Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert
Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.
Full Text Available Executive functioning (e.g., working memory is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.
Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n -back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.
Larrosa, F; Durà, M J; Menacho, J; González-Sabaté, L; Cordón, A; Hernández, A; García-Ibáñez, L
It has been suggested that malingering should be suspected in patients suffering from dizziness or imbalance and who had a potential gain associated with insurance and worker's compensation claims. This study aimed to assess and compare the prevalence of aphysiologic performance on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) in patients with the potential for secondary gain using a retrospective review of two groups of patients: work-related patients referred for dizziness and/or imbalance (Group 1) were compared against a group of patients with complaints of dizziness or imbalance, who had no history of work-related injury, or litigation procedures (Group 2). CDP and videonystagmography (VNG) were carried out in all patients. The Sensory Organization Test summaries were scored as normal, aphysiologic, or vestibular using the scoring method published by Cevette et al. in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112:676-688 (1995). 24 out of 88 (27%) patients had aphysiologic CDP in Group 1 and 9 out of 51 (18%) in Group 2 but these differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Definite signs of vestibular dysfunction were found in 12 out of 24 (50%) of patients with aphysiologic performance in Group 1 although the presence of VNG abnormalities was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in Group 2. The hypothesis that the occupational group could show a significantly higher rate of aphysiologic results than a control group is not confirmed. Furthermore, VNG abnormalities were found in 50% of the work-related cases with non organic sway patterns. These results suggest that patient's complaints should be considered genuine in work-related cases and due caution exercised when evaluating aphysiologic CDP patterns.
Jones, Melanie; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.
This paper uses matched employee-employer data from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) 2004 to examine the determinants of employee job anxiety and work-related psychological illness. Job anxiety is found to be strongly related to the demands of the job as measured by factors such as occupation, education and hours of work. Average levels of employee job anxiety, in turn, are positively associated with work-related psychological illness among the workforce as reported by...
Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with succe...
Radu Răzvan Popescu
Full Text Available Objectives The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Prior Work Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. Results An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contr act so different from other contracts. Value We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by this types of labour performed in different legal labour relations.
Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila
Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…
Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio
by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...
Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K
Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Gordon, W; Shonin, E; Zangeneh, M; Griffiths, MD
Work-related mental health issues such as work-related stress and addiction to work impose a significant health and economic burden to the employee, the employing organization, and the country of work more generally. Interventions that can be empirically shown to improve levels of work-related mental health – especially those with the potential to concurrently improve employee levels of work performance – are of particular interest to occupational stakeholders. One such broad-application inte...
Full Text Available The basic aim of high performance work systems is to enable employees to exercise decision making, leading to flexibility, innovation, improvement and skill sharing. By facilitating the development of high performance work systems we help organizations make continuous improvement a way of life.The notion of a high-performance work system (HPWS constitutes a claim that there exists a system of work practices for core workers in an organisation that leads in some way to superior performance. This article will discuss the relation that HPWS has with the improvement of firms’ performance and high involvement of the employees.
Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J
Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.
KARAKAŞ, Ayhan; SAHİN, Nilufer
The aim of thisstudy was, to examine the relation between work family conflict and employeeperformance. To measure the relationship ,WFC and EP scales used. Data weregathered from hotel employees in Western Black Sea provinces. End of the study,through data were examined -obtained statistical software package-, frequencyanalysis, correlation analysis, t-test, ANOVA test and regression analysis. Theresult indicate that work familyconflict related significantly to employee performance. Employ...
Dr. Franz Josef Gellert; R. Schalk
Purpose: – This paper aims to examine the influence of age and age-related attitudes on relationship factors. In addition, it seeks to assess how both factors affect care service work performance. Design/methodology/approach: – The paper explores the influence of age and age-related attitudes on the
Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy
This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.
Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin
This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…
Euler, Matthew J; Wiltshire, Travis J; Niermeyer, Madison A; Butner, Jonathan E
Electrophysiological studies have strongly implicated theta-band activity in human working memory processes. Concurrently, work on spontaneous, non-task-related oscillations has revealed the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) within sub-bands of the ongoing EEG, and has begun to demonstrate their functional significance. However, few studies have yet assessed the relation of LRTCs (also called scaling relations) to individual differences in cognitive abilities. The present study addressed the intersection of these two literatures by investigating the relation of narrow-band EEG scaling relations to individual differences in working memory ability, with a particular focus on the theta band. Fifty-four healthy adults completed standardized assessments of working memory and separate recordings of their spontaneous, non-task-related EEG. Scaling relations were quantified in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands via the estimation of the Hurst exponent obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis. A multilevel modeling framework was used to characterize the relation of working memory performance to scaling relations as a function of general scalp location in Cartesian space. Overall, results indicated an inverse relationship between both delta and theta scaling relations and working memory ability, which was most prominent at posterior sensors, and was independent of either spatial or individual variability in band-specific power. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the relevance of neural LRTCs for understanding brain functioning, and support a construct- and state-dependent view of their functional implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Larrosa, Francisco; Durà, María J; Cordón, Astrid; Hernández, Anabella; García-Ibáñez, Luis
Medical-legal implications of dizziness and imbalance in work-related patients are important. In these cases, computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) adds information to standard vestibular tests and aphysiologic patterns have been described. The objective is to assess the prevalence of aphysiologic performance on CDP in work-related patients complaining of dizziness/imbalance. Retrospective review of patients referred by the workers' compensation board for assessment of dizziness, imbalance or both. Standard vestibular assessment including CDP was carried out in all patients. The sensory organization test (SOT) summaries were scored as normal, aphysiologic or vestibular using the scoring method published by Cevette et al. in 1995. Aphysiologic performance in SOT, evaluated with the Cevette formula, was found in 31 out of 100 cases. Low composite score results and aphysiologic SOT results had a statistically-significant association (P=.01). Videonystagmography (VNG) was altered in 14 out of 31 cases with aphysiologic SOT. The 31% prevalence of aphysiologic results on CDP among work-related patients complaining of dizziness/imbalance is relatively high in comparison with the 25% published by Longridge and Mallinson in 2005. However, aphysiologic performance should not necessarily be related to malingering or exaggeration and altered vestibular tests are found in some of these cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus-response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage and retrieval of information in working memory.
Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.
The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus–response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage, and retrieval of information in working memory. PMID:21909328
Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Katsumi
Visual working memory (VWM) enables active maintenance of goal-relevant visual information in a readily accessible state. The storage capacity of VWM is severely limited, often as few as 3 simple items. Thus, it is crucial to restrict distractor information from consuming VWM capacity. The current study investigated how VWM storage and distractor resistance develop during childhood in relation to academic performance in the classroom. Elementary school children (7- to 12-year-olds) and adults (total N=140) completed a VWM task with and without visual/verbal distractors during the retention period. The results showed that VWM performance with and without distractors developed at similar rates until reaching adult levels at 10years of age. In addition, higher VWM performance without distractors was associated with higher academic scores in literacy (reading and writing), mathematics, and science for the younger children (7- to 9-year-olds), whereas these academic scores for the older children (10- to 12-year-olds) were associated with VWM performance with visual distractors. Taken together, these results suggest that VWM storage and distractor resistance develop at a similar rate, whereas their contributions to academic performance differ with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okebukola, Peter Akinsola
The relationship between science laboratory behavior strategies of students and performance in and attitude to laboratory work was investigated in an observational study of 160 laboratory sessions involving 600 class five (eleventh grade) biology students. Zero-order correlations between the behavior strategies and outcome measures reveal a set of low to strong relationships. Transmitting information, listening and nonlesson related behaviors exhibited low correlations with practical skills and the attitude measure. The correlations between manipulating apparatus and observation with practical skills measures were found to be strong. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the behaviors of students in the laboratories observed accounted for a large percentage of the variance in the scores on manipulative skills and a low percentage on interpretation of data, responsibility, initiative, and work habits. One significant canonical correlation emerged. The loadings on this canonical variate indicate that the practical skills measures, i.e., planning and design, manipulative skills and conduct of experiments, observation and recording of data, and attitude to laboratory work made primary contributions to the canonical relationship. Suggestions as to how students can be encouraged to go beyond cookbook-like laboratories and develop a more favorable attitude to laboratory work are made.
José Fernando Martins de Paiva
Full Text Available Among the Corporate Governance mechanisms, the Board of Directors is mentioned in academic research as fundamental in company performance and values in different countries. The important role in defense of the stockholders’ rights, preventing the managers from using the company in defense of their own interests, makes this a relevant mechanism in empirical research, even more when its relations with financial indicators is analyzed. In this study, the main objective was to analyze the relation between this mechanism and the value, performance and risk of Brazilian companies in 2012 and 2013, using panel data regression. Therefore, a Board of Directors index was created, based on binary questions, adapted from Silva, Santos and Almeida (2011, to be used as an independent variable in econometric models. A positive statistical relation was found between the proposed inedex and the variable Volatility, against expectations. The research also indicated relevant relations between the dependent and control variables. Among other results, it was concluded that: a positive relation exists between the company size and its performance; a positive relation exists between the growth of sales and the company value; a position relation between the risk variables beta and volatility; and belonging to the distinguished corporate governance levels on the stock exchange reduces the volatility of company stocks.
Owens, Bradley P; Baker, Wayne E; Sumpter, Dana McDaniel; Cameron, Kim S
Energy is emerging as a topic of importance to organizations, yet we have little understanding of how energy can be useful at an interpersonal level toward achieving workplace goals. We present the results of 4 studies aimed at developing, validating, and testing the relational energy construct. In Study 1, we report qualitative insights from 64 individuals about the experience and functioning of relational energy in the workplace. Study 2 draws from 3 employee samples to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a measure of relational energy, differentiating relational energy from related constructs. To test the predictive validity of the new relational energy scale, Study 3 comprises data from employees rating the level of relational energy they experienced during interactions with their leaders in a health services context. Results showed that relational energy employees experienced with their leaders at Time 1 predicted job engagement at Time 2 (1 month later), while controlling for the competing construct of perceived social support. Study 4 shows further differentiation of relational energy from leader-member exchange (LMX), replicates the positive relationship between relational energy (Time 1) and job engagement (Time 2), and shows that relational energy is positively associated with employee job performance (Time 3) through the mechanism of job engagement. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings and highlight areas for future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nakahachi, Takayuki; Iwase, Masao; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Honaga, Eiko; Sekiyama, Ryuji; Ukai, Satoshi; Ishii, Ryouhei; Ishigami, Wataru; Kajimoto, Osami; Yamashita, Ko; Hashimoto, Ryota; Tanii, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Takeda, Masatoshi
Working memory performance has been inconsistently reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several studies in ASD have found normal performance in digit span and poor performance in digit symbol task although these are closely related with working memory. It is assumed that poor performance in digit symbol could be explained by confirmatory behavior, which is induced due to the vague memory representation of number-symbol association. Therefore it was hypothesized that the performance of working memory task, in which vagueness did not cause confirmatory behavior, would be normal in ASD. For this purpose, the Advanced Trail Making Test (ATMT) was used. The performance of digit span, digit symbol and ATMT was compared between ASD and normal control. The digit span, digit symbol and ATMT was given to 16 ASD subjects and 28 IQ-, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The scores of these tasks were compared. A significantly lower score for ASD was found only in digit symbol compared with control subjects. There were no significant difference in digit span and working memory estimated by ATMT. Discrepancy of scores among working memory-related tasks was demonstrated in ASD. Poor digit symbol performance, normal digit span and normal working memory in ATMT implied that ASD subjects would be intact in working memory itself, and that superficial working memory dysfunction might be observed due to confirmatory behavior in digit symbol. Therefore, to evaluate working memory in ASD, tasks that could stimulate psychopathology specific to ASD should be avoided.
Full Text Available Organization support is one of the determining factors in improving the performance of the employees. Organization support consisting of organizational factor, convenience environment, the provision of the infrastructure the selection of technology and working proviso condition. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between organization support and performance of pharmacist assistant at the pharmacies division of the district general hospital Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru of Riau province. This was an analytic quantitative study with the cross sectional design to 53 pharmacist assistants as population. The study was used total sampling. The data were collected by using questionnaire and analyzed with univariate and bivariate. The results showed 49% pharmacist assistants having poor performance. There was a significant relationship between working condition (p-value = 0,04, the convenience of organization environment (p-value = 0,019 with the performance of pharmacist assistant. Its Expected the hospital management to improve the convenience of organization environment at the pharmacies division and also improve the health program and salvation for pharmacist assistant.
Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mathiassen, S.E.
and symptoms. Data were analysed by generalised estimating equation and multiple logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: For current upper arm elevation above 90°, a duration increment of 1% of the daily working hours was associated with odds ratios of 1.23 (95% CI 1.10 to 1......Aims: To determine quantitative exposure-response relations between work with highly elevated arms and supraspinatus tendinitis, shoulder pain with disability, and shoulder pain without disability. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a historical cohort of 1886 males from three...... occupational groups. Exposure measurements were performed for four consecutive working days in a random sample of 72 currently employed subjects. Individual work histories were obtained by questionnaire and register data. Health status was ascertained by physical examination blinded towards exposure...
Anggasari, Yasi; Kartasurya, Martha Irene; Suparwati, Anneke
The decrease of IUD active family planning participants' coverage in Surabaya in the last three years, from 12.27% to 6.1%, became a special attention for Surabaya district health office. The decrease was caused by inadequate work performance of midwives in implementing IUD contraception service in the primary healthcare centers in Surabaya area. Objective of the study was to analyze factors related to the work performance of midwives in the IUD contraception service in the primary healthcare...
Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid
Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.
Olsen, Espen; Bjaalid, Gunhild; Mikkelsen, Aslaug
To increase understanding of workplace bullying and its relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses. Examine a proposed bullying model including both job resource and job demands, as well as nurse outcomes reflected in job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability. Workplace bullying has been identified as some of the most damaging mechanisms in workplace settings. It is important to increase understanding of workplace bullying in relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses. This study adopted a cross-sectional web based survey design. A sample of 2946 Registered Nurses from four public Norwegian hospitals were collected during October 2014. We analysed data using descriptive statistics, correlations, Cronbach's alpa, confirmatory factor analyses, and structural equation modelling. The majority of work climate characteristics confirmed to influence workplace bullying, and additionally had direct influence on nurse outcomes; job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability. Bullying had a mediational role between most of the work climate dimensions and nurse outcomes. This study increases our understanding of organizational antecedent of bullying among nurses. Workplace bullying among nurses functions as a mediator between the majority of work climate dimensions and outcomes related to job satisfaction and work ability. Strategies to reduce bullying should look at the study finding and specifically job resources and job demands that influence bullying and nurse outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is empirically studied from three different perspectives. From an acculturation perspective, findings in Chapter 3 indicate that non-western immigrant workers are most healthy at work when they are abl...
Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole; Jensen, Hanne Louise
The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of performative work that aims to create experiences for visiting tourists. It reports on qualitative research conducted among frontline employees working in three tourist attractions on the island of Lolland in Denmark, namely Lalandia...
Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus
The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is
Linden, Michael; Baron, Stefanie; Muschalla, Beate
The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) differentiates between functions, activities/capacities, contextual factors and participation. Dysfunctions can result in impaired capacities, which in turn can lead to problems with participation depending on the context. Motivational and volitional deficits are intervening factors. The question is to what degree work performance (i.e. participation), motivational factors, and the inability to perform activities (i.e. dysfunctions) interact. Incapacities were measured in 213 patients (70% women) admitted to the Department of Behavioral Medicine using the Mini-ICF-Rating for Mental Disorders (Mini-ICF-APP), work performance was measured with the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), and volitional and motivational problems in regard to work were assessed with the Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster (AVEM). Sick leave prior to admission and work-related problems were assessed in a special clinical interview. The mean global score of the Mini-ICF-APP across all patients was 0.84 +/- 0.56 (SD), corresponding to 'mild disability'. The highest disabilities in this patient population were found for 'flexibility' (item 3, 1.64 +/- 0.94); the lowest disabilities were found for 'self maintenance' (item 11, 0.19 +/- 0.44) and 'mobility' (item 12, 0.43 +/- 0.85). Partial correlations between the Mini-ICF-APP, AVEM and EWPS showed highly significant correlations between the Mini-ICF-APP and EWPS and no or weak correlations between the AVEM and the Mini-ICF-APP or EWPS. Work performance is primarily related to the inability to perform activities and incapacities, and only due to attitudes or volitional/motivational factors to a much lesser degree. Therefore, capacity and motivation can and must be separated. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kecklund, Lena Jacobsson; Svenson, Ola
The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. The decreased level of satisfaction with work result during outage is a fact despite the lowering of aspiration level for work performance quality during outage. In order to decrease relative frequencies for minor errors, special attention should be given to reduce work demands, such as time pressure and memory demands. In order to decrease misinterpretation errors special attention should be given to organizational factors such as planning and shift turnovers in addition to training. In summary, the outage period seems to be a significantly more vulnerable window in the management of a nuclear power plant than the normal power production state. Thus, an increased focus on the outage period and human factors issues, addressing the synergetic effects or work demands, organizational factors and coping resources is an important area for improvement of
Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim
Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...
Bernier, Marie Odile; Doody, Michele M; Van Dyke, Miriam E; Villoing, Daphné; Alexander, Bruce H; Linet, Martha S; Kitahara, Cari M
Technologists working in nuclear medicine (NM) are exposed to higher radiation doses than most other occupationally exposed populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of cancer in NM technologists in relation to work history, procedures performed and radioprotection practices. From the US Radiologic Technologists cohort study, 72 755 radiologic technologists who completed a 2003-2005 questionnaire were followed for cancer mortality through 31 December 2012 and for cancer incidence through completion of a questionnaire in 2012-2013. Multivariable-adjusted models were used to estimate HRs for total cancer incidence and mortality by history of ever performing NM procedures and frequency of performing specific diagnostic or therapeutic NM procedures and associated radiation protection measures by decade. During follow-up (mean=7.5 years), 960 incident cancers and 425 cancer deaths were reported among the 22 360 technologists who worked with NM procedures. We observed no increased risk of cancer incidence (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.04) or death (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.19) among workers who ever performed NM procedures. HRs for cancer incidence but not mortality were higher for technologists who began performing therapeutic procedures in 1960 and later compared with the 1950s. Frequency of performing diagnostic or therapeutic NM procedures and use of radioprotection measures were not consistently associated with cancer risk. No clear associations were observed for specific cancers, but results were based on small numbers. Cancer incidence and mortality were not associated with NM work history practices, including greater frequency of procedures performed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…
Pekarek, Deanna S
Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), the largest portion of reported and compensated work-related diseases, represent at least one-third of all reported occupational diseases in the United States, Nordic countries, and Japan...
Full Text Available The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC on memory during late adolescence (18–19 years old in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers, BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers, BAC1 (0.3 – 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers or BAC2 (0.54 – 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers. The subjects’ immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III. The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L. No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than
Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Duque, Aránzazu; Montañés, Adriana; Monleón, Santiago
The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18-19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females) that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers), BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers), BAC1 (0.3 - 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers) or BAC2 (0.54 - 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers). The subjects' immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L). No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than working memory to
KATO Takao; KODAMA Naomi
This paper uses unique firm-level panel data from Japan and provides new evidence on the possible impact on gender equality in the workplace of human resources management (HRM) practices. Specifically we consider a number of work-life balance (WLB) practices that are developed in part to enhance gender equality as well as performance-related pay (PRP) that is one of the most often discussed changes in the Japanese HRM system in recent years. Our fixed effect estimates indicate that daycare se...
Derks, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Peters, P.; Wingerden, P. van
Is work-related smartphone use during off-job time associated with lower conflict owing to the blurring of the boundaries between work and family life? Or does it help employees juggling work and family demands? The present four-day quantitative diary study (N = 71 employees, N = 265–280 data
Odebiyi, D O; Akanle, O T; Akinbo, S Ra; Balogun, S A
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have been documented among various occupational groups in Nigeria. However, there is limited data on the prevalence of WMSDs among call center operators (CCOs). To determine the prevalence of WMSDs among CCOs in Nigeria and to explore the extent to which these discomforts impact the daily work activities of the respondents. 374 respondents who were randomly selected from 4 telecommunication companies in Lagos State, Nigeria, participated in this study. They were asked to complete a pre-tested questionnaire designed to capture the prevalence, impact and associated risk factors of WMSDs among CCOs. 42% and 65.2% of respondents experienced at least one WMSDs in the past 7 days, and 12 months, respectively. Women and CCOs who received calls with hand-held phones rather than headsets reported more discomforts during both 7 days and 12 months periods. Neck, shoulder, upper back, and lower back were the most affected areas during past 7 days and 12 months. Discomforts in the neck, low back, and knees prevented most of the respondents from performing their daily work. WMSDs have a serious impact on the daily job activities of the CCOs in Nigeria.
Roth, Lawrence; David, Emily M
Prior research indicates that work-family conflict interferes with family far more than it interferes with work. Conservation of resources provides a possible explanation: when shifting resources from family is no longer sufficient to maintain satisfactory work performance, then workers must acquire additional resources or reduce investments in work. One source of such additional resources could be high performance peers in the work group. The performance of workers with resource-rich peers may be less adversely affected by work-family conflict. In this study, 136 employees of a wholesale distribution firm (61% women, 62% minority) working in groups of 7 to 11 in manual labor and low-level administrative jobs rated their own work-to-family conflict. Their supervisors rated workers' performance. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that work-to-family conflict increasingly adversely affected job performance as work group performance decreased. Hence, work group performance may be an important moderator of the effects of work-family conflict.
Drewery, Dave; Pretti, T. Judene; Barclay, Sage
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a…
de Zwart, B. C.; Bras, V. M.; van Dormolen, M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; Meijman, T. F.
The after-effects of night work on physical performance capacity and sleep quality were studied. Ten younger (age < or = 34 years) and eight older (age > 34 years) experienced shift workers were examined. Subjects performed cycle ergometer tests at an exercise intensity requiring 70% of the
Garcia, Lucy; Nussbaum, Miguel; Preiss, David D.
The main purpose of this study was to assess whether seventh-grade students use of information and communication technology (ICT) was related to performance on working memory tasks. In addition, the study tested whether the relationship between ICT use and performance on working memory tasks interacted with seventh-grade students' socioeconomic…
Fell, Anne Kristin Møller; Aasen, Tor Olav Brøvig; Kongerud, Johny
Work-related COPD occurs as a result of exposure to harmful particles and gases/fumes in the workplace, including among non-smokers. The objective of this article is to present more recent findings on the correlation between occupational exposure and COPD. In addition, we review diagnostic and prognostic considerations and the potential for prevention. We have undertaken literature searches in Medline and EMBASE for the period May 2009 - July 2014. Studies without any measurements of pulmonary function or references to occupational exposure were excluded. We have also included three prospective studies on pulmonary function and occupational exposure that were not indexed with the search terms used for obstructive pulmonary disease. Three population studies and eight studies that described a specific industry or sector were included. Recent studies detect an association between exposure and an increased risk of COPD in the construction industry, metallurgical smelting, cement production and the textile industry. In other respects, the findings from previous review studies are confirmed. Exposure to a number of organic and inorganic particles and fumes in the workplace may cause COPD even at prevailing levels of exposure. Doctors should inquire about such exposure in cases of suspected and established COPD and should have a low threshold for referral to occupational health assessment.
J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); A. van der Wiele (Ton)
textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this
Gunter, Helen M.
Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…
Kecklund, L.J.; Svenson, O.
The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance, as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality, and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. (Author)
Charbeneau, R.J.; Hertel, N.E.; Pollard, C.G.
The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits
occupational exposure is 16% and for work-exacerbated asthma around 10%.3,4 ... Mohamed Jeebhay is a Professor of Occupational Medicine at the University of Cape Town. He convenes .... (obtain material safety data sheets. (MSDs) for ...
Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen
Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination
Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...
Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto
The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.
Niks, I.M.W.; Jonge, J. de; Gevers, J.M.P; Houtman, I.L.D.
Background: It is well-known that health care workers in today's general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related
Niks, I.M.W.; Jonge, de J.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Houtman, I.L.D.
Background It is well-known that health care workers in today’s general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related
Miskowiak, K. W.; Kjærstad, H. L.; Støttrup, M. M.
prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) (P=.016). Exploratory whole-brain analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in working memory-related dlPFC activity in the ValVal group vs the ValMet group which was not associated with differences in working memory performance during fMRI. Outside the MRI scanner, Val carriers...... performed worse in the CANTAB Spatial Working Memory task than Met homozygotes (P≤.006), with deficits being most pronounced in Val homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: The association between Val allelic load, dlPFC activity and WM impairment points to a putative role of aberrant PFC dopamine tonus in the cognitive......-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working...
Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Vecchio, Nerina N; Whiteford, Harvey A
To demonstrate the importance of including a range of working conditions in models exploring the association between health- and work-related performance. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit study cross-sectional screening data set was used to explore health-related absenteeism and work performance losses on a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians, including available demographic and working condition factors. Data collected using the World Health Organization Health and Productivity Questionnaire were analyzed with negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regressions for absenteeism and work performance, respectively. Hours expected to work, annual wage, and job insecurity play a vital role in the association between health- and work-related performance for both work attendance and self-reported work performance. Australian working conditions are contributing to both absenteeism and low work performance, regardless of health status.
Juliana da Silva Oliveira; Roberta Laíse Gomes Leite Morais; Elisama Nascimento Rocha; Sérgio Donha Yarid; Edite Lago da Silva Sena; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery
This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on ...
Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…
Niks Irene MW; de Jonge Jan; Gevers Josette MP; Houtman Irene LD
Abstract Background It is well-known that health care workers in today’s general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balance between job deman...
Juliana da Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.
Juliana da Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.
Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio
Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles' force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (-) r(14) = -0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide greater insight
Tsunoda, Kenji; Soma, Yuki; Kitano, Naruki; Tsuji, Taishi; Mitsuishi, Yasuhiro; Yoon, Ji-Yeong; Okura, Tomohiro
This study aimed to compare relationships of leisure-time, household, and work-related physical activity (PA) with physical performance by age and gender in older Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 525 community-dwelling older adults (73.3 ± 5.2 years) recruited in 2009-2011 in Kasama City, rural Japan. We used the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly to assess PA variables. Physical performance was evaluated by 11 performance tests: grip strength, single-leg balance, functional reach, sit-and-reach, standing time from long sitting position, sit-to-stand, timed up and go, habitual walk, hand working, and simple and choice reaction times. After adjusting for potential confounders, leisure-time PA in young-old (≤ 74 years) men correlated significantly with eight performance tests (absolute value of Spearman's partial rank correlation coefficient: r = 0.18-0.39), whereas in old-old (≥ 75 years) men it correlated with three performance tests (r = 0.20-0.23). Although leisure-time PA correlated with six performance tests (r = 0.19-0.22) in young-old women, there were no significant correlations between leisure-time PA and performance tests in old-old women. Household PA of young-old men (r = 0.20-0.23) and old-old women (r = 0.26-0.34) correlated with four performance tests. In old-old men and young-old women, no significant correlation was found between household PA and performance tests. Work-related PA did not relate significantly to any performance tests in any groups. This study showed that leisure-time PA is related to physical performance, especially in young-old men and women, and household PA is especially related in young-old men and old-old women. Our findings suggest that supporting strategies for maintaining physical functions would differ by gender and age. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels
and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....
Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L
In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.
Niks, Irene M W; de Jonge, Jan; Gevers, Josette M P; Houtman, Irene L D
It is well-known that health care workers in today's general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities into effective workplace interventions. The aim of the DISCovery project is to develop and implement tailored work-oriented interventions to improve health, well-being, and performance of health care personnel. A quasi-experimental field study with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design will be conducted in a top general hospital. Four existing organizational departments will provide both an intervention and a comparison group. Two types of research methods are used: (1) a longitudinal web-based survey study, and (2) a longitudinal daily diary study. After base-line measures of both methods, existing and yet to be developed interventions will be implemented within the experimental groups. Follow-up measurements will be taken one and two years after the base-line measures to analyze short-term and long-term effects of the interventions. Additionally, a process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out. The DISCovery project fulfills a strong need for theory-driven and scientifically well-performed research on job stress and performance interventions. It will provide insight into (1) how a balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery from work can be optimized, (2) the short-term and long-term effects of tailored work-oriented effects, and (3) indicators for successful or unsuccessful implementation of interventions.
Niks Irene MW
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well-known that health care workers in today’s general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities into effective workplace interventions. The aim of the DISCovery project is to develop and implement tailored work-oriented interventions to improve health, well-being, and performance of health care personnel. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental field study with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design will be conducted in a top general hospital. Four existing organizational departments will provide both an intervention and a comparison group. Two types of research methods are used: (1 a longitudinal web-based survey study, and (2 a longitudinal daily diary study. After base-line measures of both methods, existing and yet to be developed interventions will be implemented within the experimental groups. Follow-up measurements will be taken one and two years after the base-line measures to analyze short-term and long-term effects of the interventions. Additionally, a process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out. Discussion The DISCovery project fulfills a strong need for theory-driven and scientifically well-performed research on job stress and performance interventions. It will provide insight into (1 how a balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery from work can be optimized, (2 the short-term and long-term effects of tailored work-oriented effects, and (3 indicators for successful or unsuccessful implementation of interventions.
Colom, Roberto; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, Jose
Multitasking performance is relevant in everyday life and job analyses highlight the influence of multitasking over several diverse occupations. Intelligence is the best single predictor of overall job performance and it is also related to individual differences in multitasking. However, it has been shown that working memory capacity (WMC) is…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations as well as whole blood β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2 expression in young ice hockey players before and immediately after exercise in relation to performed work. Nineteen Youth National Team ice hockey players were subjected to the maximal incremental cycloergometer exercise. The test was done in the pre-competitive phase of training. Among many parameters the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were determined before and after exercise. The average performed work was 3261.3 ± 558.3 J · kg-1 and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max for all players was 53.85 ± 3.91 mL · kg-1 min-1. The geometric mean of the ADRB2 gene expression was statistically significantly different before and after exercise (P ≤ 0.05, while adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in plasma significantly increased after exercise. In the analysed group of athletes we found that initial level of plasma noradrenaline correlated with the performed work (r = - 0.55, P < 0.014 and normalized ADRB2 expression before the exercise correlated with the work done by them (r = 0.48, P<0.039. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the plasma adrenaline or noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood of the players. The performed work in the maximal incremental exercise test of regularly training young ice hockey players depends on the initial levels of noradrenaline in plasma and ADRB2 mRNA in PBMC.
Schultz, Pamela N; Beck, Martha L; Stava, Charles; Sellin, Rena V
New and more effective treatments for cancer have resulted in individuals living longer with a better quality of life. Many more survivors are employed in the workplace. Cancer is no longer only an issue for survivors and their families; it has become an issue for the employer and the workplace. This article describes survey results of 4,364 long term cancer survivors in which they were asked to respond to items describing their ability to work, job discrimination, and quality of life. Thirty-five percent of survivors were working at the time they completed the survey, and 8.5% considered themselves unable to work. This research has shown that age, gender, ethnic group, and cancer type affected the working status of the survivors. Of survivors continuing to work, 7.3% indicated they had experienced job discrimination. The results indicate most cancer survivors do not perceive employment related problems, and are readily assimilated into the work force. Job discrimination and the ability to work is a quality of life issue.
Morineau, Thierry; Riffaud, Laurent; Morandi, Xavier; Villain, Jonathan; Jannin, Pierre
Three main approaches can be identified for modelling surgical performance: a competency-based approach, a task-based approach, both largely explored in the literature, and a less known work domain-based approach. The work domain-based approach first describes the work domain properties that constrain the agent's actions and shape the performance. This paper presents a work domain-based approach for modelling performance during cervical spine surgery, based on the idea that anatomical structures delineate the surgical performance. This model was evaluated through an analysis of junior and senior surgeons' actions. Twenty-four cervical spine surgeries performed by two junior and two senior surgeons were recorded in real time by an expert surgeon. According to a work domain-based model describing an optimal progression through anatomical structures, the degree of adjustment of each surgical procedure to a statistical polynomial function was assessed. Each surgical procedure showed a significant suitability with the model and regression coefficient values around 0.9. However, the surgeries performed by senior surgeons fitted this model significantly better than those performed by junior surgeons. Analysis of the relative frequencies of actions on anatomical structures showed that some specific anatomical structures discriminate senior from junior performances. The work domain-based modelling approach can provide an overall statistical indicator of surgical performance, but in particular, it can highlight specific points of interest among anatomical structures that the surgeons dwelled on according to their level of expertise.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den
Introduction Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work.
Blyth, Fiona M; March, Lyn M; Nicholas, Michael K; Cousins, Michael J
The overall population impact of chronic pain on work performance has been underestimated as it has often been described in terms of work-related absence, excluding more subtle effects that chronic pain may have on the ability to work effectively. Additionally, most studies have focussed on occupational and/or patient cohorts and treatment seeking, rather than sampling from the general population. We undertook a population-based random digit dialling computer-assisted telephone survey with participants randomly selected within households in order to measure the impact of chronic pain on work performance. In addition, we measured the association between pain-related disability and litigation. The study took place in Northern Sydney Health Area, a geographically defined urban area of New South Wales, Australia, and included 484 adults aged 18 or over with chronic pain. The response rate was 73.4%. Working with pain was more common (on an average 83.8 days in 6 months) than lost work days due to pain (4.5 days) among chronic pain participants in full-time or part-time employment. When both lost work days and reduced-effectiveness work days were summed, an average of 16.4 lost work day equivalents occurred in a 6-month period, approximately three times the average number of lost work days. In multiple logistic regression modelling with pain-related disability as the dependent variable, past or present pain-related litigation had the strongest association (odds ratio (OR)=3.59, P=0.001). In conclusion, chronic pain had a larger impact on work performance than has previously been recognised, related to reduced performance while working with pain. A significant proportion were able to work effectively with pain, suggesting that complete relief of pain may not be an essential therapeutic target. Litigation (principally work-related) for chronic pain was strongly associated with higher levels of pain-related disability, even after taking into account other factors
Bazant, Eva; Sarkar, Supriya; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Shasulwe, Hildah; Mulilo, Joyce Monica Chongo; Kim, Young Mi
Human resource shortages and reforms in HIV-related care make it challenging for frontline health care providers in southern Africa to deliver high-quality services. At health facilities of the Zambian Defence Forces, a performance and quality improvement approach was implemented to improve HIV-related care and was evaluated in 2010/2011. Changes in providers' work environment and perceived quality of HIV-related care were assessed to complement data of provider performance. The intervention involved on-site training, supportive supervision, and action planning focusing on detailed service delivery standards. The quasi-experimental evaluation collected pre- and post-intervention data from eight intervention and comparison facilities matched on defence force branch and baseline client volume. Overall, 101 providers responded to a 24-item questionnaire on the work environment, covering topics of drugs, supplies, and equipment; training, feedback, and supervision; compensation; staffing; safety; fulfilment; and HIV services quality. In bivariate analysis and multivariate analyses, we assessed changes within each study group and between the two groups. In the bivariate analysis, the intervention group providers reported improvements in the work environment on adequacy of equipment, feeling safe from harm, confidence in clinical skills, and reduced isolation, while the comparison group reported worsening of the work environment on supplies, training, safety, and departmental morale.In the multivariate analysis, the intervention group's improvement and the comparison group's decline were significant on perceived adequacy of drugs, supplies, and equipment; constructive feedback received from supervisor and co-workers; and feeling safe from physical harm (all P equipment). Further, the item "provider lacks confidence in some clinical skills" declined in the intervention group but increased in the comparison group (P = -0.005). In multivariate analysis, changes in perceived
Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James; Elliott, Mark A; Gerraty, Raphael T; Calkins, Monica E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Wolf, Daniel H
The ventral striatum (VS) is a critical brain region for reinforcement learning and motivation. Intrinsically motivated subjects performing challenging cognitive tasks engage reinforcement circuitry including VS even in the absence of external feedback or incentives. However, little is known about how such VS responses develop with age, relate to task performance, and are influenced by task difficulty. Here we used fMRI to examine VS activation to correct and incorrect responses during a standard n-back working memory task in a large sample (n=304) of healthy children, adolescents and young adults aged 8-22. We found that bilateral VS activates more strongly to correct than incorrect responses, and that the VS response scales with the difficulty of the working memory task. Furthermore, VS response was correlated with discrimination performance during the task, and the magnitude of VS response peaked in mid-adolescence. These findings provide evidence for scalable intrinsic reinforcement signals during standard cognitive tasks, and suggest a novel link between motivation and cognition during adolescent development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hooftman, Wendela E; Koppes, Lando L J; van den Bossche, Seth N J
Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work. In this cross-sectional study, data of the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey of 2007 were used, which includes a national representative sample of 22,759 employees aged 15 to 64 years. Demographic characteristics, health-related and work-related factors were assessed with a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship of work-related and health-related factors with low performance at work and sickness absence in the past 12 months. Poor general health, the number of longstanding health conditions, and most types of longstanding health conditions were associated with productivity loss. Health-related factors were in general stronger associated with sickness absence than with low performance at work. Performance: poor health OR 1.54 CI 1.38-1.71, >1 health conditions OR 1.21 CI 1.09-1.35; sickness absence: poor health OR 2.62 CI 2.33-2.93, >1 health conditions OR 2.47 CI 2.21-2.75. Of the different types of longstanding health conditions, only psychological complaints and to a small extent musculoskeletal symptoms, were associated with low performance (respectively OR 1.54 CI 1.27-1.87; OR 1.09 CI 1.00-1.18). Low performance at work was less likely among employees with high physically demanding work (shift work OR 0.70 CI 0.63-0.76, using force OR 0.78 CI 0.72-0.84, and repetitive movements OR 0.74 CI 0.70-0.79). Psychosocial factors were stronger associated with low performance at work than with sickness absence (performance: job autonomy OR 1.28 CI 1.21-1.37, job demands OR 1.23 CI 1.16-1.31, emotionally demanding work OR 1.73 CI 1.62-1.85; sickness absence: job autonomy ns, job demands OR 1.09 CI 1.03-1.17, emotionally demanding work OR
Cynthia J Patel
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between family-work conflict, job performance and selected work and family characteristics in a sample of working mothers employed at a large retail organization. The hypothesis of a negative relationship between family-work conflict and job performance was rejected. Married women reported significantly higher family-work conflict than unmarried women, while women in the highest work category gained the highest job performance rating. More than half the sample indicated that paid work was more important than their housework and reported that their working had a positive impact on their families. The findings are discussed in relation to the changing work and family identities of non-career women.
Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.
de Vries, Haitze J; Reneman, Michiel F; Groothoff, Johan W; Geertzen, Jan H B; Brouwer, Sandra
To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index, single item scale 0-10) and work performance (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, scale 0-10) among 119 workers who continued work while having CMP. Scores of work ability and work performance were categorized into excellent (10), good (9), moderate (8) and poor (0-7). Hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation of socio-demographic, pain-related, personal- and work-related variables with work ability and work performance. Mean work ability and work performance were 7.1 and 7.7 (poor to moderate). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that higher work ability scores were associated with lower age, better general health perception, and higher pain self-efficacy beliefs (R(2) = 42 %). Higher work performance was associated with lower age, higher pain self-efficacy beliefs, lower physical work demand category and part-time work (R(2) = 37 %). Logistic regression analysis revealed that work ability ≥8 was significantly explained by age (OR = 0.90), general health perception (OR = 1.04) and pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.15). Work performance ≥8 was explained by pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.11). Many workers with CMP who stay at work report poor to moderate work ability and work performance. Our findings suggest that a subgroup of workers with CMP can stay at work with high work ability and performance, especially when they have high beliefs of pain self-efficacy. Our results further show that not the pain itself, but personal and work-related factors relate to work ability and work performance.
Lindström, Björn R; Bohlin, Gunilla
The effect of emotional stimulus content on working memory performance has been investigated with conflicting results, as both emotion-dependent facilitation and impairments are reported in the literature. To clarify this issue, 52 adult participants performed a modified visual 2-back task with highly arousing positive stimuli (sexual scenes), highly arousing negative stimuli (violent death) and low-arousal neutral stimuli. Emotional stimulus processing was found to facilitate task performance relative to that of neutral stimuli, both in regards to response accuracy and reaction times. No emotion-dependent differences in false-alarm rates were found. These results indicate that emotional information can have a facilitating effect on working memory maintenance and processing of information.
Eckleberry-Hunt, Jodie; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Taku, Kanako; Hunt, Ronald; Vasappa, Rashmi
Although we know much about work-related physician burnout and the subsequent negative effects, we do not fully understand work-related physician wellness. Likewise, the relation of wellness and burnout to physician happiness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how physician burnout and wellness contribute to happiness. We sampled 2000 full-time physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Respondents completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about workload, the Physician Wellness Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. We performed a hierarchical regression analysis with the burnout and wellness subscales as predictor variables and physician happiness as the outcome variable. Our response rate was 22%. Career purpose, personal accomplishment, and perception of workload manageability had significant positive correlations with physician happiness. Distress had a significant negative correlation with physician happiness. A sense of career meaning and accomplishment, along with a lack of distress, are important factors in determining physician happiness. The number of hours a physician works is not related to happiness, but the perceived ability to manage workload was significantly related to happiness. Wellness-promotion efforts could focus on assisting physicians with skills to manage the workload by eliminating unnecessary tasks or sharing workload among team members, improving feelings of work accomplishment, improving career satisfaction and meaning, and managing distress related to patient care.
Koopmans, L.; Coffeng, J.K.; Bernaards, C.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed.
Koopmans, L.; Coffeng, J.K.; Bernaards, C.M.; Boot, C.R.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed.
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; van Buuren, S.; van der Beek, A.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.
The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). The IWPQ was based on a four-dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted
Christensen, Lars Rune; Jensen, Rasmus Eskild; Bjørn, Pernille
Creating social ties are important for collaborative work; however, in geographically distributed organizations e.g. global software development, making social ties requires extra work: Relation work. We find that characteristics of relation work as based upon shared history and experiences......, emergent in personal and often humorous situations. Relation work is intertwined with other activities such as articulation work and it is rhythmic by following the work patterns of the participants. By comparing how relation work is conducted in collocated and geographically distributed settings we...... in this paper identify basic differences in relation work. Whereas collocated relation work is spontaneous, place-centric, and yet mobile, relation work in a distributed setting is semi-spontaneous, technology-mediated, and requires extra efforts....
Zghal-Mokni, Imen; Nacef, Leila; Kaoueche, Mourad; Letaief, Imen; Bouguila, Hedi; Jeddi, Amel; Ayed, Saida
Occupational injury represents 7,7 at 69,9% of the total ocular traumatisms. They can be a major source of visuel loss and blindness. The aim is to study the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries: objects frequencies,works most exposed. We performed a prospective study that interest 78 patients having a work-related ocular traumatism during a 4 months period. They were admitted at ocular emergeney All patients underwent an ophtalmologic examination completed with orbital radiography and echography. A medical and/or chirurgical appropriate treatment was institued. Occupationnal injury frequency was 9% of the whole ocular traumatisms in the same period. The mean age was 31 years. 55% of cases were under 30 years. 91% were male. Most exposed works were industrial and mecanical sectors In 70,5% of cases work-related eye injuries were caused by projectile objects. Most common lesion was corneal superficial foreign body (58%). Open globe injury was noted in 8%. 95% of patients had no eye protection at the time of the accident. 13% were blind or unilateral partially sighted (according to the OMS classification). The authors discussed the importance and different prevention strategies to prevent the risk of blindness and socio-economical cost of occupationnal accidents. There is a need for systematic periodic sensibilization to reduce these accidents and blindness.
... inmate may receive performance pay only for that portion of the month that the inmate was working... Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule... work and performance pay by removing redundant language and provisions that relate solely to staff...
Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung
Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Huang, Anna S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Leung, Hoi-Chung
Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9–12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. PMID:26562059
Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.
Ashcraft, Mark H; Krause, Jeremy A
The cognitive literature now shows how critically math performance depends on working memory, for any form of arithmetic and math that involves processes beyond simple memory retrieval. The psychometric literature is also very clear on the global consequences of mathematics anxiety. People who are highly math anxious avoid math: They avoid elective coursework in math, both in high school and college, they avoid college majors that emphasize math, and they avoid career paths that involve math. We go beyond these psychometric relationships to examine the cognitive consequences of math anxiety. We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety.
Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2014) > ... Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the common occupational ... of the doctor, duration of practice, working hours per week, physical activity and working environment.
Scholtens, B.; Zhou, Y.
We analyze how shareholder performance can be associated with stakeholder relations. As such, we try to find out whether there is an association between financial performance and stakeholder relations with respect to different theoretical notions about the firm. Financial performance is
Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam
Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a ...
In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, moral...
Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a varie...
Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...
Tomei, G; Ricci, S; Fidanza, L; Sacco, C; De Cesare, D P; Ricci, P; Pimpinella, B; Giubilati, R; Suppi, A; Anzelmo, V; Tomei, F; Casale, T; Rosati, M V
In the assessment of work-related stress it is crucial to find the factors that generate and increase it in order to identify categories of individuals at risk, to plan interventions for prevention, elimination or reduction of risk. The aim of the study is to assess the subjective stress in 68 workers of a large Italian company dealing with human health, through the use of a questionnaire-indicating tool, elaborated by the Italian National Institute for insurance against accidents at work (INAIL) and developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). We studied a final sample of 68 individuals (34 drivers/rescuers and 34 video display unit (VDU) operators). The questionnaire consists of 35 items (divided into six areas) with five possible answers each, that cover working conditions considered potential causes of stress. The drivers/rescuers had a better performance than the VDU operators, especially in the areas "demand", "relationships" and "role". We compared men and women in the two groups, finding that, in VDU operators, women had a better performance than men in all areas, except "role" and "changes", in which the overall scores were the same in men and women. In the drivers/rescuers women showed more critical scores in the items "relationships" and "change". The results show that: the questionnaire-indicating tool is useful, with a demonstrated effectiveness for the occupational physician during the visits and proven validity; additional future efforts should focus on understanding the psycho-social, organizational and individual problems related to stress and the consequent implementation of preventive measures.
Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
(Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...... efficiency and economic performance....
Cynthia J Patel; Vasanthee Govender; Zubeda Paruk; Sarojini Ramgoon
The present study examined the relationship between family-work conflict, job performance and selected work and family characteristics in a sample of working mothers employed at a large retail organization. The hypothesis of a negative relationship between family-work conflict and job performance was rejected. Married women reported significantly higher family-work conflict than unmarried women, while women in the highest work category gained the highest job performance rating. More than half...
Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam
Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a wide range of risk and externalizing behavior. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a model in which differential activation of the dorsal and ventral striatum produces imbalance in the function of these brain regions. For youth high in sensation seeking, both regions were predicted to develop with age. However, for youth high in the tendency to act without thinking, the ventral striatum was expected to dominate. The model predicted that working memory ability would exhibit (1) early weakness in youth high in acting without thinking but (2) growing strength in those high in sensation seeking. In addition, it predicted that (3) acting without thinking would be more strongly related to risk and externalizing behavior than sensation seeking. Finally, it predicted that (4) controlling for acting without thinking, sensation seeking would predict later increases in risky and externalizing behavior. All four of these predictions were confirmed. The results indicate that the rise in sensation seeking that occurs during adolescence is not accompanied by a deficit in executive function and therefore requires different intervention strategies from those for youth whose impulsivity is characterized by early signs of acting without thinking. PMID:21884327
Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee
The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...... that SP and CSE interact to influence performance. Implications are then discussed in terms of organizations’ ability to increase performance....
Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Buck, Rhiannon; Varnava, Alice; Phillips, Ceri; Main, Chris J
A number of factors influence an individual's decision to take sickness absence or to remain at work while ill. The relationship between health, work characteristics, individual perceptions of work and sickness absence and performance is complex and further clarification of the interactions between these factors is necessary. To assess the relative impact of health, work characteristics and perceptions of work on absence and performance. Cross-sectional survey of two public sector organizations (n = 505). Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression to assess the individual and combined influence of each class of independent variables on the following: days sickness absence, spells of sickness absence, VAS performance and presenteeism. Characteristics of work were weakly associated with days absence and performance. Perceptions of work were more strongly associated with performance than absence. Measures of mental health, rather than physical health, had the greatest influence on ability to work. Poor health had a greater impact on work performance than work absence. When considered together, health variables accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in both absence and performance when compared with characteristics of work and work perceptions. Using absence as a marker of health-associated compromise at work may lead to an underestimation of the impact of health on work. This study demonstrates the need to manage the impact of health problems on the workforce not only from a bio-medical perspective but also in terms of the psychological pressures and the social context in which employees work.
The main objective of this synthesis was to identify and summarize how agencies collect, analyze, and report different work-zone : traffic-performance measures, which include exposure, mobility, and safety measures. The researchers also examined comm...
Koopmans, Linda; Coffeng, Jennifer K; Bernaards, Claire M; Boot, Cécile RL; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica CW; van der Beek, Allard J
Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods. Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to inves...
Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.
Trukeschitz, Birgit; Schneider, Ulrike; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo
In light of an aging workforce, reconciling informal eldercare and paid work becomes increasingly pertinent. This article investigates the association between informal eldercare and work-related strain and tests for both the "competing demands" and "expansion" hypotheses. The sample of 938 Austrian employees consisted of employees caring for older relatives and a control group of employees without eldercare obligations. We ran a Tobit regression model on work-related strain with different measures of informal eldercare as explanatory variables and controls for both personal and workplace characteristics. Accounting for different characteristics of eldercare within one estimation model revealed that informal eldercare was associated with work-related strain in 2 ways, that is, it increased with both care hours and subjective care burden. However, after controlling for these burdensome attributes of eldercare, the carer status as such was found to be negatively associated with work-related strain. In addition and independently of care commitments, work-related factors, such as advanced skills and job motivation, reduced work-related strain. This article lends support to both the "competing demands" and the "expansion" hypotheses. Commitment to eldercare can enhance work-related outcomes but entails work-related problems if care burden and time demands of eldercare are substantial. Thus, workers with eldercare responsibilities cannot be considered less productive from the outset. An individual assessment of their situation, considering the care and work setting, is required. Findings from this study support the design of workplace initiatives to uphold workers' productivity in general and bring specific attention to policies alleviating workers' eldercare burden.
Meriac, John P.
In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…
Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene
Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical examinat......Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical....... Conclusions: Our data partially support that social relations at work are associated with incident dementia....
Olesen, Henning Salling
which reflects the societal transitions. The aim of this article is to consider the connection between these theoretical and methodological questions: Studies into subjective processes (individual and collective learning and identity processes) helps us theorise the contradictory and asynchronous nature...... of individuals’ subjective relation to work and work related learning have revealed a close connection between gender relations and societal work organisation. This observation has become particularly pointed in studies of a number of professions dealing with traditional ‘women’s work’, in which the close links...... of individual and collective learning and identity processes....
The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...... from both ecology and economics with focus on some important predecessors for ecological economics. I conclude with reflections on how to proceed with consumption studies to provide the basis for promoting more sustainable life patterns....
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to
Héctor Florencio Martínez Pérez
The objective of this research is to describe the work performance of employees with hearing disabilities in education and their communication style. Theoretically, Karns, Dow and Neville (2012), postulated that the deaf processed Visual and tactile stimuli in their tasks. In job performance there are the contributions of Treviño et al (2010), Chiavenato (2009, 2011) and Robbins and Judge (2009). Venezuelan laws are included as basis and strengthening of inclution-participation of the deaf. T...
With 'Elektrizitaets-AG Mitteldeutschland (EAM)' (power corporation central Germany) - head office in Kassel and five works maintained in Kassel, Goettingen, Marburg, Dillenburg and Hanau - public relations work has a tradition. It is seen as conscious, planned and continued effort to build up the public understanding: Public relations work is intended to present the enterprise as a community with a multitude of technical, economic and social tasks, which can be carried out with optimal success only if supported by the confidence of society.
Ng, Jacky Y K; Chan, Alan H S
The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force.
Ng, Jacky Y. K.
The shortage in Hong Kong of construction workers is expected to worsen in future due to the aging population and increasing construction activity. Construction work is dangerous and to help reduce the premature loss of construction workers due to work-related disabilities, this study measured the work ability of 420 Hong Kong construction workers with a Work Ability Index (WAI) which can be used to predict present and future work performance. Given the importance of WAI, in this study the effects of individual and work-related factors on WAI were examined to develop and validate a WAI model to predict how individual and work-related factors affect work ability. The findings will be useful for formulating a pragmatic intervention program to improve the work ability of construction workers and keep them in the work force. PMID:29758018
Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark
The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…
H.D. Pruijt (Hans)
textabstractAn examination of the deep structure of the discourse on the organization of work shows that the most successful texts share a common structure: they construct an ideal model in which performance and quality go hand in hand. They provide explanations for the self-constructed gap between
Intensive discussions within the OECD Support Group on 'VVER-440 Bubbler Condenser Containment Research Work' between 1991 and 1994 demonstrated the need for supplementary research work to achieve an adequate level of basic knowledge. In 1994, the European Commission (EC) asked for a specific 'VVER-440/213 Bubble Condenser Qualification Feasibility Study', which was finished early in 1996, confirming the need for additional research in this field. The Feasibility study formed the basis for the Bubble Condenser Experimental Qualification Project (BCEQ) with two separate experimental activities to be executed within the frame of the PHARE/TACIS 2.13/95 project of the European Commission. A first activity served to study the thermal-hydraulic phenomena and the associated structure dynamic interactions. This part of the project was performed at EREC, in Elektrogorsk, Russia. The design of the test facility was based on the prototypical bubbler condenser configuration for the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant. A second activity addressed the structural integrity of certain components of the bubbler condenser steel structures under DBA-typical conditions. This part of the project was performed at VUEZ, in Levice, Slovak Republic. The design of the components of this facility was based on the structural properties of the Dukovany and/or Bohunice nuclear power plants. A third component of the BCEQ project was specified later asking for analytical studies, which should be supported by a number of small-scale separate effects tests to be performed at SVUSS, in Bechovice, Czech Republic. The main experimental and analytical results of the BCEQ test campaigns have been presented and discussed within the frame of the 4. meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee to the BCEQ (Bubble Condenser Experimental Qualification) Project in Brussels in December 1999 and on occasion of the 11. OECD Support Group Meeting in Berlin in April 2000. The discussions had evidenced several
Arundel, Anthony; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
It is widely recognised that while expenditures on research and development are important inputs to successful innovation, these are not the only inputs. Further, rather than viewing innovation as a linear process, recent work on innovation in business and economics literatures characterises...... that are used to explore at the level of national innovation systems the relation between innovation and the organisation of work. In order to construct these aggregate measures we make use of micro data from two European surveys: the third European survey of Working Conditions and the third Community...... Innovation Survey (CIS-3). Although our data can only show correlations rather than causality they support the view that how firms innovate is linked to the way work is organised to promote learning and problem-solving....
de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.
de Bloom, Jessica; Kinnunen, Ulla; Korpela, Kalevi
We examined energy management during work, recovery experiences after work and their connections to health, work engagement, and job performance. An online survey was completed by 1208 Finnish employees. Energy management was assessed through 13 strategies and recovery experiences through four experiences. As outcomes of recovery, we examined self-reported health, work engagement, and job performance. On average, employees applied three energy management strategies. The most beneficial strategies were work-related: shifting focus, goal setting, and helping coworkers. Both energy management and recovery experiences contributed to the outcomes. Employees benefit in terms of energy from shifting their focus to positive aspects of their jobs and demonstrating proactive social behavior at work. Recovery processes during and after work are closely connected to each other, to well-being and performance at work.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003, fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035 and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02. Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008, fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037 and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024. For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93. Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope
Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Hübner, Claudia; Wodny, Michael; Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel
The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health support programmes. ISRCTN96340690.
Strong, M.G.; Weyers, L.L.
A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion
Full Text Available Background & objective: High workload may lead to increase human errors, compromise quality and safety of care, and reduce the nurses’ quality of working life. The aim of this study is to determine the task-induced workload in nursing. Methods: This is a descriptive analytical study. All of 214 nurses of one of the educational hospital took part in. After obtaining informed consent from participants, data were collected based on NASA-TLX questionnaire and the desired level assumed less than 50%. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistics and Anova in SPSS software (version 11. 0 at significant level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that perceived mental pressure for nurses is more than other NASA-TLX subscales (P< .001. Also, the mean perceived workload was more than 50%. However, mean workload score of NASA-TLX showed significant correlation with age (P< .001, work experience (P< .001, shift work (P< .02, and department (P< .001. Conclusion: The results show that effective programs will be required to reduce the work load, and to enhance nurses' performance
Background Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and relaxation of office workers, on need for recovery. Individual work performance was a secondary outcome measure of the trial. In total, 39 hypotheses were formulated concerning correlations between changes on the IWPQ scales and changes on similar constructs (e.g., presenteeism) and distinct constructs (e.g., need for recovery) used in the trial. Results 260 Participants completed the IWPQ at both baseline and 12 months of follow-up. For the IWPQ scales, 23%, 15%, and 38%, respectively, of the hypotheses could be confirmed. In general, the correlations between change scores were weaker than expected. Nevertheless, at least 85% of the correlations were in the expected direction. Conclusions Based on results of the current study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Several reasons may account for the weaker than expected correlations. Future research on the IWPQ’s responsiveness should be conducted, preferably in other populations and intervention studies, where greater changes over time can be expected. PMID:24885593
Lerner, Debra; Mirza, Fadi G; Mirza, Fadi; Chang, Hong; Renzulli, Karen; Perch, Katherine; Chelmow, David
To assess the work impact of symptomatic uterine fibroids (UFs). A cohort study compared 58 employed women with symptomatic UFs to 56 healthy controls. Data sources included a self-administered mail questionnaire and medical charts. At-work performance limitations and productivity loss were measured with the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate case-control group differences were tested. Based on adjusted mean scores, the UF group had significantly more at-work limitations and productivity loss than controls, while absence rates were similar. The UF group's performance was impaired 18% of the time on average versus 8% for controls (P-values, 0.005-0.040). At-work limitations were explained by depression symptoms, Non-White race/ethnicity, and poorer health-related quality of life. Fibroids and related symptoms impose a burden on the working lives' of women, their employers, and the economy.
Morisseau, D.S.; Lewis, P.M.; Persensky, J.J.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has had a policy, Generic Letter 82-12, on hours of work since 1982. The policy states that licensees should establish controls to prevent situations where fatigue could reduce the ability of operating personnel to perform their duties safely (USNRC 1982). While that policy does give guidance on hours of work and overtime, it does not address periods of longer than 7 days or work schedules other than the routine 8-hour day, 40-hour week. Recognizing that NRC policy could provide broader guidance for shift schedules and hours of overtime work, the Division of Human Factors Safety conducted a project with Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) to help the NRC better understand the human factors principles and issues concerning hours of work so that the NRC could consider updating their policy as necessary. The results of this project are recommendations for guidelines and limits for periods of 14 days, 28 days, and 1 year to take into account the cumulative effects of fatigue. In addition, routine 12-hour shifts are addressed. This latter type of shift schedule has been widely adopted in the petroleum and chemical industries and several utilities operating nuclear power plants have adopted it as well. Since this is the case, it is important to consider including guidelines for implementing this type of schedule. This paper discusses the bases for the PNL recommendations which are currently being studied by the NRC
Full Text Available Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind
This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind/body health care for stress
Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.
There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several
Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; De Pauw, Kevin; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; Meeusen, Romain
The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effect of implementing bike desks in an office setting on physical health, cognition, and work parameters. Physical health, cognitive function, work engagement, and work performance measured before (T0) and after (T2) the intervention period were compared between office workers who used the bike desk (IG, n = 22) and those who did not (CG, n = 16). The IG cycled approximately 98 minutes/week. The IG showed a significantly lower fat percentage and a trend toward a higher work engagement at T2 relative to T0, while this was not different for the CG. No effects on other parameters of health, cognition, or work performance were found. Providing bike desks in the office positively influences employees' fat percentage and could positively influence work engagement without compromising work performance.
Kattenbach, R.; Demerouti, E.; Nachreiner, F.
Purpose - The aim of this study is to provide a useful conceptualization of flexible working times and to examine the relationships between flexible working times and employees' well-being and peer ratings of performance. It is supposed that an employee's "time-autonomy" would be positively related
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Bachman, Jerald G
Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work.
Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette
The understanding of materials as active, whether compressed, under tension or flexed while handled, is at the root of all craft traditions. The ability to work a material, to saw and chisel wood, to weld and hammer steel or to weave and knit yarn relies on a profound understanding of its...... performance. The soft flex of wood, the sprung stiffness of steel and the tensile elasticity of yarn are inherent properties that inform and shape our crafts traditions. It is through material understanding that we come to shape the world of artefacts and structure that surrounds us....
Héctor Florencio Martínez Pérez
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the work performance of employees with hearing disabilities in education and their communication style. Theoretically, Karns, Dow and Neville (2012, postulated that the deaf processed Visual and tactile stimuli in their tasks. In job performance there are the contributions of Treviño et al (2010, Chiavenato (2009, 2011 and Robbins and Judge (2009. Venezuelan laws are included as basis and strengthening of inclution-participation of the deaf. The methodology is phenomenological-hermeneutical (Van Manen, 2003, using techniques and tools as participant observation, interview and questionnaire, respectively. As a result it was obtained that deaf people role is skillfully in their jobs, provided they do not involve hearing and his style of communication is respected; they are more responsible, punctual, and collaborators. It is recommended to avoid understatement, pity and increase knowledge about the skills of the deaf; all capabilities are so valued.
Österberg, Kai; Skogsliden, Sofia; Karlson, Björn
The aim was to assess long-term cognitive performance after substantial recovery from work-stress-related exhaustion, in relation to subjective cognitive complaints and return to active work. In total, 54 patients previously diagnosed with work-stress-related exhaustion participated in a neuropsychological examination ∼2 years after initial sick leave. Most participants were substantially recovered at follow-up, with only 13% still meeting the criteria for exhaustion disorder suggested by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. When participants' scores on 14 neuropsychological tests were compared to a matched group of 50 controls, the former patient group showed lower performance mainly on attention tests of the reaction time type, but also slightly lower scores on visuo-spatial constructional ability. However, the former patient group performed better than controls on two memory tests and, in part, on a test of simultaneous capacity. Self-ratings of everyday cognitive problems remained significantly higher in the former patient group than among controls, but the extent of self-rated cognitive problems was generally unrelated to performance on the neuropsychological tests. No relationship between performance on these tests and the extent of work resumption was observed. In summary, persons with previous work-stress-related exhaustion showed persistent signs of a minor attention deficit, despite considerable general recovery and return to work.
Emmerich, Astrid I; Rigotti, Thomas
This study investigates the role of context-specific authenticity at work for work-related outcomes (intrinsic motivation, work ability) and depressivity. Furthermore reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are investigated. Longitudinal data from 1,243 employees from 63 subsidiaries of a non-profit organization in the social sector were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Work-related authenticity at T1 predicted work ability and depressivity, but not intrinsic motivation at T2, about 6 months later. Work-related authenticity at T2 was predicted by intrinsic motivation and depressivity, but not by work ability at T1. We conclude that work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are positively reinforcing each other. Thus, enabling employees to be authentic supposedly increases their well-being and is a pivotal opportunity for organizations to foster health and performance-related indicators like work ability and prevent negative health indicators like depressivity. At the same time, authenticity of employees can be fostered through workplace health promotion.
Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki
We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)
Vente, W. de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.; Emmelkamp, P.M.
Purpose The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the
de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the
Airila, Auli; Hakanen, Jari; Punakallio, Anne; Lusa, Sirpa; Luukkonen, Ritva
To examine the associations of age, lifestyle and work-related factors, and particularly work engagement with the work ability index (WAI) and its sub-dimensions. Step-wise regression analysis with a sample of Finnish firefighters (n = 403) was used. The outcome variables were the WAI and its six sub-dimensions. The independent variables consisted of age, lifestyle variables (alcohol consumption, BMI, smoking, physical exercise, and sleep problems), working conditions (job demands, physical workload, supervisory relations, and task resources), and work engagement. The outcome variables and all the variables related to lifestyle, working conditions, and work engagement were measured in 2009. Work ability at baseline 10 years earlier was adjusted for in the models. Work engagement, age, physical exercise, sleep problems, and physical workload were associated with the WAI. All independent variables, except BMI and alcohol consumption, were associated with at least one sub-dimension of the WAI after controlling the baseline WAI. Lifestyle variables, working conditions, and work engagement were more strongly related to the subjective WAI sub-dimensions than to the two more objective WAI sub-dimensions. Work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various factors, indicating its importance in promoting work ability. Other key factors for good work ability were frequent exercise, good sleep, non-smoking, low job demands, low physical workload, and high task resources. More specifically, this study suggests that in maintaining work ability, it is valuable not only to promote lifestyle factors or working conditions, but also to enhance employees' positive state of work engagement.
Santos, Jaime Eduardo Vieira da Silva Moutinho; Ribeiro, Pedro; Kirchner, Stefan
We propose an experimental setup to measure the work performed in a normal-metal/insulator/superconducting (NIS) junction, subjected to a voltage change and in contact with a thermal bath. We compute the performed work and argue that the associated heat release can be measured experimentally. Our...... results are based on an equivalence between the dynamics of the NIS junction and that of an assembly of two-level systems subjected to a circularly polarised field, for which we can determine the work-characteristic function exactly. The average work dissipated by the NIS junction, as well as its...... fluctuations, are determined. From the work characteristic function, we also compute the work probability-distribution and show that it does not have a Gaussian character. Our results allow for a direct experimental test of the Crooks–Tasaki fluctuation relation....
Santos, Jaime E; Ribeiro, Pedro; Kirchner, Stefan
We propose an experimental setup to measure the work performed in a normal-metal/insulator/superconducting (NIS) junction, subjected to a voltage change and in contact with a thermal bath. We compute the performed work and argue that the associated heat release can be measured experimentally. Our results are based on an equivalence between the dynamics of the NIS junction and that of an assembly of two-level systems subjected to a circularly polarised field, for which we can determine the work-characteristic function exactly. The average work dissipated by the NIS junction, as well as its fluctuations, are determined. From the work characteristic function, we also compute the work probability-distribution and show that it does not have a Gaussian character. Our results allow for a direct experimental test of the Crooks–Tasaki fluctuation relation. (paper)
Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan
Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...
Adam, Kirsten C S; Robison, Matthew K; Vogel, Edward K
Neural measures of working memory storage, such as the contralateral delay activity (CDA), are powerful tools in working memory research. CDA amplitude is sensitive to working memory load, reaches an asymptote at known behavioral limits, and predicts individual differences in capacity. An open question, however, is whether neural measures of load also track trial-by-trial fluctuations in performance. Here, we used a whole-report working memory task to test the relationship between CDA amplitude and working memory performance. If working memory failures are due to decision-based errors and retrieval failures, CDA amplitude would not differentiate good and poor performance trials when load is held constant. If failures arise during storage, then CDA amplitude should track both working memory load and trial-by-trial performance. As expected, CDA amplitude tracked load (Experiment 1), reaching an asymptote at three items. In Experiment 2, we tracked fluctuations in trial-by-trial performance. CDA amplitude was larger (more negative) for high-performance trials compared with low-performance trials, suggesting that fluctuations in performance were related to the successful storage of items. During working memory failures, participants oriented their attention to the correct side of the screen (lateralized P1) and maintained covert attention to the correct side during the delay period (lateralized alpha power suppression). Despite the preservation of attentional orienting, we found impairments consistent with an executive attention theory of individual differences in working memory capacity; fluctuations in executive control (indexed by pretrial frontal theta power) may be to blame for storage failures.
Work-related stress adversely affects personal performance, organizational efficiency and patient care as well as costing the NHS millions of pounds each year. Reducing the effects of work-related stress is a legal duty for all employers. There are a number of resources available to help both employees and employers, such as the Health and Safety Executive stress management standards. Personal life coaching is one approach to reducing work-related stress, which is well established amongst business and management executives as well as some public sector organizations.
Alali, Hanan; Braeckman, Lutgart; Van Hecke, Tanja; De Clercq, Bart; Janssens, Heidi; Wahab, Magd Abdel
The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between indicators of non-standard work arrangements, including precarious contract, long working hours, multiple jobs, shift work, and work-related accident absence, using a representative Belgian sample and considering several socio-demographic and work characteristics. This study was based on the data of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). For the analysis, the sample was restricted to 3343 respondents from Belgium who were all employed workers. The associations between non-standard work arrangements and work-related accident absence were studied with multivariate logistic regression modeling techniques while adjusting for several confounders. During the last 12 months, about 11.7% of workers were absent from work because of work-related accident. A multivariate regression model showed an increased injury risk for those performing shift work (OR 1.546, 95% CI 1.074-2.224). The relationship between contract type and occupational injuries was not significant (OR 1.163, 95% CI 0.739-1.831). Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were observed for those performing long working hours (OR 1.217, 95% CI 0.638-2.321) and those performing multiple jobs (OR 1.361, 95% CI 0.827-2.240) in relation to work-related accident absence. Those who rated their health as bad, low educated workers, workers from the construction sector, and those exposed to biomechanical exposure (BM) were more frequent victims of work-related accident absence. No significant gender difference was observed. Indicators of non-standard work arrangements under this study, except shift work, were not significantly associated with work-related accident absence. To reduce the burden of occupational injuries, not only risk reduction strategies and interventions are needed but also policy efforts are to be undertaken to limit shift work. In general, preventive measures and more training on the job are needed to
Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Kompier, Michiel A J; Kecklund, Göran; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Geurts, Sabine A E
In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep quality. A randomly selected sample of Dutch employees received an online survey in 2012 and 2013. Of all invited employees, 877 participated in both waves. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. We found evidence for reversed relations between work-related stress and sleep quality. Specifically, when controlling for perseverative cognition, work-related stress was not directly related to subsequent sleep quality, but low sleep quality was associated with an increase in work-related stress over time. Moreover, negative bidirectional associations over time were found between perseverative cognition and sleep quality, and positive bidirectional associations were found between work-related stress and perseverative cognition. Lastly, a mediation analysis showed that perseverative cognition fully mediated the relationship between work-related stress and sleep quality. The study findings suggest that perseverative cognition could be an important underlying mechanism in the association between work-related stress and sleep quality. The bidirectionality of the studied relationships could be an indication of a vicious cycle, in which work-related stress, perseverative cognition, and sleep quality mutually influence each other over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J
Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.
Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I
In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.
Ptáček, Radek; Vňuková, Martina; Raboch, Jiří
In the past two decades, special attention was paid to mental health issues. The available literature suggests, for example, the relationship between the workload and mental discomfort and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. This article focuses mainly on the issue of work-related stress and its impact on mental health. In this context, it must be acknowledged that possible psychological problems due to work are not only employees problem. These difficulties can significantly affect performance - and thus they should be the concern of the employer, but also of customers, clients and patients who come into contact with the worker who might develop some mental problems, due to the nature of his work and working conditions. This article provides an overview of the various factors affecting the mental health of employees. These are, for example, work demands, working hours and workplace relations. In conclusion, it brings results of Czech study examining job stress among working population.
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.
BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der
BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This
Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G
The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Objective: To examine the construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). Methods: A total of 1424 Dutch workers from three occupational sectors (blue, pink, and white collar) participated in the study. First, IWPQ scores were correlated with related constructs
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der
OBJECTIVE:: To examine the construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). METHODS:: A total of 1424 Dutch workers from three occupational sectors (blue, pink, and white collar) participated in the study. First, IWPQ scores were correlated with related constructs
de Vries, Haitze J.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Brouwer, Sandra
Purpose To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index, single item scale 0-10) and work performance (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, scale 0-10) among 119 workers who continued work while having CMP. Scores of work ability and work performanc...
Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.
This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Objective: To examine the construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). Methods: A total of 1424 Dutch workers from three occupational sectors (blue, pink, and white collar) participated in the study. First, IWPQ scores were correlated with related constructs (convergent validity). Second, differences between known groups were tested (discriminative validity). Results: First, IWPQ scores correlated weakly to moderately with absolute and relative presenteeism, and...
This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which
van de Ven, Hardy A; Klein Hesselink, John; Bültmann, Ute; de Boer, Michiel R; de Looze, Michiel P; van der Klink, Jac J L; Brouwer, Sandra
The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of N=5640 employees of Tata Steel in the Netherlands were retrieved from the Occupational Health Service and company registers. Work outcomes related to sustainable employment were (i) temporarily being placed in less strenuous work, (ii) sickness absence ≥6 weeks, and (iii) leaving the organization. Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for all outcome measures. Similar predictors were found for shift and day workers although some differences were observed. For shift workers, high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease were important predictors for sickness absence. For day workers, insomnia was an important predictor of sickness absence ≥6 weeks. Similar predictors in magnitude and direction were found for work outcomes related to sustainable employment among shift and day workers. Interventions aimed at enhancing sustainable employability should focus on individual and work-related characteristics.
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
) the results of the bivariate metaanalyses indicate that CQ and its underlying dimensions are positively associated with expatriation intention, job satisfaction, cultural adjustment, transformational leadership, and different performance outcomes (task performance, contextual performance, and team performance...
Zhang, Lei; Huang, Chunping; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Wenhui; Yu, Long; Yao, Shengcai; Liao, Yunhua
To assess the impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) on work ability among workers. A total of 1686 workers in various occupations, such as administration and education, were enrolled as subjects using the random cluster sampling method. The WRMDs and work ability of all subjects were evaluated using standardized Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms and the Work Ability Index (WAI) scale, respectively. Comparison of work ability and its classification between the disease group and the non-disease group was performed by paired t test, RxC table χ2 test, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The relationship between work duration and work ability was analyzed by the Spearman correlation test and a multi-level model. (1). The work ability of workers in the disease group was significantly lower than that in the non-disease group (Pwork ability between workers with different work durations (work duration, the work ability of workers declined in both groups, and the work ability of workers in the disease group (Spearman coefficient rs=-0. 172, Pfactors for the decrease in work ability among workers. (3) There were significant differences in constituent ratios and levels of work ability classification between the disease group and the non-disease group (χ2=121.097, Ppoor and medium work ability in the disease group were significantly higher than those in the non-disease group, while the proportion of works with excellent work ability in the disease group was significantly lower than that in the non-disease group. The similar characteristics in constituent ratios and levels of work ability classification could be found between the disease group and the non- disease group in various occupations (Pwork ability of workers, and the work ability of workers substantially declines with the increase in exposure time (work duration).
Chi-Ming A. Chen
Full Text Available A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24 compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7 had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9. However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16 significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.
Chen, Chi-Ming A; Stanford, Arielle D; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C; Lisanby, Sarah H; Schroeder, Charles E; Kegeles, Lawrence S
A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case-control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7) had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9). However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16) significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.
Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Gunn, Deborah M; Leigh, Eleanor
This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related variance in complex span. Results showed that developmental improvements in complex span were driven by 2 age-related but separable factors: 1 associated with general speed of processing and 1 associated with storage ability. In addition, there was an age-related contribution shared between working memory, processing speed, and storage ability that was important for higher level cognition. These results pose a challenge for models of complex span performance that emphasize the importance of processing speed alone.
Barker, Linsey M; Nussbaum, Maury A
Fatigue is associated with increased rates of medical errors and healthcare worker injuries, yet existing research in this sector has not considered multiple dimensions of fatigue simultaneously. This study evaluated hypothesised causal relationships between mental and physical fatigue and performance. High and low levels of mental and physical fatigue were induced in 16 participants during simulated nursing work tasks in a laboratory setting. Task-induced changes in fatigue dimensions were quantified using both subjective and objective measures, as were changes in performance on physical and mental tasks. Completing the simulated work tasks increased total fatigue, mental fatigue and physical fatigue in all experimental conditions. Higher physical fatigue adversely affected measures of physical and mental performance, whereas higher mental fatigue had a positive effect on one measure of mental performance. Overall, these results suggest causal effects between manipulated levels of mental and physical fatigue and task-induced changes in mental and physical performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Nurse fatigue and performance has implications for patient and provider safety. Results from this study demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional view of fatigue in understanding the causal relationships between fatigue and performance. The findings can guide future work aimed at predicting fatigue-related performance decrements and designing interventions.
Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H; Chan, Darius K-S
This study investigated the effect of social work-related values on job performance through job satisfaction and tested whether age and work situation would moderate such associations. This study consists of two parts: Part 1 is a cross-sectional survey among 299 Chinese clerical employees aged 19-60 years and Part 2 is a 14-day experience sampling study in a subsample of Part 1 (N = 67). Part 1 revealed that age moderated the effect of social work-related values on job performance through job satisfaction, with a stronger positive effect in older workers than in younger workers. Part 2 demonstrated that the moderating effect of age shown in Part 1 also varied across work situations. In particular, holding momentary social work-related values was beneficial to the task performance of older workers, and the effect was significantly stronger when they were in social situations than in nonsocial situations, whereas the effect remained weak among younger workers regardless of work context. Moreover, the moderating effect of age could be accounted for by future time perspective. This study supports socioemotional selectivity theory that goal orientation shifts toward the emphasis of interpersonal closeness when one perceives future time as increasingly limited. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Park, Soon Woo; Kang, Young Joong; Eom, Huisu; Cho, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Jungho; Lee, Sang-Gil
The olfactory bulb is anatomically exposed and thus can be directly damaged by external stimulation. This can occur as an occupational injury owing to contact with organic solvents or other causes. We present cases of eight patients who sustained occupation-related exposure to potentially toxic substances and later presented with signs and symptoms of anosmia. We examined the occupational and medical characteristics of the patients and evaluated their work-relatedness. Case 1: A 50-year-old man performed high-frequency heat treatments for approximately 11 years. He experienced decreased senses for olfaction and taste during the later years culminating in the diagnosis of anosmia after 3 years (high work-relatedness). Case 2: A 54-year-old man whose work involved exposure to various organic solvents, such as spray painting and application of paint and thinners for approximately 4 years, was subsequently diagnosed with anosmia based on rhinorrhea, headache, and loss of olfaction (high work-relatedness). Case 3: A 44-year-old-man who performed spray painting for approximately 17 years developed anosmia (high work-relatedness). Case 4: A 44-year-old man was involved in ship engine cleaning once a month, for approximately 7 h per cleaning session; he was diagnosed with anosmia based on loss of olfaction (low work-relatedness). Case 5: A 41-year-old man worked in ship building block construction for approximately 13 years; anosmia diagnosis was based on loss of olfaction (low work-relatedness). Case 6: A 47-year-old woman performed product inspection and labeling at a plant manufacturing automobile parts; anosmia diagnosis was based on decreased olfaction and taste (low work-relatedness). Case 7: A 50-year-old woman performed epoxy coating in a plant manufacturing automobile parts; anosmia diagnosis was based on diminishing olfaction (low work-relatedness). Case 8: A 57-year-old woman performed cleaning of the area where mobile phone parts were manufactured
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work performed while traveling. 785.41 Section 785.41 Labor... Traveltime § 785.41 Work performed while traveling. Any work which an employee is required to perform while traveling must, of course, be counted as hours worked. An employee who drives a truck, bus, automobile, boat...
Schwartz, Bernhard; Kapellusch, Jay M; Schrempf, Andreas; Probst, Kathrin; Haller, Michael; Baca, Arnold
Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for several diseases and the prevalence of worksite-based interventions such as sit-to-stand workstations is increasing. Although their impact on sedentary behaviour has been regularly investigated, the effect of working in alternating body postures on cognitive performance is unclear. To address this uncertainty, 45 students participated in a two-arm, randomised controlled cross-over trial under laboratory conditions. Subjects executed validated cognitive tests (working speed, reaction time, concentration performance) either in sitting or alternating working postures on two separate days (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02863731). MANOVA results showed no significant difference in cognitive performance between trials executed in alternating, standing or sitting postures. Perceived workload did not differ between sitting and alternating days. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant learning effects regarding concentration performance and working speed for both days. These results suggest that working posture did not affect cognitive performance in the short term. Practitioner Summary: Prior reports indicated health-related benefits based on alternated (sit/stand) body postures. Nevertheless, their effect on cognitive performance is unknown. This randomised controlled trial showed that working in alternating body postures did not influence reaction time, concentration performance, working speed or workload perception in the short term.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to (a) collect and analyze safety and mobility data to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects during construction and (b) improve overall agency processes a...
MUSIC , *HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING), (*ATTENTION, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), REFLEXES, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), QUESTIONNAIRES, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES
Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J
New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes.
Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.
Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I
Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buitrago Echeverri, María Teresa; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Granja Palacios, Consuelo
The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled
developmental objectives. They found the benefits to support two discrete systems worth the additional administrative and financial costs. But these...the second. They worked in a wide variety of specialty areas. Like most large organizations, the standard instituitional form loosely described the
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-related death. 301.302 Section 301... COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.302 Work-related death. A claim for compensation as the result of work-related death may be filed by a dependent of the deceased...
Full Text Available In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present paper was to review the current research into the DCM in relation to stroke and to scrutinize potential gender differences. A literature search was performed and eight studies from three countries were identified. Based on the reviewed studies, there is some evidence that high psychological demands, low job control, and job strain are associated with increased stroke risk in women as well as in men. Any major reduction in deaths and disability from stroke is likely to come from decreasing social inequalities in health, and reducing work stress has a potential to contribute to a reduced risk of stroke in working populations.
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.
Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.
Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela
Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of work. 830.201 Section 830.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.201 Performance of work. A contractor must perform work in accordance with the safety basis for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear...
Sinaulan, Ramlani Lina
Performance is a form of behavior of a person or organization with achievement orientation. The study results are known (a) the school climate affect performance of teachers, b) there is influence of work stress on teacher performance, (c) work motivation effect on teacher performance, d) school climate influence on job motivation of teachers, and (e) work stress effect on work motivation of teachers. Suggestions studies (a) improving teacher performance should the top priority schools in sch...
MARIÑO, J. R. H.
Full Text Available The digital games market is growing every year and game development is becoming increasingly complex. Thus, scalability in content generation may require the work of a team with hundreds of people. Procedural Content Generation (PCG comes as an alternative to decrease costs and accelerate the process of game production by creating content automatically or semi-automatically. This article presents some concepts and reviews works developed in PCG, aiming to provide a starting point for those interested in learning and going deeper in the subject of PCG for digital games.
Tuominen, Tiina; Fuglsang, Lars; Hasu, Mervi
In this paper, we aim to understand how elderly care work is changing alongside the introduction of new co-creative frameworks and practices. The ideas of value co-creation and service co-production are expanding rapidly to new service areas also in the public sector. The elderly care context may...
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older
Etherton, Joseph L; Oberle, Crystal D; Rhoton, Jayson; Ney, Ashley
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group. Pretest and posttest measures included multiple measures of attention, working memory, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Although improvement was observed for the full training group for a digit span task, no training-related improvement was observed for any of the other measures. Results of the study suggest that WM training does not improve performance on unrelated tasks or enhance other cognitive abilities.
Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Grossi, Nina R; Kallus, K Wolfgang
Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to "work" in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job) performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design). The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.
... on the use of measurable performance standards and financial incentives in a competitive environment... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance work statement... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 37.602 Performance work statement...
Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława
Performance of work is related with experiencing various emotions, from positive - indicating full satisfaction with work, to negative - describing failures, and even harm caused by work. Such emotions are also experienced by children engaged in work on family farms. The objective of the study is the determination of emotions experienced in association with performing agricultural work in childhood, and indication of the factors conditioning the occurrence of positive and negative emotions. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire technique, and covered a group of 482 adults from agricultural families. In childhood, positive emotions related with the performance of work are more often experienced than negative emotions. The occurrence of positive emotions is positively related with willingness to perform work activities, working time, respondent's age, age at which a child started to perform work, and age at which a child discontinued helping on a farm. The occurrence of negative emotions is positively related with unwillingness to perform work, performing work activities beyond the physical capabilities of a child, neglecting school duties, missing classes at school due to work, and with working time. With work performed in childhood are associated positive and negative emotions experienced in childhood and adulthood. The performance of work in childhood shapes emotions experienced by an adult which may affect his/her quality of life and functioning in adulthood.
In this article, I investigate the ramifications of health data production in the health fight against malaria in and around Dakar, Senegal. Malaria health development funding at the community level is contingent on performativity; the Global Fund's "performance-based funding," for example, requires that local actors produce certain forms of evidence and that intermediaries synthesize this evidence into citable data. Analyzing the practices of diagnosis and approximation in health clinics and in global malaria documents, I argue that data production in Senegal is conditioned by and reifies preconceived notions of malaria as a problem addressable by the enumeration of technological fixes.
Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.
Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Michael C.; Kiger, Gary
This study compares four theories of domestic labor in their ability to predict relative emotion-work performance among dual-earner couples. Specifically, the authors investigate the effects of gender ideology, time availability, relative resources, and crossover factors on the dependent variable of relative emotion-work performance using…
... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Performance of site development work. 1948.83 Section 1948.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Development Assistance Program § 1948.83 Performance of site development work. Site development work will be...
The study titled 'Women-friendly Support Services (WFFS) and Work Performance: The role of Marital Status', investigated the role of marital status in the work performance of female employees who are beneficiaries of Women friendly Support Services in work organizations. The study's participants consisted of a total of ...
Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries in Benin city, ... job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual. ... with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries.
Full Text Available Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to “work” in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design. The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.
Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.
Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon.
de Vries, H.J.; Reneman, M.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Geertzen, J.H.; Brouwer, S.
Purpose To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index,
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Lerner, D.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der
BACKGROUND: The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. OBJECTIVES: To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.
This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…
Work related learning is a topic of considerable interest currently and can be broadly seen to be concerned with all forms of training and learning closely related to the daily work of employees. From the angle of higher education work related learning is an important development because parts of
Finkelstein, David Ritz
A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.
The present study was designed to determine the relationship between meaningful work and job performance, and the impact of meaningful work on nursing care quality. Meaningful work has been suggested as a significant factor affecting job performance, but the relationship has never been studied in nurses in China. A descriptive correlational study was designed to assess the level of meaningful work, tasks, and contextual performance as well as their relationships. We used a stratified random-sampling approach to enrol nurses from hospitals. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to determine the relationship between meaningful work and their demographic data. There were significant, positive relationships between meaningful work and task performance and contextual performance. Education level, work unit, and employment type influenced meaningful work. The work motivation score of the nurses was lower than that of the other 2 dimensions, and a negative work motivation score negatively influenced job performance. Improving meaningful work and providing more support and assistance could improve nurse performance, thereby improving the quality of nursing care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Cheng, Philip; Tallent, Gabriel; Bender, Thomas John; Tran, Kieulinh Michelle; Drake, Christopher L
Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. Set inhibition is the efficiency in returning to previously completed tasks and represents the degree of cognitive perseveration, which can lead to reduced accuracy. Circadian phase was measured via melatonin assays, nocturnal sleepiness was assessed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, and daytime insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index. Results indicated that those with an earlier circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness exhibited reduced cognitive flexibility; however, specific components of cognitive flexibility were differentially associated with circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness. Individuals with an earlier circadian phase (thus more misaligned to the night shift) exhibited larger switch costs, which was also associated with reduced task efficiency. Shift workers with more daytime insomnia demonstrated difficulties with cognitive inhibition, whereas nocturnal sleepiness was associated with difficulties in reactivating previous tasks. Deficits in set inhibition were also related to reduced accuracy and increased perseverative errors. Together, this study indicates that task performance deficits in shift work are complex and are variably impacted by different mechanisms. Future research may examine
Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard
These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.
Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.
Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related well-being can function as a driver of volunteer work. Moreover, building on the Conservations of Resources Theory (Hobfoll,), we propose that the relationship between work-related well-being (burnout an...
van Hooff, M.L.M.; van Hooft, E.A.J.
Boredom occurs regularly at work and can have negative consequences. This study aimed to increase insight in the antecedents and processes underlying the development of work-related boredom by (a) examining whether work-related need satisfaction and the quality-of-work motivation mediate the
da Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Susser, Ezra; Menezes, Paulo Rossi
To identify work-related factors associated with depressive symptoms and probable major depression in primary care teams. Cross-sectional study among primary care teams (community health workers, nursing assistants, nurses, and physicians) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil (2011-2012; n = 2940), to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression and their associations with job strain and other work-related conditions. Community health workers presented higher prevalence of probable major depression (18%) than other primary care workers. Higher odds ratios for depressive symptoms or probable major depression were associated with longer duration of employment in primary care; having a passive, active, or high-strain job; lack of supervisor feedback regarding performance; and low social support from colleagues and supervisors. Observed levels of job-related depression can endanger the sustainability of primary care programs. Public Health implications. Strategies are needed to deliver care to primary care workers with depression, facilitating diagnosis and access to treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive interventions can include training managers to provide feedback and creating strategies to increase job autonomy and social support at work.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François
This study investigates work performance among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada). We hypothesized that work performance was positively associated with the use of standardized clinical tools and clinical approaches, integration strategies, "clan culture," and mental health funding per capita. Work performance was measured using an adapted version of the Work Role Questionnaire. Variables were organized into four key areas: (1) team attributes, (2) organizational culture, (3) inter-organizational interactions, and (4) external environment. Work performance was associated with two types of organizational culture (clan and hierarchy) and with two team attributes (use of standardized clinical tools and approaches). This study was innovative in identifying associations between work performance and best practices, justifying their implementation. Recommendations are provided to develop organizational cultures promoting a greater focus on the external environment and integration strategies that strengthen external focus, service effectiveness, and innovation.
Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.
Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; van Ours, Jan C
This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.
This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement ...
Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. The RSL prevalence in the general population is 0.1% - 11.5%, and increases with age, with the highest effect of producing a primary sleep disorder (70%-80%. Women appear to be at increased risk, as do individuals with certain chronic conditions, including renal failure and anemia. The pathophysiology of RLS is incompletely understood, but it probably results from derangements in dopamine and iron metabolism, and has a genetic component. RSL could be idiopathic or secondary (usually related with iron deficiency, terminal renal failure, pregnancy, and spinal cord lesions. RLS patients usually have sleep disorders, so the disease can cause difficulties and problems in occupational and social life. Subjects with RLS symptoms appear to experience significantly more daytime problems, including being late for work, making errors at work, or missing work because of sleepiness. The diagnosis of RLS is made by following the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. Pharmacologic RLS therapy, in which dopaminergic drugs constitute the first line, is effective and may have a dramatic effect on symptoms and quality of life. Identifying and treating RLS may improve sleep quality, daytime function and work performance.
Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. The RSL prevalence in the general population is 0.1% - 11.5%, and increases with age, with the highest effect of producing a primary sleep disorder (70%-80%. Women appear to be at increased risk, as do individuals with certain chronic conditions, including renal failure and anemia. The pathophysiology of RLS is incompletely understood, but it probably results from derangements in dopamine and iron metabolism, and has a genetic component. RSL could be idiopathic or secondary (usually related with iron deficiency, terminal renal failure, pregnancy, and spinal cord lesions. RLS patients usually have sleep disorders, so the disease can cause difficulties and problems in occupational and social life. Subjects with RLS symptoms appear to experience significantly more daytime problems, including being late for work, making errors at work, or missing work because of sleepiness. The diagnosis of RLS is made by following the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. Pharmacologic RLS therapy, in which dopaminergic drugs constitute the first line, is effective and may have a dramatic effect on symptoms and quality of life. Identifying and treating RLS may improve sleep quality, daytime function and work performance.
Related party transactions and firms financial performance. ... African Research Review ... financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock ... on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. ... Result showed RPT has no significant effects on ROA and EPS and not used to ...
In this thesis we examine work-home interference in relation to work, organizational, and home characteristics. The study is guided by the following three research questions: i) how are workload and negative WHI temporally related? (research question 1); ii) is work-home culture related to the use
. Findings – The paper illustrates how the process is a balancing act. On the one hand, it requires performative researchers to relate more closely to aspects decisive for ostensive researchers; yet, on the other, they need to preserve the distinctiveness of the performative approach. Originality....../value – This paper exemplifies these issues with reference to management accounting research and contributes by clarifying the methodological implications of moving performative research closer to ostensive research....
CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
This article aims to highlight the issue of work-related stress within the district nursing workplace. It will acknowledge how the management of work-related stress has previously been discussed within nursing literature and will consider the emerging relationship between staff working conditions, staff wellbeing and quality of patient care. It will reintroduce the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) Management Standards approach to tackling work-related stress, which provides management support to reduce environmental work stressors and encourage enabling work environments and a positive workplace culture.
Tice, Cori J; Cummings, Karen R; Gelberg, Kitty H
The objective of this paper is to determine the percent of adults with asthma attributable to work and describe characteristics of the work-related asthma population in New York State. Sociodemographic and control characteristics of those with and without work-related asthma are compared. Data from three population-based surveys and one case-based surveillance system were analyzed. Work-relatedness of asthma was determined by self-report for the population-based surveys and by physician report for the case-based system. Self-reported sociodemographic and control characteristics were analyzed for the population-based surveys by work-relatedness. The percent of work-relatedness among adults with current asthma in New York State ranged from 10.6% to 44.5%. Significantly more adults with work-related asthma had poorly controlled asthma than those without work-related asthma. More adults with work-related asthma also tended to be employed in the manufacturing, educational services, and public administration industries than the general population. The most frequently reported exposure was dust. Adults with work-related asthma have decreased control and adverse socioeconomic impacts compared to those with asthma that is not work-related. Increased recognition and physician reporting is necessary to further prevent the impact of work-related exposures.
Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...
Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago
The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.
Teenagers working more than 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and…
Findings showed that poor working conditions such as delay in promotion and salary payment and unattractive office accommodation have significant adverse influence on working performance of both teachers and interpreters. Teachers significantly felt the disturbing influence of poor working conditions on their job ...
Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.
The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…
Sri Rahayu Wilujeng*, Sri Wahyu Lelly Hana Setyanti , Handriyono
Human resources are an organization asset that becomes an important factor in the progress of an organization. The quality of human resources itself can be seen from the performance of the employees. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of work culture and work motivation on organizational performance with organizational commitment as mediating. This research is a review from the theory and several researches that have been done on the work culture, work motivation, organi...
LeCheminant, James D; Merrill, Ray M; Masterson, Travis
To determine the association between selected health behaviors and work-related outcomes among 2398 school-based employees who voluntarily enrolled in a worksite wellness program. This study presents participants' baseline data collected from a personal health assessment used by Well-Steps, a third-party wellness company. Employees with high levels of exercise, fruit/vegetable consumption, or restful sleep exhibited higher job-performance and job-satisfaction, and lower absenteeism (p job-performance (Prevalence Ratio=1.09; 95% CI=1.05-1.13), job-satisfaction (Prevalence Ratio=1.53; 95% CI=1.30-1.80), and lower absenteeism (Prevalence Ratio=1.16; 95% CI=1.08-1.325). Further, number of co-occurring health behaviors influenced other satisfaction and emotional health outcomes. Selected healthy behaviors, individually or co-occurring, are associated with health outcomes potentially important at the worksite.
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed....... They represented different stakeholders in five Danish knowledge-intensive companies, which comprised two consultancies and three engineering consulting companies. The study shows that knowledge work comprises a paradox, since the same work-related or organizational issues could be experienced as both...
Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Bernaards, Claire M; Steijn, Wouter M P; Hildebrandt, Vincent H
The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence. At the start and end of a five-month intervention program at the workplace, as well as 10 months after the intervention, sitting time and work-related outcomes were measured using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and company records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the longitudinal relationship between sitting time and work-related outcomes, and possible interaction effects over time. A significant and sustainable decrease in sitting time on a working day was observed. Sitting less was significantly related to higher vitality scores, but this effect was marginal (b = -0.0006, P = 0.000). Our finding of significant though marginal associations between sitting time and important work-related outcomes justifies further research.
Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Lu, Chang-Qin
The aim of this research was to jointly test effects of work stressors and coping strategies on job performance among employees in the Greater China region. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data from three major cities in the region, namely Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei (N = 380). Four important work stressors were assessed: heavy workload, organizational constraints, lack of work autonomy, and interpersonal conflict. We used a four-factor model of Chinese coping strategies composed of hobbies/relaxation, active action, seeking social support, and passive adaptation. Job performance was indicated by both task performance (quantity of work, quality of work, job knowledge) and contextual performance (attendance, getting along with others). We found that: (1) work stressors were related to job performance. Specifically, workload had a positive relation with quantity of work, whereas organizational constraints had negative relations with quantity of work and attendance. In addition, interpersonal conflict had a negative relation with getting along with others. (2) Chinese positive coping strategies were positively related to job performance. Specifically, seeking social support had positive relations with quantity of work and getting along with others, whereas active action had positive relations with attendance and job knowledge. (3) Chinese passive adaptation coping behaviors were negatively related to job performance. Specifically, passive adaptation had negative relations with quantity of work, quality of work, and getting along with others. The present study thus found joint effects of work stressors and coping behaviors among Chinese employees in the Greater China region, encompassing three sub-societies of mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Differential effects of Chinese positive and passive coping strategies were also noted. Most importantly, all these effects were demonstrated on multiple indicators of job performance, a rarely studied
Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha
Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective.
Opollo, J G; Gray, J; Spies, L A
To describe perceived work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers. A secondary aim was to seek participant input on ways to improve work environments. Poor patient outcomes, decreased employee motivation and decisions to leave the organization have been linked to poor work conditions. Interventions to correct healthcare worker shortage in developing countries require information about work quality of life. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in health and educational settings in Uganda in July 2011. Participants completed the Biographical Information Scale demographic questionnaire and the validated 24-item Work-Related Quality of Life scale. Sample included 146 healthcare workers employed in various settings. Participants reported poorer quality of work life on the work conditions, control at work and home-work interface subscales. Participants perceived stress at work to be low and experienced higher job career satisfaction. There was a significant relationship between work-related quality of life, gender and hours worked. Participants' suggestions to improve work life ranged from simple no-cost suggestions to more complex system level interventions. Work-related quality of life was low in this convenience sample. Perceived stress at work was lower than expected, but may have been due to nurses' expectations of a normal work assignment. Predominantly women, the participants had significant caregiving responsibilities. Nurses must acquire a seat at the table where crucial decisions about nursing and its future are made. By advancing leadership skills, nurses can effectively advocate for organizational changes that address broad factors related to increasing job satisfaction, and retaining and attracting nurses. Nurses can influence work quality of life individually and collectively by identifying workplace concerns, demanding safe work environments, fostering teamwork and enhancing professional growth. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related
Kgabo L. Kobo; Collins C. Ngwakwe
Previous researchers have found conflicting results between CSI and firm financial performance. This paper moves this debate further by examining the extent to which corporate social investment (CSI) relates with corporate financial performance (CFP) from a developing country perspective. The main aim of the paper was to determine the relationship between CSI, stock price, sales turnover and return on equity (ROE) amongst the socially responsible investing (SRI) companies in the Johannesburg ...
Tufte, Pernille; Clausen, Thomas; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the perception of client-related work tasks and the experience of meaning of work among eldercare workers in the Danish eldercare sector. METHODS: We used baseline and follow-up questionnaire data from 3,985 female eldercare workers. The eldercare...... or rarely have this experience. Care workers who frequently experience to have to end a visit prematurely are significantly less likely to experience meaning of work at follow-up than care workers who rarely experience this. Experiences of having time to perform other than pre-planned tasks and to have...... workers' perception of the client-related work tasks was measured by six items. Meaning of work was measured by a three-item scale. General linear modelling was used to investigate the association between the client-related work tasks at baseline and experience of meaning of work at follow-up adjusted...
Olsen, Ingrid Blø; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen; Løvvik, Camilla
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are major causes of sickness absence and disability. Prevention requires knowledge of how individuals perceive causal mechanisms, and in this study we sought to examine work-related factors as causal attribution of CMDs. A trial sample of n = 1,193, recruited because they struggled with work participation due to CMDs, answered an open-ended questionnaire item about what they believed were the most important causes of their CMDs. The population included participants at risk of sickness absence, and participants with reduced work participation due to sickness absence, disability or unemployment. We used thematic content analysis and categorized responses from 487 participants who reported work-related factors as causal attributions of their CMDs. Gender differences in work-related causal attributions were also examined. The participants attributed their CMDs to the following work-related factors; work stress, leadership, reduced work participation, job dissatisfaction, work conflict, social work environment, job insecurity and change, workplace bullying, and physical strain. Women tended to attribute CMDs to social factors at work. Findings from this study suggest several work-related risk factors for CMDs. Both factors at the workplace, and reduced work participation, were perceived by study participants as contributing causes of CMDs. Thus, there is a need to promote work participation whilst at the same time targeting aversive workplace factors. Further, our findings indicate that work-related factors may affect women and men differently. This illustrates that the association between work participation and CMDs is complex, and needs to be explored further.
Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe
The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.
Laier, Christian; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias
Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. In this study, 28 healthy individuals performed 4 experimental manipulations of a pictorial 4-back WM task with neutral, negative, positive, or pornographic stimuli. Participants also rated 100 pornographic pictures with respect to sexual arousal and indicated masturbation urges previous to and following pornographic picture presentation. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis indicated an explanation of variance of the sensitivity in the pornographic picture condition by the subjective rating of the pornographic pictures as well as by a moderation effect of masturbation urges. Results contribute to the view that indicators of sexual arousal due to pornographic picture processing interfere with WM performance. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet sex addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies.
Haun, Sascha; Steinmetz, Holger; Dormann, Christian
Research on work-nonwork conflict (WNC) is based on the assumption that incompatible demands from the work and the nonwork domain hamper role performance. This assumption implies that role demands from both domains interact in predicting role performance, but research has been largely limited to main effects. In this multi-source study, we analyze…
Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann
Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....
Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S
Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task. There was no evidence of ego depletion interfering with working memory performance. Several aspects of our study render this null finding highly robust. We had a large and heterogeneous sample of N = 1,385, which provided sufficient power. We deployed established depletion tasks from two task families (e-crossing task and Stroop), thus making it less likely that the null finding is due to a specific depletion paradigm. We derived several performance scores from the working memory task and ran different analyses to maximize the chances of finding an effect. Lastly, we controlled for two potential moderators, the implicit theories about willpower and dispositional self-control capacity, to ensure that a possible effect on working memory is not obscured by an interaction effect. In sum, this experiment strengthens the position that ego depletion works but does not affect working memory performance.
Costin Madalina - Adriana
Full Text Available Nowadays, in times of economic crisis, most managers or entrepreneurs have to cope with a lot of new job challenges which can easily transform into stressors. Work related stress is of growing concern because it has significant economic implications for the organization. Even if some stress is a normal part of life, excessive stress can influence one's productivity, health and emotions and it has to be taken under control. When people lose confidence, they refuse to take responsibilities, they get quickly irritated, they are unsatisfied of their job, their performance will be very low and the organization will be in danger. Fortunately, most managers and entrepreneurs know which stress main symptoms are and have the necessary knowledge for managing and reducing it before it can affect employees' daily work. Stress can have an impact both on the organizational welfare and on personal behavior of supervisors or employees, that's why, the ability of managing it can make the difference between job's success or failure. The purpose of this paper is to study Romanian managers and entrepreneurs from Bihor County's perception regarding the stress phenomenon, if they feel that they are affected by stress, if they promote some methods to reduce it and if they consider that stress can influence the organizational performance. As a research method we used an online questionnaire, applied to a number of 75 managers and entrepreneurs that represent the target group of the project "Flexibility and performance through management", project financed by the European Social Fund - "Invest in people". Each participant had to answer a number of 35 questions regarding stress and the results will be presented in this paper. The main conclusion is that, even if job itself is seen as a stressor, there are other important factors that can produce stress such as: family problems, personal problems or social problems.
Beckers, DGJ; van der Linden, D; Smulders, PGW; Kompier, MAJ; van Veldhoven, MJPM; Van Yperen, NW
Objectives: We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods: We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch
Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…
In this paper we presented the planned direction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group. This group consists of concerned system developers and users who have organized to synthesize recommendations for standard UNIX performance management subsystem interfaces and architectures. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide a core set of performance management functions and these functions can be used to build tools by hardware system developers, vertical application software developers, and performance application software developers.
Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Hogh, Annie; Biering, Karin
BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social w......BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho...... rewards at work, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts and low organizational justice had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related threats. Furthermore, high emotional demands, low predictability, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work......-family conflicts, low supervisor quality and low support from nearest supervisor had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related violence. Finally, across the four sectors both similar and different associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence...
Kooij, Dorien T. A. M.; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Kanfer, Ruth; Dikkers, Josje S. E.
An updated literature review was conducted and a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between age and work-related motives. Building on theorizing in life span psychology, we hypothesized the existence of age-related differences in work-related motives. Specifically, we
Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Kanfer, R.; Dikkers, J.S.E.
An updated literature review was conducted and a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between age and work-related motives. Building on theorizing in life span psychology, we hypothesized the existence of age-related differences in work-related motives. Specifically, we
The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna
Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…
Sagherian, Knar; Clinton, Michael E; Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne
Hospital nurses are expected to maintain optimal work performance; yet, fatigue can threaten safe practice and result in unfavorable patient outcomes. This descriptive cross-sectional study explored the association between fatigue, work schedules, and perceived work performance among nurses. The study sample included 77 bedside nurses who were mostly female, single, and between 20 and 29 years of age. The majority worked 8-hour shifts and overtime. Nurses who worked during off days reported significantly higher chronic fatigue compared with those nurses who took time off. Nurses who reported feeling refreshed after sleep had significantly less chronic and acute fatigue and more intershift recovery. Nurses with acute and chronic fatigue perceived poorer physical performance. Also, nurses who reported chronic fatigue perceived they were less alert and less able to concentrate when providing patient care. Less effective communication was also associated with acute and chronic fatigue. In conclusion, fatigue has safety implications for nurses' practice that should be monitored by nursing management.
family role conflict generates some kind of stress and instability that further ... However, this relationship between work-family role conflict and low job performance is considered higher among women with more children and less spousal/family ...
Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette
The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...
Two reports describing work sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive are presented. The first describes a study of public attitudes towards industrial, work related, nuclear industry related and other risks. The second report describes public attitudes towards the acceptability of risks. (U.K.)
Pisarik, Christopher T.; Rowell, P. Clay; Currie, Lacy K.
This study was conducted to develop and examine the work-related daydream construct. The content of undergraduate college students' daydream journals were analyzed using an exploratory qualitative research methodology. The data suggested that the work-related daydream phenomenon was a tangible and accessible process that presented fully developed…
Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Wiezer, N.M.; Schelvis, R.; Kraker, H. de
The need for evidence-based solutions to the problem of work-related stress among employees in the Netherlands is increasing. Research institute TNO suggested that managers might learn about the issue by playing a specially designed game based around work-related stress. This led to the development
Osman, Homira; Sullivan, Jessica R
The objectives of this study were to determine (a) whether school-age children with typical hearing demonstrate poorer auditory working memory performance in multitalker babble at degraded signal-to-noise ratios than in quiet; and (b) whether the amount of cognitive demand of the task contributed to differences in performance in noise. It was hypothesized that stressing the working memory system with the presence of noise would impede working memory processes in real time and result in poorer working memory performance in degraded conditions. Twenty children with typical hearing between 8 and 10 years old were tested using 4 auditory working memory tasks (Forward Digit Recall, Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall Primary, and Listening Recall Secondary). Stimuli were from the standardized Working Memory Test Battery for Children. Each task was administered in quiet and in 4-talker babble noise at 0 dB and -5 dB signal-to-noise ratios. Children's auditory working memory performance was systematically decreased in the presence of multitalker babble noise compared with quiet. Differences between low-complexity and high-complexity tasks were observed, with children performing more poorly on tasks with greater storage and processing demands. There was no interaction between noise and complexity of task. All tasks were negatively impacted similarly by the addition of noise. Auditory working memory performance was negatively impacted by the presence of multitalker babble noise. Regardless of complexity of task, noise had a similar effect on performance. These findings suggest that the addition of noise inhibits auditory working memory processes in real time for school-age children.
Amabile, Teresa M; Kramer, Steven J
Anyone in management knows that employees have their good days and their bad days--and that, for the most part, the reasons for their ups and downs are unknown. Most managers simply shrug their shoulders at this fact of work life. But does it matter, in terms of performance, if people have more good days than bad days? Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer's new stream of research, based on more than 12,000 diary entries logged by knowledge workers over three years, reveals the dramatic impact of employees' inner work lives--their perceptions, emotions, and motivation levels--on several dimensions of performance. People perform better when their workday experiences include more positive emotions, stronger intrinsic motivation (passion for the work), and more favorable perceptions of their work, their team, their leaders, and their organization. What the authors also found was that managers' behavior dramatically affects the tenor of employees' inner work lives. So what makes a difference to inner work life? When the authors compared the study participants' best days to their worst days, they found that the single most important differentiator was their sense of being able to make progress in their work. The authors also observed interpersonal events working in tandem with progress events. Praise without real work progress, or at least solid efforts toward progress, had little positive impact on people's inner work lives and could even arouse cynicism. On the other hand, good work progress without any recognition--or, worse, with criticism about trivial issues--could engender anger and sadness. Far and away, the best boosts to inner work life were episodes in which people knew they had done good work and their managers appropriately recognized that work.
van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O
Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need
Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them.
Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Curral, Luís Alberto
This article explores the relationship between goal orientation, self-leadership dimensions, and adaptive and proactive work role performances. The authors hypothesize that learning orientation, in contrast to performance orientation, positively predicts proactive and adaptive work role performances and that this relationship is mediated by self-leadership behavior-focused strategies. It is posited that self-leadership natural reward strategies and thought pattern strategies are expected to moderate this relationship. Workers (N = 108) from a software company participated in this study. As expected, learning orientation did predict adaptive and proactive work role performance. Moreover, in the relationship between learning orientation and proactive work role performance through self-leadership behavior-focused strategies, a moderated mediation effect was found for self-leadership natural reward and thought pattern strategies. In the end, the authors discuss the results and implications are discussed and future research directions are proposed.
This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)
F. Chris Bothma
Full Text Available Orientation: Work-based identity, used as a reference to the self, is the answer to the question ’Who am I at work?’ Work-related identities, derived from different social foci through identity formation processes, have as behavioural guides a significant influence on employee behaviour, which, in turn has an impact on work outcomes. Engagement, presented in different conceptualisations, is viewed by practitioners and academic researchers as an important antecedent of employee behaviour.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether work-based identity and work engagement differed (in combination with personal alienation, helping behaviour and burnout as potential antecedents (amongst numerous others of task performance and turnover intention.Research design: A census-based sampling approach amongst 23 134 employees in the employment of an ICT company yielded a sample of 2429 usable questionnaires. Scales used in the study were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS-20, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, Work-based Identity, Personal Alienation, Helping Behaviour, Turnover Intention and Task Performance Scales.Main findings: The findings indicate that work-based identity and work engagement give similar appearing results as potential predictors of turnover intention and task performance. Practical/managerial implications: Reducing withdrawal behaviours and enhancing work performance are everyday challenges for organisations. Interventions focused on enhancing work-based identity and work engagement in the work environment should have a meaningful impact when these behaviours need to be addressed.Contribution/value-add: Work-based identity as a multidimensional construct has the potential, with further refinement, to become a valuable construct that can play a leading role in future work engagement research.
Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Ten Brummelhuis, L.L.
The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the
Shifrin, Joshua G.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances F.
Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance. Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables…
Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea; Morrison, Bobbi; Murphy, Andrea; Barker, James; Ashcroft, Darren M; Phipps, Denham; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J
Among the many stresses faced by pharmacy staff, quality related event (QRE) learning can be among the most significant. In the absence of a supportive organizational culture, the potential for blaming individuals, versus identifying key process flaws, is significant and can be very intimidating to those involved in such discussions and may increase an already stressful work environment. This research develops and tests a model of the relationship between the work stress faced by pharmacists and the extent of QRE learning in community pharmacies. Building upon recent research models that explore job characteristics and safety climate, the model proposes that work stress captured by the effort that the pharmacist invests into job performance, the extent to which the pharmacist is rewarded for such efforts, and the extent of pharmacist work-related commitment to their job, influence pharmacist assessment of the working conditions within their community pharmacy. It is further proposed that working conditions influence the extent of a blame culture and safety focus in the pharmacy, which, in turn, influences organizational learning from QREs. This research formed part of a larger study focused on QRE reporting in community pharmacies. As part of the larger study, a total of 1035 questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacists, pharmacy managers, and pharmacy owners in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan during the fall of 2013 and winter and spring of 2014. Partial least squares (PLS) using SmartPLS was selected to test and further develop the proposed model. An examination of the statistical significance of latent variable paths, convergent validity, construct reliability, discriminant validity, and variance explained was used to assess the overall quality of the model. Of the 1035 questionnaire sent, a total of 432 questionnaires were returned for an initial response rate of approximately 42%. However, for this research, only questionnaires from staff
Zanto, Theodore P; Chadick, James Z; Gazzaley, Adam
Alpha band (8-12 Hz) phase dynamics in the visual cortex are thought to reflect fluctuations in cortical excitability that influences perceptual processing. As such, visual stimuli are better detected when their onset is concurrent with specific phases of the alpha cycle. However, it is unclear whether alpha phase differentially influences cognitive performance at specific times relative to stimulus onset (i.e., is the influence of phase maximal before, at, or after stimulus onset?). To address this, participants performed a delayed-recognition, working memory (WM) task for visual motion direction during two separate visits. The first visit utilized functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging to identify neural regions associated with task performance. Replicating previous studies, fMRI data showed engagement of visual cortical area V5, as well as a prefrontal cortical region, the inferior frontal junction (IFJ). During the second visit, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied separately to both the right IFJ and right V5 (with the vertex as a control region) while electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded. During each trial, a single pulse of TMS (spTMS) was applied at one of six time points (-200, -100, -50, 0, 80, 160 ms) relative to the encoded stimulus onset. Results demonstrated a relationship between the phase of the posterior alpha signal prior to stimulus encoding and subsequent response times to the memory probe two seconds later. Specifically, spTMS to V5, and not the IFJ or vertex, yielded faster response times, indicating improved WM performance, when delivered during the peak, compared to the trough, of the alpha cycle, but only when spTMS was applied 100 ms prior to stimulus onset. These faster responses to the probe correlated with decreased early event related potential (ERP) amplitudes (i.e., P1) to the probe stimuli. Moreover, participants that were least affected by spTMS exhibited greater functional connectivity
Brey, Joseph K; Wolf, Timothy J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among the factors that influence return to work for young individuals with mild stroke from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Prospective cohort study of working adults with mild stroke (N = 21). Participants completed an assessment battery of cognitive, work environment and work performance measures at approximately 3 weeks and 7 months post mild stroke. Individuals were placed in "skilled" and "unskilled" worker categories based on the Hollingshead Index. Unskilled workers had significantly poorer scores on the majority of the cognitive assessments. Unskilled workers also perceived less social support (p = 0.017) and autonomy (p = 0.049) in work responsibilities than individuals in the skilled worker group and also reported significantly poorer work productivity due to stroke than those in the skilled group (p = 0.015). Individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds have more difficulty returning to work following mild stroke than individuals from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Future work is needed to identify factors that can increase long-term work success and quality of work performance following a mild stroke that specifically targets the needs of individuals who have a lower socioeconomic status.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work... OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Carriers by Air § 786.1 Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Taxicab Operators § 786.200 Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work...
Bakshi, Sumitra Ganesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Kannan, Sadhana; Myatra, Sheila Nainan
Work-related stress is common among medical caregivers and concerns all perioperative care providers. Although anesthesiologists are known to experience stress, there are limited Indian data addressing this issue. This survey was conducted among Indian anesthesiologists to determine their awareness about work stress and views regarding prevention programs. A survey questionnaire was distributed to delegates visiting the exhibits at the national anesthesiology conference in 2011. The questionnaire had ten questions on the work pattern, five on work-related stress, nine on opinion regarding the need and willingness to participate in stress-related programs. There were 1178 responders. Forty-three percent were faculty in medical institutions, 26% were residents and 25% were in free-lance practice. Ninety-one percent of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme. There was a significant correlation between the amount of stress and working for more than 8 h ( P working on weekends ( P = 0.002), and carrying work back home ( P work stress. Eighty-four percent of participants felt the need for stress management programs and 69% expressed their willingness to participate in the same. The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.
There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance
Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie
The relationship between the ability to maintain task goals and working memory capacity (WMC) is firmly established, but evidence for WMC-related differences in conflict processing is mixed. We investigated whether WMC (measured using two complex-span tasks) mediates differences in adjustments of cognitive control in response to conflict. Participants performed a Simon task in which congruent and incongruent trials were equiprobable, but in which the proportion of congruency repetitions (congruent trials followed by congruent trials or incongruent trials followed by incongruent trials) and thus the need for trial-by-trial adjustments in cognitive control varied by block. The overall Simon effect did not depend on WMC capacity. However, for the low-WMC participants the Simon effect decreased as the proportion of congruency repetitions decreased, whereas for the high- and average-WMC participants it was relatively constant across conditions. Distribution analysis of the Simon effect showed more evidence for the inhibition of stimulus location in the low- than in the high-WMC participants, especially when the proportion of congruency repetitions was low. We hypothesize that low-WMC individuals exhibit more interference from task-irrelevant information due to weaker preparatory control prior to stimulus presentation and, thus, stronger reliance on reactive recruitment of cognitive control.
Sandqvist, Jan L; Törnquist, Kristina B; Henriksson, Chris M
Adequate work assessments are a matter of importance both for individuals and society [5,29,31,38,40,46,52]. However, there is a lack of adequate and reliable instruments for use in work rehabilitation [14,15,20,21,31,44]. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an observation instrument for assessing work performance, the AWP (Assessment of Work Performance). The purpose of the 14-item instrument is to assess the individual's observable working skills in three different areas: motor skills, process skills, and communication and interaction skills. This article describes the development and results of preliminary testing of the AWP. The testing indicates a satisfactory face validity and utility for the AWP and supports further research and testing of the instrument.
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; And Others
Examined interaction between job performance and specific work experiences on three indicators of personal and family well-being among 336 accountants. Perceptions of nonsupportive and inequitable work environment, role conflict, and extensive time commitment to work were each related to one or more indicators of well-being. (Author)
Wu, Nan; Chen, Yulu; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Fei
The present study examined the role of working memory in the association between childhood obesity and academic performance, and further determined whether memory deficits in obese children are domain-specific to certain tasks or domain-general. A total of 227 primary school students aged 10-13 years were analyzed for weight and height, of which 159 children (44 "obese," 23 "overweight," and 92 "normal weight") filled out questionnaires on school performance and socioeconomic status. And then, all subjects finished three kinds of working memory tasks based on the digit memory task in 30 trials, which were image-generated with a series of numbers recall trial sets. After each trial set, subjects were given 5 s to recall and write down the numbers which hand appeared in the trial, in the inverse order in which they had appeared. The results showed there were significant academic performance differences among the three groups, with normal-weight children scoring higher than overweight and obese children after Bonferroni correction. A mediation model revealed a partial indirect effect of working memory in the relationship between obesity and academic performance. Although the performance of obese children in basic working memory tests was poorer than that of normal-weight children, they recalled more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks involving with food/drink. Working memory deficits partially explain the poor academic performance of obese children. Those results indicated the obese children show domain-specific working memory deficits, whereas they recall more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks associated with food/drink.
Vanden Berghe, Jae Hyung
The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. The aim is to define the determinants for job satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and the influence of job satisfaction on job performance. First we look into the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to account for the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Job satisfaction is then explained as a function of job feature...
Vuori, Marko; Akila, Ritva; Kalakoski, Virpi; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Härmä, Mikko; Puttonen, Sampsa
To examine the association between work stress and cognitive performance. Cognitive performance of a total of 99 women (mean age = 47.3 years) working in hospital wards at either the top or bottom quartiles of job strain was assessed using validated tests that measured learning, short-term memory, and speed of memory retrieval. The high job strain group (n = 43) had lower performance than the low job strain group (n = 56) in learning (P = 0.025), short-term memory (P = 0.027), and speed of memory retrieval (P = 0.003). After controlling for education level, only the difference in speed of memory retrieval remained statistically significant (P = 0.010). The association found between job strain and speed of memory retrieval might be one important factor explaining the effect of stress on work performance.
Joling, C.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Ybema, J.F.; Bongers, P.M.
Objectives. This study investigated whether work dedication and job resources are longitudinally related to work-related musculoskeletal disorders and whether job resources buffer the impact of job demands on these disorders? Methods. Data were used from a longitudinal three-phase study (2004, 2005,
Vera, Maria; Salanova, Marisa; Martin, Beatriz
Introduction: The main aim of this study is to test whether different university faculty work profiles (i.e., teaching, research and management) relate with the experience of well-being at work (i.e., burnout, work engagement and intrinsic satisfaction). Method: Hypotheses were tested through a K-means cluster, ANOVA, and confirmatory factor…
Leontaridi, Rannia M.; Ward, Melanie E.
The paper uses data from the International Social Surveys Program (ISSP) to investigate work-related stress among a group of 15 OECD countries. It examines the determinants of work-related stress and explores the importance of work-related stress as a predictor of individuals' quitting behaviour and the rate of absenteeism. We find that those individuals reporting to experience at least some stress in their current position are 10 - 14 % more likely to hold intentions to quit or be absent fro...
Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B
In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.
Background Work-related asthma (WRA) is a major cause of respiratory disease in modern societies. The diagnosis and consequently an opportunity for prevention are often missed in practice. Methods Based on recent studies and systematic reviews of the literature methods for detection of WRA and identification of specific causes of allergic WRA are discussed. Results and Conclusions All workers should be asked whether symptoms improve on days away from work or on holidays. Positive answers should lead to further investigation. Spirometry and non-specific bronchial responsiveness should be measured, but carefully performed and validly analysed serial peak expiratory flow or forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) measurements are more specific and confirm occupational asthma in about 82% of those still exposed to the causative agent. Skin prick testing or specific immunoglobulin E assays are useful to document allergy to high molecular weight allergens. Specific inhalational challenge tests come closest to a gold standard test, but lack standardisation, availability and sensitivity. Supervised workplace challenges can be used when specific challenges are unavailable or the results non-diagnostic, but methodology lacks standardisation. Finally, if the diagnosis remains unclear a follow-up with serial measurements of FEV1 and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness should detect those likely to develop permanent impairment from their occupational exposures. PMID:23768266
Weston, Eric; Pollard, Jonisha P.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) prevention measures have been studied in great depth throughout various industries. While the nature and causes of these disorders have been characterized in many industries, WMSDs occurring in the U.S. mining sector have not been characterized for several years. In this report, MSHA accident/injury/illness data from 2009 to 2013 were characterized to determine the most frequently reported WMSDs in the U.S. mining sector. WMSDs were most frequently reported in workers with less than 5 years or more than 20 years of mining experience. The number of days lost from work was the highest for shoulder and knee injuries and was found to increase with worker age. Underground and surface coal, surface stone and stone processing plants experienced the greatest number of WMSDs over the period studied. WMSDs were most commonly caused by an employee suffering from an overexertion, falls or being struck by an object while performing materials handling, maintenance and repair tasks, getting on or off equipment or machines, and walking or running. The injury trends presented should be used to help determine the focus of future WMSD prevention research in mining. PMID:27294012
Ramlani Lina Sinaulan
Full Text Available Performance is a form of behavior of a person or organization with achievement orientation. The study results are known (a the school climate affect performance of teachers, b there is influence of work stress on teacher performance, (c work motivation effect on teacher performance, d school climate influence on job motivation of teachers, and (e work stress effect on work motivation of teachers. Suggestions studies (a improving teacher performance should the top priority schools in school management efforts. This condition given that performance of teachers are the main pillars that determine the success of the school in improving quality of students. Therefore, performance of the teacher must always be good and necessary to update the knowledge of teachers on the latest information in education as benchmarks increase teacher performance, (b job motivation of teachers needs to improved, among others, with reward and punishment impartial towards the success achieved by the teacher as well as the violations committed so that it becomes part of an effort to motivate teachers to work.
Ryan, Eric D; Thompson, Brennan J; Sobolewski, Eric J
The present study examined the influence of workplace manual labor on measures of muscular fitness, with a secondary aim to investigate the relationship between muscular fitness and work performance in blue-collar (BC) workers. Leg extension isokinetic strength at slow and fast velocities, hamstring and hip-flexor flexibility, and low back muscular endurance were examined in young and older BC workers and white-collar (WC) controls, while work performance was examined in the BC cohort. There were no differences in muscular fitness variables between BC and WC groups; however, the older men had lower low back muscular endurance (-43.0%) and strength at slow (-9.4%) and fast (-12.7%) velocities. Work performance was associated with strength at fast velocities (r = 0.633) in the older BC workers. Leg strength may influence work performance, with higher velocities becoming more important in older workers.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether selection interviews used in conjunction with psychological assessments of personality traits and cognitive functioning contribute to predicting work performance. The sample consisted of 102 managers who were appointed recently in a retail organisation. The independent variables were selection interview ratings obtained on the basis of structured competency-based interview schedules by interviewing panels, fve broad dimensions of personality defned by the Five Factor Model as measured by the 15 Factor Questionnaire (15FQ+, and cognitive processing variables (current level of work, potential level of work, and 12 processing competencies measured by the Cognitive Process Profle (CPP. Work performance was measured through annual performance ratings that focused on measurable outputs of performance objectives. Only two predictor variables correlated statistically signifcantly with the criterion variable, namely interview ratings (r = 0.31 and CPP Verbal Abstraction (r = 0.34. Following multiple regression, only these variables contributed signifcantly to predicting work performance, but only 17.8% of the variance of the criterion was accounted for.
Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level.
Gharibi, Vahid; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Taban, Abrahim; Yazdani Aval, Mohsen; Samimi, Kazem; Salesi, Mahmood
Work Ability Index (WAI) is a well-known and valid self-report tool that has been widely used in various studies to identify and avoid early retirement and work-related disability. Nevertheless, very few studies have been carried out to evaluate work ability in Iran. We aimed to investigate the WAI and the effect of work-related stress on it among Iranian workers. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study was carried out among 449 workers from five working sectors in three big cities of Iran. Work ability and work-related stress were measured using the Persian version of WAI and the Persian version of Health and Safety Executive Stress Indicator Tool. More than a third of the workers surveyed (34.70%) did not have an appropriate level of work ability (WAI work-related stress and the mean score of WAI. Furthermore, the variables of body mass index, sleep quality, exercise activity, job tenure, and three subscales of work-related stress including demands, supervisor support, and role were significant predictors of WAI. According to the results of this study, the interventional programs must be focused on improving supervisors support, eliminating ambiguity and conflicts in the role of workers in their job and organization, reducing job demands, improving sleep quality, and increasing exercise activity.
Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik; Siti Khadijah Binti Zainal Badri; Azizah Binti Rajab; Rosman Bin Mohd. Yusof
This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work) and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions) among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving...
Wiley, Jennifer; Jarosz, Andrew F.; Cushen, Patrick J.; Colflesh, Gregory J. H.
The correlation between individual differences in working memory capacity and performance on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) is well documented yet poorly understood. The present work proposes a new explanation: that the need to use a new combination of rules on RAPM problems drives the relation between performance and working…
A survey of 508 Canadian workers showed that moderate levels of high-performance work practices were associated with increased belonging, empowerment, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. At higher levels, the association became negative. Work was more stressful with these practices. Team autonomy, just-in-time practices, and…
Occupational lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and pneumoconioses caused by exposure to airborne particulates are a major contributor to mortality and disability globally. However, work-related asthma remains under-recognised, poorly managed and inadequately compensated.
Conclusion: We identified factors associated with work-related fatigue among hospital workers in Taipei City. These findings can be applied toward on-the-job training and the development of preventive measures for occupational safety in general hospitals.
Conclusion: Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work disruptions and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is important that dentists incorporate complementary and alternative medicine strategies into practice to ...
Sumitra Ganesh Bakshi
Conclusion: The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.
Work related musculoskeletal disorders among farm workers: A case study of an agricultural college in Zimbabwe. ... hazards, therefore a need for intervention to protect them from musculoskeletal complaints. Improvement in farm work practices through ergonomic training might help reduce musculoskeletal complaints.
van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.
This Working Paper aims to present and discuss recent evidence on the effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on wages, working conditions and industrial relations. It presents a. an overview of the available literature on the effects of FDI on wages, particularly in developed countries; b. the
Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J
Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.
Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.; Rhenen, van W.
Previous research suggests that employee job crafting is positively related to job performance through employee work engagement. The present study expands this individual-level perspective to the team level by hypothesizing that team job crafting relates positively to team performance through team
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.
Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory conceptualises good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. This paper sets out to explore the relationship between work-related psychological health and psychological type (as assessed by the Francis Psychological-Type Scales) among a sample of 212 Australian clergywomen who completed the National Church Life Survey Form L in 2006. The data supp...
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. This is a critical and not fully uncovered problem. The working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. This study shows that some aspects of knowledge work can have...... a negative impact on daily activities and cause frustration and work-related stress. The study also finds that few primary preventive activities have been initiated. Based on an empirical study, the authors outline the characteristics of the job as knowledge worker and how it is being experienced. The study...... to the individual for his or her working life. Self-managed knowledge workers thus experience that they stand alone when it comes to work-related problems and stress. The stress intervention applied is characteristically short-term and focused on the individual. The individual perspective consequently affects...
Laethem, M. van; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Kecklund, L.G.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Geurts, S.A.E.
Objective In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep
Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando
To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25 were murders, 35 were traffic accidents not directly related to work activities, and three were suicides at work. The proportional mortality rate for homicides, traffic accidents, and suicides among fatal work-related accidents was estimated at 30.5%, 42.7%, and 3.7%, respectively. Urban violence accounted for three-fourths of the fatal work-related accidents recorded in the period studied.
Nijp, Hylco H.; Beckers, Debby G. J.; van de Voorde, F.C.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.
New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of
Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. METHODS Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. RESULTS We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25...
Rumambie, Yuliana Fransisca
Employee Performance is an important part in a company or organization. It plays a very important role in an organization because performance of the company or organization largely depends on the performance of its employee. Recently, organizations realize that there are several factors that can affect employee performance. Several factors that can considered as the major determinants of employee performance, such as Performance Appraisal, Reward System, Job Stress, and Work life conflict. Th...
Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher
Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.
Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Akbarzade, Arash; Dinarvand, Nader; Ghaljahi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein
Work ability of nurses is an index of their job satisfaction and is a crucial factor in job quality and security. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ability and quality of working life and to determine the effective demographic and background variables, among nurses. The present study was conducted among nurses, working in educational hospitals under the supervision of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Work Ability Index (WAI) and Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) were used. The mean WAI was significantly associated with total WRQoL score and the two of its sub-items including Stress at Work, and General Well-Being ( P -value=0.001). Moreover, the results showed a significant correlation between total WRQoL and WAI Subscales including mental resources ( P -value=0.001), number of current diseases ( P- value=0.02), and work ability in relation to the job demands ( P -value=0.04). The WRQoL and WAI showed significant associations with age and job experience ( P -value=0.001). The average score of WAI and WRQoL was statistically different among various working units ( P -value=0.001). Overall, results support the association between nurses work ability and WRQoL. Monitoring the WRQoL and work ability of employees would help organizations to know their status and take measures to ameliorate the working conditions.
Erlich, S M; Driscoll, T R; Harrison, J E; Frommer, M S; Leigh, J
Work-related agricultural fatalities were examined as part of a larger population-based study of all work-related fatalities in Australia in the period 1982-1984. A total of 257 farm-related fatalities were identified, of which 223 were deaths of persons in the employed civilian labor force (19.4 deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and 34 were deaths of children less than 15 years of age. The fatality incidence was higher among men, older age groups, and nonmanagers in general and in certain occupations in particular. Mobile mechanical equipment (particularly tractors) was the main fatal agent, roll-overs accounting for many of the fatalities. Better provision of information to agricultural workers, improvements in compliance to and enforcement of legislation, and changes in farming work practices are recommended to improve the safety of farms and farm work.
Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels
The Danish Action Plan against Repetitive Work is presented and discussed as a possible new strategy for regulating repetitive work as well as other complicated working environment problems. The article is based on an empirical evaluation ot the Action Plan. The asseessment of the Action Plan...... indicates that a measurable reduction of repetitive work has been achieved, while recognizing the the new management strategies focusing on human resources development have also played an important role. These results are used to suggest that - under certain conditions - a combination of state regulation...... and industrial relation agreements can be used to regulate other working environment problems....
Nelson, C Beau; Zivin, Kara; Walters, Heather; Ganoczy, Dara; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley; Valenstein, Marcia
Employment is a vital part of the postdeployment return to civilian life. This study investigated factors associated with employment-related outcomes (employment status, self-reported work performance, and self-reported work satisfaction) among National Guard members returning from Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, or Operation New Dawn deployments. The sample consisted of 1,151 National Guard service members who had returned from overseas deployments approximately six months earlier. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to examine associations between predictors and employment-related outcome variables. Higher-risk alcohol use was associated with reduced odds of being employed as well as with lower ratings of work satisfaction, whereas psychiatric symptom load was associated with lower self-reported work performance and work satisfaction ratings. Perceived social resources were associated with higher self-reported work performance and work satisfaction, whereas better physical functioning was associated with better self-reported work performance. Policy makers and clinicians may need to consider and assess alcohol use among unemployed National Guard members. They may also need to consider psychiatric symptom load and physical functioning among employed service members who perceive poor work performance and have low work satisfaction. Further research is needed on causal links between these predictors and employment outcomes.
Wang, Zhong-Xu; Qin, Ru-Li; Li, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Jia, Ning; Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jie; Li, Huan-Huan; Jiang, Hai-Qiang
To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders among automobile assembly workers, to discusses the related risk factors and their relationship. The selected 1508 automobile assembly workers from a north car manufacturing company were regarded as the study object. The hazard zone jobs checklist, Nordic musculoskeletal symptom questionnaire (NMQ) and pain questionnaire were used to perform the epidemiological cross-sectional and retrospective survey and study for the General status, awkward ergonomics factors and related influencing factors, and musculoskeletal disorders of workers. The predominant body sites of occurring WMSDs among automobile assembly workers were mainly low back, wrist, neck and shoulders, the predominant workshop section of occurring WMSDs were mostly concentrated in engine compartment, interior ornament, door cover, chassis and debugging section. The predominant body site of WMSDs among engine compartment and chassis section workers was low back, interior ornament workers were low back and wrist, door cover workers was wrist, chassis workers was low back, debugging workers were neck and low back. Neck musculoskeletal disorders had the trend with the increase of a body height; Smoking may increase the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. The WMSDs appears to be a serious ergonomic proble assem among automobile assembly workers, predominant occurring site of WMSDs is with different workshop section, its characteristics is quite obvious, probably related to its existing awkward work position or activities. The worker height and smoking habits may be important factors which affect musculoskeletal disorders happen.
Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus
. In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....
Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH
for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. AIMS: To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. METHODS: In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive...... Profile Inventory. RESULTS: Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS......: The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted...
Sung, Jee Eun
Purposes of the current study were to investigate whether age-related decline emerged in a case-marker assignment task (CMAT) and to explore the relationship between working-memory (WM) capacity and case-marker processing. A total of 121 individuals participated in the study with 62 younger adults and 59 elderly adults. All were administered a CMAT that consisted of active and passive constructions with canonical and noncanonical word-order conditions. A composite measure of WM tasks served as an index of participants' WM capacity. The older group performed worse than the younger group, and the noncanonical word order elicited worse performance than the canonical condition. The older group demonstrated greater difficulty in case-marker processing under the canonical condition and passive construction. Regression results revealed that age, education, and sentence type were the best predictors to account for performance on the CMAT. The canonicity of word order and passive construction were critical factors related to decline in abilities in a case-marker assignment. The combination of age, education, and sentence type factors accounted for overall performance on case-marker processing. Results indicated the crucial necessity to find a cognitively and linguistically demanding condition that elicits aging effects most efficiently, considering language-specific syntactic features. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education
Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…
This would create the psychological balance needed in both domains. On the part of the ... concern over the conflicting role of women, as both mothers/wives and workers. ... need for a study on work-family role conflict and job performance.
This study investigated the influence of communication in marital homes on secondary school teachers work performance in Akwa Ibom State. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was used in the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, ...
This article examines the extent to which talent management can contribute towards creating a performance work environment (PWE) that can enhance sustainable talent identifi cation and development in the public service. The literature analysis results reveal that talent management is essential in creating a PWE in the ...
Pearce, C. Glenn; And Others
Explores the issue of acceptable behavior for managers when giving feedback to their subordinates. Notes that feedback can be either truthful or untruthful, and can be communicated either positively or negatively. Describes the advantages and disadvantages for each feedback approach to work performance. (MM)
Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Gunn, Deborah M.; Leigh, Eleanor
This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related…
By this synopsis research which conveyed of findings to unfold mutual effect between teachers' performance and incentive scheme and teachers' personal competency, and principal leadership, and work motivation, by means of explanatory research in which ex facto method was ad hock model chosen because of classified as non-experiment. The grounds…
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Buuren, S. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Vet, H.C.W. de
Recently, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) version 0.2 was developed using Rasch analysis. The goal of the current study was to improve targeting of the IWPQ scales by including additional items. The IWPQ 0.2 (original) and 0.3 (including additional items) were examined using
Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Roberts, Mark V.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Haenschel, Corinna
A number of studies have shown that visual working memory (WM) is poorer for complex versus simple items, traditionally accounted for by higher information load placing greater demands on encoding and storage capacity limits. Other research suggests that it may not be complexity that determines WM performance per se, but rather increased…
Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K
To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.
Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving the return rateof 20% from the entire ofpopulation. Research data were analyzed using PASW18and AMOS SPSS18.Result indicated that onlywork-to-family conflict wassignificantly related to stress reactions.While, behavioral stress mediates the effectsof work-to-family conflict on job satisfaction, affective commitment and turnoverintentions. Cognitive stress only mediates the effects of work-to-family conflict onaffective commitment. This paper also discusses the implication of this study to theorganization and future research.
Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E
To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.
Arif, Ahmed A; Delclos, George L; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Tortolero, Susan R; Lee, Eun S
National estimates of occupational asthma (OA) in the United States are sparse. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994, we analyzed associations between occupation and work-related asthma and work-related wheezing among U.S. workers. This study identified several occupations that were at risk of developing work-related asthma and/or wheezing, with cleaners and equipment cleaners showing the highest risks. Other major occupations identified were farm and agriculture; entertainment; protective services; construction; mechanics and repairers; textile; fabricators and assemblers; other transportation and material moving occupations; freight, stock, and material movers; and motor vehicle operators. The population attributable risks for work-related asthma and work-related wheezing were 26% and 27%, respectively. This study adds evidence to the literature that identifies work-related asthma as an important public health problem. Several occupations are targeted for additional evaluation and study. Of particular interest are cleaners, which are being increasingly reported as a risk group for asthma. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Stock, Susan R; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Kline, Rex; Messing, Karen
Computer work has been identified as a risk factor for upper extremity musculoskeletal problems (UEMSP). But few studies have investigated how psychosocial and organizational work factors affect this relation. Nor have gender differences in the relation between UEMSP and these work factors been studied. We sought to estimate: (1) the association between UEMSP and a range of physical, psychosocial and organizational work exposures, including the duration of computer work, and (2) the moderating effect of psychosocial work exposures on the relation between computer work and UEMSP. Using 2007-2008 Québec survey data on 2478 workers, we carried out gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression modeling and two-way interaction analyses. In both genders, odds of UEMSP were higher with exposure to high physical work demands and emotionally demanding work. Additionally among women, UEMSP were associated with duration of occupational computer exposure, sexual harassment, tense situations when dealing with clients, high quantitative demands and lack of prospects for promotion, and among men, with low coworker support, episodes of unemployment, low job security and contradictory work demands. Among women, the effect of computer work on UEMSP was considerably increased in the presence of emotionally demanding work, and may also be moderated by low recognition at work, contradictory work demands, and low supervisor support. These results suggest that the relations between UEMSP and computer work are moderated by psychosocial work exposures and that the relations between working conditions and UEMSP are somewhat different for each gender, highlighting the complexity of these relations and the importance of considering gender.
McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W
Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: To identify work sectors with high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed nationwide data to identify ergonomic risk factors in Korean employees. In particular, we analyzed data on exposure to five ergonomic risk factors (painful/tiring postures, lifting/moving heavy materials, standing/walking, repetitive hand/arm movements, and hand/arm vibration according to employment sector, sex, and age, using the 2014 Fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey. We also used workers' compensation data on work-related MSDs in 2010, which is available by sex. Results: The different work sectors had different gender distributions. “Manufacturing” (27.7% and “construction” (11.3% were dominated by males, whereas “human health and social work activities” (12.4%, “hotel and restaurants” (11.7%, and “education” (10.4% were dominated by females. However, “wholesale and retail trade” and “public administration and defense” employed large numbers of males and females. Furthermore, the work sectors with a greater proportion of work-related MSDs and with multiple ergonomic risk factors were different for men and women. For men, “construction” and “manufacturing” had the highest risk for work-related MSDs; for women, “hotel and restaurants” had the highest risk for work-related MSDs. Conclusion: Ergonomic interventions for workers should consider gender and should focus on work sectors with high risk for MSDs, with multiple ergonomic risk factors, and with the largest number of workers. Keywords: ergonomic, risk factor, Korean workers, musculoskeletal disorder
Mazurek, Jacek M; White, Gretchen E; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%-68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%-45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention.
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…
This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of ..... relatedness need exerted positive and significant impact on ... recruitment, budget, student admission, educational forms and .... from potential customers in Northern Cyprus. Acta.
Dietrich, Julia; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
People's personal goals interact with their life situations in many ways. This study examined the appraisals of personal goals during a transition from education to work and their interplay with stress in different domains of life. Finnish young adults (N = 265, 60% female) reported on their goals in the work domain, and related appraisals of…
Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW
Purpose. The aim of the study is to identify work-related determinants of return to work (RTW) of employees who are on long-term sickness absence. Method. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence ( maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline
Ou, Min; Yan, Li; Tang, Jing-feng; Huang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-qian
Although ramjet has the advantages of high-speed flying and higher specific impulse, the performance parameters will decline seriously with the increase of flight Mach number and flight height. Therefore, the investigation on the thermodynamic performance of ramjet is very crucial for broadening the working range. In the current study, a typical ramjet model has been employed to investigate the performance characteristics at wide working conditions. First of all, the compression characteristic analysis is carried out based on the Brayton cycle. The obtained results show that the specific cross-section area (A2 and A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) have a great influence on the ramjet performance indexes. Secondly, the thermodynamic calculation process of ramjet is given from the view of the pneumatic thermal analysis. Then, the variable trends of the ramjet performance indexes with the flow conditions, the air-fuel ratio (f), the specific cross-sectional area (A2 and A5) under the fixed operating condition, equipotential dynamic pressure condition and variable dynamic pressure condition have been discussed. Finally, the optimum value of the specific cross-sectional area (A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) of the ramjet model at a fixed work condition (Ma=3.5, H=12 km) are obtained.
Annor, Francis B; Roblin, Douglas W; Okosun, Ike S; Goodman, Michael
To examine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and four subscales of work-related psychosocial stress at study baseline and over time. We used survey data from a major HMO located in the Southeastern part of the US on health and healthy behaviors linked with patients' clinical, pharmacy and laboratory records for the period between 2005 and 2009. Study participants (n=537) consisted of working adults aged 25-59 years, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without advanced micro or macrovascular complications at the time of the survey. We estimated the baseline (2005) association between HbA1c and work-related psychosocial stress and their interactions using linear regression analysis. Using individual growth model approach, we estimated the association between HbA1c over time and work-related psychosocial stress. Each of the models controlled for socio-demographic variables, diet and physical activity factor, laboratory factor, physical examinations variables and medication use in a hierarchical fashion. After adjusting for all study covariates, we did not find a significant association between work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control either at baseline or over time. Among fairly healthy middle aged working adults with DM, work-related psychosocial stress was not directly associated with glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lamprecht, J; Behrens, J; Mau, W; Schubert, M
An aftercare programme following medical rehabilitation may be beneficial in order to reinforce and stabilize the positive effects of rehabilitation and to encourage individual health-related modifications of behaviour and lifestyle. Medical rehabilitation and the aftercare programme of the German Pension Insurance Fund primarily are intended to sustain earning capacity. As part of an evaluation of the Intensified Rehabilitation Aftercare Programme (IRENA) established by the German Pension Insurance Fund, work-related aspects in orthopaedic patients were analyzed based on various data sources. Firstly, the significance of institutional and individual conditions for utilization of IRENA alongside work was of interest. Secondly, the IRENA participants' judgements of the changes of work-related parameters due to the programme were examined, differentiating specifically by extent of earning capacity impairments as well as by particular work problems. The data set used for the analysis is composed of person-related routine data of the German Pension Insurance Fund relative to IRENA records of the year 2007 (n=30 663), interview data from orthopaedic rehabilitation centres providing IRENA (n=225), and questionnaires of IRENA participants (n=750) that were either collected during a broad evaluation of the IRENA programme or provided by the German Pension Insurance Fund. The results show that the compatibility of IRENA and work is facilitated by the institutional conditions. However, differences between inpatient and outpatient settings have to be recognized. The possibilities to participate in IRENA throughout the day frequently are more diverse in an outpatient setting. In contrast to inpatient centres, outpatient rehabilitation centres see clearly better chances for patients to return to work and to participate in IRENA alongside. With respect to the work-related parameters (work ability, periods of sick leave), clear improvements were reported by participants from
Kuncoro, Tri; Dardiri, Ahmad
Teachers should have pedagogical, personality, social, and professional competency. stated that performance appraisal has several benefits, namely for the implementation of reward and punishment system, provision of feedback for teachers to develop their competencies, identification of training needs, and diagnosis of problems. According to performance is one's work result or success rate as a whole over a certain period of time in performing tasks compared to various possibilities, such as work standards, targets or criteria which have been predetermined and agreed. One's performance is based on daily tasks and responsibilities assigned to him/her. The racial differences in personality are largely due to different environmental influences, where people of different races have progressed for generations. Vocational high school teachers have a low pedagogic and professional performance. The factors that influence performance, according to the partner-lawyer model proposed, are expectations about rewards, encouragements, abilities, needs and traits, perceptions of tasks, internal and external rewards, perceptions of reward levels and job satisfaction. This study used a survey method to collect data or information about a large population using relatively small samples. The population of this research was vocational high school teachers. Data analysis techniques used the Regression Analysis with the assistance of SPSS. The results of teacher performance are as follows: 1) the pedagogic performance was relatively good; 2) professional performance was relatively good, and the overall performance of vocational high school teachers was still less effective and efficient; 3) the teachers' work environment was 42.5234%; and 4) there was no correlation between work environment and teacher performance, meaning that the work environment (conditions of physical work environment, psychological work environment, and non-physical work environment) does not positively support the
Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function. Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group. Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed. Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001 and higher FeNO values (p=0.012 were observed in hairdressers. A larger working area and presence of window ventilation were associated with better pulmonary function. Conclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.
Dina Maria LUT
Full Text Available On defining the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and work performance is still not complete agreement among experts, given the complexity of the phenomena studied. Over time, the relationship between job motivation and job satisfaction has been addressed in many ways in the organizational psychology. The issue of the connection between job satisfaction and work performance is also at least as controversial as the issues mentioned above with respect to these phenomena. Related to this connection, in the literature existed, over time, at least three points of view which held that: job satisfaction leads to work performance; work performance leads to job satisfaction; rewards are involved between job satisfaction and work performance. The paper aim is to present some aspects related to the connection between job motivation, job satisfaction and work performance. The issues presented in this paper lead to the conclusion that in the work process, the connection between job satisfaction and work performance or the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction are not constant or linear connection. These connections should be nuanced interpreted, depending on the conditions of occurrence. These conclusions are based on the results of a survey conducted among enterprises dealing mostly in trade sector, in Romanian Western Region.
Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie
The relationship between the ability to maintain task goals and working memory capacity (WMC) is firmly established, but evidence for WMC-related differences in conflict processing is mixed. We investigated whether WMC (measured using two complex-span tasks) mediates differences in adjustments of
Harvey, A; Durrance, D; Couger, G
Changes in the American workforce have intensified the need for veterinary medical education regarding staff relations and work-life balance. A 20-hour, one-week elective course was offered to junior veterinary students in order to provide a forum for lecture and discussion covering topics such as team building, conflict resolution, stress management, and work-life balance. Instructors are master's level counselors.
van den Berg, T I J; Elders, L A M; de Zwart, B C H; Burdorf, A
This paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were included if the WAI was used as measure of work ability and if quantitative information was presented on determinants of work ability. In total, 20 studies were included with 14 cross-sectional studies and six longitudinal studies. Factors associated with poor work ability, as defined by WAI, were lack of leisure-time vigorous physical activity, poor musculoskeletal capacity, older age, obesity, high mental work demands, lack of autonomy, poor physical work environment, and high physical work load. The WAI is associated with individual characteristics, lifestyle, demands at work, and physical condition. This multifactorial nature of work ability should be taken into account in health promotion programmes aimed at maintaining and promoting the participation of the labour force and improvement of the performance at work.
Full Text Available Background: Health professions like dentistry, nursing and physical therapy have been reported at high risk for developing workrelated musculoskeletal disorders. Results of studies conducted in these occupational groups may help formulate prevention strategies. However, no such data among physical therapists has been reported in India. Material and Methods: We conducted an online survey among 100 physiotherapists in Delhi. Results: The response rate was 75%. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is found to be high since 92% of them reported to feel some pain after joining physical therapy which affects daily activities and even sometimes forces them to change their work. Physical therapists specialty, gender, furniture used in clinic and duration of patient contact are found to be related to the pain development (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics and techniques of patient handling in development of work-related pain symptoms. Med Pr 2015;66(4:459–469
Loehr, R.; Olivera, F.; Webster, M.
Two side-by-side field prepared bed land treatment units (PBLTU) were evaluated. One PBLTU (H unit) treated soils containing chemicals from a diesel spill that had occurred about 12 months earlier. The other PBLTU (G unit) treated soils containing crude oil that had been in the soil for many decades. Laboratory slurry treatability studies and indicated that the hydrocarbons in both soils could be bioremediated if adequate nutrients were provided. The PBLTU had nutrients applied periodically, and were operated in a manner consistent with good operational guidelines. PBLTU performance was based on reductions in mobility, toxicity, and chemical concentration. Spatially random soil samples were taken from the two field PBLTU monthly and analyzed for the above parameters as well as nutrients and pH. Periodically, microbial numbers and type in the soil samples also were evaluated. Performance was monitored over an 18 month period. In the H unit, no detectable TPH reductions occurred although petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms existed in the soil and other conditions were appropriate for bioremediation. GC/MS analyses indicated reduction in some specific hydrocarbons. The H unit soils had low chemical mobility as determined by leachability tests (TCLP, SPLP) and had low relative toxicity as determined by Microtox trademark
Purpose: This paper aims to study the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) and organizational performance and to examine the role of human resource development (HRD) Climate in mediating the relationship between HPWS and the organizational performance in the context of the power sector of India. Design/methodology/approach: The…
Bonde, J P; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J H; Fallentin, N; Baelum, J; Svendsen, S W; Thomsen, J F; Frost, P; Kaergaard, A
Pain in the neck and upper extremity is reported with high frequency in repetitive work. Mechanical overload of soft tissues seems a plausible mechanism, but psychological factors have received considerable attention during the past decade. If psychological factors are important for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive work and 813 workers with varied work were enrolled. Measures of repetitiveness and force requirements were quantified using video observations to obtain individual exposure estimates. Stress symptoms were recorded at baseline and after approximately one, two, and three years by the Setterlind Stress Profile Inventory. Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution because the stress inventory has not been validated against a gold standard.
Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U; Levine, James
We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.
Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K
The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....
Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.
Ingwersen, Peter; Bogers, Toine; Lykke, Marianne
their perception of task completion. Also, with the exception of full text records and across all document types, both measured at rank 10, no statistically significant correlation is observed with respect to retrieval performance influenced by degrees of perceived work task completion or individual types......In this contribution we investigate the potential influence between assessors’ perceived completion of their work task at hand and their actual assessment of usefulness of the retrieved information. The results indicate that the number of useful documents found by assessors does not influence...
Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rodney; Aisbett, Brad
Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking) in firefighting clothing for six hours, separated by dedicated rest breaks. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area). Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout the protocol. Urine output was measured before and during the protocol, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. Ad libitum fluid intake was also recorded. There were no differences in overall work output between conditions for any physical task. Heart rate was higher in the HOT (55±2% HRmax) compared to the CON condition (51±2% HRmax) for the rest periods between bouts, and for the static hose hold task (69±3% HRmax versus 65±3% HRmax). Tc and Tsk were 0.3±0.1°C and 3.1±0.2°C higher in the HOT compared to the CON trial. Both pre- and within- shift fluid intake were increased two-fold in the heat, and participants in the heat recorded lower USG results than their CON counterparts. There was no difference between the CON and HOT conditions in terms of their work performance, and firefighters in both experimental groups increased their work output over the course of the simulated shift. Though significantly hotter, participants in the heat also managed to avoid excessive cardiovascular and thermal strain, likely aided by the frequent rest breaks in the protocol, and through doubling their fluid intake. Therefore
Knezevic, Bojana; Milosevic, Milan; Golubic, Rajna; Belosevic, Ljiljana; Russo, Andrea; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka
to explore the sources and levels of stress at work and work ability among Croatian midwives. midwives are subjected to multiple stressors. Among health-care professionals, psychological distress for a prolonged period of time has negative effects on the worker's health, work ability and quality of patient care. 'Work ability' is a term describing a worker's resources related to physical, mental and social demands at work. As a measure of work ability in midwifery, the Work Ability Index (WAI) is considered to be a very predictive instrument; midwives with a poor WAI score usually leave their current job within five years. university hospitals in Zagreb, Croatia. cross-sectional design survey. 300 health-care workers (105 qualified midwives and 195 paediatric nurses) were invited to complete the questionnaire. The total response rate was 53% (158/300). The sample included 14.7% of all hospital-based midwives in Zagreb hospitals. the Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire (OSAQ) for health-care workers and the WAI questionnaire. over three-quarters of the midwives (46/60, 76.7%) believed that their job was stressful, and considered that insufficient work resources caused the most stress. More than half of the midwives associated an insufficient number of coworkers, unexpected situations, inadequate income, night work, incurable patients and poor organisation at work with a high level of stress. The perceived specific stressors differed between midwives and paediatric nurses in the same hospital. Insufficient work resources and poor organisation at work were more common stressors among midwives than paediatric nurses (pworkplace compared with paediatric nurses (pability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was not significant. Croatian midwives experienced work-related stress due to: insufficient work resources, insufficient number of coworkers, poor organisation at work, communication with superiors and emotional
Nyo Nyo Min
Full Text Available AIM:To describe the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries and its visual outcome in tertiary hospital in southern Malaysia. METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed as work-related ocular injuries who attended to the eye casualty of Hospital Sultan Ismail in Johor Bahru, Malaysia from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013. Data for clinical presentation, types of injuries, use of eye protective device(EPDand visual outcome were collected using a standardized proforma.RESULTS: A total of 935 ocular injuries attended to Hospital Sultan Ismail during 3y period. Among them 440 cases were work-related ocular injuries and included in the study. There was significant male preponderance(98.19%and commonest age group affected was 21 to 30y(45%. The most common type of injury was superficial injuries(70.91%, followed by chemical(11.13%, open globe(8.41%, closed globe(6.83%and thermal(2.72%. Although Malays are commonly involved in work-related ocular injury accounted for 78.47%, two-thirds of open globe injuries were seen in foreign workers. Only 59 patients(13.41%reported that they wore EPD at the time of incident. Generally, 89.86%(n=399had good vision, 5.45%(n=24had moderate vision and 3.86%(n=17poor vision. Visual outcome related to specific types of injuries showed that poor outcome was higher in open globe injuries groups compared with closed globe injuries \\〖odd ratio(OR=3.33, 95% confidence interval(CI=0.68 to 16.33\\〗. Overall hospital attendance rate of work-related ocular trauma ranged from 20.7 to 51.9 per 1000 new cases and decline of approximately 1.5% per year(PCONCLUSION: Work-related ocular trauma is important cause of ocular morbidity in working forces particularly young men. Malay males between 21 to 40y have higher risk. Majority of work-related ocular trauma seen in our hospital are generally of superficial injuries and potentially preventable. This study indicates they need to improve safety measures to
Riyanto, Setyo; Sutrisno, Ady; Ali, Hapzi
In the face of the Asean economic community role of capital market demanded to be pro-active. The capital market expected to have contribution to the Indonesian economy by preparing regulations in accordance with the actual of economic conditions which would require of human resources who has a good performance at Indonesia stock exchange (IDX) as the regulator of capital market in Indonesia. This research aims to know the influence of working motivation toward employee performance at IDX, to...
Kwon, Soon-Chan; Song, Jaechul; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Calvert, Geoffrey M
To determine the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of work-related asthma in Korea. During 2004-2009, the Korea Work-Related Asthma Surveillance (KOWAS) program collected data on new cases of work-related asthma from occupational physicians, allergy and chest physicians, regional surveillance systems, and workers' compensation schemes. The incidence was calculated on the basis of industry, occupation, sex, age, and region. In addition, the distribution of causal agents was determined. During the study period, 236 cases of work-related asthma were reported, with 77 cases from more than 1 source. A total of 22.0% (n=52) were reported by occupational physicians, 52.5% (n=124) by allergy and chest physicians, 24.2% (n=57) by regional surveillance systems, and 43.2% (n=102) by workers' compensation schemes. The overall average annual incidence was 3.31 cases/million workers, with a rate of 3.78/million among men and 2.58/million among women. The highest incidence was observed in the 50-59-year age group (7.74/million), in the Gyeonggi/Incheon suburb of Seoul (8.50/million), in the furniture and other instrument manufacturing industries (67.62/million), and among craft and related trades workers (17.75/million). The most common causal agents were isocyanates (46.6%), flour/grain (8.5%), metal (5.9%), reactive dyes (5.1%), and solvents (4.2%). The incidence of work-related asthma in Korea was relatively low, and varied according to industry, occupation, gender, age, and region. Data provided by workers' compensation schemes and physician reports have been useful for determining the incidence and causes of work-related asthma.
Zacher, Hannes; Heusner, Sandra; Schmitz, Michael; Zwierzanska, Monika M.; Frese, Michael
"Focus on opportunities" is a cognitive-motivational facet of occupational future time perspective that describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities individuals expect to have in their personal work-related futures. This study examined focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age and work performance and…
The article examines conflict avoidance in performing arts group work and issues arising in relation to teaching and learning. In group theory, conflict is addressed largely in terms of its detrimental effects on group work, and its constructive potential is often marginalized. Similarly, undergraduate students usually interpret "effective…
Charbotel, Barbara; Martin, Jean Louis; Chiron, Mireille
The aim of this research was to analyze the changes that have affected work-related road accidents between 1997 and 2006, using police data. The study focused on drivers aged between 14 and 64 years. The characteristics considered were the age, gender, type of vehicle and occupation of the individuals involved and the location, time and severity of the accident. Two periods were compared, 1997-2000 and 2003-2006. Three types of journey were considered: while at work, commuting (going to and from work), and non-work-related. The percentage of all accidents which were work-related varied little over the decade (10% while at work and 18% while commuting). The accidents that occurred while at work still had the lowest fatality rates (1.4% among women and 3.4% among men in 2003-2006). Men accounted for the majority of the casualties: 90% of fatalities while at work and approximately 80% for the other types of journey. The greatest reduction took place in the number of motorists, and this has led to an increase in the proportion of motorized two-wheelers both while at work and while commuting. In the case of accidents while at work, the professional drivers still had the highest risk, craftsmen and shopkeepers were also at higher risk than manual workers of both genders and male employees. Extending analysis of this type to other European countries would be of major interest both for epidemiological monitoring and the prevention of occupational road accidents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans, John R.; Rogers, John A.
We examined the performance of several low-cost accelerometers for highly cost-driven applications in recording earthquake strong motion. We anticipate applications for such sensors in providing the lifeline and emergency-response communities with an immediate, comprehensive picture of the extent and characteristics of likely damage. We also foresee their use as 'filler' instruments sited between research-grade instruments to provide spatially detailed and near-field records of large earthquakes (on the order of 1000 stations at 600-m intervals in San Fernando Valley, population 1.2 million, for example). The latter applications would provide greatly improved attenuation relationships for building codes and design, the first examples of mainshock information (that is, potentially nonlinear regime) for microzonation, and a suite of records for structural engineers. We also foresee possible applications in monitoring structural inter-story drift during earthquakes, possibly leading to local and remote alarm functions as well as design criteria. This effort appears to be the first of its type at the USGS. It is spurred by rapid advances in sensor technology and the recognition of potential non-classical applications. In this report, we estimate sensor noise spectra, relative transfer functions and cross-axis sensitivity of six inexpensive sensors. We tested three micromachined ('silicon-chip') sensors in addition to classical force-balance and piezoelectric examples. This sample of devices is meant to be representative, not comprehensive. Sensor noise spectra were estimated by recording system output with the sensor mounted on a pneumatically supported 545-kg optical-bench isolation table. This isolation table appears to limit ground motion to below our system noise level. These noise estimates include noise introduced by signal-conditioning circuitry, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and noise induced in connecting wiring by ambient electromagnetic fields in
Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M
Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p 0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have
Bartram, David J; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Baldwin, David S
Anecdotally, veterinary surgeons report high levels of work-related stress. To investigate psychosocial working conditions, self-reported causes of work-related stress and satisfaction among a representative sample of vets practising in the UK. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of 3200 vets. The Health & Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool and a series of bespoke questions were embedded in a 120 item questionnaire, which also assessed anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, suicidal ideation, positive mental well-being and work-home interaction. A total of 1796 useable questionnaires were returned (response rate 56%). Number of hours worked and making professional mistakes were the main reported contributors to stress. Good clinical outcomes and relationships with colleagues were the greatest sources of satisfaction. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with less favourable working conditions. Compared to the general population, the sample reported higher risk of work-related stress for demands and managerial support but lower risk for relationships and change. The results could be used to inform the development of targeted interventions.
Manuel Ninaus; Gonçalo Pereira; René Stefitz; Rui Prada; Ana Paiva; Christa Neuper; Guilherme Wood
The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participan...
de Jong, Merel; Tamminga, Sietske J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M
This study aimed to (1) describe the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of cancer survivors and (2) explore associations between the QWL of cancer survivors and health- and work-related variables. Employed and self-employed cancer survivors were recruited through hospitals and patient organizations. They completed the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire for Cancer Survivors (QWLQ-CS) and health- and work-related variables in this cross-sectional study. The QWL scores of cancer survivors were described, and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables were assessed. The QWLQ-CS was completed by 302 cancer survivors (28% male) with a mean age of 52 ± 8 years. They were diagnosed between 0 and 10 years ago with various types of cancer, such as breast cancers, gastrointestinal cancers, urological cancers, and haematological cancers. The QWL mean score of cancer survivors was 75 ± 12 (0-100). Cancer survivors had statistically significant lower QWL scores when they had been treated with chemotherapy or when they reported co-morbidity (p ≤ 0.05). Cancer survivors without managerial positions, with low incomes or physically demanding work, and who worked a proportion of their contract hours had statistically significantly lower QWL scores (p ≤ 0.05). This study described the QWL of cancer survivors and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables. Based on these variables, it is possible to indicate groups of cancer survivors who need more attention and support regarding QWL and work continuation.
Bo, Jin; Jennett, S; Seidler, R D
Our recent work has revealed that visuospatial working memory (VSWM) relates to the rate of explicit motor sequence learning (Bo and Seidler in J Neurophysiol 101:3116-3125, 2009) and implicit sequence performance (Bo et al. in Exp Brain Res 214:73-81, 2011a) in young adults (YA). Although aging has a detrimental impact on many cognitive functions, including working memory, older adults (OA) still rely on their declining working memory resources in an effort to optimize explicit motor sequence learning. Here, we evaluated whether age-related differences in VSWM and/or verbal working memory (VWM) performance relates to implicit performance change in the serial reaction time (SRT) sequence task in OA. Participants performed two computerized working memory tasks adapted from change detection working memory assessments (Luck and Vogel in Nature 390:279-281, 1997), an implicit SRT task and several neuropsychological tests. We found that, although OA exhibited an overall reduction in both VSWM and VWM, both OA and YA showed similar performance in the implicit SRT task. Interestingly, while VSWM and VWM were significantly correlated with each other in YA, there was no correlation between these two working memory scores in OA. In YA, the rate of SRT performance change (exponential fit to the performance curve) was significantly correlated with both VSWM and VWM, while in contrast, OA's performance was only correlated with VWM, and not VSWM. These results demonstrate differential reliance on VSWM and VWM for SRT performance between YA and OA. OA may utilize VWM to maintain optimized performance of second-order conditional sequences.
Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang
Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.
Salski, Witold; Wiszniewska, Marta; Salska, Agata; Tymoszuk, Diana; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta
Rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis. Work-related rhinitis (WRR) can be divided into occupational rhinitis (OR) and work-exacerbated rhinitis (WER). It is not only considered as a disease entity but also in the context of medical certification as the allergic disease associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology of work-related rhinitis has been found to vary depending on the occupation and specific exposure, on the other hand the prevalence data may be underestimated due to the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews the issues comprising the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with work-related rhinitis. It also discusses the significance of the disease in occupational medicine, particularly in terms of preventive worker care, general principles of good practice in primary and secondary WRR prevention and the necessary directions of changes in medical certification in the cases of occupational rhinitis. Med Pr 2016;67(6):801-815. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis
Work-related problems, many of which could be prevented with proper ergonomic techniques are particularly common in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work stress and the development of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) of workers employed in the jute mills of India. About 219 male workers engaged in different departments of three jute industries in 24-Parganas (North) and Hooghly districts of West Bengal, India volunteered for this study. Questionnaires along with direct observation of work postures were conducted. Physical parameters such as body weight, height; physiological parameters like heart rate response, blood pressure and psycho-physiological parameters such as perceived exertion rating were studied during different tasks performed by them. It was observed that the 'hacklers' are mostly stressed. Analyses of working postures (OWAS) suggested that their adopted awkward postures were very stressful. A large number of hacklers (92.5% suffer from intense pain in different body parts as compared to workers in other departments of the jute industries. Workers report that the pain even lasts many hours after work. Since most of the workers perform repetitive tasks, so both the workplace as well as the work-rest schedule must be reorganized.
Dentists commonly experience musculoskeletal pain during the course of their career. This study investigated the incidence and mechanism of work-related musculoskeletal pain among practising dentists in Kwa-Zulu Natal. A descriptive survey was conducted among 94 dentists, who voluntarily consented to participate in ...
Objectives—Little has been published before on the epidemiology and prevention of work related spinal cord injury (SCI). This study is the first national population based epidemiological analysis of this type of injury. It presents that largest case series ever reported.
Kinnunen-Amoroso, M; Liira, J
Occupational stress is a serious threat to the well-being of employees and organizations and may cause ill-health and loss of productivity. Determining the methods that occupational health (OH) services and employers use to manage work-related stress can help to detect both barriers and facilitating factors for effective stress management. To examine stress management methods used by OH physicians in Finland. Anonymous, self-administered e-mail questionnaire to Finnish OH physicians. A total of 222 OH physicians responded. Neither OH services nor their client organizations used standardized tools to assess or manage work-related stress. Work-related stress was assessed using patient interviews. Physicians reported that the main method used to manage occupational stress was supporting the individual employee. Half of the physicians attempted to involve workplaces in stress management by asking their patients to contact their supervisors regarding stress issues. In order to tackle work-related stress consistently and effectively employers and OH services should have agreed standardized protocols for managing stress in the workplace.
Amanda C. Graham; Linda E. Kruger
This report analyzes how a small group of Forest Service scientists participating in efforts to implement adaptive management approach working relations, and how they understand and apply the research process. Nine scientists completed a questionnaire to assess their preferred mode of thinking (the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument), engaged in a facilitated...
Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa. ... away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness.
Parker, Lauren; Allen, Tammy D.
A study of 283 workers showed that younger people, minorities, those who used flexible work arrangements, and those whose jobs required greater interdependence had more favorable perceptions of family-related benefits. Gender and children's ages influenced perceptions of the fairness of benefits. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)
Objective: This study aims to assess the magnitude of work related injury and associated factors among small scale industrial workers in Mizan-Aman town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to May, 2016. Data was collected using a structured face to ...
Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.
This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data
This paper provides an account of the inter-psychological processes that constitute learning through work. It does this by drawing on deliberations about the relative contributions of the immediate social world (i.e., workplace setting) that individuals encounter and the personal premises for individuals' learning. This account is realised through…
Pop-Vasileva, Aleksandra; Baird, Kevin; Blair, Bill
This study examines the work-related attitudes of Australian accounting academics. A survey of 350 academics provides an insight into the specific organisational and institutional factors associated with the dissatisfaction, stress levels, and propensity to remain of academics. Of particular concern is the lower level of satisfaction and…
Arthur, Andrew R.
Progress in understanding and developing effective responses to work-related stress has been elusive, patchy, and inconsistent. The reasons for this are reviewed, and the inadequacy of traditional stress management techniques and organisational interventions to tackle it are examined. Although necessary, clinical responses to distressed…
Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary
The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…
Long, Bonita C.
Interviewed 20 professional women on their work-related stress and coping processes to identify those who were good and poor at coping. Found that more effective copers seemed to have used problem-focused coping such as seeking information or advice or taking problem-solving action, whereas less effective copers seemed to have used strategies such…
The impact of musculoskeletal pain specifically within the teaching profession has not been given sufficient attention in the literature especially in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of work related musculoskeletal pain among public secondary school teachers in Ife-Central Local Government Area (LGA), Osun ...
De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R
This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded
Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan
Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators
SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya
This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental he...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as dimensions of work-related wellbeing in a sample of members of the police force in South Africa. A survey design was used. Stratifed random samples of members of the police force (N = 677 were taken in the North West Province of South Africa. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, Police Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results provided support for a four-factorial model of work-related wellbeing consisting of the following dimensions: job satisfaction (indicating pleasure vs. displeasure, occupational stress (indicating anxiety vs. comfort, burnout (indicating fatigue vs. vigour, and engagement (indicating enthusiasm vs. depression.
Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; van den Heuvel, M.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the process through which leader-member exchange (LMX) is related to followers’ job performance. Integrating the literature on LMX theory and resource theories, the authors hypothesized that the positive relationship between LMX and employee job
Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A. B.; Demerouti, E.; Van den Heuvel, M.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the process through which leader-member exchange (LMX) is related to followers’ job performance. Integrating the literature on LMX theory and resource theories, the authors hypothesized that the positive relationship between LMX and employee job
Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; van den Heuvel, M.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the process through which leader-member exchange (LMX) is related to followers’ job performance. Integrating the literature on LMX theory and resource theories, the authors hypothesized that the positive relationship between LMX and employee job
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement policy concerning performance of nonexempt work..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS Switchboard Operator Exemption § 786.100 Enforcement policy concerning performance of...
Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Lerner, Debra; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J
The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the questionnaire's internal consistency and content validity in the American-English context. A five stage translation and adaptation process was used: forward translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pilot-testing. During the pilot-testing, cognitive interviews with 40 American workers were performed, to examine the comprehensibility, applicability, and completeness of the American-English IWPQ. Questionnaire instructions were slightly modified to aid interpretation in the American-English language. Inconsistencies with verb tense were identified, and it was decided to consistently use simple past tense. The wording of five items was modified to better suit the American-English language. In general, participants were positive on the comprehensibility, applicability and completeness of the questionnaire during the pilot-testing phase. Furthermore, the study showed positive results concerning the internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas for the scales between 0.79-0.89) and content validity of the American-English IWPQ. The results indicate that the cross-cultural adaptation of the American-English IWPQ was successful and that the measurement properties of the translated version are promising.
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.
Jungsun Park; Yangho Kim; Boyoung Han
Background: To identify work sectors with high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed nationwide data to identify ergonomic risk factors in Korean employees. In particular, we analyzed data on exposure to five ergonomic risk factors (painful/tiring postures, lifting/moving heavy materials, standing/walking, repetitive hand/arm movements, and hand/arm vibration) according to employment sector, sex, and age, using the 2014 Fourth Kor...
CHUNG, Yun Kyung; KWON, Young-jun
The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers’ compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker’s compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84–0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation. PMID:23892901
Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Young-jun
The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers' compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker's compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84-0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation.
Smith, Andrew P; Chaplin, Katherine; Wadsworth, Emma
An intervention study was carried out to examine the effects of chewing gum on occupational stress and related outcomes. 101 volunteers from Cardiff University completed the study. The results showed that chewing gum reduced stress (both at work and outside work), reduced fatigue, reduced anxiety and depression and led to a more positive mood. Chewing gum was also associated with perceptions of better performance (both at work and outside). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Habibi, Ehsanollah; Dehghan, Habibollah; Safari, Shahram; Mahaki, Behzad; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Work-related stress is one of the basic problems in industrial also top 10 work-related health problems and it is increasingly implicated in the development a number of problems such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal diseases, early retirement to employees. On the other hand, early retirement to employees from the workplace has increased on the problems of today's industries. Hereof, improving work ability is one of the most effective ways to enhance the ability and preventing disability and early retirement. The aim of This study is determine the relationship between job stress score and work ability index (WAI) at the refinery workers. This is a cross-sectional study in which 171 workers from a refinery in isfahan in 2012 who were working in different occupational groups participated. Based on appropriate assignment sampling, 33 office workers, 69 operational workers, and 69 maintenance workers, respectively, were invited to participate in this study. Two questionnaires including work related-stress and WAI were filled in. Finally, the information was analyzed using the SPSS-20 and statistic tests namely, analysis of covariance Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson correlation coefficient, ANOVA and t-test. Data analysis revealed that 86% and 14% of participants had moderate and severe stress respectively. Average score of stress and standard deviation was 158.7 ± 17.3 that was in extreme stress range. Average score and standard deviation of WAI questionnaire were 37.18 and 3.86 respectively. That placed in a good range. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that WAI score had significant reversed relationship with a score of stress. According to the results, mean stress score among refinery worker was high and one fator that affect work abiity was high stress, hence training on communication skills and safe working environment in order to decreses stress, enhance the work ability of workers.
Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya
This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.
Audusseau, Jean; Juhel, Jacques
The authors investigated whether working memory (WM) plays a significant role in the development of decision making in children, operationalized by the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). A total of 105 children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years old carried out the CGT. Children aged 6-7 years old were found to have a lower performance than older children, which shows that the CGT is sensitive to participant's age. The hypothesis that WM plays a significant role in decision making was then tested following two approaches: (a) an experimental approach, comparing between groups the performance on the CGT in a control condition (the CGT only was administered) to that in a double task condition (participants had to carry out a recall task in addition to the CGT); (b) an interindividual approach, probing the relationship between CGT performance and performance on tasks measuring WM efficiency. The between-groups approach evidenced a better performance in the control group. Moreover, the interindividual approach showed that the higher the participants' WM efficiency was, the higher their performance in the CGT was. Taken together, these two approaches yield converging results that support the hypothesis that WM plays a significant role in decision making in children.
Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka
cThis study examined the interactive effect of management by group goals and job interdependence on employee's activities in terms of task and contextual performance. A survey was conducted among 140 Japanese employees. Results indicated that management by group goals was related only to contextual performance. Job interdependence, however, had a direct effect on both task and contextual performance. Moreover, moderated regression analyses revealed that for work groups requiring higher interdependence among employees, management by group goals had a positive relation to contextual performance but not to task performance. When interdependence was not necessarily required, however, management by group goals had no relation to contextual performance and even negatively impacted task performance, respectively. These results show that management by group goals affects task and contextual performance, and that this effect is moderated by job interdependence. This provides a theoretical extension as well as a practical application to the setting and management of group goals.
Psscholog-, 1979, 30, 63-102# Craik , F. I. H., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memor5 research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal...progressively lower levels of performance* The decline is assumed tu be due to the biological aging process . Reductions in physiological functioning lead in turn... levels of cognitive processing were taken -- for examplep measures of masking could be related to performance In situations requiring visual scanningp
Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kubota, Kazumi; Kawakami, Norito
This study investigated the distinctiveness between workaholism and work engagement by examining their longitudinal relationships (measurement interval=7 months) with well-being and performance in a sample of 1,967 Japanese employees from various occupations. Based on a previous cross-sectional study (Shimazu & Schaufeli, 2009), we expected that workaholism predicts future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance. T1-T2 changes in ill-health, life satisfaction and job performance were measured as residual scores that were then included in the structural equation model. Results showed that workaholism and work engagement were weakly and positively related to each other. In addition, workaholism was related to an increase in ill-health and to a decrease in life satisfaction. In contrast, work engagement was related to a decrease in ill-health and to increases in both life satisfaction and job performance. These findings suggest that workaholism and work engagement are two different kinds of concepts that are oppositely related to well-being and performance.
Barrouillet, Pierre; Portrat, Sophie; Camos, Valérie
Working memory is usually defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. However, although many models of working memory have been put forward during the last decades, they often leave underspecified the dynamic interplay between processing and storage. Moreover, the account of their interaction proposed by the most popular A. D. Baddeley and G. Hitch's (1974) multiple-component model is contradicted by facts, leaving unresolved one of the main issues of cognitive functioning. In this article, the author derive from the time-based resource-sharing model of working memory a mathematical function relating the cognitive load involved by concurrent processing to the amount of information that can be simultaneously maintained active in working memory. A meta-analysis from several experiments testing the effects of processing on storage corroborates the parameters of the predicted function, suggesting that it properly reflects the law relating the 2 functions of working memory. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja
Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance.
Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine
To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.
Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine
Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735
Van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert
Early numeracy is an important precursor for arithmetic performance, academic proficiency, and work success. Besides their apparent motor difficulties, children with cerebral palsy (CP) often show additional cognitive disturbances. In this study, we examine whether working memory, non-verbal intelligence, linguistic skills, counting and fine motor skills are positively related to the early numeracy performance of 6-year-old children with CP. A total of 56 children (M = 6.0, SD = 0.61, 37 boys) from Dutch special education schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total group, 81% of the children have the spastic type of CP (33% unilateral and 66% bilateral), 9% have been diagnosed as having diskinetic CP, 8% have been diagnosed as having spastic and diskinetic CP and 2% have been diagnosed as having a combination of diskinetic and atactic CP. The children completed standardized tests assessing early numeracy performance, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, sentence understanding and fine motor skills. In addition, an experimental task was administered to examine their basic counting performance. Structural equation modeling showed that working memory and fine motor skills were significantly related to the early numeracy performance of the children (β = .79 and p working memory and early numeracy (β = .57, p working memory for early numeracy performance in children with CP and they warrant further research into the efficacy of intervention programs aimed at working memory training.
Hächl, O; Tuli, T; Schwabegger, A; Gassner, R
Even though numerous reports on maxillofacial trauma exist, only a few give detailed information about work-related maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of this study was to reveal the significance of maxillofacial injuries related to accidents occurring at work by evaluating a large number of patients with maxillofacial injuries over a 9-year period. Out of the 8704 trauma patients treated between 1991 and 1999 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, 463 (5.4%) were injured at work. All charts were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, cause of accident, occupation, type of injury, location and frequency of fractures. The highest incidence of maxillofacial injury was found among construction workers (a total of 124 patients, 26.8%), followed by craftsmen (102 patients, 22.0%) and office employees (69 patients, 14.9%). The sex distribution showed an overall male-to-female ratio of 11.8:1 and those in the age group most affected were between 20 and 29 years of age. The most frequent cause of injury was a blow in 48.4%, followed by falls and falls over obstacles, accounting for 27.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Of all trauma, 45.4% (210 persons) sustained 423 maxillofacial fractures, 31.7% (147 patients) suffered 232 dento-alveolar injuries, and 21.2% (98 people) showed 430 soft-tissue injuries. One-fifth (20.7%) of all patients displayed concomitant injuries with cerebral and cranial trauma being the most common. The probability of sustaining maxillofacial trauma at work is correlated to the nature of the occupation. Individuals (mostly men) using tools or machines at work are exposed to a much higher risk of work-related maxillofacial trauma.
Akboğa Kale, Özge; Eskişar, Tuğba
Geotechnical site works are comprehensive, and they constitute the first step of the construction process. This study performs data mining of geotechnical works and analyzes the database for the root causes of accidents. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was chosen for the 1984-2013 time frame with 247 cases. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to discuss variables such as the end use of the work, project type and cost, soil type and condition, type and degree of injury, cause and type of accident, unsafe acts, and occupation and union status of the victim. The results showed that these accidents have a high frequency of recurrence and have a high severity level (54.3% fatalities). In addition, a total of 838 violations were recorded with penalties reaching 5 million US dollars. This study emphasizes that project-specific countermeasures should be taken regarding the root causes of accidents, leading to vigorous strategies to develop safety measures.
Research purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the factorial invariance and the construct validity of a scale that measures Work-SoC. Motivation for the study: It might be useful to specifically apply the concept of sense of coherence to the work context. Research design, approach and method: Statistical analysis was performed on crosssectional (n = 3412 and longitudinal (n = 1286 questionnaire data collected in eight medium to large Swiss companies from diverse economic sectors (four industrialproduction companies, one food-processing company, one public-administration service and two hospitals. The dataset therefore covers a broad range of different occupational groups. Main findings: Multiple-group analyses indicated that the scale’s factor structure remains invariant across different employee groups and across time. High values in job resources were related to high values in Work-SoC whereas high values in job demands were related to low values in Work-SoC. Furthermore, Work-SoC acted as a partial mediator between job resources and work engagement. Practical/managerial implications: It can be concluded that Work-SoC might serve as a practical screening instrument for assessing an employee’s perception of the potential health-promoting qualities of his or her current work situation. Contribution/value-add: The study advances both the salutogenic theory and the field of positive occupational health psychology by redefining sense of coherence as an interactional and context-specific construct that is useful for intervention research.
Buist, Diana S M; Anderson, Melissa L; Smith, Robert A; Carney, Patricia A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Monsees, Barbara S; Sickles, Edward A; Taplin, Stephen H; Geller, Berta M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Onega, Tracy L
To examine radiologists' screening performance in relation to the number of diagnostic work-ups performed after abnormal findings are discovered at screening mammography by the same radiologist or by different radiologists. In an institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study, the authors linked 651 671 screening mammograms interpreted from 2002 to 2006 by 96 radiologists in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium to cancer registries (standard of reference) to evaluate the performance of screening mammography (sensitivity, false-positive rate [ FPR false-positive rate ], and cancer detection rate [ CDR cancer detection rate ]). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the volume of recalled screening mammograms ("own" mammograms, where the radiologist who interpreted the diagnostic image was the same radiologist who had interpreted the screening image, and "any" mammograms, where the radiologist who interpreted the diagnostic image may or may not have been the radiologist who interpreted the screening image) and screening performance and whether the association between total annual volume and performance differed according to the volume of diagnostic work-up. Annually, 38% of radiologists performed the diagnostic work-up for 25 or fewer of their own recalled screening mammograms, 24% performed the work-up for 0-50, and 39% performed the work-up for more than 50. For the work-up of recalled screening mammograms from any radiologist, 24% of radiologists performed the work-up for 0-50 mammograms, 32% performed the work-up for 51-125, and 44% performed the work-up for more than 125. With increasing numbers of radiologist work-ups for their own recalled mammograms, the sensitivity (P = .039), FPR false-positive rate (P = .004), and CDR cancer detection rate (P women recalled per cancer detected from 17.4 for 25 or fewer mammograms to 24.6 for more than 50 mammograms. Increases in work-ups for any radiologist yielded significant
Anderson, Melissa L.; Smith, Robert A.; Carney, Patricia A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Monsees, Barbara S.; Sickles, Edward A.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Geller, Berta M.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Onega, Tracy L.
Purpose To examine radiologists’ screening performance in relation to the number of diagnostic work-ups performed after abnormal findings are discovered at screening mammography by the same radiologist or by different radiologists. Materials and Methods In an institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant study, the authors linked 651 671 screening mammograms interpreted from 2002 to 2006 by 96 radiologists in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium to cancer registries (standard of reference) to evaluate the performance of screening mammography (sensitivity, false-positive rate [FPRfalse-positive rate], and cancer detection rate [CDRcancer detection rate]). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the volume of recalled screening mammograms (“own” mammograms, where the radiologist who interpreted the diagnostic image was the same radiologist who had interpreted the screening image, and “any” mammograms, where the radiologist who interpreted the diagnostic image may or may not have been the radiologist who interpreted the screening image) and screening performance and whether the association between total annual volume and performance differed according to the volume of diagnostic work-up. Results Annually, 38% of radiologists performed the diagnostic work-up for 25 or fewer of their own recalled screening mammograms, 24% performed the work-up for 0–50, and 39% performed the work-up for more than 50. For the work-up of recalled screening mammograms from any radiologist, 24% of radiologists performed the work-up for 0–50 mammograms, 32% performed the work-up for 51–125, and 44% performed the work-up for more than 125. With increasing numbers of radiologist work-ups for their own recalled mammograms, the sensitivity (P = .039), FPRfalse-positive rate (P = .004), and CDRcancer detection rate (P work-ups for any radiologist yielded significant increases in FPRfalse-positive rate (P = .011) and CDRcancer detection rate (P
Wang, Jinn-Rong; Hsieh, Shulan
The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the frontal-midline theta (fmθ) activity uptraining protocol on attention and working memory performance of older and younger participants. Thirty-two participants were recruited. Participants within each age group were randomly assigned to either the neurofeedback training (fmθ uptraining) group or the sham-neurofeedback training group. There was a significant improvement in orienting scores in the older neurofeedback training group. In addition, there was a significant improvement in conflict scores in both the older and young neurofeedback training groups. However, alerting scores failed to increase. In addition, the fmθ training was found to improve working memory function in the older participants. The results further showed that fmθ training can modulate resting EEG for both neurofeedback groups. Our study demonstrated that fmθ uptraining improved attention and working memory performance and theta activity in the resting state for normal aging adults. In addition, younger participants also benefited from the present protocol in terms of improving their executive function. The current findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neurofeedback training in cognitive function, and suggest that the fmθ uptraining protocol is an effective intervention program for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.
With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level…
Cevik, V.; Altun, A.
This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe, CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers’ Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration.
Full Text Available Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network (involving the anterior insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n=26 and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine-Levin syndrome (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n=18 participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high and low capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal was modulated by 1 effort in both the central executive and the salience network and 2 capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger
The paper discusses how a central Performance Management system in the Danish job centers affects the employees’ perception of accountability, autonomy, common goals and dialogue. Dysfunctional behavioral effects are explored in qualitative analyses based on 4 case studies. Results indicate...... that the expected positive effects of performance management do not materialize at the Danish job centers because focus in the implementation process gradually shifts from results to process goals. This is related to a series of dysfunctional behavioral effects which instead of creating commitment frustrate...
Tones, Megan; Pillay, Hitendra; Fraser, Jennifer
Contemporary lifespan development models of adaptive development have been applied to the workforce to examine characteristics of the ageing employee. Few studies have examined adaptive development in terms of worker perceptions of workplace, or their learning and development issues. This study used the recently developed Revised Learning and Development Survey to investigate employee selection and engagement of learning and development goals, opportunities for learning and development at work, and constraints to learning and development at work. Demographic and career goal variables were tested amongst a sample of private hospital employees, almost all of whom were nurses. Workers under 45 years of age perceived greater opportunities for training and development than more mature aged workers. Age and physical demands interacted such that physical demands of work were associated with lower engagement in learning and development goals in mature aged workers. The opposite was observed amongst younger workers. Engagement in learning and development goals at work predicted goals associated with an intention to decrease work hours or change jobs to a different industry when opportunities to learn via work tasks were limited. At the same time limited opportunities for training and development and perceptions of constraints to development at work predicted the intention to change jobs. Results indicate consideration must be paid to employee perceptions in the workplace in relation to goals. They may be important factors in designing strategies to retain workers.
Ihdaryanti, Monica Amani; Panggabean, Mutiara S
Generally High Performance Work Practice (HPWP) is a part of management human resources. The objectives of this research are getting and analyzing the effect of HPWPs with Job Satisfaction; HPWPs with Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction with Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction with Job Performance; and Organizational Commitment with Job Performance. The total of sample in this research is 100 respondents which are as Front liner BNI and Mandiri. The result of th...
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, empowerment and job performance among information technology professionals. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire (EEQ, a Conscientiousness Scale and a Social Desirability Scale were administered to 101 information technology customer service engineers. Managers completed a Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ for each customer service engineer. The results indicated a significant relationship between conscientiousness and empowerment. A curvilinear relationship was found between empowerment and performance. The practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Despite reduced health risks in terms of physical and chemical hazards current trends in occupational life continue to contribute to ill health and disease among economically active people. Stress at work plays a crucial role in this respect, as evidenced by recent scientific progress. This paper discusses two leading theoretical models of work-related stress, the demand-control model and the model of effort-reward imbalance, and it summarizes available evidence on adverse health effects. As work stress in terms of these models is more prevalent among lower socioeconomic status groups, these conditions contribute to the explanation of socially graded risks of morbidity and mortality in midlife. Implications of this new knowledge for the design and implementation of worksite health-promotion measures are elaborated. In conclusion, it is argued that workplace strategies deserve high priority on any agenda that aims at reducing social inequalities in health.
Yuri G. Pavlov
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the relationship betweenfrontal midline theta rhythm changes and individual differences in working memory performance.Methods. The methods involve behavioural testing on the basis of the program for a presentation of stimulus and registration of answers «PsyTask»; method of EEG (electroencephalography; a technique of measurement of efficiency of working memory; the comparative analysis. Software packages EEGLab for Matlab and Fieldtrip are applied while data processing.Results. After the behavioral test all subjects were separated into 2 groups according to their performance: with «highly productive» and «low productive» memory. Specially prepared author’s complete set of the tasks which complexity varied from average to ultrahigh level was offered to participants of experiment –students and employees of the Ural Federal University and Ural Legal Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Working memory tasks included sets of verbal stimuli for memorizing in strict order without any mental manipulation and sets of similar stimuli for memorizing in alphabetical order (with manipulations. Measured characteristics of theta-rhythm of EEG during information deduction in memory were compared of two groups’ representatives. The obtained data has shown rather uniform and similar dynamics of decrease in quantity of right answers in process of increasing tasks’ complexity. However, changes of a thetarhythm in different groups had sharply expressed distinctions. «Highly productive» examinees have systematic expansion of a theta-rhythm in the central assignments with stabilisation on the most difficult tasks; «low productive» – while tasks performance of average complexity, a sharp falling of theta-rhythm activity is observed after achievement of its maximum activation.Scientific novelty. The working memory «overload» effect and its EEG correlates are demonstrated on a big sample of
Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm
Boundaries between work and private life are diminishing, but little is known on how this influences worker health. Therefore, we examined the association between work-related contacts outside of regular working hours by e-mail or phone and self-reported health in a representative sample of European employees (n = 23 760). The risk of reporting ≥1 health problem(s) was increased in workers contacted sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.27) or often (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.34) as compared with never, controlling for several demographic and workplace characteristics. Further research is needed to quantify work and nonwork patterns and their health effects.
Objective: A repeated measures study was used to assess the effect of work tasks on select proinflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Methods: Ten firefighters and two volunteers were monitored for particulate matter and carbon monoxide on workdays, January-July 2015. Before and after work-shift dried blood spots were analyzed for inflammatory mediators using the Meso Scale Discovery assay, while blood smears were used to assess leukocyte parameters. Results: Firefighters lighting with drip-torches had higher cross-work-shift increases in interleukin-8, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A compared to holding, a task involving management of fire boundaries. A positive association between interleukin-8 and segmented-neutrophil was observed. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that intermittent occupational diesel exposures contribute to cross-work-shift changes in host systemic innate inflammation as indicated by elevated interleukin-8 levels and peripheral blood segmented-neutrophils. The decision whether to perform a prescribed burn balances land use, risk of fire and potential health impacts. Understanding the latter requires a quick non intrusive assay which can be used to monitor the health of those exposed to smoke. This is first study to use blood smears to assess changes in systemic differential leukocyte cell populations following wood smoke exposure from prescribed burn. This research is useful for understandi
assessed performance measures or data. Podsakoff and Organ’s (1986) work highlighted that the most critical concern was that the use of self...obtaining data from self- reports. The Podsakoff and Organ (1986) article highlighted, though, that under specific conditions it seems that self-report... Podsakoff and Organ also stressed in their study that it is unlikely that such techniques of using self-reports will be abandoned. They do recommend that
A greater acknowledgment of relational interdependence between individual and social agencies is warranted within conceptions of learning throughout working life. Currently, some accounts of learning tend to overly privilege social agency in the form of situational contributions. This de-emphasises the contributions of the more widely socially…
Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Buuren, S. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Vet, H.C.W. de
Recently, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) version 0.2 was developed using Rasch analysis. The goal of the current study was to improve targeting of the IWPQ scales by including additional items. The IWPQ 0.2 (original) and 0.3 (including additional items) were examined using Rasch analysis. Additional items that showed misfit or did not improve targeting were removed from the IWPQ 0.3, resulting in a final IWPQ 1.0. Subsequently, the scales showed good model fit and relia...
Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
A previous review of historical descriptions and theories about the character and pathogenesis of writer’s cramp and other comparable chronic upper limb “overuse” work-related pain syndromes has indicated that somatic dysfunctions explain symptoms and findings. The first case studies and case...... series suggested that these conditions were caused by pathology affecting the peripheral nerves. The general perception gradually changed, however, with symptoms becoming attributed to central nervous system dysfunction and ultimately to represent a psychiatric condition. Work-related upper limb...... disorders remain diagnostically challenging to clinicians and there is still a tendency to see many patients’ pain as a psychiatric problem when a standard physical examination does not explain the condition. This article describes reports of writer’s cramp and comparable occupational upper limb “overuse...
Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn
Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...
Data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers are used to test the resource versus the stress of higher status hypotheses. Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), the resource hypothesis predicts that job-related resources reduce job pressure. The stress of higher status hypothesis predicts that job-related resources increase job pressure. Findings tend to favor the resource hypothesis for job autonomy and schedule control, while supporting the stress of higher status for job authority and challenging work. These findings help elaborate on the "resource" concept in the JD-R model and identify unique ways that such resources might contribute to the pressures of working life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harrison, Tyler L; Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W
One of the reasons why working memory capacity is so widely researched is its substantial relationship with fluid intelligence. Although this relationship has been found in numerous studies, researchers have been unable to provide a conclusive answer as to why the two constructs are related. In a recent study, researchers examined which attributes of Raven's Progressive Matrices were most strongly linked with working memory capacity (Wiley, Jarosz, Cushen, & Colflesh, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 256-263, 2011). In that study, Raven's problems that required a novel combination of rules to solve were more strongly correlated with working memory capacity than were problems that did not. In the present study, we wanted to conceptually replicate the Wiley et al. results while controlling for a few potential confounds. Thus, we experimentally manipulated whether a problem required a novel combination of rules and found that repeated-rule-combination problems were more strongly related to working memory capacity than were novel-rule-combination problems. The relationship to other measures of fluid intelligence did not change based on whether the problem required a novel rule combination.
Numerical indicators to monitor safety status and overall safety performance of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are used by operators and some regulators worldwide. During the last few years, the IAEA, through Technical Committee Meetings and Consultants' Meetings has worked on this area. This report presents a framework for nuclear power plant safety performance indicators that was developed during two consultant meetings held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna in December 1995 and November 1996. Annex 2 on risk based indicators was prepared during a consultants' meeting held in Vienna in July 1996. An additional outcome from these activities, was the recommendation that the IAEA conduce pilot exercises at several nuclear power plants that might be interested to participate, in order to test the validity of the concept and its usefulness. 6 figs
Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.
OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core grou...
AMANDA ROSE WARMERDAM
This program of research explored the organisational determinants of work-related road traffic injury in light vehicle fleets. The landscape of risk management in workplace road safety in Australia and organisational practices that influence safe driver behaviour were investigated. Key findings included that safe driving is influenced by factors at multiple levels, including senior managers, supervisors and individual fleet drivers and workplace road safety is not well integrated within curre...
Härkönen, Kati; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Rautiainen, Markus; Kotti, Voitto; Sivonen, Ville; Vasama, Juha-Pekka
This prospective study shows that working performance, quality of life (QoL), and quality of hearing (QoH) are better with two compared with a single cochlear implant (CI). The impact of the second CI on the patient's QoL is as significant as the impact of the first CI. To evaluate the benefits of sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in working, QoL, and QoH. We studied working performance, work-related stress, QoL, and QoH with specific questionnaires in 15 patients with unilateral CI scheduled for sequential CI of another ear. Sound localization performance and speech perception in noise were measured with specific tests. All questionnaires and tests were performed before the second CI surgery and 6 and 12 months after its activation. Bilateral CIs increased patients' working performance and their work-related stress and fatigue decreased. Communication with co-workers was easier and patients were more active in their working environment. Sequential bilateral cochlear implantation improved QoL, QoH, sound localization, and speech perception in noise statistically significantly.
Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kamiyama, Kimika; Kawakami, Norito
This study investigated the distinctiveness of two types of heavy work investment (i.e., workaholism and work engagement) by examining their 2-year longitudinal relationships with employee well-being and job performance. Based on a previous cross-sectional study by Shimazu and Schaufeli (Ind Health 47:495-502, 2009) and a shorter term longitudinal study by Shimazu et al. (Ind Health 50:316-21, 2012; measurement interval = 7 months), we predicted that workaholism predicts long-term future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance. A two-wave survey was conducted among employees from one Japanese company, and valid data from 1,196 employees was analyzed using structural equation modeling. T1-T2 changes in ill-health, life satisfaction, and job performance were measured as residual scores, which were included in the structural equation model. Workaholism and work engagement were weakly and positively related to each other. In addition, and as expected, workaholism was related to an increase in ill-health and to a decrease in life satisfaction. In contrast, and also as expected, work engagement was related to increases in both life satisfaction and job performance and to a decrease in ill-health. Although workaholism and work engagement are weakly positively related, they constitute two different concepts. More specifically, workaholism has negative consequences across an extended period of 2 years, whereas work engagement has positive consequences in terms of well-being and performance. Hence, workaholism should be prevented and work engagement should be stimulated.
Mohammed, Mouda; Mébarek, Djebabra; Wafa, Boulagouas; Makhlouf, Chati
Noncompliance of operators with work procedures is a recurrent problem. This human behavior has been said to be situational and studied by many different approaches (ergonomic and others), which consider the noncompliance with work procedures to be obvious and seek to analyze its causes as well as consequences. The object of the proposed method is to solve this problem by focusing on the performance of work procedures and ensuring improved performance on a continuous basis. This study has multiple results: (1) assessment of the work procedures' performance by a multicriteria approach; (2) the use of a continuous improvement approach as a framework for the sustainability of the assessment method of work procedures' performance; and (3) adaptation of the Stop-Card as a facilitator support for continuous improvement of work procedures. The proposed method emphasizes to put in value the inputs of continuous improvement of the work procedures in relation with the conventional approaches which adopt the obvious evidence of the noncompliance to the working procedures and seek to analyze the cause-effect relationships related to this unacceptable phenomenon, especially in strategic industry.
Kanfer, Ruth; Frese, Michael; Johnson, Russell E
Work motivation is a topic of crucial importance to the success of organizations and societies and the well-being of individuals. We organize the work motivation literature over the last century using a meta-framework that clusters theories, findings, and advances in the field according to their primary focus on (a) motives, traits, and motivation orientations (content); (b) features of the job, work role, and broader environment (context); or (c) the mechanisms and processes involved in choice and striving (process). Our integrative review reveals major achievements in the field, including more precise mapping of the psychological inputs and operations involved in motivation and broadened conceptions of the work environment. Cross-cutting trends over the last century include the primacy of goals, the importance of goal striving processes, and a more nuanced conceptualization of work motivation as a dynamic, goal-directed, resource allocation process that unfolds over the related variables of time, experience, and place. Across the field, advances in methodology and measurement have improved the match between theory and research. Ten promising directions for future research are described and field experiments are suggested as a useful means of bridging the research-practice gap. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe), CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose) is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers' Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institution work and performance pay... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.22 Institution work... Institution Inmate Work and Performance Pay Committee to administer the institution's work and performance pay...
Full Text Available We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.
Keightley, Michelle L; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Gagnon, Isabelle; Leonard, Gabriel; Petrides, Michael; Ptito, Alain
Abstract In children, the importance of detecting deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion has grown with the increasing popularity of leisure physical activities and contact sports. Whereas most postconcussive symptoms (PCS) are similar for children and adults, the breadth of consequences to children remains largely unknown. To investigate the effect of mTBI on brain function, we compared working memory performance and related brain activity using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 concussed youths and 15 healthy age-matched control subjects. Neuropsychological tests, self-perceived PCS, and levels of anxiety and depression were also assessed. Our results showed that, behaviorally, concussed youths had significantly worse performances on the working memory tasks, as well as on the Rey figure delayed recall and verbal fluency. fMRI results revealed that, compared to healthy children, concussed youths had significantly reduced task-related activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and left superior parietal lobule during performance of verbal and nonverbal working memory tasks. Additionally, concussed youths also showed less activation than healthy controls in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, left thalamus, and left caudate nucleus during the nonverbal task. Regression analysis indicated that BOLD signal changes in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly correlated with performance such that greater activities in these regions, relative to the control condition, were associated with greater accuracy. Our findings confirmed functional alterations in brain activity after concussion in youths, a result similar to that observed in adults. However, significant differences were noted. In particular, the observation of reduced working memory accuracy suggests that youths may be unable to engage compensatory
Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling
Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.
d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Greco, Mariarita
Organizational changes that involve healthcare hospital departments and care services of health districts, and ongoing technological innovations and developments in society increasingly expose healthcare workers (HCWs) to work-related stress (WRS). Minimizing occupational exposure to stress requires effective risk stress assessment and management programs. The authors conducted an integrated analysis of stress sentinel indicators, an integrated analysis of objective stress factors of occupational context and content areas, and an integrated analysis between nurses and physicians of hospital departments and care services of health districts in accordance with a multidimensional validated tool developed in Italy by the National Network for the Prevention of Work-Related Psychosocial Disorders. The purpose of this retrospective observational study was to detect and analyze in different work settings the level of WRS resulting from organizational changes implemented by hospital healthcare departments and care services of health districts in a sample of their employees. The findings of the study showed that hospital HCWs seemed to incur a medium level risk of WRS that was principally the result of work context factors. The implementation of improvement interventions focused on team development, safety training programs, and adopting an ethics code for HCWs, and it effectively and significantly reduced the level of WRS risk in the workplace. In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.
K. M. Volkers
Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.
Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Elgerisi, Dikla; Easterbrook, Adam; Ratzon, Navah Z
Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling. They were assessed for gross and fine motor hand functioning, job attitudes, work performance, and cognition. People with mental illness scored lower on work performance, cognitive functioning, and hand dexterity while sitting and working with tools. They were assigned lower job loads than were controls, and perceived the physical environment at work as more constraining than did controls. Assembling motor skills significantly explained the work performance of people with mental illness. The results expand our understanding of the complexities involved in the employment of people with severe mental illness, and point to new paths for improving vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness, taking into account their motor skills and job attitudes. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists should be aware that employed people with severe mental illness may have various unmet needs, affecting their work performance and experience of stress. This study results demonstrate importance of motor skills and perception of the work environment for the promotion of vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Employment of people with severe mental illness should be viewed from holistic perspective as with general population, rather than focused on traditionally illness-related factors.
Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto
Work disability remains a considerable problem for many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Morning stiffness is a symptom of RA associated with early retirement from work and with impaired functional ability. We aimed to explore the patient's perception of the impact of morning stiffness on the working life of patients with RA. A survey was conducted in 11 European countries. Patients of working age, with RA for ≥6 months and morning stiffness ≥3 mornings a week, were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. Responses were assessed in the total sample and in subgroups defined by severity and duration of morning stiffness and by country. A total of 1,061 respondents completed the survey, 534 were working, 224 were retired and the rest were, i.e. homemakers and unemployed. Among the 534 working respondents, RA-related morning stiffness affected work performance (47 %), resulted in late arrival at work (33 %) and required sick leave in the past month (15 %). Of the 224 retired respondents, 159 (71 %) stopped working earlier than their expected retirement age, with 64 % giving RA-related morning stiffness as a reason. There was a differential impact of increasing severity and increasing duration of morning stiffness on the various parameters studied. There were notable inter-country differences in the impact of RA-related morning stiffness on ability to work and on retirement. This large survey showed that from the patient's perspective, morning stiffness reduces the ability to work in patients with RA and contributes to early retirement.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic stress disorder acquired at work can be debilitating both for workers and their employers. The disorder can result in increased sick leave, reduced productivity, and even unemployment. Furthermore, workers are especially unlikely to return to their previous place of employment after a traumatic incident at work because of the traumatic memories and symptoms of avoidance that typically accompany the disorder. Therefore, intervening in work-related PTSD becomes especially important in order to get workers back to the workplace. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science. The articles were independently screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, followed by a quality assessment of all included articles. Results The systematic search identified seven articles for inclusion in the review. These consisted of six research articles and one systematic review. The review focused specifically on interventions using real exposure techniques for anxiety disorders in the workplace. In the research articles addressed in the current review, study populations included police officers, public transportation workers, and employees injured at work. The studies examined the effectiveness of EMDR, cognitive-behavioural techniques, and an integrative therapy approach called brief eclectic psychotherapy. Interestingly, 2 of the 6 research articles addressed add-on treatments for workplace PTSD, which were designed to treat workers with PTSD who failed to respond to traditional evidence-based psychotherapy. Conclusions Results of the current review suggest that work-related interventions show promise as effective strategies for promoting return to work in employees who acquired PTSD in the workplace. Further research is needed in this area to determine how different occupational groups with specific types of traumatic exposure might respond differently to work
Kim, Sooyeol; Park, YoungAh; Headrick, Lucille
Despite the growing research on work recovery and its well-being outcomes, surprisingly little attention has been paid to at-work recovery and its job performance outcomes. The current study extends the work recovery literature by examining day-level relationships between prototypical microbreaks and job performance as mediated by state positive affect. Furthermore, general work engagement is tested as a cross-level moderator weakening the indirect effects of microbreaks on job performance via positive affect. Using multisource experience sampling method, the authors collected two daily surveys from 71 call center employees and obtained objective records of daily sales performance for two consecutive weeks (n = 632). Multilevel path analysis results showed that relaxation, socialization, and cognitive microbreaks were related to increased positive affect at work which, in turn, predicted greater sales performance. However, breaks for nutrition-intake (having snacks and drinks) did not show significant effects. Importantly, microbreaks had significant indirect effects on job performance via positive affect only for workers who had lower general work engagement, whereas the indirect effects did not exist for workers who had higher general work engagement. Furthermore, Bayesian multilevel analyses confirmed the results. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available It is commonly hypothesized that external representations serve as memory aids and improve task performance by means of expanding the limited capacity of working memory. However, very few studies have directly examined this memory aid hypothesis. By systematically manipulating how information is available externally versus internally in a sequential number comparison task, three experiments were designed to investigate the relation between external representations and working memory. The experimental results show that when the task requires information from both external representations and working memory, it is the interaction of information from the two sources that determines task performance. In particular, when information from the two sources does not match well, external representations hinder instead of enhance task performance. The study highlights the important role the coordination among different representations plays in distributed cognition. The general relations between external representations and working memory are discussed.
Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio
Objective We investigated the risk factors for falls when egressing from agricultural tractors, analyzing the role played by worked hours, work experience, operators' behavior, and near misses. Background Many accidents occur within the agricultural sector each year. Among them, falls while dismounting the tractor represent a major source of injuries. Previous studies pointed out frequent hazardous movements and incorrect behaviors adopted by operators to exit the tractor cab. However, less is known about the determinants of such behaviors. In addition, near misses are known to be important predictors of accidents, but they have been under-investigated in the agricultural sector in general and as concerns falls in particular. Method A questionnaire assessing dismounting behaviors, previous accidents and near misses, and participants' relation with work was administered to a sample of Italian tractor operators ( n = 286). Results A mediated model showed that worked hours increase unsafe behaviors, whereas work experience decreases them. Unsafe behaviors in turn show a positive association with accidents, via the mediation of near misses. Conclusions We gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events leading to fall accidents in the agricultural sector, which is one of the most hazardous industries. Applications Besides tractor design improvements, preventive training interventions may focus on the redesign of the actual working strategies and the adoption of engaging training methods in the use of machinery to optimize the learning of safety practices and safe behaviors.
Panyam, Nagesh C; Verspoor, Karin; Cohn, Trevor; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri
Relation extraction from biomedical publications is an important task in the area of semantic mining of text. Kernel methods for supervised relation extraction are often preferred over manual feature engineering methods, when classifying highly ordered structures such as trees and graphs obtained from syntactic parsing of a sentence. Tree kernels such as the Subset Tree Kernel and Partial Tree Kernel have been shown to be effective for classifying constituency parse trees and basic dependency parse graphs of a sentence. Graph kernels such as the All Path Graph kernel (APG) and Approximate Subgraph Matching (ASM) kernel have been shown to be suitable for classifying general graphs with cycles, such as the enhanced dependency parse graph of a sentence. In this work, we present a high performance Chemical-Induced Disease (CID) relation extraction system. We present a comparative study of kernel methods for the CID task and also extend our study to the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction task, an important biomedical relation extraction task. We discuss novel modifications to the ASM kernel to boost its performance and a method to apply graph kernels for extracting relations expressed in multiple sentences. Our system for CID relation extraction attains an F-score of 60%, without using external knowledge sources or task specific heuristic or rules. In comparison, the state of the art Chemical-Disease Relation Extraction system achieves an F-score of 56% using an ensemble of multiple machine learning methods, which is then boosted to 61% with a rule based system employing task specific post processing rules. For the CID task, graph kernels outperform tree kernels substantially, and the best performance is obtained with APG kernel that attains an F-score of 60%, followed by the ASM kernel at 57%. The performance difference between the ASM and APG kernels for CID sentence level relation extraction is not significant. In our evaluation of ASM for the PPI task, ASM
Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of communication among managers, human resource (HR experts, and occupational health care specialists, as they deal with such informal information as weak signals in the prevention of work-related illnesses, using a theoretical framework in which the prevention of work-related illness is analogous to theory on crisis management. This is a qualitative study in which individual and focus-group interviews were conducted in a Swedish context with occupational health care specialists, managers, and HR experts. The results suggest that organizational solutions have failed and continue to fail at controlling workers’ health problems, although the main difficulty is not in identifying the ‘right’ individually oriented weak signals. Rather, it is upper management’s reliance on formal information (e.g., statistics and surveys – because of the difficulty in supplementing it with informal information (e.g., rumors and gossip – that makes it difficult to improve traditional health and safety work
Wiegel, Constantin; Sattler, Sebastian; Göritz, Anja S; Diewald, Martin
Working conditions of academic staff have become increasingly complex and occupational exposure has risen. This study investigates whether work-related stress is associated with the use of prescription drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE). The study was designed around three web-based surveys (n1 = 1131; n2 = 936; n3 = 906) to which university teachers at four German universities were asked to respond. It assessed past CE-drug use and the willingness to use CE-drugs as factors influencing future use. Overlap among participants across the surveys allowed for analyses of stability of the results across time. Our study suggests a currently very low prevalence of CE-drug use as well as a low willingness to use such drugs. The results showed a strong association between perceptions of work-related stress and all measures of CE-drug use (when controlling for potential confounding factors). They also showed that past use of CE-drugs increased participants' willingness to use them again in the future, as did lower levels of social support. Two different measures showed that participants' moral qualms against the use of CE-drugs decreased their probability of using them. The results increase our knowledge about the prevalence of CE-drug use and our understanding of what motivates and inhibits the use of CE-drug.
Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the relationship between the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and working capital management. To make the research robust, accounting performance and measures of market related performance have been used to gauge the SMEs performance. This research utilizes secondary data obtained from the Alternative Investment Market concerning SMEs listed in the London Stock Exchange, to investigate the significance of working capital management towards the performance of SMEs. The working capital management components that were used in research are; account payable period APP, average collection period (ACP, return on assets (ROA and inventory holding period (IHP. The analysis of data involved the use of regression analysis and extensive use of correlation analysis in order to establish the relationship between working capital management and SME performance. The study established that the use of WCM components such as cash conversion cycle, return on assets, cash conversion cycle and inventory holding period have a significant impact on the performance of SMEs. Further, it was established that when SMEs invested heavily in inventories and receivables, they amassed low profits while investment in current assets in relation to total assets lead to elevated profitability. Hence, it was concluded that there is a compelling relationship between WCM and SME performance.
Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Glasscock, David John; Willert, Morten Vejs; Carstensen, Ole; Biering, Karin
Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a stress management intervention (SMI) on lasting return to work (RTW) among patients with work-related stress complaints. Methods Sickness benefit departments from three local municipalities referred patients on sick leave with work-related adjustment disorders or mild depression to the Department of Occupational Medicine, Regional Hospital West Jutland. A 2× randomization procedure allocated patients into one of three groups: intervention (N=58), control A (which received a clinical assessment; N=56), or control B (no assessment; N=49). Treatment comprised individual work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an optional workplace intervention. The outcome was time until lasting RTW (16 and 44 weeks follow-up) using register data. Results Median number of weeks until lasting RTW was 15, 19, and 32 for the intervention group, control A, and control B respectively. However, for group B, clinical assessment was not part of the inclusion process, which may have introduced selection bias. In the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, the intervention group exhibited significantly faster lasting RTW at 44 weeks; hazard ratio (HR) 1.57 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-2.44] relative to control group A, with a non-significant trend evident at 16 weeks; HR 1.70 (95% CI 0.94-3.10), when controlling for age, gender, occupation, sick leave during previous year, full or partial sick leave, and diagnosis. Unadjusted analyses remained directionally consistent but were reduced to marginal significance. Conclusions There was a tendency towards faster lasting RTW in the intervention group compared to control A, which received clinical assessment, in all analyses. The intervention group returned to work about 4 weeks earlier than control A, which could translate into substantial financial gains.
Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo
This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds rati...
Happiness Anulika Aweto
Full Text Available Objectives: This study has investigated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, the most commonly affected body parts, the risk factors of WMSDs and the coping strategies adopted by hairdressers. Material and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Two hundred and ninety-nine hairdressers (242 females and 57 males from salons in Surulere and Mushin Local Government Areas of Lagos State completed a 27-item questionnaire. They were selected using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. The inferential analysis was conducted using the Chi2 test. The level of significance stood at p < 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders stood at 75.6%. Two hundred and twenty-one (91.3% participants reported gradual onset of musculoskeletal disorders. One hundred and sixteen (47.9% participants had the onset of the WMSDs at the age range of 26–35 years. The most commonly affected body parts included the low back (76.3%, shoulder (62.5% and neck (46.3%. Some of the major job risk factors of the WMSDs that were identified included: working in the same position for long periods and attending to a large number of customers in 1 day. Taking sufficient rest breaks by participants was one of the coping strategies adopted by the participants. The mean number of years of working experience was 7.85±0.4 years. One hundred and twenty-four (41.5% participants had worked for 1–5 years. The Chi2 analysis showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with the age of a participant (Chi2 = 78.78, p = 0.001, years of working experience (Chi2 = 78.03, p = 0.001 and hours spent working in a standing position (Chi2 = 8.77, p = 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The age of hairdressers, their years of working and the long hours they spent working in a standing position may be significant factors that contribute to the high prevalence of the WMSDs
Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Banuelas, Victoria K; Akalonu, Chibuzo C
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. The work period induced impairments for reaction time, errors on reaction time tasks, and balance performance, independent of shift type. Musculoskeletal symptom prevalence was high in workers of both work shifts. Compressed work shifts caused performance-based fatigue in nurses. Reaction time and balance tests may be sensitive fatigue identification markers in nurses.
Shi, Qiyun; Sinden, Kathryn; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David; Grewal, Ruby
Systematic review. Traumatic hand injuries are frequent cause of work related injuries and can result in prolonged durations of time loss from work. To systematically review available evidence to determine which prognostic factors predict return-to-work (RTW) following work-related traumatic hand injuries. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO from 1980 to September 2013 and reference lists of articles. Studies investigating any prognostic factors of RTW after traumatic hand injury were included. Two reviewers performed study selection, assessment of methodological quality and data extraction independently of each other. Identified factors were grouped into conceptual prognostic factor categories. We assessed 8 studies, which addressed 11 potential prognostic factors (i.e., sociodemographic factors, occupation, work compensation status, treatment related factors, impairment severity, location of injury, etc.). The quality of the studies was low to moderate. Across all included studies, RTW (original or modified work) occurred in over 60% of individuals by 6 months. There was consistent low-moderate quality evidence that individuals with more severe impairments and lower pre-injury income were less likely to RTW, and low-moderate quality evidence that age, gender and level of education had no impact on RTW. Evidence on other commonly cited prognostic factors were limited in the literature. Impairment severity and lower pre-injury income showed a consistent association with RTW following occupational hand injury, while other factors demonstrated no or variable effects across studies. Additional high-quality studies are warranted toward improving our understanding of the complex factors that mediate RTW following a traumatic work-related hand injury. 2a. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The increasing pressures of society, consumers, investors and employees on companies to behave more ethical and socially responsible can be easily noticed every day. Under such circumstances, the businesses find that the corporate reputation is more important than ever. This paper focuses on analysis of the corporate reputation and its effects on company’s performance in the new conditions imposed by the stakeholders. First, the analysis emphasizes the contribution Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR might have on Corporate Reputation (CR by communicating the good causes of CSR. Then, the results the corporate reputation has and also the role of Cause Related Marketing (CRM in enhancing corporate reputation on company’s performance are revealed in a detailed way.
Pflanz, Steven E; Ogle, Alan D
Recent studies have identified high levels of job stress in military personnel. This study examined the relationship among job stress, depression, work performance, types of stressors, and perceptions about supervisors in military personnel. Eight hundred nine military personnel answered a 43-item survey on work stress, physical and emotional health, work performance, perceptions about leadership, job stressors, and demographics. More than one- quarter (27.4%) of this military population reported suffering from significant job stress. Both the report of work stress and depression were significantly related to impaired work performance, more days of missed work, poorer physical health, and negative perceptions about the abilities of supervisors and commanders. Depression and job stress were significantly and positively related to each other. These results support accumulating data indicating that work stress is a significant occupational health hazard in the routine military work environment. Targeting and eliminating sources of job stress should be a priority for the U.S. military to preserve and protect the mental health of military personnel.
Turner, S; Forman, S D; McNamee, R; Wilkinson, S M; Agius, R
Both solar and non-solar exposures associated with occupation and work tasks have been reported as skin carcinogens. In the UK, there are well-established surveillance schemes providing relevant information, including when exposures took place, occupation, location of work and dates of symptom onset and diagnosis. To add to the evidence on work-related skin neoplasia, including causal agents, geographical exposure and time lag between exposure and diagnosis. This study investigated incident case reports of occupational skin disease originating from clinical specialists in dermatology reporting to a UK-wide surveillance scheme (EPIDERM) by analysing case reports of skin neoplasia from 1996 to 2012 in terms of diagnosis, employment, suspected causal agent and symptom onset. The suspected causal agent was 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' in 99% of the reported work-related skin neoplasia cases. Most cases reported (91%) were in males, and the majority (62%) were aged over 65 at the time of reporting. More detailed information on exposure was available for 42% of the cases, with the median time from exposure to symptom onset ranging from 44 (melanoma) to 57 (squamous cell carcinoma) years. Irrespective of diagnostic category, the median duration of exposure to 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' appeared longer where exposures occurred in the UK (range 39-51 years) rather than outside the UK (range 2.5-6.5 years). It is important to provide effective information about skin protection to workers exposed to solar radiation, especially to outdoor workers based outside the UK. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Effects of payment method on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among sewing machine operators R. Nawawi1, B.M. Deros1*, D.D.I. Daruis2, A. Ramli3, R.M. Zein4 and L.H. Joseph3 1Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia *Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Malaysia 3Department of Physiotherapy Faculty of Science, Lincoln University College, Malaysia 4Department of Consultation, Research & Development, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, Malaysia ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify payment method and its effects on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among Malaysian sewing machine operators. The study sample comprised 337 sewing machine operators (male, n=122, female, n=215; aged between 18-54 years old; mean 30.74±8.44 from four different garment-making companies in Malaysia. They were being paid via time rate wages (n=246 and piece rate wages (n=91. Data was collected through Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and pen-and-paper assessment via Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. From the study, the piece rate wage group was found to take fewer breaks, had high work production demands, worked at a faster pace and experienced more exhaustion and pressure due to increasing work demands as compared to the time rate group. They were also observed working with higher physical exposure such as repetitive tasks, awkward static postures, awkward grips and hand movements, pulling, lifting and pushing as compared to those in the time rate wage group. The final RULA scores was also higher from the piece rate wage group (72.53% RULA score 7 which indicated higher work risks among them. The study found that the type of wage payment was significantly associated with work risks (p=0.036, df=1 and WRMSD at the shoulder, lower back
Work zone performance measures are metrics that help quantify how work zones impact travelers, residents, businesses, and workers. Some performance measures describe how an individual work zone impacts these audiences; other performance measures desc...
Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal system disorders are common among health care workers worldwide. They are common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are defined as “regional impairments of the muscles, tendons, nerves and joints. Physiotherapy can lead to WRMSDs in physiotherapist because of the nature of their profession. Despite of having expert knowledge of musculoskeletal injuries and injury prevention strategies they still report a high incidence of work-related injuries during their professional practice due to their training and continuous professional development Methods: A total of 100 Physiotherapists which included 78 females and 22 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years were recruited in the study. The subjects were taken as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from Tricity. Results: Pearson’s correlation and Chi square analysis was used to determine correlation and the association of prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms with personal characteristics, job risk factors and coping strategies. The data obtained from this study documents that majority of Physiotherapists have experienced WRMSDs at some time. The prevalence of WRMSDs among Physiotherapists in Tricity is high (91%. The most common risk factors identified in the present study were dealing with an excessive number of patients in one day; continuing to work while injured or hurt; lifting or transferring dependent patients and work scheduling. In present study, the low back and neck regions were the most commonly affected site among physiotherapists (72.5% each followed by upper back (28.6 %, shoulder (20.9%, wrist and hand (17.6%, knee (12.1%, ankle and foot (12.1% and hip (7.70% Conclusions: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are an important health risk within the physiotherapy profession. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the Physiotherapists in Tricity is high that
Esson, Patrice L.
With the demographic layout of the workplace changing constantly, as more women enter the workforce, and as new organizational hiring practices lead to more diversity in the work environment, both researchers and employers have become increasingly interested in understanding the consequences of work-family conflict. Work-family conflict affects the individuals suffering from it, their families, and their employers. Thus, it is important to have a robust and comprehensive causal model that exp...
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of aggressive working capital factors/policies on firms’ performance to improve the financial health. Random and Fixed Effect models estimated by taking annual data of two major sectors: automobile and food sectors from 2006 to 2016. According to the findings, aggressive investment factor/policy (AIF has a negative impact on gross operating income (GOI in both sectors while aggressive financing factor/policy (AFF has an adverse effect on GOI in the food sector and positive impact on GOI in the automobile sector. The results of this study should be of great importance to investors, creditors, and financial analysts, especially after the global financial crisis and the collapses of giant organizations worldwide.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.7075
Kica, Joanna; Rosenman, Kenneth D
The objective was to develop a multisource surveillance system for work-related skull fractures. Records on work-related skull fractures were obtained from Michigan's 134 hospitals, Michigan's Workers' Compensation Agency and death certificates. Cases from the three sources were matched to eliminate duplicates from more than one source. Workplaces where the most severe injuries occurred were referred to OSHA for an enforcement inspection. There were 318 work related skull fractures, not including facial fractures, between 2010 and 2012. In 2012, after the inclusion of facial fractures, 316 fractures were identified of which 218 (69%) were facial fractures. The Bureau of Labor Statistic's (BLS) 2012 estimate of skull fractures in Michigan, which includes facial fractures, was 170, which was 53.8% of those identified from our review of medical records. The inclusion of facial fractures in the surveillance system increased the percentage of women identified from 15.4% to 31.2%, decreased severity (hospitalization went from 48.7% to 10.6% and loss of consciousness went from 56.5% to 17.8%), decreased falls from 48.2% to 27.6%, and increased assaults from 5.0% to 20.2%, shifted the most common industry from construction (13.3%) to health care and social assistance (15.0%) and the highest incidence rate from males 65+ (6.8 per 100,000) to young men, 20-24 years (9.6 per 100,000). Workplace inspections resulted in 45 violations and $62,750 in penalties. The Michigan multisource surveillance system of workplace injuries had two major advantages over the existing national system: (a) workplace investigations were initiated hazards identified and safety changes implemented at the facilities where the injuries occurred; and (b) a more accurate count was derived, with 86% more work-related skull fractures identified than BLS's employer based estimate. A more comprehensive system to identify and target interventions for workplace injuries was implemented using hospital and
Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo
This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
Rydstedt, Leif W; Lundh, Monica
The aim of the present study was to analyse the main and interaction effects of age and psychosocial work demands on mental wellbeing in a sample (N = 685; age M = 47 years) of engine room officers in the Swedish merchant fleet. As expected, work demands were highly related to general mental health as well as to perceived stress, while the main effect of age only related significantly to perceived stress. The interaction effects between high work demands and high age significantly explained the variance of general mental health as well as perceived stress. The results can be understood as a consequence of the rapid technological and organisational development in the shipping industry and suggest that it ought be of high priority to provide older employees with work-related resources to support their long-term work performance as well as their health and wellbeing.
Limpt, van B.
Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new deionization technology based on the temporary storage of ions on an electrically charged surface. By directing a flow between two oppositely charged surfaces, negatively charged ions will adsorb onto the positively charged surface, and positively
Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute substantially to the economic development, income generation, poverty reduction, and particularly job creation for both developed and developing economies. However, compared with large firms, SMEs face several challenges related to their performance and competitiveness. The role of human capital (HC and human resource practices (HR Practices in enhancing SMEs competitiveness and performance is vital but understudied areas. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HC development between the relationship of high-performance work systems (HPWS and export-oriented SMEs performance. Quantitative strategy and cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data from 205 managerial staff through a self-administered structured questionnaire. HPWS had a significant positive impact on export-oriented SMEs performance. The findings of the study provide evidence that HC development plays a mediating role between HPWS and enterprises performance.
Meyland, Jacob; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Alkjær, Tine
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to estimate possible differences in upper body muscular load between male and female house painters performing identical work tasks. Sex-related differences in muscular load may help explain why women, in general, have more musculoskeletal complaints than men....... METHODS: In a laboratory setting, 16 male and 16 female house painters performed nine standardised work tasks common to house painters. Unilateral electromyography (EMG) recordings were obtained from the supraspinatus muscle by intramuscular electrodes and from the trapezius, extensor and flexor carpi...... radialis muscles by surface electrodes. Relative muscular loads in %EMGmax as well as exerted force in Newton, based on ramp calibrations, were assessed. Sex differences were tested using a mixed model approach. RESULTS: Women worked at about 50% higher relative muscular loads than men in the supraspinatus...
Risser, Scott D.
To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…
Muhamedagic, Lejla; Muhamedagic, Belma; Halilovic, Emina Alimanovic; Halimic, Jasmina Alajbegovic; Stankovic, Aleksa; Muracevic, Bedrana
Aim To determine relation between near work and myopia progression in student population. Causes of myopia occurrence are not sufficiently explained. Methods This retrospective-prospective, descriptive research included 100 students with verified myopia up to -3 Dsph. Ophthalmological examination and measurement diopter-hours variable (Dh) were done twice, in the period from January 2011 until January 2012. Results A multivariate regression analysis of impact on the difference of distance visual acuity without correction to the right and left eye and difference of automatic computer refractometry in cycloplegia of both eyes indicates that, diopter-hours variable (Dh) had statistically significant impact on increase of distance visual acuity difference (right eye OR: I measurement–Dh 1.489, II measurement–Dh 1.544, prefractometry in cycloplegia (right eye OR: I measurement 1.361, II measurement 1.493, p<0.05; left eye OR: I measurement 0.931, II measurement 1.019, p<0.05) during both measurements. Conclusion Near work cause the increase of myopia. This research opened a perspective for other researches on the impact of near work on myopia. PMID:24944532
Premalatha, G D; Noor Hassim, I
A total of 323 workers from 5 different occupational groups in the telecommunication industry were studied in this cross sectional study, which sought to determine the prevalence of Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULD) in 5 occupational groups; operators using the Video Display Terminals, switchboard operators, clerks, data entry processors and the supervisors. WRULD was also studied with regard to factors such as sex, race, height, age, stress and the discomfort perceived due to the work station design. The possibility of WRULD was determined from a self-administered questionnaire and confirmed by history and physical examination. Psychological stress and the discomfort due to the workstation were measured from the questionnaire. The overall prevalence was found to be 31.2% and the prevalence among the various occupations differed with it being the highest in the switchboard operators and data processors and the lowest in the supervisors. The older workers and the female workers were found to have higher prevalences of WRULD. It was also found that a higher stress score and a higher score of discomfort perceived at the work station were associated with higher prevalences of WRULD.
Sandberg, Joanne C; Strom, Carla; Arcury, Thomas A
The primary objective of this exploratory study was to delineate the broad range of adjustments women breast cancer survivors draw upon to minimize cancer-related limitations at the workplace. The study also analyzed whether survivors used strategies to address work-related limitations in isolation or in combination with other strategies, and whether they used formal or informal strategies. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 women who were employed at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer and who continued to work during treatment or returned to work. Interviews were conducted 3 to 24 months after diagnosis. An iterative process was used to systematically analyze the data (the transcripts) using qualitative methods. Participants who worked during or after treatment adjusted their work schedule, performed fewer or other tasks, modified or changed their work environment, reduced non-work activities at the workplace, used cognitive prompts, and acted preemptively to make work tasks manageable after their return to work. Survivors used multiple adjustments and drew upon both formal and informal tactics to minimize or prevent cancer- or treatment-related effects from negatively affecting job performance. Knowledge about the broad range of both formal and informal strategies identified in this study may enable health care and social services providers, as well as cancer survivors and employers, to identify a wide range of specific strategies that may reduce the negative effects of work-related limitations in specific work settings. Insights gained from this analysis should inform future research on work and cancer survivorship. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Lin; Capdevila, Lluis
This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (M age = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once. They were seated in front of a computer. During the intervention period, some oil diffusers were switched on and were in operation throughout the session with petitgrain essential oil for AG sessions and a neutral oil (almond) for CG sessions. At the same time, participants completed a computer task on a specific Web site typing on their keyboard until they had finished it. The single times were different for all participants and were recorded on the Web site as "performance time." Before and after the intervention, participants completed anxiety and mood state questionnaires (the Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] and the Profile of Mood States [POMS]). Heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured before (PRE), during (20-25 min), and after (POS) the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation. The AG performed the Web site task 2.28 min faster than the CG (p = 0.05). The two groups showed differences in the following HRV parameters: low frequency (p = 0.05), high frequency (p = 0.02), standard deviation of all RR intervals (p = 0.05), and root mean square of differences (p = 0.02). All participants in all groups showed a decrease from PRE to POST for STAI (p Aromatherapy (inhaling petitgrain essential oil) can improve performance in the workplace. These results could be explained by an autonomic balance on the sympathetic/parasympathetic system through a combined action of the petitgrain main components (linalyl acetate, linalool, and myrcene). The final