complex birdsong: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Aubin, Thierry

    2014-08-06

    Vocal performance refers to the ability to produce vocal signals close to physical limits. Such motor skills can be used by conspecifics to assess a signaller's competitive potential. For example it is difficult for birds to produce repeated syllables both rapidly and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Deviation from an upper-bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate has been widely used to assess vocal performance. This approach is, however, only applicable to simple trilled songs, and even then may be affected by differences in syllable complexity. Using skylarks (Alauda arvensis) as a birdsong model with a very complex song structure, we detected another performance trade-off: minimum gap duration between syllables was longer when the frequency ratio between the end of one syllable and the start of the next syllable (inter-syllable frequency shift) was large. This allowed us to apply a novel measure of vocal performance ¿ vocal gap deviation: the deviation from a lower-bound regression of gap duration on inter-syllable frequency shift. We show that skylarks increase vocal performance in an aggressive context suggesting that this trait might serve as a signal for competitive potential. We suggest using vocal gap deviation in future studies to assess vocal performance in songbird species with complex structure.

  14. Assessing Performance and Learning in Interprofessional Health Care Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Ozgur; Sheingold, Brenda; Plack, Margaret; LeLacheur, Susan; Halvaksz, Jennifer; Lewis, Karen; Schlumpf, Karen; Greenberg, Larrie

    2015-01-01

    Teamwork has become an integral part of health care delivery. Such emphasis on teamwork has generated the need to systematically measure and improve the learning and performance of health care teams. The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive assessment instrument, the Interprofessional Education and Practice Inventory (IPEPI), to evaluate learning and performance in interprofessional health care teams. The 12-month study commenced in three 4-month phases: (1) a panel of 25 national and international experts participated in the Delphi process to identify factors influencing team learning and team performance; (2) the research team analyzed the findings from the two Delphi rounds to develop the IPEPI; and (3) a cohort of 27 students at the university engaged in clinical simulations to test and refine the IPEPI. Findings suggest key factors that significantly influence team learning and performance include whether the group is able to foster a climate of mutual respect, adopt effective communication strategies, develop a sense of trust, and invite contributions from others. Additionally, in assessing organizational factors, participants indicated those factors that significantly influence team learning and performance include whether the organization is patient-centered, creates a culture of safety (not blame), and supports individual and team learning. These findings highlight the critical role assessment plays in enhancing not just interprofessional education or interprofessional practice, but in essence advancing interprofessional education and practice--which requires an integrated examination of how health care professionals learn and perform in teams.

  15. Technology-Supported Performance Assessments for Middle School Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Quellmalz, E.; Rosenquist, A.; Kreikemeier, P.

    2002-12-01

    Under funding from the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Federal Government's Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment Program (GLOBE), SRI International has developed and piloted web-accessible performance assessments that measure K-12 students' abilities to use learning technologies to reason with scientific information and communicate evidence-based conclusions to scientific problems. This presentation will describe the assessments that pertain to geoscience at the middle school level. They are the GLOBE Assessments and EPA Phoenix, an instantiation of SRI's model of assessment design known as Integrative Performance Assessments in Technology (IPAT). All are publicly-available on the web. GLOBE engages students in scientific data collection and observation about the environment. SRI's classroom assessments for GLOBE provide sample student assessment tools and frameworks that allow teachers and students to assess how well students can use the data in scientific inquiry projects. Teachers can use classroom assessment tools on the site to develop integrated investigations for assessing GLOBE within their particular science curricula. Rubrics are provided for measuring students' GLOBE-related skills, and alignments are made to state, national, and international science standards. Sample investigations are provided about atmosphere, hydrology, landcover, soils, earth systems, and visualizations. The IPAT assessments present students with engaging problems rooted in science or social science content, plus sets of tasks and questions that require them to gather relevant information on the web, use reasoning strategies to analyze and interpret the information, use spreadsheets, word processors, and other productivity tools, and communicate evidence-based findings and recommendations. In the process of gathering information and drawing conclusions, students are assessed on how well they can operate

  16. Assessment of Innovation and Performance in the Fruit Chain; The Innovation-Performance Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Uffelen, van R.L.M.; Debaire, J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to bridge the concepts of innovation and performance and to develop a framework to assess innovation and performance in food chains. Design/methodology/approach - Based on an extensive literature search the paper identifies critical success factors (CSFs) and related

  17. Organizational Performance Assessment: Overview of Publications in National Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Iesbik Valmorbida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature there are several tools that aim to assess organizational performance, such as Balanced Scorecard (BSC, National Quality Award (PNQ, Multicriteria Methodology for Decision Aiding (MCDA, Data envelopment analysis (DEA, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, among others. However, it is perceived in practice doubts as to choose the most appropriate for each organizational context. In this sense, it is argued that to measure the performance of the organization it is necessary that this measure is based on an instrument that allows transparency in the evaluation form, and insert those interested in the evaluation process. The credibility of an evaluation therefore depends on the ability to produce consistent information for all subjects involved in the intervention. The search for tools to improve the way to evaluate organizational performance it is increasingly necessary. The objective of this study is to identify the main tools of organizational performance assessment published in national journals in the area of Administration, Accounting and Tourism, classified by CAPES Qualis A1 to B5. The study is characterized as descriptive and qualitative documentation. We analyzed 489 articles, which resulted in the following results:(i identified the main theme of the authors and regular assessment of organizational performance, (ii from the year 2000 publications on the subject grew substantially, (iii Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, Balanced Scorecard (BSC and Multicriteria for decision aiding methodology(MCDA-C are the most commonly used tools for evaluating performance, (iv most of the tools found in the literature are multiple criteria, (v described the process used by the tools to assess organizational performance.

  18. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    The newly revised draft DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, requires that DOE low-level waste shall be managed on a systematic basis using the most appropriate combination of waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, and disposal practices so that the radioactive components are contained and the overall cost effectiveness is minimized. This order expects each site to prepare and maintain an overall waste management systems performance assessment supporting the combination of waste management practices used in generation reduction segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. A document prepared by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Department of Energy called Guidance for Conduct of Waste Management Systems Performance Assessment is specifically intended to provide the approach necessary to meet the systems performance assessment requirement of DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and other applicable state regulations dealing with LLW (low-level radioactive wastes). Methods and procedures are needed for assessing the performance of a waste management system. This report addresses this need. The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner, and thereby assist the DOE LLW mangers in complying with the DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and the associated guidance document

  19. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  20. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, M.J.; Wiel, M.W.J. van de; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using

  1. Data farming in support of HLA performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramp, A.J.; Berg, T.W. van den; Huiskamp, W.

    2014-01-01

    Performance assessment is a key factor in designing distributed simulation environments that are fit-forpurpose and cost-effective. Simulations used for training applications should provide the required level of responsiveness and interactivity. Simulations used for analysis or decision support

  2. Personnel Performance Assessment in Information Systems Outsourcing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a tool which uses semantic technologies for personnel performance and workplace learning assessment in outsourced information technology environments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the tool from a technical perspective and introduces a use case that depicts the main features related to…

  3. Annual Performance Reports: 2002-2003 State Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Moen, Ross E.; Wiley, Hilda I.

    2005-01-01

    States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports to the U.S. Secretary of Education on or before March 31, 2004. These reports contained information on a variety of indicators, including assessment participation and performance…

  4. Performance assessment development for a LILW repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneously with the site selection process for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository, the preliminary assessment of the influence of the specific disposal concept on the environment and on the population was developed. The performance assessment team, organized in 1997 by ARAO, prepared several basic studies in order to clarify the objectives of the performance and safety assessment (PA/SA) procedure. In 1999 also the first performance assessment of two safety cases (surface and underground) for generic site for a LILW repository was realized. In the year 2000 activities on PA/SA analyses continued. A systematic, generic list was prepared of all possible features, events and processes (FEP list) predictable for surface or underground LILW disposal in Slovenia. Recommended and selected were the most reliable scenarios with conceptual models for LILW disposal in normal and altered evolution conditions. New verification of the obtained results was done with more powerful and accurate models for the surface repository over an aquifer of lower water permeability and an underground repository in a plastic rock. The results for both generic cases under normal evolution scenarios showed that there is a negligible dose influence on members of the critical population due to the migration of radionuclides from the foreseen LILW repository. The results of the already performed work as well as plans for the future activities are presented in the paper.(author)

  5. Optimal Designs for Performance Assessments: The Subject Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jay

    Much speculation abounds concerning how expensive performance assessments are or are going to be. Recent projections indicate that, in order to achieve an acceptably high generalizability coefficient, many additional tasks may need to be added, which will enlarge costs. Such projections are, to some degree, correct, and to some degree simplistic.…

  6. Measuring the Impact of Rater Negotiation in Writing Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace, Jonathan; Janssen, Gerriet; Meier, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Previous research in second language writing has shown that when scoring performance assessments even trained raters can exhibit significant differences in severity. When raters disagree, using discussion to try to reach a consensus is one popular form of score resolution, particularly in contexts with limited resources, as it does not require…

  7. Reliable and Valid Assessment of Clinical Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Larsen, Klaus Richter; Clementsen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    : The interrater reliability was high, with Cronbach's a = 0.86. Assessment of 3 bronchoscopies by a single rater had a generalizability coefficient of 0.84. The correlation between experience and performance was good (Pearson correlation = 0.76). There were significant differences between the groups for all...

  8. Performance Assessment of a Class of Industrial Fans With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a statistical quality control study for on-condition monitoring of draught fans in a steelmaking process. The study proposes a procedure for obtaining consistent estimates of peak vibration levels for performance assessment the machines based on independent measurements of the variable assuming the ...

  9. Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments

  10. An importance-performance assessment of delegates' satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An importance-performance assessment of delegates' satisfaction with the catering component of courses offered by continuing education at the University of ... of its catering component, a company would be able to make appropriate and necessary managerial decisions in order to retain and expand its customer base.

  11. Assessment of the Outreach Performance of Special Programme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Outreach Performance of Special Programme on Food Security in Abia State, Nigeria. ... Four variables namely level of education, skill acquisition in off farm activities, farm size, and loan transaction costs produced significant influence on the amount of loan demanded. R2 value of 0.529 indicates that the ...

  12. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  13. Teacher Performance Assessment in Teacher Education: An Example in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Andrea; Mayer, Diane

    2012-01-01

    As part of a cross-cultural collaboration, a teacher performance assessment (TPA) was implemented during 2009 in three Malaysian institutes of teacher education. This paper reports on the TPA for graduating primary teachers in Malaysia. The investigation focused on the pre-service teachers' perceptions about whether the TPA provided them with an…

  14. Self-Assessment in Mathematics as Correlate of Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between students self assessment in Mathematics and academic performance in Senior Secondary School Physics. The research is descriptive and of the survey type as there was no treatment and manipulation of subjects. Instead it involves the use of questionnaire ...

  15. Operational risk assessments by supply chain professionals : process and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, F.; Snijders, C.C.P.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the "process-performance paradox" in the assessment of operational risks by professionals in the field of operations and supply chain management (OSCM). The paradox states that although professionals with more expertise tend to decide in different ways, they often do not make better

  16. Deep geologic disposal. Lessons learnt from recent performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Andersson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment (PA) studies are part of the decision basis for the siting, operation, and closure of deep repositories of long-lived nuclear wastes. In 1995 the NEA set up the Working Group on Integrated Performance Assessments of Deep Repositories (IPAG) with the goals to analyse existing PA studies, learn about what has been produced to date, and shed light on what could be done in future studies. Ten organisations submitted their most recent PA study for analysis and discussion, including written answers to over 70 questions. Waste management programmes, disposal concepts, geologies, and different types and amounts of waste offered a unique opportunity for exchanging information, assessing progress in PA since 1990, and identifying recent trends. A report was completed whose main lessons are overviewed. (author)

  17. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to describe the performance assessment (PA) context in which near-field models have been developed and applied. An overview is given of a number of PA studies. Although the focus is on near-field models, the overview covers the full context in which the PAs have been performed, including the purpose of the studies and regulatory context. Special emphasis has been given to the scenarios analyzed in the assessments; the scenarios set the framework for model development and application. Another aspect to consider in a study of near-field modeling from the perspective of total PA is the linking between near-field and far-field assessment. (R.P.) 6 tabs

  18. Environmental performance assessment of a company of aluminum surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Catieri Ramalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental performance of a medium-sized company that provides services for surface treatment of aluminum. The treatment is known as anodizing. The research method was qualitative numerical modeling. The environmental performance of the company was organized into five constructs: atmosphere, wastewater, energy and natural resources, solid waste, and legislation and management. Nineteen indicators were chosen to explain the five constructs. Ten employees of the company prioritized the constructs and evaluated the situation of the indicators by means of a scale of assessment. By means of a mathematical model, the general performance of the environmental operation was calculated at 74.5% of the maximum possible. The indicators that most contributed to the performance not to reach 100% were consumption of electricity and water consumption. The construct of worse performance was natural and energy resources. These are the priorities for future environmental improvement actions that the company may promote.

  19. Performance assessment experience at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The development of a performance assessment (PA) for low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated in 1989 and is continuing. A draft PA was prepared in September 1990 and submitted to the DOE Peer Review Panel for review and comment. Recommendations were received that formed the basis for a revised PA that was completed in December 1993. The review of the revised PA is continuing. This paper reviews the experience gained in the preparation of the PA including the technical difficulties associated with performance assessment in Oak Ridge and an overview of the methods used in the PA. Changes in waste operations that resulted from the findings in the PA include improved waste acceptance criteria, waste certification, and waste management practices. The discussion includes issues that relate to the application of current performance objectives to older disposal facilities, which are being addressed as part of the CERCLA process

  20. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times

  1. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Hardware performance assessment recommendations and tools for baropodometric sensor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giacomozzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate plantar pressure measurements are mandatory in both clinical and research contexts. Differences in accuracy, precision, reliability of pressure measurement devices (PMDs prevented so far the onset of standardization processes and of reliable reference datasets. The Italian National Institute of Health (ISS approved and conducted a scientific project aimed to design, validate and implement dedicated testing methods for both in-factory and on-the-field PMD assessment. A general-purpose experimental set-up was built, complete and suitable for the assessment of PMDs based on different sensor technology, electronic conditioning and mechanical solutions. Preliminary assessments have been conducted on 5 commercial PMDs. The study lead to the definition of: i an appropriate set of instruments and procedures for PMD technical assessment; ii a minimum set of significant parameters for the technical characterization of the PMD performance; iii some recommendations to both manufacturers and end users for an appropriate use in clinics and in research context

  3. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  4. Performance Assessment and Geometric Calibration of RESOURCESAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhadevi, P. V.; Solanki, S. S.; Akilan, A.; Jyothi, M. V.; Nagasubramanian, V.

    2016-06-01

    Resourcesat-2 (RS-2) has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs). These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  5. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  6. Drawing students' attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., Sluijsmans, D., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Drawing students’ attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 64(2), 185-198. doi:10.1080/13636820.2011.630537

  7. Performance assessment plans and methods for the Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This document presents the preliminary plans and anticipated methods of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) for assessing the postclosure and radiological aspects of preclosure performance of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan is intended to be revised on an annual basis. The emphasis in this preliminary effort is on the method of conceptually dividing the system into three subsystems (the very near field, the near field, and the far field) and applying models to analyze the behavior of each subsystem and its individual components. The next revision will contain more detailed plans being developed as part of Site Characterization Plan (SCP) activities. After a brief system description, this plan presents the performance targets which have been established for nuclear waste repositories by regulatory agencies (Chapter 3). The SRP approach to modeling, including sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is then presented (Chapter 4). This is followed by a discussion of scenario analysis (Chapter 5), a presentation of preliminary data needs as anticipated by the SRP (Chapter 6), and a presentation of the SRP approach to postclosure assessment of the very near field, the near field, and the far field (Chapters 7, 8, and 9, respectively). Preclosure radiological assessment is discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 presents the SRP approach to code verification and validation. Finally, the Appendix lists all computer codes anticipated for use in performance assessments. The list of codes will be updated as plans are revised

  8. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Coons, W.E.; Eastmond, R.; Morse, J.; Chakrabarti, S.; Zurkoff, J.; Colton, I.D.; Banz, I.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Program involves a comprehensive analysis of the WIPP project with respect to the recently finalized Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding the long-term geologic isolation of radioactive wastes. The performance assessment brings together the results of site characterization, underground experimental, and environmental studies into a rigorous determination of the performance of WIPP as a disposal system for transuranic radioactive waste. The Program consists of scenario development, geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical support analyses and will address the specific containment and individual protection requirements specified in 40 CFR 191 sub-part B. Calculated releases from these interrelated analyses will be reported as an overall probability distribution of cumulative release resulting from all processes and events occurring over the 10,000 year post-closure period. In addition, results will include any doses to the public resulting from natural processes occurring over the 1,000 year post-closure period. The overall plan for the WIPP Performance Assessment Program is presented along with approaches to issues specific to the WIPP project

  9. Self-assessment of human performance errors in nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most important approaches to improving nuclear safety is to have an effective self-assessment process in place, whose cornerstone is the identification and improvement of human performance errors. Experience has shown that significant events usually have had precursors of human performance errors. If these precursors are left uncorrected or not understood, the symptoms recur and result in unanticipated events of greater safety significance. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has been championing the cause of promoting excellence in human performance in the nuclear industry. INPO's report, open-quotes Excellence in Human Performance,close quotes emphasizes the importance of several factors that play a role in human performance. They include individual, supervisory, and organizational behaviors; real-time feedback that results in specific behavior to produce safe and reliable performance; and proactive measures that remove obstacles from excellent human performance. Zack Pate, chief executive officer and president of INPO, in his report, open-quotes The Control Room,close quotes provides an excellent discussion of serious events in the nuclear industry since 1994 and compares them with the results from a recent study by the National Transportation Safety Board of airline accidents in the 12-yr period from 1978 to 1990 to draw some common themes that relate to human performance issues in the control room

  10. Assessing the performance of the Nagra HLW disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Zuidema, P.; McKinley, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    This article outlines the procedures used in safety assessment and illustrates their application in evaluating the performance of a high-level waste repository. Nagra's general safety assessment methodology has five main components: formulating the aims of the analysis, defining the safety concept, scenario development, consequence analysis and interpretation of results. A safety analysis based on conservative assumptions shows that the engineered barriers of the high-level waste repository are very effective in preventing release of radionuclides; this alone is sufficient to ensure that regulatory requirements can be met. The function of the host rock is to provide a favourable environment for the engineered barrier system. (author) 8 figs

  11. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1992-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following-sections: Section I presents the most recent SALE report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALE report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  12. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1991-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  13. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1993-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following-sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  14. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.; Wharton, R.

    1990-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  15. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1993-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  16. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1992-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  17. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following three sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities under construction and in operation. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction SALP ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  18. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.; Nease, R.

    1990-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  19. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey-Smith, A.M.

    1987-10-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following three sections: the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities under construction and in operation, a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility, a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction SALP ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed

  20. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1991-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  1. Probabilistic performance assessments for evaluations of the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Noronha, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Site suitability evaluations are conducted to determine if a repository system at a particular site will be able to meet the performance objectives for that system. Early evaluations to determine if the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development have been made in the face of large uncertainties in site features and conditions. Because of these large uncertainties, the evaluations of the site have been qualitative in nature, focusing on the presence or absence of particular features or conditions thought to be important to performance, rather than on results of quantitative performance assessments. Such a qualitative approach was used in the recently completed evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the Early Site-Suitability Evaluation (ESSE). In spite of the qualitative approach, the ESSE was able to conclude that no disqualifying conditions are likely to be present at the site and that all of the geologic conditions that would qualify the site are likely to be met. At the same time, because of the qualitative nature of the approach used in the ESSE, the precise importance of the identified issues relative to performance could not be determined. Likewise, the importance of the issues relative to one another could not be evaluated, and, other than broad recommendations, specific priorities for future testing could not be set. The authors have conducted quantitative performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain site to address these issues

  2. Quantitative assessment of finger motor performance: Normative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Signori

    Full Text Available Finger opposition movements are the basis of many daily living activities and are essential in general for manipulating objects; an engineered glove quantitatively assessing motor performance during sequences of finger opposition movements has been shown to be useful to provide reliable measures of finger motor impairment, even subtle, in subjects affected by neurological diseases. However, the obtained behavioral parameters lack published reference values.To determine mean values for different motor behavioral parameters describing the strategy adopted by healthy people in performing repeated sequences of finger opposition movements, examining associations with gender and age.Normative values for finger motor performance parameters were obtained on a sample of 255 healthy volunteers executing sequences of finger-to-thumb opposition movements, stratified by gender and over a wide range of ages. Touch duration, inter-tapping interval, movement rate, correct sequences (%, movements in advance compared with a metronome (% and inter-hand interval were assessed.Increasing age resulted in decreased movement speed, advance movements with respect to a cue, correctness of sequences, and bimanual coordination. No significant performance differences were found between male and female subjects except for the duration of the finger touch, the interval between two successive touches and their ratio.We report age- and gender-specific normal mean values and ranges for different parameters objectively describing the performance of finger opposition movement sequences, which may serve as useful references for clinicians to identify possible deficits in subjects affected by diseases altering fine hand motor skills.

  3. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January.

  4. Performance of GPS-devices for environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Integration of individual time-location patterns with spatially resolved exposure maps enables a more accurate estimation of personal exposures to environmental pollutants than using estimates at fixed locations. Current global positioning system (GPS) devices can be used to track an individual's location. However, information on GPS-performance in environmental exposure assessment is largely missing. We therefore performed two studies. First, a commute-study, where the commute of 12 individuals was tracked twice, testing GPS-performance for five transport modes and two wearing modes. Second, an urban-tracking study, where one individual was tracked repeatedly through different areas, focused on the effect of building obstruction on GPS-performance. The median error from the true path for walking was 3.7 m, biking 2.9 m, train 4.8 m, bus 4.9 m, and car 3.3 m. Errors were larger in a high-rise commercial area (median error=7.1 m) compared with a low-rise residential area (median error=2.2 m). Thus, GPS-performance largely depends on the transport mode and urban built-up. Although ~85% of all errors were 50 m. Modern GPS-devices are useful tools for environmental exposure assessment, but large GPS-errors might affect estimates of exposures with high spatial variability.

  5. A method for performance assessment of medical radioisotope equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerin, T.; Slavtchev, Ath.; Nedeltchev, M.; Kjurktchiev, T.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of tests and procedures exist for the performance assessment of radioisotope diagnostic equipment. The complex performance index which has been introduced to date is based on an heuristic approach. The present work tries to interconnect algorithmically the most important factors as the influence of the measurement geometry, the statistic peculiarities for lower activities and the information loss at high count rates. All this is reflected in a criterion which integrates the spatial resolution, the effective detector's field of vision, the radionuclide's sensitivity, the background count rate and the effective dead-time of the system under investigation. (Auth.)

  6. Assessing performance of flaw characterization methods through uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorelli, R.; Le Bourdais, F.; Artusi, X.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we assess the inversion performance in terms of crack characterization and localization based on synthetic signals associated to ultrasonic and eddy current physics. More precisely, two different standard iterative inversion algorithms are used to minimize the discrepancy between measurements (i.e., the tested data) and simulations. Furthermore, in order to speed up the computational time and get rid of the computational burden often associated to iterative inversion algorithms, we replace the standard forward solver by a suitable metamodel fit on a database built offline. In a second step, we assess the inversion performance by adding uncertainties on a subset of the database parameters and then, through the metamodel, we propagate these uncertainties within the inversion procedure. The fast propagation of uncertainties enables efficiently evaluating the impact due to the lack of knowledge on some parameters employed to describe the inspection scenarios, which is a situation commonly encountered in the industrial NDE context.

  7. Influence choreographic readiness to gymnasts final assessment of performance skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Omelichyk-Ziurkalova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to provide a quantitative assessment and expert choreographic preparedness gymnasts. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts competition finalists in the floor exercise - female members of the Ukrainian national team in gymnastics. Results : the quantitative indicators of acrobatic and dance elements to determine the baseline assessment. Defined methods complications composition on the floor exercise by reducing the number of acrobatic lines and diagonals and increase the number of gymnastic elements. The theoretical performance of the composite sequence is improved structure and increases the difficulty of the exercise. Conclusions : in the process of composition complications need to pay more attention to the technique of performing gymnastic elements. In improving exercise choreography element replace (in some cases acrobatic element. Based on the results is planned future direction of research in order to improve the training process in gymnastics.

  8. SKI SITE-94, deep repository performance assessment project, summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    SITE-94 is a comprehensive performance assessment exercise for a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel at a real site in Sweden. SITE-94 was carried out to develop the capability and tools to enable Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to review fully the proposals for a deep repository which are expected to be made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB (the implementor). Sweden is one of the leading countries in the research and development of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The developed methodology for performance assessment has attracted interests from other countries. The Summary of the main report of the SITE-94 project is translated here into Japanese to allow to make the information on the methodology and the related issues available among Japanese concerned. (author)

  9. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for performance assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.

    1988-08-01

    Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses methods for computer models are being applied in performance assessment modeling in the geologic high level radioactive waste repository program. The models used in performance assessment tend to be complex physical/chemical models with large numbers of input variables. There are two basic approaches to sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: deterministic and statistical. The deterministic approach to sensitivity analysis involves numerical calculation or employs the adjoint form of a partial differential equation to compute partial derivatives; the uncertainty analysis is based on Taylor series expansions of the input variables propagated through the model to compute means and variances of the output variable. The statistical approach to sensitivity analysis involves a response surface approximation to the model with the sensitivity coefficients calculated from the response surface parameters; the uncertainty analysis is based on simulation. The methods each have strengths and weaknesses. 44 refs

  10. Empirical Assessment on Financial Regulations and Banking Sector Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines financial regulation and banking sector performance in Nigeria. Specifically, the study determines the impact of reforms on banking sector performance and also assesses the nexus between capital adequacy and banking sector performance. Time series data for the period 1993 to 2014 was used. As an analytical tool, the study uses unit root test to determine the stationary state of the variables. We also employed the Johansson co-integration and error correction model (ECM statistical techniques to establish both short-run and long-run dynamic relationships between the endogenous and exogenous variables. The empirical findings indicate that financial regulation significantly impacts the banking sector performance while financial regulation has both short-run and long-run dynamic relationships with the banking sector performance in Nigeria. It was found that the four-period lag of capital adequacy negatively affects banking sector performance and is not statistically significant. The paper suggests that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN should continually make public the impacts that the various financial regulations and reforms have on the performance of Nigerian banks. Majority of the policies on financial regulation by the apex bank (CBN need to be long-run which can enable confidence of stakeholders, shareholders and the general public in the Nigerian banking industry when critically evaluated.

  11. SCHRAADLO: Assessment of SCHRAADLO-T performance for S scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.

    1996-01-01

    The model SCHRAADLO has been developed to assess the environmental impact of nuclear facilities. It is a dynamic compartmental model. The model is driven by daily air concentration and daily precipitation rate. The output are time dependent concentrations in soil, different types of meat and plants, milk and whole body. There are not included aquatic and seminatural food chains. Calculations of contamination of fungi have been performed separately. 8 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.R.; Waterman, D.K.

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a history of Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) ratings for nuclear power plant facilities in operation and under construction. The SALP results are listed by NRC region in three sections: the most recent report, operating facilities, and facilities under construction. The historical data summary report has been prepared by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE). Information contained in this report has been updated to include those published SALP reports received before March 13, 1987

  13. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report presents a history of Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) ratings for nuclear power plant facilities in operation and under construction. The SALP results are listed by NRC region in three sections: the most recent report, operating facilities, and facilities under construction. The historical data summary report has been prepared by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE). Information contained in this report has been updated to include those published SALP reports received before September 16, 1986

  14. Using Performance in Multiple Simulated Scenarios to Assess Bronchoscopy Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; Buchwald, Christian von

    2011-01-01

    using a standardized scoring form. Methods: The test was administered on a virtual reality bronchoscopy simulator to a total of 42 test subjects (14 senior consultants, 14 trainees and 14 medical students). The inter-rater reliability of the test procedure was explored according to examination of test......Background: International guidelines suggest that trainees should perform at least 100 flexible bronchoscopies in a supervised setting, but this number is not evidence based. An objective assessment method could provide educational feedback to trainees and help supervisors decide when basic...... competency is established. No former assessment instrument has been able to distinguish between trainees and experts. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of a new assessment procedure relating to testing operators across multiple tasks with increasing difficulty...

  15. Assessing reservoir performance risk in CO2 storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, A.R.; Rigg, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main issues for researchers involved with geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been the development of a proper methodology to assess and compare alternative CO 2 injection projects on the basis of risk. Consideration needs to be given to technical aspects, such as the risk of leakage and the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, as well as less tangible aspects such as the value and safety of geological storage of CO 2 , and potential impacts on the community and environment. The Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide (GEODISC), was a research program of the Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre which identified 56 potential environmentally sustainable sites for CO 2 injection (ESSCIs) within Australia. Several studies were carried out, involving detailed evaluation of the suitability of 4 selected sites, including Dongara, Petrel, Gippsland and Carnarvon. The GEODISC program included a risk assessment research module which required a complete and quantified risk assessment of CO 2 injection as a storage option. Primary goals were to assess the risk of leakage, to assess the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, and to assess negative consequences to facilitate comparison of alternative sites. This paper discussed the background and risk assessment model. Key performance indicators (KPIs) were also developed to address the purpose of risk assessment. It was concluded that the RISQUE method is an appropriate approach and that potential injection projects can be measured against six KPIs including containment; effectiveness; self-funding potential; wider community benefits; community safety and community amenity. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Characterisation of radionuclide migration and plant uptake for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, S. A.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Jackson, B. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Unsaturated vegetated soils are an important component in performance assessment models used to quantify risks associated with deep engineered repositories for underground radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, experimental studies, funded by Nirex over nearly 20 years, have been undertaken at Imperial College to study the transfer of radionuclides (Cl-36, I-129, Tc-99) from contaminated groundwater into crops. In parallel to this has been a modelling programme to aid interpretation of the experimental data, obtain parameter values characterising transport in soil and plant uptake and provide new representations of near-surface processes for performance assessment. A particular challenge in achieving these objectives is that the scale of the experimental work (typically ≤1 m) is much smaller than that required in performance assessment. In this paper, a new methodology is developed for up-scaling model results obtained at the experimental scale for use in catchment scale models. The method is based on characterising soil heterogeneity using soil texture. This has the advantage of allowing hydrological and radionuclide transport parameters to be correlated in a consistent manner. An initial investigation into the calculation of effective (i.e. up-scaled) hydrological and transport parameters has been undertaken and shows the results to be potentially highly (and non-linearly) sensitive to soil properties. Consequently, they have important implications for future site characterisation programmes supporting a proposed underground waste repository. (authors)

  17. Risk-adjusted payment and performance assessment for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Arlene S; Ellis, Randall P

    2012-08-01

    Many wish to change incentives for primary care practices through bundled population-based payments and substantial performance feedback and bonus payments. Recognizing patient differences in costs and outcomes is crucial, but customized risk adjustment for such purposes is underdeveloped. Using MarketScan's claims-based data on 17.4 million commercially insured lives, we modeled bundled payment to support expected primary care activity levels (PCAL) and 9 patient outcomes for performance assessment. We evaluated models using 457,000 people assigned to 436 primary care physician panels, and among 13,000 people in a distinct multipayer medical home implementation with commercially insured, Medicare, and Medicaid patients. Each outcome is separately predicted from age, sex, and diagnoses. We define the PCAL outcome as a subset of all costs that proxies the bundled payment needed for comprehensive primary care. Other expected outcomes are used to establish targets against which actual performance can be fairly judged. We evaluate model performance using R(2)'s at patient and practice levels, and within policy-relevant subgroups. The PCAL model explains 67% of variation in its outcome, performing well across diverse patient ages, payers, plan types, and provider specialties; it explains 72% of practice-level variation. In 9 performance measures, the outcome-specific models explain 17%-86% of variation at the practice level, often substantially outperforming a generic score like the one used for full capitation payments in Medicare: for example, with grouped R(2)'s of 47% versus 5% for predicting "prescriptions for antibiotics of concern." Existing data can support the risk-adjusted bundled payment calculations and performance assessments needed to encourage desired transformations in primary care.

  18. Some considerations for validation of repository performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, N.

    1991-01-01

    Validation is an important aspect of the regulatory uses of performance assessment. A substantial body of literature exists indicating the manner in which validation of models is usually pursued. Because performance models for a nuclear waste repository cannot be tested over the long time periods for which the model must make predictions, the usual avenue for model validation is precluded. Further impediments to model validation include a lack of fundamental scientific theory to describe important aspects of repository performance and an inability to easily deduce the complex, intricate structures characteristic of a natural system. A successful strategy for validation must attempt to resolve these difficulties in a direct fashion. Although some procedural aspects will be important, the main reliance of validation should be on scientific substance and logical rigor. The level of validation needed will be mandated, in part, by the uses to which these models are put, rather than by the ideal of validation of a scientific theory. Because of the importance of the validation of performance assessment models, the NRC staff has engaged in a program of research and international cooperation to seek progress in this important area. 2 figs., 16 refs

  19. Individual Performance: From Common Source Bias to Institutionalized Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Heinesen, Eskil; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    theory and the sociology of professions. Empirically, we ask whether different measures of individual performance produce different results. The investigated performance measures vary with regard to risk of common data source bias, standardization of assessment criteria, and external verification...... dimension for the same teachers: the teachers' self-reported contributions to students' academic skills, the students' marks for the year's work given by the teacher, marks in oral exams with one external examiner and the teacher, and marks in written exams with at least one external examiner....... The associations are systematically stronger when the performance measure comes from the same data source as the explanatory variables, but when separate data sources are used and the measurement scale is institutionalized, the level of external verification does not matter much. Based on institutional theory...

  20. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions control the performance, stability, and rate of degradation of natural and engineered barriers to waste repositories of the near field. Chemical processes are overviewed in this context. Temperature, and associated temperature gradients, are also important parameters in near-field performance assessment. The mechanical conditions of the near-field rock will be perturbed by construction of the underground repository. Mechanical analysis in the near field is further complicated by the introduction of HLW canisters and associated engineered barrier materials. Hydrological processes important to near-field performance include those associated with fluid transport. Considerable discussions and studies have been conducted on the issue of coupling among chemical-thermal-mechanical-hydrological processes; they are overviewed. (R.P.) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Examining the Extremes: High and Low Performance on a Teaching Performance Assessment for Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Shea, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    In assessing the teaching practice of preservice teacher candidates, observers, particularly trained observers, will readily identify those who are exceptionally effective or ineffective. The anticipation is that university supervisors and mentor teachers will agree on who demonstrates extraordinary performance for a preservice candidate and who…

  2. Proposed evaluation framework for assessing operator performance with multisensor displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Despite aggressive work on the development of sensor fusion algorithms and techniques, no formal evaluation procedures have been proposed. Based on existing integration models in the literature, an evaluation framework is developed to assess an operator's ability to use multisensor, or sensor fusion, displays. The proposed evaluation framework for evaluating the operator's ability to use such systems is a normative approach: The operator's performance with the sensor fusion display can be compared to the models' predictions based on the operator's performance when viewing the original sensor displays prior to fusion. This allows for the determination as to when a sensor fusion system leads to: 1) poorer performance than one of the original sensor displays (clearly an undesirable system in which the fused sensor system causes some distortion or interference); 2) better performance than with either single sensor system alone, but at a sub-optimal (compared to the model predictions) level; 3) optimal performance (compared to model predictions); or, 4) super-optimal performance, which may occur if the operator were able to use some highly diagnostic 'emergent features' in the sensor fusion display, which were unavailable in the original sensor displays. An experiment demonstrating the usefulness of the proposed evaluation framework is discussed.

  3. Twelve tips for assessing surgical performance and use of technical assessment scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Scheele, Fedde; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2017-01-01

    Using validated assessment scales for technical competence can help structure and standardize assessment and feedback for both the trainee and the supervisor and thereby avoid bias and drive learning. Correct assessment of operative skills can establish learning curves and allow adequate monitoring....... However, the assessment of surgical performance is not an easy task, since it includes many proxy parameters, which are hard to measure. Although numerous technical assessment scales exist, both within laparoscopic and open surgery, the validity evidence is often sparse, and this can raise doubts about...... reliability and educational outcome. Furthermore, the implementation of technical assessment scales varies due to several obstacles and doubts about accurate use. In this 12-tips article, we aim to give the readers a critical and useful appraisal of some of the common questions and misunderstandings regarding...

  4. Beginning science teachers' performances: Assessment in times of reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinsky, Fie K.

    2000-10-01

    The current reform in science education and the research on effective teaching and student learning have reinforced the importance of teacher competency. To better measure performances in the teaching of science, performance assessment has been added to Connecticut's licensure process for beginning science teachers. Teaching portfolios are used to document teaching and learning over time. Portfolios, however, are not without problems. One of the major concerns with the portfolio assessment process is its subjectivity. Assessors may not have opportunities to ask clarifying or follow-up questions to enhance the interpretation of a teacher's performance. In addition, portfolios often contain components based on self-documentation, which are subjective. Furthermore, the use of portfolios raises test equity issues. These concerns present challenges for persons in charge of establishing the validity of a portfolio-based licensure process. In high-stakes decision processes, such as teaching licensure, the validity of the assessment instruments must be studied. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the criterion-related validity of the Connecticut State Department of Education's Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio by comparing the interpretations of performances from science teaching portfolios to those derived from another assessment method, the Expert Science Teaching Educational and Evaluation Model, (ESTEEM). The analysis of correlations between the Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM instrument scores was the primary method for establishing support for validity. The results indicated moderate correlations between all Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM category and total variables. Multiple regression was used to examine whether differences existed in beginning science teachers' performances based on gender, poverty group, school level, and science discipline taught. None of these variables significantly contributed to the

  5. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  6. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  7. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF RESOURCESAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Radhadevi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resourcesat-2 (RS-2 has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs. These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  8. Post-closure performance assessment treatment of the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, M A [UK Nirex Ltd., Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Egan, M J [AEA Technology, Risley, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Thorne, M C [Electrowatt, Horsham, Sussex (United Kingdom); Williams, J A [AEA Technology, Risley, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-01

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term isolation of the waste from those parts of the environment that are in contact with or readily available for use by humans (i.e. the biosphere). Even so, there remains the possibility that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly-sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Biosphere models are used in post-closure performance assessments to quantify the competing effects of dilution and accumulation processes on radionuclide concentrations in the accessible environment. Understanding biosphere processes and their time dependence is necessary not only to determine the radiological impact of possible future releases, but also to characterise the dynamics of transport in groundwater and the location, duration and extent of any such releases. Nirex is developing a new biosphere model for use in post-closure radiological assessments for the proposed Sellafield repository. A compartment modelling approach has been adopted, as in studies performed previously, but the system will be dynamic, allowing changes with time in both the properties of compartments and the transfers between compartments. The transport model considers both mass transport within the biosphere and the migration of radionuclides, thereby ensuring that a self-consistent description of the biosphere, in a spatially-extensive domain is maintained. The above approach is designed to link the assessment models used by the Nirex assessment team more closely into the Nirex biosphere research programme than has hitherto been possible with time-invariant assessment models. (author)

  9. Post-closure performance assessment treatment of the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, M.A.; Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Williams, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term isolation of the waste from those parts of the environment that are in contact with or readily available for use by humans (i.e. the biosphere). Even so, there remains the possibility that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly-sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Biosphere models are used in post-closure performance assessments to quantify the competing effects of dilution and accumulation processes on radionuclide concentrations in the accessible environment. Understanding biosphere processes and their time dependence is necessary not only to determine the radiological impact of possible future releases, but also to characterise the dynamics of transport in groundwater and the location, duration and extent of any such releases. Nirex is developing a new biosphere model for use in post-closure radiological assessments for the proposed Sellafield repository. A compartment modelling approach has been adopted, as in studies performed previously, but the system will be dynamic, allowing changes with time in both the properties of compartments and the transfers between compartments. The transport model considers both mass transport within the biosphere and the migration of radionuclides, thereby ensuring that a self-consistent description of the biosphere, in a spatially-extensive domain is maintained. The above approach is designed to link the assessment models used by the Nirex assessment team more closely into the Nirex biosphere research programme than has hitherto been possible with time-invariant assessment models. (author)

  10. Comments on SKB's SFL 3-5 preliminary performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Crawford, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recently introduced regulations in Sweden have established an individual risk criterion ( -6 per year) for the long-term performance of repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. SKB has not focused its assessment of SFL 3-5 on demonstrating compliance with this regulation. Instead, SKB has calculated individual dose and provided a comparison with an annual individual dose of 14 iSv (derived from the risk criteria using the ICRP's dose-risk conversion factor of 0.073 per Sv). The justification of this approach is that probabilities do not need to be determined if doses are less than the dose equivalent to the risk criterion. However, there is insufficient information regarding uncertainty provided in the documentation of the SFL 3-5 assessment to determine whether this approach is reasonable. SKB's parallel assessment of a repository for spent fuel using the KBS-3 concept (SR 97) accounts for uncertainty by specifying a 'reasonable' and a 'pessimistic' value for uncertain parameters in the assessment calculations. Although there are problems with the way probabilities have been assigned to these values, this approach does indicate where there are significant uncertainties. The SFL 3-5 PA does not include a structured approach to defining uncertainty, although a number of assumptions and parameter values are stated to be conservative. As a preliminary assessment, there is insufficient information to identify key uncertainties or sensitivities, or to determine where further work should be focused. Any assessment requires the use of expert judgement to determine how the assessment is conducted, what modelling approach to use, what features, events and processes (FEPs) could potentially affect the disposal system, which FEPs should be included in the conceptual models, and which scenarios should be assessed. Judgements are also required in determining how to parameterize the models, and this may extend to formal expert elicitation for particular parameter

  11. A Thermographic Measurement Approach to Assess Supercapacitor Electrical Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Galla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a proposal for the qualitative assessment of condition of supercapacitors based on the conducted thermographic measurements. The presented measurement stand was accompanied by the concept of methodology of performing tests. Necessary conditions, which were needed to minimize the influence of disturbing factors on the performance of thermal imaging measurements, were also indicated. Mentioned factors resulted from both: the hardware limitations and from the necessity to prepare samples. The algorithm that was used to determine the basic parameters for assessment has been presented. The article suggests to use additional factors that may facilitate the analysis of obtained results. Measuring the usefulness of the proposed methodology was tested on commercial samples of supercapacitors. All of the tests were taken in conjunction with the classical methods based on capacitance (C and equivalent series resistance (ESR measurements, which were also presented in the paper. Selected results presenting the observed changes occurring in both: basic parameters of supercapacitors and accompanying fluctuations of thermal fields, along with analysis, were shown. The observed limitations of the proposed assessment method and the suggestions for its development were also described.

  12. A multimodal assessment of driving performance in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, T D; Wolfson, T; Rosenthal, T J; Heaton, R K; Gonzalez, R; Ellis, R J; Grant, I

    2004-10-26

    To examine if HIV-seropositive (HIV+) individuals are at risk for impaired driving. Sixty licensed drivers (40 HIV+, 20 HIV-) completed a neuropsychological (NP) test battery and driving assessments. Eleven HIV+ subjects were NP-impaired. Driving-related skills were assessed using 1) two driving simulations (examining accident avoidance and navigational abilities), 2) the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test, and 3) an on-road evaluation. HIV+ NP-impaired subjects had greater difficulty than cognitively intact subjects on all driving measures, whereas the HIV- and HIV+ NP-normal groups performed similarly. On the UFOV, the HIV+ NP-impaired group had worse performance on Visual Processing and Divided Attention tasks but not in overall risk classification. They also had a higher number of simulator accidents (1.3 vs 2.0; p = 0.03), were less efficient at completing the navigation task (3.2 vs 9.2 blocks; p = 0.001), and were more likely to fail the on-road evaluation (6 vs 36%; p = 0.02). Impairment in Executive Functioning was the strongest NP predictor of failing the on-road drive test. NP performance and both simulations independently contributed to a model predicting 48% of the variance in on-road performance. HIV+ NP-impaired individuals are at increased risk for on-road driving impairments, whereas HIV+ individuals with normal cognition are not at a significantly higher risk than HIV- subjects. Executive Functioning is most strongly associated with impaired on-road performance. Cognitive and simulator testing may each provide data in identifying driving-impaired individuals.

  13. Predicting work Performance through selection interview ratings and Psychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziwe Nzama

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether selection interviews used in conjunction with psychological assessments of personality traits and cognitive functioning contribute to predicting work performance. The sample consisted of 102 managers who were appointed recently in a retail organisation. The independent variables were selection interview ratings obtained on the basis of structured competency-based interview schedules by interviewing panels, fve broad dimensions of personality defned by the Five Factor Model as measured by the 15 Factor Questionnaire (15FQ+, and cognitive processing variables (current level of work, potential level of work, and 12 processing competencies measured by the Cognitive Process Profle (CPP. Work performance was measured through annual performance ratings that focused on measurable outputs of performance objectives. Only two predictor variables correlated statistically signifcantly with the criterion variable, namely interview ratings (r = 0.31 and CPP Verbal Abstraction (r = 0.34. Following multiple regression, only these variables contributed signifcantly to predicting work performance, but only 17.8% of the variance of the criterion was accounted for.

  14. Performance assessment of simple and modified cycle turboshaft gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigations encompassing comparative assessment of gas turbine cycle options. More specifically, investigation was carried out of technical performance of turboshaft engine cycles based on existing simple cycle (SC and its projected modified cycles for civil helicopter application. Technically, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and power output are of paramount importance to the overall performance of gas turbine engines. In course of carrying out this research, turbomatch software established at Cranfield University based on gas turbine theory was applied to conduct simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool helicopter turboshaft engine model with free power turbine. Similarly, some modified gas turbine cycle configurations incorporating unconventional components, such as engine cycle with low pressure compressor (LPC zero-staged, recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated (ICR engine cycle, were also simulated. In doing so, design point (DP and off-design point (OD performances of the engine models were established. The percentage changes in performance parameters of the modified cycle engines over the simple cycle were evaluated and it was found that to a large extent, the modified engine cycles with unconventional components exhibit better performances in terms of thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption than the traditional simple cycle engine. This research made use of public domain open source references.

  15. Making robust assessments of specialist trainees' workplace performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J M; Castanelli, D J; Chen, Y; Jolly, B

    2017-02-01

    Workplace-based assessments should provide a reliable measure of trainee performance, but have met with mixed success. We proposed that using an entrustability scale, where supervisors scored trainees on the level of supervision required for the case would improve the utility of compulsory mini-clinical evaluation exercise (CEX) assessments in a large anaesthesia training program. We analysed mini-CEX scores from all Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists trainees submitted to an online database over a 12-month period. Supervisors' scores were adjusted for the expected supervision requirement for the case for trainees at different stages of training. We used generalisability theory to determine score reliability. 7808 assessments were available for analysis. Supervision requirements decreased significantly (P  0.7) with a feasible number of assessments. Adjusting scores against the expected supervision requirement considerably improved reliability, with G > 0.8 achieved with only nine assessments. Three per cent of trainees generated average mini-CEX scores below the expected standard. Using an entrustment scoring system, where supervisors score trainees on the level of supervision required, mini-CEX scores demonstrated moderate reliability within a feasible number of assessments, and evidence of validity. When scores were adjusted against an expected standard, underperforming trainees could be identified, and reliability much improved. Taken together with other evidence on trainee ability, the mini-CEX is of sufficient reliability for inclusion in high stakes decisions on trainee progression towards independent specialist practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Performance assessment of the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Winter, C.

    1986-02-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) has completed a performance evaluation of the proposed monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study was undertaken as part of the Department of Energy MRS Program at PNL. The objective of the performance evaluation was to determine whether the conceptual MRS facility would be able to process spent fuel at the specified design rate of 3600 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per year. The performance of the proposed facility was assessed using the computer model COMPACT (Computer Optimization of Processing and Cask Transport) to simulate facility operations. The COMPACT model consisted of three application models each of which addressed a different aspect of the facility's operation: MRS/waste transportation interface; cask handling capability; and disassembly/consolidation (hot cell) operations. Our conclusions, based on the assessment of design criteria for the proposed facility, are as follows: Facilities and equipment throughout the facility have capability beyond the 3600 MTU/y design requirement. This added capability provides a reserve to compensate for unexpected perturbations in shipping or handling of the spent fuel. Calculations indicate that the facility's maximum maintainable processing capability is approximately 4800 MTU/y

  17. Performance objectives for the Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the DOE (DOE 1988a, DOE 1999a). The performance assessment is to determine whether ''reasonable assurance'' exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal (DOE 1988a, DOE 1999a) require (see Appendix B): The protection of public health and safety; and The protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all-pathways exposure limit is 25 mredyear), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the review panels which DOE has established to review performance assessments; interacting with program management to establish the additional requirements of the program; and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Tribal Governments) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest. Because of space considerations, not all radionuclides and dangerous chemicals are listed in this document. The radionuclides listed here are those which were explicitly treated in the ILAW PA (Mann 1998). The dangerous chemicals listed here are those most often detected in Hanford tank waste as documented in the Regulatory Data Quality Objectives Supporting Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Project (Wiemers 1998)

  18. Low-level radioactive waste performance assessments: Source term modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Godbee, H.W.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by government and commercial operations need to be isolated from the environment for at least 300 to 500 yr. Most existing sites for the storage or disposal of LLW employ the shallow-land burial approach. However, the U.S. Department of Energy currently emphasizes the use of engineered systems (e.g., packaging, concrete and metal barriers, and water collection systems). Future commercial LLW disposal sites may include such systems to mitigate radionuclide transport through the biosphere. Performance assessments must be conducted for LUW disposal facilities. These studies include comprehensive evaluations of radionuclide migration from the waste package, through the vadose zone, and within the water table. Atmospheric transport mechanisms are also studied. Figure I illustrates the performance assessment process. Estimates of the release of radionuclides from the waste packages (i.e., source terms) are used for subsequent hydrogeologic calculations required by a performance assessment. Computer models are typically used to describe the complex interactions of water with LLW and to determine the transport of radionuclides. Several commonly used computer programs for evaluating source terms include GWSCREEN, BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport), DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term), BARRIER (Ref. 5), as well as SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 (which are used in this study). The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes were prepared by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SOURCE1 is designed for tumulus-type facilities, and SOURCE2 is tailored for silo, well-in-silo, and trench-type disposal facilities. This paper focuses on the source term for ORNL disposal facilities, and it describes improved computational methods for determining radionuclide transport from waste packages

  19. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Srikanta [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available.

  20. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Srikanta

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available

  1. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty

  2. Discriminant analysis in Polish manufacturing sector performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Dziechciarz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of the preliminary results of a larger project on the determination of the attractiveness of manufacturing branches. Results of the performance assessment of Polish manufacturing branches in 2000 (section D „Manufacturing” – based on NACE – Nomenclatures des Activites de Communite Europeene are shown. In the research, the classical (Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis technique was used for the analysis of the profit generation ability by the firms belonging to a certain production branch. For estimation, the data describing group level was used – for cross-validation, the classes data.

  3. Designing a database for performance assessment: Lessons learned from WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.A.; Schenker, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) used a relational database that was originally designed only to supply the input parameters required for implementation of the PA codes. Reviewers used the database as a point of entry to audit quality assurance measures for control, traceability, and retrievability of input information used for analysis, and output/work products. During these audits it became apparent that modifications to the architecture and scope of the database would benefit the EPA regulator and other stakeholders when reviewing the recertification application. This paper contains a discussion of the WPP PA CCA database and lessons learned for designing a database

  4. Performance assessment of advanced engineering workstations for fuel management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the performance of an advanced engineering workstation [AEW] with regard to applications to incore fuel management for LWRs. The attributes of most interest to us that define an AEW are parallel computational hardware and graphics capabilities. The AEWs employed were super microcomputers manufactured by MASSCOMP, Inc. These computers utilize a 32-bit architecture, graphics co-processor, multi-CPUs [up to six] attached to common memory and multi-vector accelerators. 7 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...

  6. Sorption, Diffusion and Solubility Databases for Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a deterministic and probabilistic databases for application in Performance Assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal. This work includes a theoretical description of sorption, diffusion and solubility phenomena of radionuclides in geological media. The report presents and compares the databases of different nuclear wastes management agencies, describes the materials in the Spanish reference system, and the results of sorption diffusion and solubility in this system, with both the deterministic and probabilistic approximation. The probabilistic approximation is presented in the form of probability density functions (pdf). (Author) 52 refs

  7. Review of SFL 3-5 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This 'performance assessment' report has 1) several logical flaws and 2) is not scientifically objective. There is a lot of good work done by individual SKB consultants. The problem is that the report does not consider all the available research that has been conducted, both by SKB consultants and by other scientists. The report only seems to select evidence/research pieces that fit preconceived notions supporting SKB's ultimate objectives. This is done rather poorly, which is why one can easily pick out inconsistencies and logical flaws

  8. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...

  9. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Senger, R.K.; Leem, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes analyses of a potential post-closure pyrophoric event in a waste package containing uranium metal spent fuel. The analyses include temperature at adjacent waste packages caused by the event and the dose to humans due to the event. The thermal analyses show that the event would not be expected to damage the adjacent waste packages. The dose analyses show that the doses due to the event are small. These analyses provide support to screening arguments used to demonstrate that the pyrophoric event should not be considered in the total system performance assessment model

  10. Annual Summary of the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-27

    An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) is required each year (DOE O 435.1 Chg 1,1 DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1;2 and DOE/ORP-2000-013). The most recently approved PA is DOE/ORP-2000-24.4 The ILAW PA evaluated the adequacy of the ILAW disposal facility, now referred to as the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), for the safe disposal of vitrified Hanford Site tank waste.

  11. Predicting Performance on MOOC Assessments using Multi-Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhiyun; Rangwala, Huzefa; Johri, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen the rapid growth of data min- ing approaches for the analysis of data obtained from Mas- sive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). The objectives of this study are to develop approaches to predict the scores a stu- dent may achieve on a given grade-related assessment based on information, considered as prior performance or prior ac- tivity in the course. We develop a personalized linear mul- tiple regression (PLMR) model to predict the grade for a student, prior to attempt...

  12. Employment of kernel methods on wind turbine power performance assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun S.

    2015-01-01

    A power performance assessment technique is developed for the detection of power production discrepancies in wind turbines. The method employs a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique, the kernel methods. The evaluation is based on the trending of an extracted feature from...... the kernel matrix, called similarity index, which is introduced by the authors for the first time. The operation of the turbine and consequently the computation of the similarity indexes is classified into five power bins offering better resolution and thus more consistent root cause analysis. The accurate...

  13. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene......Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  14. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  15. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  16. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment source term codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Sullivan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II c prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first seven years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to be used in performance assessment source term models is presented. Initial results from use of data in two models are discussed

  17. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-117 prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. The program includes reviewing radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 7 years of sampling and examining the relationship between code input parameters and lysimeter data. Also, lysimeter data are applied to performance assessment source term models, and initial results from use of data in two models are presented

  18. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  19. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] test phase plan: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing the disposition of transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from nuclear weapons production activities of the United States. These wastes are currently stored nationwide at several of the DOE's waste generating/storage sites. The goal is to eliminate interim waste storage and achieve environmentally and institutionally acceptable permanent disposal of these TRU wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being considered as a disposal facility for these TRU wastes. This document describes the first of the following two major programs planned for the Test Phase of WIPP: Performance Assessment -- determination of the long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system in accordance with the requirements of the EPA Standard; and Operations Demonstration -- evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the DOE TRU waste management system's ability to emplace design throughput quantities of TRU waste in the WIPP underground facility. 120 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Lanza, Stephanie T; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted.

  1. Video Quality Assessment and Machine Learning: Performance and Interpretability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    In this work we compare a simple and a complex Machine Learning (ML) method used for the purpose of Video Quality Assessment (VQA). The simple ML method chosen is the Elastic Net (EN), which is a regularized linear regression model and easier to interpret. The more complex method chosen is Support...... Vector Regression (SVR), which has gained popularity in VQA research. Additionally, we present an ML-based feature selection method. Also, it is investigated how well the methods perform when tested on videos from other datasets. Our results show that content-independent cross-validation performance...... on a single dataset can be misleading and that in the case of very limited training and test data, especially in regards to different content as is the case for many video datasets, a simple ML approach is the better choice....

  2. Waste package performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.; Thatcher, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors completed a first cycle of model development from a specification to a computer program, PANDORA-1, for long-term performance assessment of waste packages. The model for one waste package at a time incorporates processes specific to the unsaturated environment at the proposed Yucca Mountain, NV, site. PANDORA-1 models the most likely processes and several modes of waste alteration and release. The development identified information needs for future models; many processes, local details, and combinations will have to be examined. Integration of ensemble performance and quantification of uncertainties are modeling steps at higher aggregation. Methodologies for these steps include sampling, which is well studied; we have focused on several open questions. The authors can now calculate the amount of variance reduction available from Latin hypercube sampling; it is a limited reduction. A new method, uncertainty analysis test-bed program compares the new with old sampling methods

  3. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator

  4. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-08-31

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator.

  5. Performance Shaping Factors Assessments and Application to PHWR Outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2007-02-15

    Human reliability analysis is definitely related to the quality of PSA because human errors have been identified as major contributors to PSA. According to NRC's 'Office of analysis and evaluation of operational data (AEOD)',82% of the reactor trips and accident during outage is caused by the events related to human errors. There is, however, no one HRA method universally accepted. Furthermore, HRA during PHWR outages has not been performed around the world yet. HRA during PHWR outages is especially important since manual management of operator is more required during PHWR. In this study, accident scenarios which HYU developed are used to perform a quantification of human error probability. In this study, overall procedures of standard HRA methodology are introduced and follows the quantification of 10 possible selected human actions during PHWR outages based on standard HRA methodology. To see the verification, quantified values were compared with the values from 'Generic CANDU Probabilistic Safety Assessment' and the values estimated by ASEP.Core Damage Frequency was estimated 3.35 x 10{sup -4} more higher than CDF estimated by AECL data. It was considered that the differences between the HEPs for OPAFW and OPECC3 make CDF higher. Therefore, complementary study of reestimating HEP for OPAFW and OPECC3 in detail is required for increasing the qualities of HRA and PSA. Moreover, one of the difficulties in performing human reliability analysis is to evaluate performance shaping factors which represent the characteristics and circumstances. For assessing a specific human action more exactly, it is necessary to consider all of the PSFs at the same time which makes an effect on the human action. Also, it requires the effect comparison among PSFs to minimize the uncertainties which are usually caused by the subjective judgements of HRA analysts. To see the sensitivity, performance shaping factors of each decision rule are changed which resulted

  6. Performance Shaping Factors Assessments and Application to PHWR Outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2007-02-01

    Human reliability analysis is definitely related to the quality of PSA because human errors have been identified as major contributors to PSA. According to NRC's 'Office of analysis and evaluation of operational data (AEOD)',82% of the reactor trips and accident during outage is caused by the events related to human errors. There is, however, no one HRA method universally accepted. Furthermore, HRA during PHWR outages has not been performed around the world yet. HRA during PHWR outages is especially important since manual management of operator is more required during PHWR. In this study, accident scenarios which HYU developed are used to perform a quantification of human error probability. In this study, overall procedures of standard HRA methodology are introduced and follows the quantification of 10 possible selected human actions during PHWR outages based on standard HRA methodology. To see the verification, quantified values were compared with the values from 'Generic CANDU Probabilistic Safety Assessment' and the values estimated by ASEP.Core Damage Frequency was estimated 3.35 x 10 -4 more higher than CDF estimated by AECL data. It was considered that the differences between the HEPs for OPAFW and OPECC3 make CDF higher. Therefore, complementary study of reestimating HEP for OPAFW and OPECC3 in detail is required for increasing the qualities of HRA and PSA. Moreover, one of the difficulties in performing human reliability analysis is to evaluate performance shaping factors which represent the characteristics and circumstances. For assessing a specific human action more exactly, it is necessary to consider all of the PSFs at the same time which makes an effect on the human action. Also, it requires the effect comparison among PSFs to minimize the uncertainties which are usually caused by the subjective judgements of HRA analysts. To see the sensitivity, performance shaping factors of each decision rule are changed which resulted in changes of core damage

  7. [Software for performing a global phenotypic and genotypic nutritional assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Diego, L; Cuervo, M; Martínez, J A

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional assessment of a patient needs the simultaneous managing a extensive information and a great number of databases, as both aspects of the process of nutrition and the clinical situation of the patient are analyzed. The introduction of computers in the nutritional area constitutes an extraordinary advance in the administration of nutrition information, providing a complete assessment of nutritional aspects in a quick and easy way. To develop a computer program that can be used as a tool for assessing the nutritional status of the patient, the education of clinical staff, for epidemiological studies and for educational purposes. Based on a computer program which assists the health specialist to perform a full nutritional evaluation of the patient, through the registration and assessment of the phenotypic and genotypic features. The application provides nutritional prognosis based on anthropometric and biochemical parameters, images of states of malnutrition, questionnaires to characterize diseases, diagnostic criteria, identification of alleles associated with the development of specific metabolic illnesses and questionnaires of quality of life, for a custom actuation. The program includes, as part of the nutritional assessment of the patient, food intake analysis, design of diets and promotion of physical activity, introducing food frequency questionnaires, dietary recalls, healthy eating indexes, model diets, fitness tests, and recommendations, recalls and questionnaires of physical activity. A computer program performed under Java Swing, using SQLite database and some external libraries such as JfreeChart for plotting graphs. This brand new designed software is composed of five blocks categorized into ten modules named: Patients, Anthropometry, Clinical History, Biochemistry, Dietary History, Diagnostic (with genetic make up), Quality of life, Physical activity, Energy expenditure and Diets. Each module has a specific function which evaluates a

  8. Real-Time Assessment and Diagnosis of Process Operating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sedghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over time, the performance of processes may deviate from the initial design due to process variations and uncertainties, making it necessary to develop systematic methods for online optimality assessment based on routine operating process data. Some processes have multiple operating modes caused by the set point change of the critical process variables to achieve different product specifications. On the other hand, the operating region in each operating mode can alter, due to uncertainties. In this paper, we will establish an optimality assessment framework for processes that typically have multi-mode, multi-region operations, as well as transitions between different modes. The kernel density approach for mode detection is adopted and improved for operating mode detection. For online mode detection, the model-based clustering discriminant analysis (MclustDA approach is incorporated with some a priori knowledge of the system. In addition, multi-modal behavior of steady-state modes is tackled utilizing the mixture probabilistic principal component regression (MPPCR method, and dynamic principal component regression (DPCR is used to investigate transitions between different modes. Moreover, a probabilistic causality detection method based on the sequential forward floating search (SFFS method is introduced for diagnosing poor or non-optimum behavior. Finally, the proposed method is tested on the Tennessee Eastman (TE benchmark simulation process in order to evaluate its performance.

  9. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  10. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Saulnier; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table

  11. Spatial variability and parametric uncertainty in performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensado, Osvaldo; Mancillas, James; Painter, Scott; Tomishima, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The problem of defining an appropriate treatment of distribution functions (which could represent spatial variability or parametric uncertainty) is examined based on a generic performance assessment model for a high-level waste repository. The generic model incorporated source term models available in GoldSim ® , the TDRW code for contaminant transport in sparse fracture networks with a complex fracture-matrix interaction process, and a biosphere dose model known as BDOSE TM . Using the GoldSim framework, several Monte Carlo sampling approaches and transport conceptualizations were evaluated to explore the effect of various treatments of spatial variability and parametric uncertainty on dose estimates. Results from a model employing a representative source and ensemble-averaged pathway properties were compared to results from a model allowing for stochastic variation of transport properties along streamline segments (i.e., explicit representation of spatial variability within a Monte Carlo realization). We concluded that the sampling approach and the definition of an ensemble representative do influence consequence estimates. In the examples analyzed in this paper, approaches considering limited variability of a transport resistance parameter along a streamline increased the frequency of fast pathways resulting in relatively high dose estimates, while those allowing for broad variability along streamlines increased the frequency of 'bottlenecks' reducing dose estimates. On this basis, simplified approaches with limited consideration of variability may suffice for intended uses of the performance assessment model, such as evaluation of site safety. (author)

  12. Variables and Challenges in Assessing EU Experts’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Holst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert advice in political processes is supposed to improve decisions. If expertise fails in this function, a legitimacy problem occurs: granting political power to experts may be defensible, but only on the grounds that it contributes to enlightening political processes and facilitate problem-solving. The paper provides a theoretical exploration of four variables that are key when assessing the epistemic quality of expert deliberations: the degree to which these deliberations are 1 informed by technical expertise, 2 regulated by epistemically optimal respect and inclusion norms, 3 focused on politically relevant and applicable knowledge, and 4 approaching questions involving moral judgment and standard setting competently. Previous research on the European Commission’s use of expert advice has more or less overlooked the question of experts’ epistemic performance, and this paper discusses the possible reasons for this in light of well-known methodological challenges in studies of elite behaviour; access and bias problems. A discussion of the merits and limitations of different available data on the Commission experts shows that the biggest obstacle in the study of experts’ epistemic performance is rather the problem of epistemic asymmetry, i.e. of how researchers as non-experts can assess the epistemic quality of experts’ contributions and behaviour. The paper offers, finally, a set of strategies to get research going despite this problem.

  13. The role of natural analogues in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 - 10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct verification of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems provide perhaps the only means of partial verification, as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (m to km) and temporal (10 3 - 10 8 years) scales, and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may effect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the verification of performance assessments

  14. Cracking pattern and seismic performance assessment of the Orvieto cathedral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Canio, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper are described the in situ cracking pattern measurement and ambient vibration monitoring for the seismic performance evaluation of the Orvieto Cathedral Italy, according the deplacement based safety assessment. This requires, as a first step, the direct measurement of the cracking pattern and dynamic response of the structural macro elements of the cathedral due to weak vibrations induced by traffic and seismic micro tremors. Seismic assessment for this type of structure require also the proper limit states definitions. In fact, in the case historic monuments like churches, due to the presence of specific typology of macro elements: rigid blocks, complex vault systems, slenderness of the walls, presence of wide halls, domes and drums with particular geometry, is necessary to define the proper assessment procedures which are slightly different with respect those required for conventional civil industrial buildings. Regarding the Ambient vibration monitoring, a new approach to estimate the participating masses associated to the macro element kinematics is defined: it is based on the frequency contribution to the Root Main Square Acceleration, obtained by numerical integration of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. This information, when associated to the analysis of the Real and Imaginary part of the Cross Spectral Density (CSD) function between the acceleration time histories at different points, allow to identify the principal (at least first and second) mode shapes of the structure.

  15. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain

  16. ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J.; Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R ampersand D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of ∼1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of ∼1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of ≥1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement (τ E = 0.85 x τ ITER93H ), helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E = 10), representative plasma impurities (n Be /n e = 2%), and beta limit [β N = β(%)/(I/aB) ≤ 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power (∼ 1--1.5 GW) and fluence (∼1 MWa/m 2 ) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E ≤ 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance

  17. Sensitivity assessment of fuel performance codes for LOCA accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Alfredo; Gomes, Daniel; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Muniz, Rafael O.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABRISCO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análise, Avaliação e Gerenciamento de Risco

    2017-07-01

    FRAPCON code predicts fuel rod performance in LWR (Light Water Reactor) by modeling fuel responses under normal operating conditions and anticipated operational occurrences; FRAPTRAN code is applied for fuel transient under fast transient and accident conditions. The codes are well known and applied for different purposes and one of the use is to address sensitivity analysis considering fuel design parameters associated to fabrication, moreover can address the effect of physical models bias. The objective of this work was to perform an assessment of fuel manufacturing parameters tolerances and fuel models bias using FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN codes for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. The preliminary analysis considered direct approach taken into account most relevant manufacturing tolerances (lower and upper bounds) related to design parameters and physical models bias without considering their statistical distribution. The simulations were carried out using the data available in the open literature related to the series of LOCA experiment performed at the Halden reactor (specifically IFA-650.5). The manufacturing tolerances associated to design parameters considered in this paper were: enrichment, cladding thickness, pellet diameter, pellet density, and filling gas pressure. The physical models considered were: fuel thermal expansion, fission gas release, fuel swelling, irradiation creep, cladding thermal expansion, cladding corrosion, and cladding hydrogen pickup. The results obtained from sensitivity analysis addressed the impact of manufacturing tolerances and physical models in the fuel cladding burst time observed for the IFA-650.5 experiment. (author)

  18. Performance Assessment for e-Government Services: An Experience Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-14

    The transformation and integration of government services, enabled by the use of new technologies such as application servers and Web services, is fundamental to reduce the cost of government and improving service outcomes to citizens. Many core Government information systems comprise applications running on legacy mainframes, databases and transaction processing monitors. As Governments worldwide provide direct access over the Internet to these legacy applications from the general public, they may be exposed to workloads well above the origin design parameters of these back-end systems. This creates a significant risk of high profile failures for Government agencies whose newly integrated systems become overloaded. In this paper we describe how we conducted a performance assessment of a business-critical, Internet-facing Web services that integrated new and legacy systems from two Australian Government agencies. We leveraged prototype tools from our own research along with known techniques in performance modeling. We were able to clearly demonstrate that the existing hardware and software would be adequate to handle the predicted workload for the next financial year. We were also able to do ‘what-if’ analysis and predict how the system can perform with alternative strategies to scale the system. We conclude by summarizing the lessons learnt, including the importance of architecture visibility, benchmarking data quality, and measurement feasibility due to issues of outsourcing, privacy legislation and cross-agency involvement.

  19. Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

  20. Assessment of gamma camera performance at some Sudanese hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Nour El huda Ibrahim Ali

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the performance quality of the gamma cameras used in three public hospitals in Sudan. It is widely recognized that the attainment of high standards of efficiency and reliability in the practice of nuclear medicine, as in other specialties based on advanced technology, requires an appropriate quality assurance program. In this study we have focused on four of the main tests in order to assess the performance of the three units in question, such as uniformity, resolution/ linearity, center of rotation, photopeak. The values were within the acceptable range (according to the adopted protocols). Overall performance of the units was acceptable. Although all the results were within the acceptable range, some of them were at border, thus an action of preventive maintenance should be considered. It is noticed that a minor to negligible co-operation exists between the centers experts and /or equipment. The establishment of an external and internal auditing program is recommended. More co-operation between the centers should be considered.(Author)

  1. Sensitivity assessment of fuel performance codes for LOCA accident scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Alfredo; Gomes, Daniel; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    FRAPCON code predicts fuel rod performance in LWR (Light Water Reactor) by modeling fuel responses under normal operating conditions and anticipated operational occurrences; FRAPTRAN code is applied for fuel transient under fast transient and accident conditions. The codes are well known and applied for different purposes and one of the use is to address sensitivity analysis considering fuel design parameters associated to fabrication, moreover can address the effect of physical models bias. The objective of this work was to perform an assessment of fuel manufacturing parameters tolerances and fuel models bias using FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN codes for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. The preliminary analysis considered direct approach taken into account most relevant manufacturing tolerances (lower and upper bounds) related to design parameters and physical models bias without considering their statistical distribution. The simulations were carried out using the data available in the open literature related to the series of LOCA experiment performed at the Halden reactor (specifically IFA-650.5). The manufacturing tolerances associated to design parameters considered in this paper were: enrichment, cladding thickness, pellet diameter, pellet density, and filling gas pressure. The physical models considered were: fuel thermal expansion, fission gas release, fuel swelling, irradiation creep, cladding thermal expansion, cladding corrosion, and cladding hydrogen pickup. The results obtained from sensitivity analysis addressed the impact of manufacturing tolerances and physical models in the fuel cladding burst time observed for the IFA-650.5 experiment. (author)

  2. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  3. Assessing Port Governance, Devolution and Terminal Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Onwuegbuchunam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about performance and efficiency in port terminals led many national governments to embark on port reforms. The Federal government of Nigeria, for example, adopted the Landlord port model which brought about concessioning of port terminals to private operators. Despite high investments in terminal facilities by the private terminal operators, there are still complaints about level of service offered to port users. This paper applied key performance indicator metrics and parameters of queuing model in assessing performance of Nigeria’s concessioned port terminals. Data for the study were obtained from terminal level records of cargo and ship handling activities for years 2000 to 2015. Major findings indicate that cargo and vessel throughputs improved after the reforms in the six ports examined. However, much variability was observed in trends in ships’ turnround times across all ports after the concession policy implementation. Additional results from the queuing model analysis suggest that the high ships turnround times observed in some ports are associated to delays in ship operation at the berths. The paper recommends that policy interventions be focused on ship operations at the berths as a step in improving service level in the port terminals.

  4. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-mete...

  5. Slurry sampling in a radioactive waste vitrification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The next total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) analyses are designed to aid DOE in performing an ''investment analysis'' for Yucca Mountain. This TSPA must try to bound the uncertainties for several issues that will contribute to the decision whether the US should proceed with the development of a nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Because site-characterization experiments and data collection will continue for the foreseeable future, the next TSPA (called TSPA-IA) will again only be able to use partially developed models and partial data sets. In contrast to previous analyses however, TSPA-IA must address more specific questions to be of assistance to the investment-analysis deliberations

  6. A performance assessment methodology for low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Mattingly, P.A.

    1990-07-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This report provides a summary of background reports on the development of the methodology and an overview of the models and codes selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology and a sequential procedure for applying the methodology. Discussions are provided of models and associated assumptions that are appropriate for each phase of the methodology, the goals of each phase, data required to implement the models, significant sources of uncertainty associated with each phase, and the computer codes used to implement the appropriate models. In addition, a sample demonstration of the methodology is presented for a simple conceptual model. 64 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs

  7. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.; Tiren, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Glynn, P.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB's preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Application of fuzzy expert system on LILW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F.L. de; Sullivan, T.

    2002-01-01

    A complete LILW repository performance assessment requires the involvement between several experts in many fields of science. Many sources of uncertainties arise due to complexity of interaction of environmental parameters, lack of data and ignorance, this makes predictive analysis and interpretation difficult. This difficulty in understanding the impact of the ambiguities is even higher when it comes to public and decision makers involvement. Traditional methods of data analysis, while having strong mathematical basis, many times are not adequate to deal with ambiguous data. These ambiguities can be an obstacle to make the results easier to understand and defensible. A methodology of decision making, based on fuzzy logic, can help the interaction between experts, decision makers and the public. This method is the basis of an expert system which can help the analysis of very complex and ambiguous processes. (author)

  10. Sorption data base for performance assessment of radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Jung, J.; Lee, J.K.; Hahn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption data base (SDB) provides readily available data for the performance assessment of radwaste repository when site-specific data are not available and/or more reference data are needed. The software developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), SDB-21C, is a graphic user interface (GUI) program that provides efficient and user friendly tools for evaluating the large amount of sorption data. The data base of distribution coefficients compiled in the program contains about 11,000 Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) data and 2,000 KAERI data up to now while the addition of new data is under progress. Furthermore, the parametric model and its compiled data sets are also included in SDB-21C. (author)

  11. Validation of geotechnical software for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGore, T.; Hoover, J.D.; Khaleel, R.; Thornton, E.C.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lanigan, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    An important step in the characterization of a high level nuclear waste repository is to demonstrate that geotechnical software, used in performance assessment, correctly models validation. There is another type of validation, called software validation. It is based on meeting the requirements of specifications documents (e.g. IEEE specifications) and does not directly address the correctness of the specifications. The process of comparing physical experimental results with the predicted results should incorporate an objective measure of the level of confidence regarding correctness. This paper reports on a methodology developed that allows the experimental uncertainties to be explicitly included in the comparison process. The methodology also allows objective confidence levels to be associated with the software. In the event of a poor comparison, the method also lays the foundation for improving the software

  12. Technology integration performance assessment using lean principles in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Florentino; Yalcin, Ali; Eikman, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of an automated infusion system (AIS) integration at a positron emission tomography (PET) center based on "lean thinking" principles. The authors propose a systematic measurement system that evaluates improvement in terms of the "8 wastes." This adaptation to the health care context consisted of performance measurement before and after integration of AIS in terms of time, utilization of resources, amount of materials wasted/saved, system variability, distances traveled, and worker strain. The authors' observations indicate that AIS stands to be very effective in a busy PET department, such as the one in Moffitt Cancer Center, owing to its accuracy, pace, and reliability, especially after the necessary adjustments are made to reduce or eliminate the source of errors. This integration must be accompanied by a process reengineering exercise to realize the full potential of AIS in reducing waste and improving patient care and worker satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues are raised by various critics. In this paper I provide some perspective on issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass-action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes

  14. Performance Assessments of Generic Nuclear Waste Repositories in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Mariner, P. E.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a generic shale formation showcase Geologic Disposal Safety Assessment (GDSA) Framework, a toolkit for repository performance assessment (PA) whose capabilities include domain discretization (Cubit), multiphysics simulations (PFLOTRAN), uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (Dakota), and visualization (Paraview). GDSA Framework is used to conduct PAs of two generic repositories in shale. The first considers the disposal of 22,000 metric tons heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear fuel. The second considers disposal of defense-related spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Each PA accounts for the thermal load and radionuclide inventory of applicable waste types, components of the engineered barrier system, and components of the natural barrier system including the host rock shale and underlying and overlying stratigraphic units. Model domains are half-symmetry, gridded with Cubit, and contain between 7 and 22 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of individual waste packages, emplacement drifts, access drifts, and shafts. Simulations are run in a high performance computing environment on as many as 2048 processes. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved with PFLOTRAN, an open-source, massively parallel multiphase flow and reactive transport code. Additional simulated processes include waste package degradation, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 106 y, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within aquifers at a point approximately 5 km downgradient of the repository. Dakota is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form and waste package degradation rates and properties of engineered and natural materials to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia National

  15. Analytical performance specifications for external quality assessment - definitions and descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Albarede, Stephanie; Kesseler, Dagmar; MacKenzie, Finlay; Mammen, Joy; Pedersen, Morten; Stavelin, Anne; Thelen, Marc; Thomas, Annette; Twomey, Patrick J; Ventura, Emma; Panteghini, Mauro

    2017-06-27

    External Quality Assurance (EQA) is vital to ensure acceptable analytical quality in medical laboratories. A key component of an EQA scheme is an analytical performance specification (APS) for each measurand that a laboratory can use to assess the extent of deviation of the obtained results from the target value. A consensus conference held in Milan in 2014 has proposed three models to set APS and these can be applied to setting APS for EQA. A goal arising from this conference is the harmonisation of EQA APS between different schemes to deliver consistent quality messages to laboratories irrespective of location and the choice of EQA provider. At this time there are wide differences in the APS used in different EQA schemes for the same measurands. Contributing factors to this variation are that the APS in different schemes are established using different criteria, applied to different types of data (e.g. single data points, multiple data points), used for different goals (e.g. improvement of analytical quality; licensing), and with the aim of eliciting different responses from participants. This paper provides recommendations from the European Federation of Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Task and Finish Group on Performance Specifications for External Quality Assurance Schemes (TFG-APSEQA) and on clear terminology for EQA APS. The recommended terminology covers six elements required to understand APS: 1) a statement on the EQA material matrix and its commutability; 2) the method used to assign the target value; 3) the data set to which APS are applied; 4) the applicable analytical property being assessed (i.e. total error, bias, imprecision, uncertainty); 5) the rationale for the selection of the APS; and 6) the type of the Milan model(s) used to set the APS. The terminology is required for EQA participants and other interested parties to understand the meaning of meeting or not meeting APS.

  16. Assessing the performance of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Akanshu; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ozbolt, Josko; Hofmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures housing nuclear facilities must qualify against much stringent requirements of operating and accidental loads than conventional structures. One such accidental load that must be considered while assessing the performance of safety related RC structures is impact load. It is known that the behavior of concrete/reinforced concrete structures is strongly influenced by the loading rate. The RC structural members subjected to impact loads behave quite differently as compared to the same subjected to quasi-static loading due to the strain-rate influence on strength, stiffness, and ductility as well as to the activation of inertia forces. Moreover, for concrete structures, which exhibit damage and fracture phenomena, the failure mode and cracking pattern depend significantly on loading rate. In general, there is a tendency that with the increase of loading rate the failure mode changes from mode-I to mixed mode. In order to assess the performance of existing structures against impact loads that may be generated mainly due to man-made accidental conditions, it is important to have models that can realistically predict the impact behavior of concrete structures. The present paper focuses on a relatively new approach for 3D finite element analysis of RC structures under impact loads. The approach uses rate sensitive micro-plane model as constitutive law for concrete, while the strain-rate influence is captured by the activation energy. Inertia forces are implicitly accounted for through dynamic finite element analysis. It is shown with the help of different examples that the approach can very well simulate the behavior of RC structural elements under high rate loading. (author)

  17. Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2013-01-01

    The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent.

  18. Standardized assessment of infrared thermographic fever screening system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Pfefer, Joshua; Casamento, Jon; Wang, Quanzeng

    2017-03-01

    Thermal modalities represent the only currently viable mass fever screening approach for outbreaks of infectious disease pandemics such as Ebola and SARS. Non-contact infrared thermometers (NCITs) and infrared thermographs (IRTs) have been previously used for mass fever screening in transportation hubs such as airports to reduce the spread of disease. While NCITs remain a more popular choice for fever screening in the field and at fixed locations, there has been increasing evidence in the literature that IRTs can provide greater accuracy in estimating core body temperature if appropriate measurement practices are applied - including the use of technically suitable thermographs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a battery of evaluation test methods for standardized, objective and quantitative assessment of thermograph performance characteristics critical to assessing suitability for clinical use. These factors include stability, drift, uniformity, minimum resolvable temperature difference, and accuracy. Two commercial IRT models were characterized. An external temperature reference source with high temperature accuracy was utilized as part of the screening thermograph. Results showed that both IRTs are relatively accurate and stable (<1% error of reading with stability of +/-0.05°C). Overall, results of this study may facilitate development of standardized consensus test methods to enable consistent and accurate use of IRTs for fever screening.

  19. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  20. Waste package performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.; Thatcher, R.M.

    1989-02-01

    We completed a first cycle of model development from a specification to a computer program, PANDORA-1, for long-term performance assessment of waste packages. The model for one waste package at a time incorporates processes specific to the unsaturated environment at the proposed Yucca Mountain, NV, site. PANDORA-1 models the most likely processes and several modes of waste alteration and release. The development identified information needs for future models; many processes, local details, and combinations will have to be examined. Integration of ensemble performance and quantification of uncertainties are modeling steps at higher aggregation. Methodologies for these steps include sampling, which is well studied; we have focused on several open questions. We can now calculate the amount of variance reduction available from Latin hypercube sampling; it is a limited reduction. A new method, controlled sampling, provides substantial variance reduction for a broad range of model functions. An uncertainty analysis test-bed program compares the new with old sampling methods. 7 refs., 1 tab

  1. Approach to geologic repository post closure system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahwa, S.B.; Felton, W.; Duguid, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    An essential part of the license application for a geologic repository will be the demonstration of compliance with the standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency. The performance assessments that produce the demonstration must rely on models of various levels of detail. The most detailed of these models are needed for understanding thoroughly the complex physical and chemical processes affecting the behavior of the system. For studying the behavior of major components of the system, less detailed models are often useful. For predicting the behavior of the total system, models of a third kind may be needed. These models must cover all the important processes that contribute to the behavior of the system, because they must estimate the behavior under all significant conditions for 10,000 years. In addition, however, computer codes that embody these models must calculate very rapidly because of the EPA standard's requirement for probabilistic estimates, which will be produced by sampling thousands of times from probability distributions of parameters. For this reason, the total-system models must be less complex than the detailed-process and subsystem models. The total-system performance is evaluated through modeling of the following components: Radionuclide release from the engineered-barrier system. Fluid flow in the geologic units. Radionuclide transport to the accessible environment. Radionuclide release to the accessible environment and dose to man

  2. Uncertainty evaluation methods for waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.T.; Nair, P.K.; Journel, A.G.; Abramson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report identifies and investigates methodologies to deal with uncertainties in assessing high-level nuclear waste package performance. Four uncertainty evaluation methods (probability-distribution approach, bounding approach, expert judgment, and sensitivity analysis) are suggested as the elements of a methodology that, without either diminishing or enhancing the input uncertainties, can evaluate performance uncertainty. Such a methodology can also help identify critical inputs as a guide to reducing uncertainty so as to provide reasonable assurance that the risk objectives are met. This report examines the current qualitative waste containment regulation and shows how, in conjunction with the identified uncertainty evaluation methodology, a framework for a quantitative probability-based rule can be developed that takes account of the uncertainties. Current US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation requires that the waste packages provide ''substantially complete containment'' (SCC) during the containment period. The term ''SCC'' is ambiguous and subject to interpretation. This report, together with an accompanying report that describes the technical considerations that must be addressed to satisfy high-level waste containment requirements, provides a basis for a third report to develop recommendations for regulatory uncertainty reduction in the ''containment''requirement of 10 CFR Part 60. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Scramjet Performance Assessment Using Water Absorption Diagnostics (U)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George

    1995-01-01

    balance measuring thrust and integrated pressure measurements along the length of the nozzle. Assessment of its value as a combustor performance evaluation tool will be conducted.

  4. Sorption databases for increasing confidence in performance assessment - 16053

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Anke; Brendler, Vinzenz; Nebelung, Cordula; Payne, Timothy E.; Brasser, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    World-wide activities focus on the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. One common aim is to deliver a more profound chemical base for risk assessment, namely all those physico-chemical phenomena governing the contamination plume development in time and space. Coupled transport codes able to tackle this challenge have to simplify the resulting very complex reaction pattern. To do so in an adequate way requires extending the knowledge about retardation and mobilisation phenomena and the underlying basic processes and interactions (e.g. physisorption, chemisorption, surface precipitation). Interactions at the solid-liquid interface can be described by complementary approaches, the empirical K d concept and the mechanistic Surface Complexation Models (SCM). K d 's are used by most reactive transport and risk assessment codes due to the straightforward numerics involved. In addition, the K d concept is often the only feasible option for complex solid phases. However, the K d concept is a rather simplistic approach. Many very different basic physicochemical phenomena are subsumed in just one conditional parameter. Therefore, extrapolating K d values may yield very large uncertainties. SCM account adsorption of ions on surface sites as complexation reaction comparable to complexation in solution. The electrical charge at the surface is determined by the chemical reactions of the mineral functional groups, including acid-base reactions and formation of ion pairs and coordinative complexes. The required parameters are site-independent and applicable despite large variations in geochemical conditions. This presents a high potential to increase confidence in safety analysis and risk assessment studies (performance assessment). The mechanistic description of sorption processes with SCM allows a thermodynamically consistent calculation of the species distribution between liquid and solid phase combined with more reliable inter- and extrapolations. However, this

  5. A Control Variate Method for Probabilistic Performance Assessment. Improved Estimates for Mean Performance Quantities of Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2016-05-01

    We present a method of control variates for calculating improved estimates for mean performance quantities of interest, E(PQI) , computed from Monte Carlo probabilistic simulations. An example of a PQI is the concentration of a contaminant at a particular location in a problem domain computed from simulations of transport in porous media. To simplify the presentation, the method is described in the setting of a one- dimensional elliptical model problem involving a single uncertain parameter represented by a probability distribution. The approach can be easily implemented for more complex problems involving multiple uncertain parameters and in particular for application to probabilistic performance assessment of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. Numerical results indicate the method can produce estimates of E(PQI)having superior accuracy on coarser meshes and reduce the required number of simulations needed to achieve an acceptable estimate.

  6. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  7. Study on the barrier performance of molten solidified waste (I). Review of the performance assessment research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Toshikatsu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Ogawa, Hiromichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Application of melting technique is thought as one of the effective methods to treatment of the waste from the view point of its homogeneity and waste volume reduction. Solidified products by melting are expected as potential candidates of engineered barrier in a repository due to the good properties for their stabilization of radionuclides and hazardous elements. However, the methodology of performance evaluation has not been estimated so far. In this report, a literature survey on the properties of molten solidified waste was performed. It is clarified that the leachability of waste elements such as Co or Sr in molten waste form would be controlled by the corrosion behaviors of iron or silica which are the matrix elements of the waste form. While, no investigations into the durability of waste form have performed so far. Also noticed that the research items on performance evaluation such as the leachability for long-lived radionuclides and durability of waste form would be necessary for the long-term barrier assessment on the disposal. (author)

  8. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  9. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  10. Exploratory analysis of normative performance on the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Lea; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D; McClure, Margaret McNamara; Mausbach, Brent T; Taylor, Michael J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2017-10-01

    The UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) is a performance-based measure of functional capacity. The brief, two-domain (finance and communication ability) version of the assessment (UPSA-B) is now widely used in both clinical research and treatment trials. To date, research has not examined possible demographic-UPSA-B relationships within a non-psychiatric population. We aimed to produce and describe preliminary normative scores for the UPSA-B over a full range of ages and educational attainment. The finance and communication subscales of the UPSA were administered to 190 healthy participants in the context of three separate studies. These data were combined to examine the effects of age, sex, and educational attainment on the UPSA-B domain and total scores. Fractional polynomial regression was used to compute demographically-corrected T-scores for the UPSA-B total score, and percentile rank conversion was used for the two subscales. Age and education both had significant non-linear effects on the UPSA-B total score. The finance subscale was significantly related to both gender and years of education, whereas the communication subscale was not significantly related to any of the demographic characteristics. Demographically corrected T-scores and percentile ranks for UPSA-B scores are now available for use in clinical research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Assessment of calcium scoring performance in cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulzheimer, Stefan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam tomography (EBT) has been used for cardiac diagnosis and the quantitative assessment of coronary calcium since the late 1980s. The introduction of mechanical multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) scanners with shorter rotation times opened new possibilities of cardiac imaging with conventional CT scanners. The purpose of this work was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the performance for EBT and MSCT for the task of coronary artery calcium imaging as a function of acquisition protocol, heart rate, spiral reconstruction algorithm (where applicable) and calcium scoring method. A cardiac CT semi-anthropomorphic phantom was designed and manufactured for the investigation of all relevant image quality parameters in cardiac CT. This phantom includes various test objects, some of which can be moved within the anthropomorphic phantom in a manner that mimics realistic heart motion. These tools were used to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the accuracy of coronary calcium imaging using typical protocols for an electron beam (Evolution C-150XP, Imatron, South San Francisco, Calif.) and a 0.5-s four-slice spiral CT scanner (Sensation 4, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). A special focus was put on the method of quantifying coronary calcium, and three scoring systems were evaluated (Agatston, volume, and mass scoring). Good reproducibility in coronary calcium scoring is always the result of a combination of high temporal and spatial resolution; consequently, thin-slice protocols in combination with retrospective gating on MSCT scanners yielded the best results. The Agatston score was found to be the least reproducible scoring method. The hydroxyapatite mass, being better reproducible and comparable on different scanners and being a physical quantitative measure, appears to be the method of choice for future clinical studies. The hydroxyapatite mass is highly correlated to the Agatston score. The introduced phantoms can be used to quantitatively assess the

  12. Key performance indicators for the assessment of pediatric pharmacotherapeutic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Patel, Dimple; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Narayan, Mahesh; Zuppa, Athena

    2008-07-01

    Given the paucity of actual guidance provided for managing pediatric drug therapy, prescribing caregivers must be able to draw on the limited published information in pediatrics and/or guidance provided in adults with some account for expected pediatric response. Guidance for managing drug therapy in children is clearly desirable. Our objectives were to construct key performance indicators (KPIs) for pediatric pharmacotherapy guidance to identify drugs where pharmacotherapy guidance would be most beneficial. A pilot survey to assess variation in caregiver appreciation for pediatric dosing guidance has also been constructed to provide a complementary subjective assessment. Three KPI categories, drug utilization (based on hospital admission and billing data collected from 2001 through 2006), medical need, and guidance outcome value along with a KPI composite score have been proposed. Low scores are favored with respect to prioritization for pharmacotherapy guidance. The pilot survey consisted of 15 questions to assess 1) physician knowledge regarding dosing guidance, 2) attitudes toward dose modification and patient individualization, 3) the accessibility, ease of use and appropriateness of existing data stores, and 4) frequency of dosing modification, consultation of dosing compendiums and estimate of success rate in dosing guidance. Pilot results suggest that dosing guidance is generally viewed as important and that the existing resources are insufficient to guide recommendations for all drugs. While the majority of respondents check more than one resource less than 25% of the time, at least 25% of the respondents check more than one resource 25-50% of the time. The majority viewed the relevance of dosing guidance very important to the management of drug therapy. The questionnaire is being extended to the primary care centers, the Kids First Network and specialty care centers. Results will guide the development of decision support systems (DSS) that provide patient

  13. Assessing the performance of renewable electricity support instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of feed-in tariffs and tradable certificates is assessed on criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and institutional feasibility. In the early stage of transition to an energy system based entirely on renewable energy supplies, renewable electricity can only thrive if support takes into account the specific technical, economic and political problems which result from embedding this electricity in conventional power systems whose technology, organizational structure, environmental responsibility and general mission differ profoundly from the emerging, renewable-based system. Support schemes need to capture the diversity of power supplies, the variable nature of some renewable supplies, and their different attributes for the purposes of public policy. They must take into account the variety of generators – including small, decentralized generation – emerging in a renewable-based system, and the new relationships between generators and customers. Renewable energy policies need a clear point of reference: because the incumbent power systems are not sustainable they must adapt to the requirements of the renewable ones, not the other way round. Incumbent systems carry the responsibility of paying the transition, something that corresponds best with the polluter pays principle. - Highlights: ► Present power systems must adapt to the requirements of growing renewable ones, not the opposite. ► Well performing support systems capture the diversity of renewable sources and technologies. ► Feed-in Tariffs are superior in addressing the renewables' diversity and in promoting innovation. ► Feed-in Tariffs put transition burdens on incumbents and stimulate independent producers.

  14. Assessment of causes for degrading fuel performance at Darlington NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judah, J.; Goodchild, S.

    2013-01-01

    Fuel performance at the Darlington nuclear generating station has historically been excellent. Until recently, the majority of these few fuel defects have been attributed to fretting by heat transport system debris. The minority have been linked to manufacturing issues. Recently, Darlington has experienced an increase in the number of fuel defects. Although the defect rate remains low with respect to industry standards, this defect experience is considered to be unacceptable given current industry expectations and the OPG zero defect policy. Nine fuel defects have been discharged since 2007 from the four Darlington reactors. This represents a fuel defect rate of just 0.35 defects per year per reactor. At the time of this writing three additional defects are suspected to be in core. Although a definitive defect cause has yet to be identified, these fuel performance issues appear to be due to the coincidental degradation of manufacturing and operational factors, thereby decreasing the margins to fuel failure due to fuelling power ramps. All of the confirmed defected bundles have been long bundles and all experienced a relatively high power ramp when shifted from Position 2 to Position 6. High bundle uranium masses and low internal clearances are thought to be significant contributing factors. Bundle burnups at the time of the power ramps were low and these bundles were not identified by existing power ramp defect predictive tools. Our assessment has resulted in a number of recommendations which are designed to mitigate these adverse conditions by restoring the margins to power ramp failures. These recommendations impact broadly across a number of organizations including reactor physics, fuel design, fuel manufacturing, reactor design, inspections and PIE. (author)

  15. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  16. Performance assessment of a data processing chain for THz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, TeraHertz (THz) imaging is deserving huge attention as very high resolution diagnostic tool in many applicative fields, among which security, cultural heritage, material characterization and civil engineering diagnostics. This widespread use of THz waves is due to their non-ionizing nature, their capability of penetrating into non-metallic opaque materials, as well as to the technological advances, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems. However, the effectiveness of THz imaging depends strongly on the adopted data processing aimed at improving the imaging performance of the hardware device. In particular, data processing is required to mitigate detrimental and unavoidable effects like noise, signal attenuation, as well as to correct the sample surface topography. With respect to data processing, we have proposed recently a strategy involving three different steps aimed at reducing noise, filtering out undesired signal introduced by the adopted THz system and performing surface topography correction [1]. The first step regards noise filtering and exploits a procedure based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) [2] of the data matrix, which does not require knowledge of noise level and it does not involve the use of a reference signal. The second step aims at removing the undesired signal that we have experienced to be introduced by the adopted Z-Omega Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain (FICO) system. Indeed, when the system works in a high-speed mode, an undesired low amplitude peak occurs always at the same time instant from the beginning of the observation time window and needs to be removed from the useful data matrix in order to avoid a wrong interpretation of the imaging results. The third step of the considered data processing chain is a topographic correction, which needs in order to image properly the samples surface and its inner structure. Such a procedure performs an automatic alignment of the

  17. Detailed Performance Assessment for the ITER ECE Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, W.; Austin, M.; Houshmandyar, S.; Phillips, P.; Beno, J.; Bryant, A.; Ouroua, A.; Weeks, D.; Hubbard, A.; Taylor, G.

    2017-10-01

    One of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature (Te) measurement on ITER is based on the detection of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) Here we describe the predicted performance of the newly completed ECE diagnostic design by quantitatively following the emission from the plasma to the instruments and including the calibration method to assess accuracy. Operation of the diagnostic at 5.3 T is the main interest here but critical features of the emission spectra for 2.65 T and 1.8 T will be described. ECE will be collected by two very similar optical systems: one a radial view, the other an oblique view. Both measurements are used for Te while the oblique view also allows detection of non-thermal distortion in the electron distribution. An in-vacuum calibration source is included in the front end of each view to calibrate out the effect of any degradation of in-vessel optics. Following collection, the emission is split into orthogonal polarizations and transmitted to the detection instruments via waveguides filled with dry nitrogen, a choice that simplifies construction and analysis. Near the instruments, a switchyard is used to select which polarization and view is detected by each instrument. The design for the radiometer used for 5.3 T will be described in detail. Supported by PPPL/US-DA via subcontract S013464-H to UT Austin.

  18. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Bryan A.; Crawford, M.B.; Galson, D.A.; Marietta, Melvin G.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal

  19. Assessing performance in pre-season wrestling athletes using biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiriou, Ionas; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe

    2018-06-15

    Although regular training introduces the desired changes in athletes' metabolism towards optimal final performance, literature is rarely focusing on the metabolic responses off-competition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical indices during typical preseason training in wrestling athletes. Twenty male freestyle and Greco-roman wrestlers (14 to 31 years) followed a typical session of the preparatory phase. Capillary blood glucose and lactate concentrations were assessed immediately before and after training. Protein, microalbumin, creatinine and their ratio were estimated the next day in the first morning urine. Pre-training lactate concentrations were lower in Greco-roman than in freestyle wrestlers (1.8 (1.4 - 2.1) vs. 2.9 (2.1 - 3.1) mmol/L). Exertion resulted in a significant increase in lactate concentrations, by 3.2 (2.6 - 4.1) mmol/L in Greco-roman wrestlers and 4.5 (3.4 - 5.3) mmol/L in freestylers. These changes were found to correlate with athlete's sport experience (r s = 0.71, P training is associated with mobilization of both lactic and alactic anaerobic energy systems. The regular comprehensive monitoring of biochemical markers would be advantageous in determining the efficiency of the preparatory phase and the long-term physiological adaptations towards the competition phase, or athlete's overtraining.

  20. Academic performance in terms of the applied assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribas, José María

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the academic performance depending on the evaluation and rating system used in the university. The sample under study consists of 30 subjects -taught by 35 professors to 2192 students from 7 different degrees at 14 universities of all Spain-. The results confirm that continuous assessment is the one that best results not only in terms of rate of return and success rate but also in terms of grades. En este trabajo se estudia el rendimiento académico en función del sistema de evaluación y calificación empleado en el ámbito universitario. La muestra objeto de estudio está formada por 30 asignaturas -impartidas por 35 profesores a 2192 alumnos de 7 titulaciones diferentes en 14 universidades de toda España-. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que la evaluación continua es la que propicia los mejores resultados no solo en cuanto a la Tasa de Rendimiento y a la Tasa de Éxito, sino también en cuanto a las calificaciones obtenidas.

  1. Performance assessment of containment filtered venting system with Venturi scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinarayna, K.N.V.; Ali, Seik Mansoor; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Venting through appropriate filtration systems is now being considered as a severe accident management strategy for maintaining the containment integrity and also as a means to reduce the radiological consequences to the public and environment. The option of filtered containment venting appears to have assumed significance in the post- Fukushima accident backdrop. Back-fitting of a suitable Venturi scrubber based CFVS for the Indian BWRs (TAPS- 1 and 2) at Tarapur is now being contemplated. Several key issues need to be carefully addressed for ensuring the desired functional capability of such a system. At the outset, this paper highlights a few thermal hydraulic issues that are of interest from regulatory perspective. This is followed by a detailed description of the mathematical models developed for assessing the depressurization characteristics of CFVS, energy absorption capacity of the Scrubber Tank (ST) water inventory, iodine removal and aerosol retention capability etc. Finally, application of these models to investigate the response of CFVS under twin unit SBO conditions in TAPS-1 and 2 is presented. The studies presented here give insight into the key variables affecting the CFVS performance and would be useful to both the system designer as well as the regulator. (author)

  2. The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, Stuart P.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has monitored groundwater on the Hanford Site since the 1940s to help determine what chemical and radiological contaminants have made their way into the groundwater. As regulatory requirements for monitoring increased in the 1980s, there began to be some overlap between various programs. DOE established the Groundwater Performance Assessment Project (groundwater project) in 1996 to ensure protection of the public and the environment while improving the efficiency of monitoring activities. The groundwater project is designed to support all groundwater monitoring needs at the site, eliminate redundant sampling and analysis, and establish a cost-effective hierarchy for groundwater monitoring activities. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the groundwater project. This QA Plan is based on the QA requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--General Provisions/Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the groundwater project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The groundwater project has determined that the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan

  3. The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Shephard, L.E.; Helton, J.C.; Basabilvazo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste that has been generated at government defense installations in the United States. The WIPP is located in an area of low population density in southeastern New Mexico. Waste disposal will take place in excavated chambers in a bedded salt formation approximately 655 m below the land surface. This presentation describes a performance assessment (PA) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) made by the DOE to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. Based on the CCA supported by the PA described in this presentation, the EPA has issued a preliminary decision to certify the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. At present (April 1998), it appears likely that the WIPP will be in operation by the end of 1998

  4. Performance assessment of U.S. residential cooking exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, William W; Singer, Brett C

    2012-06-05

    This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine fan curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas capture efficiency for front and back cooktop burners and the oven. Airflow rate sensitivity to duct flow resistance was higher for axial fan devices than for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from 98%, varying across hoods and with airflow and burner position for each hood. CE was higher for back burners relative to front burners, presumably because most hoods covered only part of the front burners. Open hoods had higher CE than those with grease screen and metal-covered bottoms. The device with the highest CE--exceeding 80% for oven and front burners--had a large, open hood that covered most of the front burners. The airflow rate for this hood surpassed the industry-recommended level of 118 L·s(-1) (250 cfm) and produced sound levels too high for normal conversation. For hoods meeting the sound and fan efficacy criteria for Energy Star, CE was <30% for front and oven burners.

  5. Development and Performance Assessment of White LED Dimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Pradip Kr.; Roy, Biswanath

    2017-10-01

    A microcontroller based electronic dimmer is developed using pulse width modulation technique. This dimmer is controllable by infra-red remote within a distance of 4 m and can be electrically connected between LED module and its driver. The performance of a developed LED dimmer is assessed on basis of variation of the photometric parameters of commercially available warm white and cool white LED luminaire used in indoor lighting applications. Four equally spaced dimming levels are considered to measure luminous efficacy, spectral power distribution, CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates, CIE 1976 CIELUV color difference, correlated color temperature, general color rendering index and one specific color rendering index for saturated red color sample. Variations of above parameters are found out with reference to the values measured at rated voltage without the developed dimmer. Analysis of experimentally measured data shows that the developed LED dimmer is capable to vary light output of the WLED luminaire within a range of 25-100% without appreciable variation of its photometric and color parameters. The only exception is observed for the luminous efficacy parameter where it shows about 17 and 14.7% reduction for warm white and cool white LED luminaire at 25% dimming level.

  6. Modeling logistic performance in quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijgersberg, Hajo; Tromp, Seth; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    In quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), food safety in the food chain is modeled and simulated. In general, prevalences, concentrations, and numbers of microorganisms in media are investigated in the different steps from farm to fork. The underlying rates and conditions (such as storage times, temperatures, gas conditions, and their distributions) are determined. However, the logistic chain with its queues (storages, shelves) and mechanisms for ordering products is usually not taken into account. As a consequence, storage times-mutually dependent in successive steps in the chain-cannot be described adequately. This may have a great impact on the tails of risk distributions. Because food safety risks are generally very small, it is crucial to model the tails of (underlying) distributions as accurately as possible. Logistic performance can be modeled by describing the underlying planning and scheduling mechanisms in discrete-event modeling. This is common practice in operations research, specifically in supply chain management. In this article, we present the application of discrete-event modeling in the context of a QMRA for Listeria monocytogenes in fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. We show the potential value of discrete-event modeling in QMRA by calculating logistic interventions (modifications in the logistic chain) and determining their significance with respect to food safety.

  7. Development and Performance Assessment of the High-Performance Shrinkage Reducing Agent for Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Sub Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a high-performance shrinkage reducing agent, this study investigated several shrinkage reducing materials and supplements for those materials. Fluidity and air content were satisfactory for the various shrinkage reducing materials. The decrease in viscosity was the lowest for glycol-based materials. The decrease in drying shrinkage was most prominent for mixtures containing glycol-based materials. In particular, mixtures containing G2 achieved a 40% decrease in the amount of drying shrinkage. Most shrinkage reducing materials had weaker level of compressive strength than that of the plain mixture. When 3% triethanolamine was used for early strength improvement, the strength was enhanced by 158% compared to that of the plain mixture on day 1; enhancement values were 135% on day 7 and 113% on day 28. To assess the performance of the developed high-performance shrinkage reducing agent and to determine the optimal amount, 2.0% shrinkage reducing agent was set as 40% of the value of the plain mixture. While the effect was more prominent at higher amounts, to prevent deterioration of the compressive strength and the other physical properties, the recommended amount is less than 2.0%.

  8. Assessing Confidence in Performance Assessments Using an Evidence Support Logic Methodology: An Application of Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.; Paulley, A.; Lehman, L.; Lowe, J.; Rochette, E.; Baker, St.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of uncertainties and their implications is a key requirement when undertaking performance assessment (PA) of radioactive waste facilities. Decisions based on the outcome of such assessments become translated into judgments about confidence in the information they provide. This confidence, in turn, depends on uncertainties in the underlying evidence. Even if there is a large amount of information supporting an assessment, it may be only partially relevant, incomplete or less than completely reliable. In order to develop a measure of confidence in the outcome, sources of uncertainty need to be identified and adequately addressed in the development of the PA, or in any overarching strategic decision-making processes. This paper describes a trial application of the technique of Evidence Support Logic (ESL), which has been designed for application in support of 'high stakes' decisions, where important aspects of system performance are subject to uncertainty. The aims of ESL are to identify the amount of uncertainty or conflict associated with evidence relating to a particular decision, and to guide understanding of how evidence combines to support confidence in judgments. Elicitation techniques are used to enable participants in the process to develop a logical hypothesis model that best represents the relationships between different sources of evidence to the proposition under examination. The aim is to identify key areas of subjectivity and other sources of potential bias in the use of evidence (whether for or against the proposition) to support judgments of confidence. Propagation algorithms are used to investigate the overall implications of the logic according to the strength of the underlying evidence and associated uncertainties. (authors)

  9. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG). Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY), Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E), and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). In women with PD, Kendall's tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  10. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Medijainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG. Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY, Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. In women with PD, Kendall’s tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Conclusion. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  11. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike

    2013-01-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus a Bayesian approach to

  12. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike [Neptune and Company, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus

  13. Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngu, JH; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Chin, YK

    2017-01-01

    Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study.......Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study....

  14. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-01

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess))

  15. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  16. Performance indicators and combining assessments to evaluate the safety performance of licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, Richard; Van Binnebeek, J.J.; Warren, T.F.H.

    1998-01-01

    The CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries. As a follow-up to the 1995 document on Compilation of Responses to a Questionnaire on the Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Licensees, WGIP members identified several issues where additional information would be useful in future meetings and discussions. The consensus of the Group was that performance indicators (PIs) and how assessments are combined were the two issues that should be addressed first. It was noted also that in addition to information in obtained through the questionnaire, results from the workshop in May 1996 may provide valuable input to the endeavour. This report summarises a review conducted of the PI-related information provided by the questionnaire, the workshop, and responses from WGIP members to a request for specific information not addressed previously

  17. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-01-01

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow's milk, sheep's milk, goat's milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  18. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  19. 42 CFR 460.132 - Quality assessment and performance improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality assessment and performance improvement plan... assessment and performance improvement plan. (a) Basic rule. A PACE organization must have a written quality assessment and performance improvement plan. (b) Annual review. The PACE governing body must review the plan...

  20. Principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Wilde, R.T.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, three of the principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) performance assessment studies are focused on: (1) development of a methodology for probabilistic risk assessment, (2) performance analyses of repository subsystems, and (3) selection and ranking of disruptive event scenarios. Other elements of the BWIP performance assessment studies are briefly outlined. 12 references, 5 figures

  1. Performance Assessment of Dynaspeak Speech Recognition System on Inflight Databases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barry, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... To aid in the assessment of various commercially available speech recognition systems, several aircraft speech databases have been developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate...

  2. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  3. Application of the Biosphere Assessment Methodology to the ENRESA, 1997 Performance and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Simon, I.; Aguero, A.

    1998-01-01

    For several years CIEMAT has been developing for ENRESA knowledge and tools to support the modelling of the migration and accumulation of radionuclides within the biosphere once those radionuclides are released or reach one or more parts of the biosphere (atmosphere, water bodies or soils). The model development also includes evaluation of radiological impacts arising from the resulting distribution of radionuclides in the biosphere. In 1996, a Methodology to analyse the biosphere in this context proposed to ENRESA. The level of development of the different aspects proposed within the Methodology was quite heterogeneous and, while aspects of radionuclide transport modelling were already well developed in theoretical and practical terms, other aspects like the procedure for conceptual model development and the description of biosphere system representatives of the long term needed further developments. At present, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) in collaboration with several national organizations, ENRESA and CIEMAT among them, is working to complete and augment the Reference Biosphere Methodology and to produce some practical descriptions of Reference Systems. The overall purpose of this document is to apply the Methodology, taking account of on-going developments in biosphere modelling, to the last performance assessment (PA) exercise made by ENRESA (ENRESA, 1997), using from it the general and particular information about the assessment context, radionuclide information, geosphere and geobiosphere interface data. There are three particular objectives to this work: (a) to determine the practicability of the Methodology in an application to a realistic assessment situation, (b) To compare and contrast previous biosphere modelling in HLW PA and, (c) to test software development related with data management and modelling. (Author) 42 refs

  4. Developing a fuzzy rule based cognitive map for total system safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessment, TSPA, for radioactive waste disposal is a multi and interdisciplinary task that is characterized by complex interactions between parameters and processes; lack of data; and ignorance regarding natural processes and conditions. The vagueness in the determination of ranges of values of parameters and identification of interacting processes pose further difficulties to the analysts with regard to the establishment of the relations between processes and parameters. More specifically the vagueness makes uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis challenging to analyze. To cope with these difficulties experts often use simplifications and linguistic terms to express their state of knowledge about a certain situation. For example, experts use terms such as 'low pH', 'very unlikely', etc to describe their perception about natural processes or conditions. In this work we propose the use of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, FCM, for representation of interrelation between processes and parameters as well as to promote a better understanding of the system performance. Fuzzy cognitive maps are suited for the case where the causal relations are not clearly defined and, therefore, can not be represented by crisp values. In other words, instead of representing the quality of the interactions by crisp values, they are assigned degrees of truth. For example, we can assign values to the effect of one process on another such that (+) 1 corresponds to positive, (-) 1 to negative and 0 to neutral effects respectively. In this case the effect of a process A, on a process, B, can be depicted as function of the membership to the fuzzy set 'causal effect' of the cause process to the target one. One of the main advantages of this methodology would be that it allows one to aggregate the linguistic expressions as descriptions of processes. For example, a process can be known to have a 'very strong' positive effect on another one, or using fuzzy sets terminology

  5. Investigating Psychometric Isomorphism for Traditional and Performance-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Derek M.; Levy, Roy; Mehta, Vandhana

    2018-01-01

    A common practice in educational assessment is to construct multiple forms of an assessment that consists of tasks with similar psychometric properties. This study utilizes a Bayesian multilevel item response model and descriptive graphical representations to evaluate the psychometric similarity of variations of the same task. These approaches for…

  6. Investigating ESL Students' Performance on Outcomes Assessments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.; Elliott, Diane Cardenas; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes assessments are gaining great attention in higher education because of increased demand for accountability. These assessments are widely used by U.S. higher education institutions to measure students' college-level knowledge and skills, including students who speak English as a second language (ESL). For the past decade, the increasing…

  7. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  8. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 ± 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory analysis

  9. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, 19901 Germantown Rd, Germantown, MD 20874-1290 (United States); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Bldg 773-43A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  10. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  11. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  12. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttora, Linda C.; Seitz, Roger R.

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  13. Panel discussion on near-field coupled processes with emphasis on performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.; Baca, R.G.; Ahola, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The presentations in this panel discussion involve the general topic of near-field coupled processes and postclosure performance assessment with an emphasis on rock mechanics. The potential impact of near-field rock mass deformation on repository performance was discussed, as well as topics including long term excavation deterioration, the performance of geologic seals, and coupled processes concerning rock mechanics in performance assessments

  14. Measures of Strategic Alliance Performance, Classified and Assessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe; Plenborg, Thomas; Robson, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, strategic alliance performance has been an important research topic within the international business and management fields. Researchers have investigated a number of factors explaining performance but often find diverging results. Scholars have suggested that one...... reason may be that different performance measures are used as the dependent variable. But which differences exist and how can they matter? Against this backdrop, the present study makes three main contributions. First, we identify dimensions that illustrate differences and similarities between...... performance measures and provide a simple yet comprehensive classification of the different performance measures used in 167 empirical studies in the literature. Second, we suggest how differences in performance measures may influence construct validity under different circumstances. Third, we show...

  15. Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...... the performance of the studied PV plants with others, the efficiency of the systems has been estimated by both conventional Performance Ratio and Corrected Performance Ratio...

  16. ARNICA, the Arcetri near-infrared camera: Astronomical performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. K.; Lisi, F.; Testi, L.; Baffa, C.; Borelli, S.; Maiolino, R.; Moriondo, G.; Stanga, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Arcetri near-infrared camera ARNICA was built as a users' instrument for the Infrared Telescope at Gornergrat (TIRGO), and is based on a 256x256 NICMOS 3 detector. In this paper, we discuss ARNICA's optical and astronomical performance at the TIRGO and at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Optical performance is evaluated in terms of plate scale, distortion, point spread function, and ghosting. Astronomical performance is characterized by camera efficiency, sensitivity, and spatial uniformity of the photometry.

  17. Assessing the Idaho Transportation Department's customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-23

    This report assesses customer satisfaction with the Idaho Transportation Department. It also compares and contrasts the results of customer satisfaction surveys conducted for the Idaho Transportation Department with the results from other state trans...

  18. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes

  19. Assessing the performance of urban water utilities in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benchmarking analysis has become a strategic tool through which water regulators around the world measure the performance of water utilities. Since 2008, the Water Regulatory Council of Mozambique has been implementing a benchmarking framework to analyse the performance of urban water utilities. This paper ...

  20. Performability assessment by model checking of Markov reward models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes efficient procedures for model checking Markov reward models, that allow us to evaluate, among others, the performability of computer-communication systems. We present the logic CSRL (Continuous Stochastic Reward Logic) to specify performability measures. It provides flexibility

  1. Performance Needs Assessment of Maternal and Newborn Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    African Journal of Reproductive Health June 2014; 18(2): 105 ... The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health ... in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. ... particularly disadvantaged in terms of social .... significance was determined at p < 0.05.

  2. Assessment of non-genetic parameters of the racing performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1995 to 2007, flat racing data was collected for Thoroughbred and Arabian horses in Algeria. Non-genetic factors affecting racing performances have been identified and quantified using linear models. Performances are represented through the earnings and the rankings. Three traits were used: two earnings traits [the ...

  3. Construction Of A Performance Assessment Model For Zakat Management Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Fadilah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to examine the performance evaluation using Balanced Scorecard model. The research is conducted due to a big gap existing between zakat (alms and religious tax in Islam with its potential earn of as much as 217 trillion rupiahs and the realization of the collected zakat fund that is only reached for three trillion. This indicates that the performance of zakat management organizations in collecting the zakat is still very low. On the other hand, the quantity and the quality of zakat management organizations have to be improved. This means the performance evaluation model as a tool to evaluate performance is needed. The model construct is making a performance evaluation model that can be implemented to zakat management organizations. The organizational performance with Balanced Scorecard evaluation model will be effective if it is supported by three aspects, namely:  PI, BO and TQM. This research uses explanatory method and data analysis tool of SEM/PLS. Data collecting technique are questionnaires, interviews and documentation. The result of this research shows that PI, BO and TQM simultaneously and partially gives a significant effect on organizational performance.

  4. Performance Assessment and Active System Monitoring for Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben

    to the refrigeration system, is to optimise the total cost of ownership, (TCO). However, directly measuring TCO provides some challenges. It can therefore be beneficial to divide TCO into performance criteria, which can be quantied and measured. For supermarket refrigeration systems the performance criteria can...... is measure by the switch frequency of the compressors in the refrigeration system. The reason is that excessive compressor switching will wear down the compressors too fast and thereby decrease the reliability of the system due to a higher demand for maintenance. The proposed performance function provides...

  5. Reliable and valid assessment of performance in thoracoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Lehnert, Per; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As we move toward competency-based education in medicine, we have lagged in developing competency-based evaluation methods. In the era of minimally invasive surgery, there is a need for a reliable and valid tool dedicated to measure competence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery....... The purpose of this study is to create such an assessment tool, and to explore its reliability and validity. METHODS: An expert group of physicians created an assessment tool consisting of 10 items rated on a five-point rating scale. The following factors were included: economy and confidence of movement...

  6. Assessment of mental training in improving performance serve in volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Montiel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to investigate the effects of mental training on volleyball players service performance. Six male volleyball players aged from 18 to 25 years old of a team from the interior of São Paulo’s state were studied. The service performance was evaluated in three different championships of the same season. The services were scored in game situations at the same time of the intervention process. The measure means indicated service performance increased with the mental training practice, with more services performed correctly and less mistakes at the end of the intervention process. The mistakes dimished significantly from the baseline to the final of the intervention process and from the start of the intervention process to its final.

  7. Performance assessment of MSE abutment walls in Indiana : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report presents a numerical investigation of the behavior of steel strip-reinforced mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) direct bridge abutments under static loading. Finite element simulations were performed using an advanced two-surface boundin...

  8. Human Performance Assessments when Using Augmented Reality for Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldiez, Brian F; Saptoka, Nabin; Aedunuthula, Prashanth

    2006-01-01

    Human performance executing search and rescue type of navigation is one area that can benefit from augmented reality technology when the proper computer generated information is added to a real scene...

  9. Commissioning of Theratron phoenix telecobalt machine and its performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, M.; Reddy, K.D.; Reddy, R.M.; Reddy, J.M.; Reddy, B.V.N.; Kumar, K.; Gopi, S.; Rajan, Dharani; Janardhanan

    2002-01-01

    Teletherapy machines like cobalt-60 unit and linear accelerator are extensively used for radiotherapy. Theratron phoenix machines have been installed. A brief report on the performance of this machine is presented

  10. Performance Assessment of Aggregation Control Services for Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Heussen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation algorithms that provide services to the grid via demand side management are moving from research ideas to the market. With the diversity of the technology delivering such services, it becomes essential to establish transparent performance standards from a service delivery perspective...... of the quality of service provided by an aggregation control algorithm. By a detailed case study we present and an application of the index, comparing the performance of two different control architectures for demand side management delivering a distribution grid service....

  11. Organizational variables on nurses' job performance in Turkey: nursing assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of organizational variables on hospital staff nurses' job performance as reported by staff nurses in two cities in Turkey. Hospital ownership status, employment status were examined for their effect on this influence. The reported influence of organizational variables on job performance was measured by a questionnaire developed for this study. Nurses were asked to evaluate the influence of 28 organizational variables on their job performance using a five-point Likert-type scale (1- Never effective, 5- Very effective). The study used comparative and descriptive study design. The staff nurses who were included in this study were 831 hospital staff nurses. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, t-test, ANOVA and factor analysis were used for data analysis. The study showed the relative importance of the 28 organizational variables in influencing nurses' job performance. Nurses in this study reported that workload and technological support are the most influential organizational variables on their job performance. Factor analysis yielded a five-factor model that explained 53.99% of total variance. Administratively controllable influence job organizational variables influence job performance of nurses in different magnitude.

  12. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E.

    1986-06-01

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described

  13. 10 CFR 63.342 - Limits on performance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of climate change, and the resulting transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The nature and degree of climate change may be represented by constant-in-time climate conditions... biosphere, atmosphere, or ground water. (2) DOE must assess the effects of climate change. The climate...

  14. Performance Assessment of Water Sectors : Methods and considerations for application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieriks, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of principles for water management in the 1990’s such as concepts as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM), many countries have come to review their water policy and sectors. But how does one start in the assessment of a water sector

  15. Assessing students' performance in first-year university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students and tutor evaluations suggested that the tool developed, met the first two criteria successfully. Achieving the third criterion proved challenging for two reasons: (1) the difficulties involved in making the assessment criteria explicit and (2) the inconsistency across tutors when converting the criterion-referenced ...

  16. Modeling Logistic Performance in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, H.; Tromp, S.O.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    In quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), food safety in the food chain is modeled and simulated. In general, prevalences, concentrations, and numbers of microorganisms in media are investigated in the different steps from farm to fork. The underlying rates and conditions (such as storage

  17. Assessment of Performance-based Requirements for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2005-01-01

    and for a detailed assessment of the requirements. The design requirements to be used for a factory producing elements for industrial housing for unknown costumers are discussed, and a fully developed fire is recommended as a common requirement for domestic houses, hotels, offices, schools and hospitals. In addition...

  18. Relationship Between Academic Performance and Student Self-Assessment of Clinical Performance in the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoho, Robert M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Millonig, Kelsey

    2016-05-01

    Student self-assessment is viewed as an important tool in medical education. We sought to identify the relationship between student academic performance and third-year clinical performance self-assessment. No such study exists in podiatric medical education. Third-year podiatric medical students from the classes of 2012 through 2014 completed a self-assessment of their performance for each of five broad clinical podiatric medical domains (Professionalism, Medicine, Radiology, Surgery, and Biomechanics/Orthopedics). The assessment was completed after students finished the first 12 weeks of their third-year clinical rotations (PRE) and a second time at the conclusion of the third year (POST). The mean self-assessment score for PRE and POST surveys for all combined domains was determined for each student. This mean was compared with the student's 3-year cumulative grade point average (GPA). Students' clinical experiences for the year were essentially identical. No statistically significant correlation was identified between cumulative GPA and the PRE and POST clinical self-assessments or with the change between PRE and POST assessments based on the Pearson correlation test for each class separately or on the pooled data. Published studies in allopathic medical education have shown that students with lower GPAs tend to rate their clinical performance higher in initial clinical performance self-assessment. Our results show that student academic performance was not correlated with clinical performance self-assessment. These findings may be due to the explicit description of successful clinical competency completion, the orientation students receive before the start of clinical training, and the continuous feedback received from clinical preceptors.

  19. The reliability of in-training assessment when performance improvement is taken into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lohuizen, M.T.; Kuks, J.B.; van Hell, E.A.; Raat, A.N.; Stewart, R.E.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2010-01-01

    During in-training assessment students are frequently assessed over a longer period of time and therefore it can be expected that their performance will improve. We studied whether there really is a measurable performance improvement when students are assessed over an extended period of time and how

  20. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities. 460.136 Section 460.136 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES....136 Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities. (a) Quality assessment and...