WorldWideScience

Sample records for perception abilities change

  1. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  2. Are You Your Friends’ Friend? Poor Perception of Friendship Ties Limits the Ability to Promote Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Radaelli, Laura; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Persuasion is at the core of norm creation, emergence of collective action, and solutions to ‘tragedy of the commons’ problems. In this paper, we show that the directionality of friendship ties affect the extent to which individuals can influence the behavior of each other. Moreover, we find that people are typically poor at perceiving the directionality of their friendship ties and that this can significantly limit their ability to engage in cooperative arrangements. This could lead to failures in establishing compatible norms, acting together, finding compromise solutions, and persuading others to act. We then suggest strategies to overcome this limitation by using two topological characteristics of the perceived friendship network. The findings of this paper have significant consequences for designing interventions that seek to harness social influence for collective action. PMID:27002530

  3. Are You Your Friends' Friend? Poor Perception of Friendship Ties Limits the Ability to Promote Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Radaelli, Laura; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Persuasion is at the core of norm creation, emergence of collective action, and solutions to 'tragedy of the commons' problems. In this paper, we show that the directionality of friendship ties affect the extent to which individuals can influence the behavior of each other. Moreover, we find that people are typically poor at perceiving the directionality of their friendship ties and that this can significantly limit their ability to engage in cooperative arrangements. This could lead to failures in establishing compatible norms, acting together, finding compromise solutions, and persuading others to act. We then suggest strategies to overcome this limitation by using two topological characteristics of the perceived friendship network. The findings of this paper have significant consequences for designing interventions that seek to harness social influence for collective action.

  4. Improving University Students' Perception of Mathematics and Mathematics Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly L. Wismath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mathematical and quantitative reasoning skills are an essential part of adult life in our society, many students arrive at post-secondary education without such skills. Taking a standard mathematics course such as calculus may do little to improve those skills. Using a modification of the Tapia & Marsh questionnaire, we surveyed 62 students taking a broad quantitative reasoning course designed to develop quantitative skills, with respect to two broad attitudinal areas: students’ perception of their own ability, confidence and anxiety, and their perception of the value of mathematics in their studies and their lives. Pre- to post-course comparisons were done by both paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Our results showed a significant increase in confidence and decrease in anxiety, while perception of the value of mathematics was already high and changed little by the end of the course.

  5. Visual motion perception predicts driving hazard perception ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacherez, Philippe; Au, Sandra; Wood, Joanne M

    2014-02-01

    To examine the basis of previous findings of an association between indices of driving safety and visual motion sensitivity and to examine whether this association could be explained by low-level changes in visual function. A total of 36 visually normal participants (aged 19-80 years) completed a battery of standard vision tests including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and automated visual fields and two tests of motion perception including sensitivity for movement of a drifting Gabor stimulus and sensitivity for displacement in a random dot kinematogram (Dmin ). Participants also completed a hazard perception test (HPT), which measured participants' response times to hazards embedded in video recordings of real-world driving, which has been shown to be linked to crash risk. Dmin for the random dot stimulus ranged from -0.88 to -0.12 log minutes of arc, and the minimum drift rate for the Gabor stimulus ranged from 0.01 to 0.35 cycles per second. Both measures of motion sensitivity significantly predicted response times on the HPT. In addition, while the relationship involving the HPT and motion sensitivity for the random dot kinematogram was partially explained by the other visual function measures, the relationship with sensitivity for detection of the drifting Gabor stimulus remained significant even after controlling for these variables. These findings suggest that motion perception plays an important role in the visual perception of driving-relevant hazards independent of other areas of visual function and should be further explored as a predictive test of driving safety. Future research should explore the causes of reduced motion perception to develop better interventions to improve road safety. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Environmental change enhances cognitive abilities in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kotrschal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or innovative behavior is advantageous, especially when animals are exposed to frequent and unpredictable environmental perturbations. Improved cognitive abilities can help animals to respond quickly and adequately to environmental dynamics, and therefore changing environments may select for higher cognitive abilities. Increased cognitive abilities can be attained, for instance, if environmental change during ontogeny triggers plastic adaptive responses improving the learning capacity of exposed individuals. We tested the learning abilities of fishes in response to experimental variation of environmental quality during ontogeny. Individuals of the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus that experienced a change in food ration early in life outperformed fish kept on constant rations in a learning task later in life--irrespective of the direction of the implemented change and the mean rations received. This difference in learning abilities between individuals remained constant between juvenile and adult stages of the same fish tested 1 y apart. Neither environmental enrichment nor training through repeated neural stimulation can explain our findings, as the sensory environment was kept constant and resource availability was changed only once. Instead, our results indicate a pathway by which a single change in resource availability early in life permanently enhances the learning abilities of animals. Early perturbations of environmental quality may signal the developing individual that it lives in a changing world, requiring increased cognitive abilities to construct adequate behavioral responses.

  7. Is there a relationship between ultrasound scanning ability (sonography) and visuospatial perception or psychomotor ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Suzanne; Gallagher, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Competent sonography is thought to include a unique combination of skills not yet fully defined. This presents challenges when recruiting the correct people for training. Skills are thought to include visuospatial perception and psychomotor skills, but little is known about the relationship between these aptitudes and scanning ability. This feasibility study explored such relationships, to identify evaluation techniques which may improve selection and recruitment. Methods A sample of 30 experienced ultrasound practitioners and 30 trainees at commencement and on completion of training were administered eight tests. Results No significant relationships between experienced practitioners’ or trainees’ visuospatial abilities or psychomotor abilities and scanning abilities were found. Results demonstrated that two of the visuospatial perception tests were not influenced by training and therefore, may be measuring the innate skills of ultrasound practitioners. As ultrasound practitioners had not performed any of the tests previously, ranges of scores for each of the eight tests were established for this group. This included measures for psychomotor skills which added to the current body of knowledge for sonography. Conclusions Although no significant correlations were found between participants’ visuospatial perception or psychomotor abilities and scanning ability, performance on the Obstetric Structured Assessment Test (combining all the skills required) pre-training gave the best indication of post-training scanning performance. The Obstetric Structured Assessment Test may prove a useful tool for initial assessment of potential trainees but abilities will require further investigation. PMID:27847536

  8. Problem Solving Abilities and Perceptions in Alternative Certification Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    It is important for teacher educators to understand new alternative certification middle and high school teachers' mathematical problem solving abilities and perceptions. Teachers in an alternative certification program in New York were enrolled in a proof-based algebra course. At the beginning and end of a semester participants were given a…

  9. Non-obvious influences on perception-action abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michael T; Sheya, Adam

    2017-10-01

    The sciences of development and learning have been slow to acknowledge that absence of an identifiable experience that relates straightforwardly to a given perception-action ability need not mean that experience per se is irrelevant to the emergence of that ability. A recent study reveals that a difference in diet (plain vs. energy rich) leads to a difference in how rats navigate (use of geometry vs. use of features, respectively). It is a good example of how a seemingly unrelated experience (e.g., what the rats eat) can be a non-obvious yet crucial determiner of perception-action modes. We situate this finding in the broader context of the related conceptions of Schneirla's and Lehrman's Developmental Systems Theory, Gottlieb's Probabilistic Epigenesis, and Bolles's Structure of Learning (see article for references). In doing so we highlight that such phenomena may be the norm, both in development and learning, rather than the exception.

  10. Rhythm perception and production predict reading abilities in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eFlaugnacco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm organizes events in time and plays a major role in music, but also in the phonology and prosody of a language. Interestingly, children with developmental dyslexia - a learning disability that affects reading acquisition despite normal intelligence and adequate education - have a poor rhythmic perception. It has been suggested that an accurate perception of rhythmical/metrical structure, that requires accurate perception of rise time, may be critical for phonological development and subsequent literacy. This hypothesis is mostly based on results showing a high degree of correlation between phonological awareness and metrical skills, using a very specific metrical task. We present new findings from the analysis of a sample of 48 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia, without comorbidities. These children were assessed with neuropsychological tests, as well as specifically-devised psychoacoustic and musical tasks mostly testing temporal abilities. Associations were tested by multivariate analyses including data mining strategies, correlations and most importantly logistic regressions to understand to what extent the different auditory and musical skills can be a robust predictor of reading and phonological skills. Results show a strong link between several temporal skills and phonological and reading abilities. These findings are discussed in the framework of the neuroscience literature comparing music and language processing, with a particular interest in the links between rhythm processing in music and language.

  11. Do Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Math and Reading Related Ability and Effort Predict Children's Self-Concept of Ability in Math and Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent primary school teachers' perceptions of their students' ability and effort predict developmental changes in children's self-concepts of ability in math and reading after controlling for students' academic performance and general intelligence. Three cohorts (N?=?849) of elementary school children and their…

  12. How shall we know them? Trainee teachers’ perceptions of their learners’ abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, being the final one in a series of three for this journal, is concerned with trainee teachers’ changing perceptions of their learners and focuses on two areas: trainees’ perceptions of their learners’ abilities and how they are formed by their own experiences as learners; and the changes in trainees’ perceptions over the duration of their two year Initial Teacher Education (ITE course in the Lifelong Learning Sector (LLS. Working within a multi-method approach to action research, this small-scale study found that trainees’ perceptions were influenced not so much by their own identities and habitus, although social capital was a prominent feature, but by a problematic mix of competing cultures and the impact of casualisation in the sector.

  13. Sex differences in facial emotion perception ability across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2018-03-22

    Perception of emotion in the face is a key component of human social cognition and is considered vital for many domains of life; however, little is known about how this ability differs across the lifespan for men and women. We addressed this question with a large community sample (N = 100,257) of persons ranging from younger than 15 to older than 60 years of age. Participants were viewers of the television show "Tout le Monde Joue", and the task was presented on television, with participants responding via their mobile devices. Applying latent variable modeling, and establishing measurement invariance between males and females and across age, we found that, for both males and females, emotion perception abilities peak between the ages of 15 and 30, with poorer performance by younger adults and declining performance after the age of 30. In addition, we show a consistent advantage by females across the lifespan, which decreases in magnitude with increasing age. This large scale study with a wide range of people and testing environments suggests these effects are largely robust. Implications are discussed.

  14. Visual perception and attention in acquisition of motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Oliva Aravena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article present a qualitative analysis, relating visual perception to attention in the acquisition of motor abilities process. Research shows that the visual system is already in an advanced stage, right from the moment the baby is born, and that normal eye sight is attained at the age of 5 and continues to improve. On the other hand, attention is an flexible process, subordinated to a cognitive strategy and its relation to eye sight is only functional. The understanfing of the capacity of selective attention is necessary to the teacher or coach for it will help him/her to take decisions on how to teach, which aspects of his/her teaching should be emphasized or inhibited, in the learning process, and wich teaching strategies he/she should use.

  15. Occupational stress perception and its potential impact on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Lang, Stefan; Oberlinner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To examine perceived stress across employees with different occupational status, to investigate the impact of stress on work ability and to derive conclusions regarding health promotion activities. A comprehensive survey combining questionnaire and medical examination was offered in one division in BASF Ludwigshafen. Among 867 voluntary participants, 653 returned complete questionnaires. The questions were directed at perception of safety at the workplace, self-rated health status, frequency of stress symptoms, unrealistic job demands, time pressure and maladjustment of work life balance. The outcome of interest was self-estimated health measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). Occupational stressors were perceived differently across occupational status groups. Frontline operators had more health concerns due to workplace conditions, while professional and managerial staff reported higher frequencies of perceived tension, time pressure, and maladjustment of work life balance. After adjustment for occupational status, demographic and lifestyle factors, perceived stress was associated with a modest to strong decline in WAI scores. While perceived occupational stress had an apparent impact on WAI, and WAI has been demonstrated to be predictive of early retirement, more intensive and employee group-specific stress management interventions are being implemented beyond traditional strategies of routine occupational medical surveillance.

  16. "Are the Good Beautiful or the Beautiful Good?" The Relationship between Children's Perceptions of Ability and Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    1979-01-01

    Children's ratings were obtained, examining reciprocal feedback between perceptions of physical attractiveness and ability. Data supported the conclusion that perceptions of ability affect those of physical attractiveness but not vice versa. The role of the relative ambiguity of stimuli associated with physical attractiveness may explain the…

  17. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  18. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  19. changing perceptions of discipline and corporal punishment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    punishment and, secondly, their perceptions of their disciplinary techniques since ... research on teachers' (un)changing perceptions with regard to the practice of corporal punishment for classroom discipline in order to achieve the vision of quality ...... teaching and classroom management with the aim of enhancing teacher ...

  20. An exploration of person perception abilities in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This explorative study investigates differences in person perception abilities between a group of children diagnosed as having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) and a group of normal children of the same age and sex. Person perception, a social-cognitive skill,

  1. The Relationship between Teacher Perceptions of Pupil Attractiveness and Academic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    There is an established literature that suggests teacher perceptions of pupils affect how they interact with them, how they teach them and how they rate their ability and behaviour. Evidence also indicates that a teacher's perception of a child is often based on ascriptive characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and socio-economic background…

  2. A Study of Counselors' Legal Challenges and Their Perceptions of Their Ability to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Mary A.; Leggett, Debra Gail; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore the results of a study that assessed the types and frequency of legal issues encountered by counselors and counselors' perceptions of their ability to respond to these issues. They also assessed whether the participants' perceptions were related to practice setting, years of experience, completion of a course in ethics, recent…

  3. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors, and Ability to Purchase Healthful Food Items in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Johnson, Glenda S.; Yadrick, M. Kathleen; Richardson, Valerie; Simpson, Pippa M.; Gossett, Jeffrey M.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Bogle, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors, and ability to purchase healthful food in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Design: A regional food store survey of healthful food options in supermarkets, small/medium stores, and convenience stores. Focus group discussions were conducted on shopping perceptions and behaviors.…

  4. Academic Self-Perceptions of Ability and Course Planning among Academically Advanced Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of gender to the academic self-perceptions of ability and related coursework plans for high school and college across academically advanced students. Participants were academically advanced students (N = 447) from grades 5 to 12. Findings revealed that (a) girls' self-perceptions of ability…

  5. Global Transsaccadic Change Blindness During Scene Perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, John

    2003-01-01

    .... The results from two experiments demonstrated a global transsaccadic change-blindness effect, suggesting that point-by-point visual representations are not functional across saccades during complex scene perception. Ahstract.

  6. The age-related changes in figural perceptual abilities of pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Blagoje V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment of these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1 The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2 There is a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress, and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3 However, when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher

  7. Rethinking species’ ability to cope with rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Levinsky, Irina; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is assumed to be exceptional because of its unprecedented velocity. However, new geophysical research suggests that dramatic climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene occurred extremely rapid, over just a few years. These abrupt climatic changes may have been even faster...... than contemporary ones, but relatively few continent-wide extinctions of species have been documented for these periods. This raises questions about the ability of extant species to adapt to ongoing climate change. We propose that the advances in geophysical research challenge current views about...... species' ability to cope with climate change, and that lessons must be learned for modelling future impacts of climate change on species....

  8. Contraceptive use and perceptions of chance and ability of conceiving in women electing abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P M

    1983-01-01

    A convenient sample of 32 women seeking abortion was studied to determine the relationship between a woman's use of birth control and her perception of her chance and ability of conceiving. Subjects were between the ages of 16 and 29 years, white, unmarried, and gravida one. The Consistency Chance and Ability inventory, a self-report questionnaire, was completed by each subject. The data show a relationship between a woman's use of birth control and her perception of her chance and ability of conceiving. How nurses can assist women in making choices about contraceptive use is discussed.

  9. Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential in advanced science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascoe, Barbara; Monroe Atwater, Mary

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to examine Black male students' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential in science. The purposeful sample consisted of nine Black males between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Four categories of self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential emerged from the data. These included: (a) gifted high achievers; (b) gifted could do better high achievers; (c) gifted could do better situational nonachievers; and (d) gifted could do better underachievers. Science teachers' influences that referenced participants' academic achievement pointed to validation. Participants' perceptions regarding how science teachers' influenced their academic performance focused on science teachers' content knowledge. Power dynamics germane to Black male participants' value or worth that directed their efforts in science learning environments are discussed. Implications are posited for science teaching, science education programs, and future research. This research endeavor was based on two premises. The first premise is that Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability affect their science academic achievement. The second premise is that, given parental, peer, and community influences, science teachers have considerable influence on students' self-perceptions of academic ability. However, the focus of this research was not on parental influences, peer influences, or any potential influences that participants' communities may have on their academic achievement.

  10. How the Ability to Manage Change Affects Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed how the ability to manage change affects leadership style. The problem addressed in this project was the natural human tendency to resist change and how the inability to mange this tendency can interfere with the development of leadership skills. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how an individual's change…

  11. Visual Temporal Acuity Is Related to Auditory Speech Perception Abilities in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Kelly N; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    Despite significant improvements in speech perception abilities following cochlear implantation, many prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) recipients continue to rely heavily on visual information to develop speech and language. Increased reliance on visual cues for understanding spoken language could lead to the development of unique audiovisual integration and visual-only processing abilities in these individuals. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that good CI performers, as indexed by auditory-only speech perception abilities, have different patterns of visual cortex activation in response to visual and auditory stimuli as compared with poor CI performers. However, no studies have examined whether speech perception performance is related to any type of visual processing abilities following cochlear implantation. The purpose of the present study was to provide a preliminary examination of the relationship between clinical, auditory-only speech perception tests, and visual temporal acuity in prelingually deafened adult CI users. It was hypothesized that prelingually deafened CI users, who exhibit better (i.e., more acute) visual temporal processing abilities would demonstrate better auditory-only speech perception performance than those with poorer visual temporal acuity. Ten prelingually deafened adult CI users were recruited for this study. Participants completed a visual temporal order judgment task to quantify visual temporal acuity. To assess auditory-only speech perception abilities, participants completed the consonant-nucleus-consonant word recognition test and the AzBio sentence recognition test. Results were analyzed using two-tailed partial Pearson correlations, Spearman's rho correlations, and independent samples t tests. Visual temporal acuity was significantly correlated with auditory-only word and sentence recognition abilities. In addition, proficient CI users, as assessed via auditory-only speech perception performance, demonstrated

  12. Negative Effects of Makeup Use on Perceptions of Leadership Ability Across Two Ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Esther A; Jenkins, Shauny; Watkins, Christopher D

    2018-01-01

    Cosmetics alter social perceptions, and prior work suggests that cosmetic use may aid female intrasexual competition, making women appear more dominant to other women but more prestigious to other men. It is unclear whether these findings reflect general improvements in perceptions of traits related to women's dominance or if they are specific to mating contexts only. Here, across two ethnicities, we examined effects of cosmetics used for a social night out on perceptions of women's leadership ability, a trait that denotes competence/high status outside of mating contexts. Participants of African and Caucasian ethnicity judged faces for leadership ability where half of the trials differed in ethnicity (own- vs. other-ethnicity face pairs) and the subtlety of the color manipulation (50% vs. 100%). Regardless of the participant's sex or ethnicity, makeup used for a social night out had a negative effect on perceptions of women's leadership ability. Our findings suggest that, in prior work, women are afforded traits related to dominance, as makeup enhances perceptions of traits that are important for successful female mating competition but not other components of social dominance such as leadership.

  13. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Künecke

    Full Text Available Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110 in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  14. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  15. I Can Assess Myself: Singaporean Primary Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Self-Assessment Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hwei Ming

    2016-01-01

    Student self-assessment engages the students in purposeful reflection about what they are learning and how they are learning it. This study investigated the perceptions of students and teachers towards the students' self-assessment ability in two Singapore primary schools. A total of 75 students were taught how to use self-assessment. Eighteen…

  16. Improving Science Student Teachers' Self-Perceptions of Fluency with Innovative Technologies and Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Küçük, Zeynel; Artun, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of "Environmental Chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) self-perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (InT) and scientific inquiry abilities. The study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68…

  17. Person Perception Change, Its Possibilities for Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Mark; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Conducted three studies using college student populations to determine if what has been learned by social psychologists in the area of perception can be useful in effecting changes in person perception of another. Results supported use of the knowledge in the area of person perception for changing the person perception of another. (LLL)

  18. The effect of performance feedback on drivers' hazard perception ability and self-ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Garth, Megan; Hill, Andrew; Watson, Marcus O

    2017-04-01

    Drivers' hazard perception ability has been found to predict crash risk, and novice drivers appear to be particularly poor at this skill. This competency appears to develop only slowly with experience, and this could partially be a result of poor quality performance feedback. We report an experiment in which we provided high-quality artificial feedback on individual drivers' performance in a validated video-based hazard perception test via either: (1) a graph-based comparison of hazard perception response times between the test-taker, the average driver, and an expert driver; (2) a video-based comparison between the same groups; or (3) both. All three types of feedback resulted in both an improvement in hazard perception performance and a reduction in self-rated hazard perception skill, compared with a no-feedback control group. Video-based and graph-based feedback combined resulted in a greater improvement in hazard perception performance than either of the individual components, which did not differ from one another. All three types of feedback eliminated participants' self-enhancement bias for hazard perception skill. Participants judged both interventions involving video feedback to be significantly more likely to improve their real-world driving than the no feedback control group. While all three forms of feedback had some value, the combined video and graph feedback intervention appeared to be the most effective across all outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in Studying Abilities as Perceived by Students Attending Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkäpää, Kristiina; Junttila, Outi; Lindfors, Olavi; Järvikoski, Aila

    2014-01-01

    In rehabilitative psychotherapy, the goal is to support and improve the person's working and studying capacity and to secure his/her staying in or entering the workforce. In this qualitative study, the aim was to describe the changes students experienced in their studying ability and the advancement of their studies as a result of the therapy…

  20. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  1. Speech perception and communication ability over the telephone by Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che-Ming; Liu, Tien-Chen; Wang, Nan-Mai; Chao, Wei-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    (1) To understand speech perception and communication ability through real telephone calls by Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants and compare them to live-voice perception, (2) to report the general condition of telephone use of this population, and (3) to investigate the factors that correlate with telephone speech perception performance. Fifty-six children with over 4 years of implant use (aged 6.8-13.6 years, mean duration 8.0 years) took three speech perception tests administered using telephone and live voice to examine sentence, monosyllabic-word and Mandarin tone perception. The children also filled out a questionnaire survey investigating everyday telephone use. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the scores between live-voice and telephone tests, and Pearson's test to examine the correlation between them. The mean scores were 86.4%, 69.8% and 70.5% respectively for sentence, word and tone recognition over the telephone. The corresponding live-voice mean scores were 94.3%, 84.0% and 70.8%. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed the sentence and word scores were significantly different between telephone and live voice test, while the tone recognition scores were not, indicating tone perception was less worsened by telephone transmission than words and sentences. Spearman's test showed that chronological age and duration of implant use were weakly correlated with the perception test scores. The questionnaire survey showed 78% of the children could initiate phone calls and 59% could use the telephone 2 years after implantation. Implanted children are potentially capable of using the telephone 2 years after implantation, and communication ability over the telephone becomes satisfactory 4 years after implantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Study of Counselors' Legal Challenges and Their Perceptions of Their Ability to Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY A. HERM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors explore the results of a study that assessed the types and frequency of legal issues encountered by counselors and counselors’ perceptions of their ability to respond to these issues. They also assessed whether the participants’ perceptions were related to practice setting, years of experience, completion of a course in ethics, recent completion of continuing education in ethics or legal issues, state licensure status, certification by the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC, and highest degree earned. Results demonstrate that counselors feel most prepared to deal with situations encountered most often, but that school counselors do not feel as prepared to face most ethical and legal issues.

  3. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLaw

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e. rapid automatic naming, verbal short term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM and an amplitude rise time (RT; an intensity discrimination task (ID was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words in noise tasks. Group analysis revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e. RT and ID and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech in noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the levels of processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences.

  4. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T; Malone, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand's perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications.

  5. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T.; Malone, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand’s perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications. PMID:24403815

  6. The Perceptions of Change and Change Readiness in Junior and Senior Engineering & Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moler, Perry J.

    The purpose of this study was to understand what perceptions junior and senior engineering & technology students have about change, change readiness, and selected attributes, skills, and abilities. The selected attributes, skills, and abilities for this study were lifelong learning, leadership, and self-efficacy. The business environment of today is dynamic, with any number of internal and external events requiring an organization to adapt through the process of organizational development. Organizational developments affect businesses as a whole, but these developments are more evident in fields related to engineering and technology. Which require employees working through such developments be flexible and adaptable to a new professional environment. This study was an Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods design, with Stage One being an online survey that collected individuals' perceptions of change, change readiness, and associated attributes, skills, and abilities. Stage Two was a face-to-face interview with a random sample of individuals who agreed to be interviewed in Stage One. This process was done to understand why students' perceptions are what they are. By using a mixed-method study, a more complete understanding of the current perceptions of students was developed, thus allowing external stakeholders' such as Human Resource managers more insight into the individuals they seek to recruit. The results from Stage One, one sample T-test with a predicted mean of 3.000 for this study indicated that engineering & technology students have a positive perceptions of Change Mean = 3.7024; Change Readiness Mean = 3.9313; Lifelong Learning Mean = 4.571; Leadership = 4.036; and Self-Efficacy Mean = 4.321. A One-way ANOVA was also conducted to understand the differences between traditional and non-traditional student regarding change and change readiness. The results of the ANOVA test indicated there were no significant differences between these two groups. The results

  7. Mind-Reading ability and structural connectivity changes in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia eCabinio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mind-Reading ability through the eyes is an important component of the affective Theory of Mind (ToM, which allows people to infer the other’s mental state from the eye gaze. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent age-associated structural brain changes impact this ability and to determine if this association is related to executive functions in elderly subjects. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine both gray matter and white matter areas associated with aging. The resulting areas have been included in a subsequent correlation analysis to detect the brain regions whose structure was associated with the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes, assessed with the Italian version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME test, in a sample of 36 healthy subjects ranging from 24 to 79 years of age. The analysis resulted in three important findings: 1 the performance to the RME test is relatively stable across the decades 20-70 (despite a slight decrease of this ability with aging and independent from executive functions; 2 structural brain imaging demonstrated the involvement of a great number of cortical ToM areas for the execution of the RME test: the bilateral precentral gyrus, the bilateral posterior insula, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, which also showed a significant volume decrease with age; 3 an age and task-related decline in white matter connectivity on left fronto-temporal portion of the brain. Our results confirm the age-related structural modifications of the brain and show that these changes have an influence on the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes.

  8. What we think we learn from watching others: the moderating role of ability on perceptions of learning from observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nicola J; Coppola, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Despite increased interest in the processes guiding action observation and observational learning, we know little about what people think they learn from watching, how well perceptions of learning marry with actual ability and how ability perceptions develop across multiple observation trials. Based on common coding ideas, we would think that ability and perceptions of ability from watching should be well matched. We conducted two studies to answer these questions that involved repeated observation of a 2-ball juggling task. After each video observation, observers judged if they could perform the skill and gave a confidence score (0-100%). In Experiment 1, an Observe-only group was compared to an Observe + Physical practice and No-practice group. Both observer groups showed a better physical approximation of the juggling action after practice and in retention and their confidence increased in a linear fashion. Confidence showed a small, yet significant relationship to actual success. In Experiment 2, we limited physical practice to 5 attempts (across 50 observation trials). In general, people who had high perceptions of ability following a demonstration were overconfident, whereas those with lower perceptions of ability were accurate in their assessments. Confidence generally increased across practice, particularly for trials following observation rather than physical practice. We conclude that while perceptions of ability and actual ability show congruence across trials and individuals, observational practice increases people's confidence in their ability to perform a skill, even despite physical experiences to the contrary.

  9. Social perception and aging: The relationship between aging and the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Penton, Tegan; Köybaşı, Şerife Leman; Banissy, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Previous findings suggest that older adults show impairments in the social perception of faces, including the perception of emotion and facial identity. The majority of this work has tended to examine performance on tasks involving young adult faces and prototypical emotions. While useful, this can influence performance differences between groups due to perceptual biases and limitations on task performance. Here we sought to examine how typical aging is associated with the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and facial identity in older adult faces. We developed novel tasks that permitted the ability to assess facial happiness, facial identity, and non-social perception (object perception) across similar task parameters. We observe that aging is linked with declines in the ability to make fine-grained judgements in the perception of facial happiness and facial identity (from older adult faces), but not for non-social (object) perception. This pattern of results is discussed in relation to mechanisms that may contribute to declines in facial perceptual processing in older adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in risk perception over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Miller, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on changes in perceptions of the risks associated with nuclear waste management over time. In particular, we are interested in the kinds of change that take place when the management programs, and those who are charged with implementing them, are subject to intensive public debate over an extended period of time. We are undertaken an over-time study of perceived risks in Colorado and New Mexico by implementing sequential random household surveys in each state, timed at six month intervals. This study employs three of these surveys, spanning the period from summer, 1990 to summer, 1991. Using these data, we examine the dynamics that may underlie variations in perceived risks over time. In particular, our analysis is focused on changes in the roles played by (1) basic political orientations (i.e. political ideology) and (2) trust in those who advocate conflicting policy positions

  11. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptance...... and cooperation. We do this by a comparative study with Bangladesh shrimp farmers and Danish mussel farmers. Since these people live on the edge of subsistence, already small changes in the climate will affect them significantly. Farmers in both developed and developing economies are concerned about global...... climate change but there are significant differences in farmers’ perceptions of the causes of global climate change in developed and developing countries....

  12. Perceptions of entitativity and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; McConnell, Allen R

    2005-01-01

    The current work explored the properties of groups that lead them to be persuasive and the processes through which such persuasion occurs. Because more entitative groups induce greater levels of information processing, their arguments should receive greater elaboration, leading to persuasion when members of groups present strong (vs. weak) counter attitudinal arguments. Experiment 1 explored these hypotheses by examining if idiosyncratic perceptions of group entitativity and manipulations of argument strength affect attitude change and argument elaboration. Experiment 2 experimentally manipulated group entitativity and argument strength independently to examine the causal relationship between entitativity, attitude change, and argument elaboration. In both experiments, it was found that groups greater in entitativity were more persuasive when presenting strong (vs. weak) arguments and induced greater argument elaboration. Implications for our understanding of entitativity, persuasion, and information processing about social groups are discussed.

  13. Pupils' liking for school: ability grouping, self-concept and perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan

    2005-06-01

    Research indicates that affective aspects of development provide a basis for autonomous learning. Pupils' liking for school may be a useful indicator of their relationships with teachers and the school. The aim of the research reported in this paper is to establish the properties of a measure of pupils' liking for school and to examine associations between this measure, pupils' experiences in lessons, their self-concepts and the amount of setting implemented in school. A stratified sample of 45 mixed secondary comprehensive schools was selected for the research. Schools represented a variety of ability-grouping practices in the lower school (Years 7-9), from completely mixed-ability to setting in all academic subjects. All Year 9 pupils were included in the sample. Pupils completed a questionnaire containing items on their self-concept, liking for school, and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science. Data on pupils' gender, ethnic origin, social disadvantage and attainment was also collected. The properties and correlates of scales indicating pupils' liking for school and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science are established. Liking for school is greater among girls, pupils with higher academic self-concepts, and those with more positive perceptions of teaching. Pupils are more positive about teaching they experience in English than in mathematics or science. When other variables are statistically controlled, there is no significant effect of the extent of ability grouping in the school as a whole. Affective aspects of learning should not be neglected in the drive to raise standards.

  14. Disentangling beat perception from sequential learning and examining the influence of attention and musical abilities on ERP responses to rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Werner, Carola M; Knetemann, Myrthe; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-05-01

    Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence can also affect processing of rhythmic events and must be differentiated from beat perception. In the current study, using EEG, we examined the effects of attention and musical abilities on beat perception. To ensure we measured beat perception and not absolute perception of temporal intervals, we used alternating loud and soft tones to create a rhythm with two hierarchical metrical levels. To control for sequential learning of the order of the different sounds, we used temporally regular (isochronous) and jittered rhythmic sequences. The order of sounds was identical in both conditions, but only the regular condition allowed for the perception of a beat. Unexpected intensity decrements were introduced on the beat and offbeat. In the regular condition, both beat perception and sequential learning were expected to enhance detection of these deviants on the beat. In the jittered condition, only sequential learning was expected to affect processing of the deviants. ERP responses to deviants were larger on the beat than offbeat in both conditions. Importantly, this difference was larger in the regular condition than in the jittered condition, suggesting that beat perception influenced responses to rhythmic events in addition to sequential learning. The influence of beat perception was present both with and without attention directed at the rhythm. Moreover, beat perception as measured with ERPs correlated with musical abilities, but only when attention was directed at the stimuli. Our study shows that beat perception is possible when attention is not directed at a rhythm. In addition, our results suggest that attention may mediate the influence of musical abilities on beat

  15. Students' Self-Esteem and Their Perception of Teacher Behavior: A Study of Between-Class Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kususanto, Prihadi; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Jamil, Hazri

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Between-class ability grouping practice in Malaysian Secondary Schools was studied in order to find the influence students' perception on their teachers' behavior on their self-esteem. Students' perception on teachers' behaviors were divided into two categories: controlling students' behavior to avoid disciplinary matters and…

  16. Comparing farmers' perception of climate change and variability with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of climate change and variability supported by local knowledge has helped to advance understanding of climate change and its impacts on agricultural land-use systems. This study compares farmers' perception of climate change and variability in four communities of the Upper East Region of Ghana. Using a ...

  17. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Farmers' perception on the effects of climate change on groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed farmer's perception on the effect of climate change on groundnut production in Obi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Despite the fact that efforts have been made towards combating climate change, research and policies directed towards understanding of local perception are useful in ...

  19. Communities' perception of climate change risks in South America's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Aug 15, 2014 ... uses an Integrated Coastal Management approach and stakeholder perceptions of climate change risks to inform wetland management. ... has been made worse by extreme events tied to climate change. ... Related articles ...

  20. Changes in household composition as determinant of changes in functional ability among old men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this article were 1) to describe changes in functional ability from ages 75 to 80 among men and women in three Nordic localities, and 2) to analyze whether these changes are determined by changes in household composition from ages 70 to 75. The present analyses include the persons who...... among the poor-functioning men. It is concluded that poor-functioning, single-living women are at higher risk of not regaining functional ability compared to cohabiting women.......The aims of this article were 1) to describe changes in functional ability from ages 75 to 80 among men and women in three Nordic localities, and 2) to analyze whether these changes are determined by changes in household composition from ages 70 to 75. The present analyses include the persons who...... participated in the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä, Finland (N=243), Göteborg, Sweden (N=226), and Glostrup, Denmark (N=274). Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need for help in Physical and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (PADL and IADL). Changes...

  1. Enhancing sequential time perception and storytelling ability of deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Sara; Eden, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    A 3-month intervention was conducted to enhance the sequential time perception and storytelling ability of young children with hearing loss. The children were trained to arrange pictorial episodes of temporal scripts and tell the stories they created. Participants (N = 34, aged 4-7 years) were divided into 2 groups based on whether their spoken-language gap was more or less than 1 year compared to age norms. They completed A. Kaufman and N. Kaufman's (1983) picture series subtest and Guralnik's (1982) storytelling test at pretest and posttest. Measures demonstrated significant improvement in sequential time and storytelling achievement postintervention. Three of the examined demographic variables revealed correlations: Participants with genetic etiology showed greater improvement in time sequencing and storytelling than participants with unknown etiology; early onset of treatment correlated with better achievement in time sequencing; cochlear implant users showed greater storytelling improvement than hearing aid users.

  2. Resident duty hour modification affects perceptions in medical education, general wellness, and ability to provide patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew; Webber, Jordan; Epstein, Ian

    2016-07-13

    Resident duty hours have recently been under criticism, with concerns for resident and patient well-being. Historically, call shifts have been long, and some residency training programs have now restricted shift lengths. Data and opinions about the effects of such restrictions are conflicting. The Internal Medicine Residency Program at Dalhousie University recently moved from a traditional call structure to a day float/night float system. This study evaluated how this change in duty hours affected resident perceptions in several key domains. Senior residents from an internal medicine training program in Canada responded to an anonymous online survey immediately before and 6 months after the implementation of duty hour reform. The survey contained questions relating to three major domains: resident wellness, ability to deliver quality health care, and medical education experience. Mean pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using the t-test for paired samples. Twenty-three of 27 (85 %) senior residents completed both pre- and post-reform surveys. Residents perceived significant changes in many domains with duty hour reform. These included improved general wellness, less exposure to personal harm, fewer feelings of isolation, less potential for error, improvement in clinical skills expertise, increased work efficiency, more successful teaching, increased proficiency in medical skills, more successful learning, and fewer rotation disruptions. Senior residents in a Canadian internal medicine training program perceived significant benefits in medical education experience, ability to deliver healthcare, and resident wellness after implementation of duty hour reform.

  3. Understanding Coral's Short-term Adaptive Ability to Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisthammer, K.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Corals in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii are under chronic pressures from sedimentation and terrestrial runoffs containing multiple pollutants as a result of large scale urbanization that has taken place in the last 100 years. However, some individual corals thrive despite the prolonged exposure to these environmental stressors, which suggests that these individuals may have adapted to withstand such stressors. A recent survey showed that the lobe coral Porites lobata from the `high-stress' nearshore site had an elevated level of stress ixnduced proteins, compared to those from the `low-stress,' less polluted offshore site. To understand the genetic basis for the observed differential stress responses between the nearshore and offshore P. lobata populations, an analysis of the lineage-scale population genetic structure, as well as a reciprocal transplant experiment were conducted. The result of the genetic analysis revealed a clear genetic differentiation between P. lobata from the nearshore site and the offshore site. Following the 30- day reciprocal transplant experiment, protein expression profiles and other stress-related physiological characteristics were compared between the two populations. The experimental results suggest that the nearshore genotype can cope better with sedimentation/pollutants than the offshore genotype. This indicates that the observed genetic differentiation is due to selection for tolerance to these environmental stressors. Understanding the little-known, linage-scale genetic variation in corals offers a critical insight into their short-term adaptive ability, which is indispensable for protecting corals from impending environmental and climate change. The results of this study also offer a valuable tool for resource managers to make effective decisions on coral reef conservation, such as designing marine protected areas that incorporate and maintain such genetic diversity, and establishing acceptable pollution run-off levels.

  4. The impact of aesthetic evaluation and physical ability on dance perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Kirsch, Louise; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attracts attention from neuroscientists and artists interested in the neural underpinnings of esthetic experience. Though less studied than the neuroaesthetics of visual art, dance neuroaesthetics is a particularly rich subfield to explore, as it is informed not only by research on the neurobiology of aesthetics, but also by an extensive literature on how action experience shapes perception. Moreover, it is ideally suited to explore the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience, which posits that activation within sensorimotor areas of the brain, known as the action observation network (AON), is a critical element of the esthetic response. In the present study, we address how observers' esthetic evaluation of dance is related to their perceived physical ability to reproduce the movements they watch. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating how much they liked and how well they thought they could physically replicate a range of dance movements performed by professional ballet dancers. We used parametric analyses to evaluate brain regions that tracked with degree of liking and perceived physical ability. The findings reveal strongest activation of occipitotemporal and parietal portions of the AON when participants view movements they rate as both esthetically pleasing and difficult to reproduce. As such, these findings begin to illuminate how the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience might apply to watching dance, and provide preliminary evidence as to why some people find enjoyment in an evening at the ballet.

  5. The academic penalty for gaining weight: a longitudinal, change-in-change analysis of BMI and perceived academic ability in middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, E L; Gortmaker, S L; Davison, K K; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-09-01

    Worse educational outcomes for obese children regardless of academic ability may begin early in the life course. This study tested whether an increase in children's relative weight predicted lower teacher- and child-perceived academic ability even after adjusting for standardized test scores. Three thousand three hundred and sixty-two children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort were studied longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Heights, weights, standardized test scores in maths and reading, and teacher and self-ratings of ability in maths and reading were measured at each wave. Longitudinal, within-child linear regression models estimated the impact of a change in body mass index (BMI) z-score on change in normalized teacher and student ratings of ability in reading and maths, adjusting for test score. A change in BMI z-score from fifth to eighth grade was not independently associated with a change in standardized test scores. However, adjusting for standardized test scores, an increasing BMI z-score was associated with significant reductions in teacher's perceptions of girls' ability in reading (-0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.23, -0.03, P=0.03) and boys' ability in math (-0.30, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.17, Pmaths ability (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.83, -0.11, P=0.01). From fifth to eighth grade, increase in BMI z-score was significantly associated with worsening teacher perceptions of academic ability for both boys and girls, regardless of objectively measured ability (standardized test scores). Future research should examine potential interventions to reduce bias and promote positive school climate.

  6. Precursors to language in preterm infants: speech perception abilities in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Language development in infants born very preterm is often compromised. Poor language skills have been described in preschoolers and differences between preterms and full terms, relative to early vocabulary size and morphosyntactical complexity, have also been identified. However, very few data are available concerning early speech perception abilities and their predictive value for later language outcomes. An overview of the results obtained in a prospective study exploring the link between early speech perception abilities and lexical development in the second year of life in a population of very preterm infants (≤32 gestation weeks) is presented. Specifically, behavioral measures relative to (a) native-language recognition and discrimination from a rhythmically distant and a rhythmically close nonfamiliar languages, and (b) monosyllabic word-form segmentation, were obtained and compared to data from full-term infants. Expressive vocabulary at two test ages (12 and 18 months, corrected age for gestation) was measured using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Behavioral results indicated that differences between preterm and control groups were present, but only evident when task demands were high in terms of language processing, selective attention to relevant information and memory load. When responses could be based on acquired knowledge from accumulated linguistic experience, between-group differences were no longer observed. Critically, while preterm infants responded satisfactorily to the native-language recognition and discrimination tasks, they clearly differed from full-term infants in the more challenging activity of extracting and retaining word-form units from fluent speech, a fundamental ability for starting to building a lexicon. Correlations between results from the language discrimination tasks and expressive vocabulary measures could not be systematically established. However, attention time to novel words in the word segmentation

  7. The Effect of Concurrent Music Reading and Performance on the Ability to Detect Tempo Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark Carlton

    1989-01-01

    Measures the ability of three groups of musicians to detect tempo change while reading and performing music. Compares this ability with that of the same musicians to detect tempo change while listening only. Found that for all groups the ability to detect tempo changes was inhibited by the playing task, although to different degrees for each…

  8. Perceptions of Climate Change among Grade 11 Learners in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their peers and parents (their arenas of social interaction) in forming these perceptions. The study ... media; (2) conceptual disagreements in the climate change research ..... Tourism. • Mathematics/Mathematical. Literacy. • Life Orientation (LO).

  9. Perceptions of climate change and barriers to adaptation amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of climate change and barriers to adaptation amongst commonage and commercial livestock farmers in the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo. ... of farmers, compelling them to implement more resilient adaptive measures to decrease ...

  10. Changing public perceptions of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Previous research concerning public perception of GM foods indicates that European consumers hold firm negative attitudes to GM foods. These attitudes, however, are not based on risk-benefit evaluations of particular products. Rather, they seem to be a function of general sociopolitical attitudes...

  11. Changes in the language of perception in Cantonese

    OpenAIRE

    De Sousa, H.

    2011-01-01

    The way a language encodes sensory experiences changes over time, and often this correlates with other changes in the society. There are noticeable differences in the language of perception between older and younger speakers of Cantonese in Hong Kong and Macau. Younger speakers make finer distinctions in the distal senses, but have less knowledge of the finer categories of the proximal senses than older speakers. The difference in the language of perception between older and younger speakers ...

  12. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions Displayed by Novice Programmers When Exploring the Relationship Between Modularization Ability and Performance in the C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodounon, Maurice A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze different perceptions displayed by novice programmers in the C++ programming language, and determine if modularization ability could be improved by an instructional treatment that concentrated on solving computer programs from previously existing modules. This study attempted to answer the following…

  14. Disentangling beat perception from sequential learning and examining the influence of attention and musical abilities on ERP responses to rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.L.; Werner, C.M.; Knetemann, M.; Honing, H.

    Beat perception is the ability to perceive temporal regularity in musical rhythm. When a beat is perceived, predictions about upcoming events can be generated. These predictions can influence processing of subsequent rhythmic events. However, statistical learning of the order of sounds in a sequence

  15. Majority Teachers' Perceptions of Urban Adolescents and Their Abilities: Probes from Self-Reflection and Teacher Autobiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harushimana, Immaculee

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a small scale, qualitative study of nine majority alternate-route teachers and the perceptions they hold about themselves as urban educators and their urban students' academic abilities. Data for this study was collected through self-reflective, written interviews and meta-reflective responses to two published teacher…

  16. Changing Forest Disturbance Regimes and Risk Perceptions in Homer, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney G. F1int

    2007-01-01

    Forest disturbances caused by insects can lead to other disturbances, risks, and changes across landscapes. Evaluating the human dimensions of such disturbances furthers understanding of integrated changes in natural and social systems. This article examines the effects of changing forest disturbance regimes on local risk perceptions and attitudes in Homer, Alaska....

  17. Public Inaccuracy in Meta-perceptions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, J.; Fraser, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public perceptions of climate change and meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientist's perceptions of climate change were assessed to benchmark the National Network for Climate Change Interpretation's impacts. Meta-perceptions are important to examine because they can have implications for willingness to take action to address climate change. For instance, recent research suggests a tendency to misperceive that there is disagreement among climate scientists is predictive of lack of support for climate change policies. Underestimating public concern about climate change could also be problematic: it could lead individuals to withdraw from personal efforts to reduce impact and engage others in discussions about climate change. Presented results will demonstrate that respondents in a national survey underestimated the percent of the public who were very concerned, concerned or cautious about climate change and overestimated the extent others were disengaged, doubted, or non-believers. They underestimated the percent of the public who likely believed that humans caused climate change and overestimate the percent that believed climate change was not happening nor human induced. Finally, they underestimated the percent of the public that believed climate change threatened ocean health. The results also explore sources of misperceptions. First, correlates with TV viewing habits suggest that inaccuracy is a result of too little attention to network news, with one exception: Greater attention to FOX among doubters reduced accuracy. Second, adding to other evidence that basic cognitive heuristics (such as availability heuristic) influence perceptions of climate change, we show that that false consensus effects account for meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientists beliefs. The false consensus effect, in combination with underestimating concern among the public, results in those most concerned about climate change and those who believe it to be human

  18. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  19. Public perceptions of climate change and extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, W.; Dessai, S.; Morgan, G.; Taylor, A.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Climate experts face a serious communication challenge. Public debate about climate change continues, even though at the same time people seem to complain about extreme weather events becoming increasingly common. As compared to the abstract concept of ';climate change,' (changes in) extreme weather events are indeed easier to perceive, more vivid, and personally relevant. Public perception research in different countries has suggested that people commonly expect that climate change will lead to increases in temperature, and that unseasonably warm weather is likely to be interpreted as evidence of climate change. However, relatively little is known about whether public concerns about climate change may also be driven by changes in other types of extreme weather events, such as exceptional amounts of precipitation or flooding. We therefore examined how perceptions of and personal experiences with changes in these specific weather events are related to public concerns about climate change. In this presentation, we will discuss findings from two large public perception surveys conducted in flood-prone Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (US) and with a national sample in the UK, where extreme flooding has recently occurred across the country. Participants completed questions about their perceptions of and experiences with specific extreme weather events, and their beliefs about climate change. We then conducted linear regressions to predict individual differences in climate-change beliefs, using perceptions of and experiences with specific extreme weather events as predictors, while controlling for demographic characteristics. The US study found that people (a) perceive flood chances to be increasing over the decades, (b) believe climate change to play a role in increases in future flood chances, and (c) would interpret future increases in flooding as evidence for climate change. The UK study found that (a) UK residents are more likely to perceive increases in ';wet' events such

  20. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.

  1. What do we need to hear a beat? The influence of attention, musical abilities, and accents on the perception of metrical rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine beat perception, the process that allows us to make music together. I explore the effects of attention, musical abilities, and accents on beat perception. Additionally, I address several methodological issues that arise when probing beat perception with event-related

  2. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  3. Exploring the association between visual perception abilities and reading of musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Horng-Yih

    2012-06-01

    In the reading of music, the acquisition of pitch information depends primarily upon the spatial position of notes as well as upon an individual's spatial processing ability. This study investigated the relationship between the ability to read single notes and visual-spatial ability. Participants with high and low single-note reading abilities were differentiated based upon differences in musical notation-reading abilities and their spatial processing; object recognition abilities were then assessed. It was found that the group with lower note-reading abilities made more errors than did the group with a higher note-reading abilities in the mental rotation task. In contrast, there was no apparent significant difference between the two groups in the object recognition task. These results suggest that note-reading may be related to visual spatial processing abilities, and not to an individual's ability with object recognition.

  4. Farmers' Perception of the Effects of Climate Change and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers were fully aware of the effect of climate change and possible coping strategies such as the need for agricultural insurance, planting of drought and flood tolerant varieties and reduction of water loss through practices such as mulching and rearing of heat tolerant livestock. General perception was that climate change ...

  5. Changing perceptions of teachers regarding the importance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing perceptions of teachers regarding the importance and competence of their principals as leaders. ... One group of 20 principals was provided with an intervention programme regarding the dimensions of holistic leadership. The other ... Keywords: educational change; head teachers; leadership; school principals ...

  6. Effect of Size Change and Brightness Change of Visual Stimuli on Loudness Perception and Pitch Perception of Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syouya Tanabe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available People obtain a lot of information from visual and auditory sensation on daily life. Regarding the effect of visual stimuli on perception of auditory stimuli, studies of phonological perception and sound localization have been made in great numbers. This study examined the effect of visual stimuli on perception in loudness and pitch of auditory stimuli. We used the image of figures whose size or brightness was changed as visual stimuli, and the sound of pure tone whose loudness or pitch was changed as auditory stimuli. Those visual and auditory stimuli were combined independently to make four types of audio-visual multisensory stimuli for psychophysical experiments. In the experiments, participants judged change in loudness or pitch of auditory stimuli, while they judged the direction of size change or the kind of a presented figure in visual stimuli. Therefore they cannot neglect visual stimuli while they judged auditory stimuli. As a result, perception in loudness and pitch were promoted significantly around their difference limen, when the image was getting bigger or brighter, compared with the case in which the image had no changes. This indicates that perception in loudness and pitch were affected by change in size and brightness of visual stimuli.

  7. Transformational Capacity - Exploring a Places Ability to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, D.

    2016-12-01

    In the face of climate change, there is an emerging consensus that local transformations are necessary in order to avoid the most catastrophic of losses (Burch et al. 2014; Preston et al. 2013). Specifically, it is well known that rising sea levels will lead to increased flooding and habitat loss (McGranahan, et al., 2007). Solutions to sea level rise and its associated impacts will require the active participation of coastal communities who will continue to be relied upon for most of the critical land use and planning decisions (Hurlimann and March 2012). While local governments are needed, these changes are known to be extremely difficult and require a shift to a new development path. Additionally, municipalities need to be able to identify places that can be altered to prepare for sea level rise. Thus we need to enhancer our understanding of transformational capacity. The range of future sea level rise projections are well understood, what is not known is how people will react and change the coastal landscape to address these threats. Additionally, it is not well understood how these different shorezone strategies will in turn impact people. Building on other long-term historical models in coastal engineering, we have developed a framework to generate potential future shorezones in a complex estuarine environment. As shown in Figure 1, the framework includes three general components to determine potential future shorezones. Within each general part of the framework, there are a number of critical data sets used to support this part of the model. For example, the economic piece of the analysis includes, the costs of coastal protective infrastructure and the values of upland parcels. The future shorezones generated through this analysis will be used in sea level rise impacts assessments allowing for a richer conversation in the climate adaptation process. Ultimately, the goals of this presentation are to 1) introduce this specific framework designed to assess the

  8. The measurement of change in functional ability: dealing with attrition and the floor/ceiling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    , functional ability at baseline, relative wealth, social network, self-rated health, and life-satisfaction. Inclusion of the dead in statistical models for the study of change in functional ability reduced the attrition problem. A logistic model for paired observations of functional ability at two points...

  9. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Public Perception of Uncertainties Within Climate Change Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, multifaceted problem involving various interacting systems and actors. Therefore, the intensities, locations, and timeframes of the consequences of climate change are hard to predict and cause uncertainties. Relatively little is known about how the public perceives this scientific uncertainty and how this relates to their concern about climate change. In this article, an online survey among 306 Swiss people is reported that investigated whether people differentiate between different types of uncertainty in climate change research. Also examined was the way in which the perception of uncertainty is related to people's concern about climate change, their trust in science, their knowledge about climate change, and their political attitude. The results of a principal component analysis showed that respondents differentiated between perceived ambiguity in climate research, measurement uncertainty, and uncertainty about the future impact of climate change. Using structural equation modeling, it was found that only perceived ambiguity was directly related to concern about climate change, whereas measurement uncertainty and future uncertainty were not. Trust in climate science was strongly associated with each type of uncertainty perception and was indirectly associated with concern about climate change. Also, more knowledge about climate change was related to less strong perceptions of each type of climate science uncertainty. Hence, it is suggested that to increase public concern about climate change, it may be especially important to consider the perceived ambiguity about climate research. Efforts that foster trust in climate science also appear highly worthwhile. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Perceptions and Misconceptions Regarding Climate Change: Politics versus Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Elia O.

    Climate change has been increasingly becoming a commonly debated topic among the public (Lambert & Bleicher, 2013). This is especially true with scientists and educators (Cooney, 2010). Terminology, politics, and misconceptions can bias perceptions. Scientists also tend to disagree over the cause of climate change and the data resulting from different studies (Idso, Carter, & Singer, 2016). The pilot study was conducted to examine perceptions of preservice teachers regarding climate change. There were forty participants, comprised of twenty Hispanic, nineteen Anglo American, and one African American, enrolled in a required course for future science educators in a medium-sized south Texas university. The pilot study included pre- and post-tests distributed to all of the participants and one on one interviews with three randomly selected pre-service teachers. The post-test results showed a significant difference in statements about the belief that climate change is real, about there being enough scientific evidence to prove the climate is changing, and the belief we are experiencing an extinction event due to climate change. While one lesson on climate change may not prove to be enough to change all of the participants' perceptions, there were some pre-service teachers who did begin to think differently about the impact of human activities and became more aware of climate change issues. The findings from this research show how beneficial a lesson on climate change can be to the future careers of science educators and in turn contribute considerably to the education of future students.

  12. Self-estimation of physical ability in stepping over an obstacle is not mediated by visual height perception: a comparison between young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Masami; Yasunaga, Masashi; Ogawa, Susumu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2017-07-01

    Older adults tend to overestimate their step-over ability. However, it is unclear as to whether this is caused by inaccurate self-estimation of physical ability or inaccurate perception of height. We, therefore, measured both visual height perception ability and self-estimation of step-over ability among young and older adults. Forty-seven older and 16 young adults performed a height perception test (HPT) and a step-over test (SOT). Participants visually judged the height of vertical bars from distances of 7 and 1 m away in the HPT, then self-estimated and, subsequently, actually performed a step-over action in the SOT. The results showed no significant difference between young and older adults in visual height perception. In the SOT, young adults tended to underestimate their step-over ability, whereas older adults either overestimated their abilities or underestimated them to a lesser extent than did the young adults. Moreover, visual height perception was not correlated with the self-estimation of step-over ability in both young and older adults. These results suggest that the self-overestimation of step-over ability which appeared in some healthy older adults may not be caused by the nature of visual height perception, but by other factor(s), such as the likely age-related nature of self-estimation of physical ability, per se.

  13. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Its Agricultural Impacts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an assessment of farmers' perceptions of climate change and its agricultural impacts in the Ethiopian portion of the Nile and Baro-Akobo river basins. A total of 500 randomly selected households were interviewed from 15 kebeles in five woredas, three each from dega, woina-dega and kolla ...

  14. Farmers' perception of the effect of climate change on yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority (63.0%) reported that unpredictable nature of the sun intensity, temperature, rainfall and relative humility negatively affect yam production. Sixty three percent of the respondents had favourable perception of climate change towards their yam production while thirty seven percent of the respondents did not have ...

  15. Using an Engaged Scholarship Symposium to Change Perceptions: Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Sapna; Smirnova, Olga; Gallien, Tara Lee

    2018-01-01

    Engaged scholarship (ES) entails a symbiotic relationship between the community and the university. This article reports results from an evaluation of an ES symposium Eastern Carolina University held to increase awareness of ES as a means for integrating research, teaching, and service and to potentially change unfavorable perceptions about ES…

  16. General Education Students' Changing Perceptions of Students with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ashley D.; Bartelheim, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are becoming more inclusive and more students with special needs are accessing general education classrooms than ever. This action research study investigated general education students changing perceptions of students with special needs through the use of various interventions (e.g., classroom discussions, organized games, buddy reads,…

  17. 51 climate change perception, awareness and adaptation decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Environment Department, University of York, York, UK. Corresponding author: ... The perception of climate change and adaptation decision of forest .... well as the broader characteristics of the production system and ... mangrove forest, Guinea savanna, montane forest ...... forecastsand regional climate-risk management.

  18. Change of patients' perceptions of telemedicine after brief use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, Karlijn; Cranen, Karlijn; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    Objective: This study aims to investigate whether patients' perceptions regarding a Web-based telemedicine service, for instruction and monitoring of an exercise program, change after brief use. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were allocated, matched on gender and age, to a control group (10)

  19. 'Being hit was normal': Teachers' (un)changing perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global and national concerns that corporal punishment is still being used, openly in certain milieus and surreptitiously in others, suggests that education stakeholders need to take cognisance of teachers' perceptions and experiences that influence their classroom discipline in the context of changing curriculum policies and ...

  20. Work ability, age and its perception, and other related concerns of Ukraine health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobko, Natalia A; Barishpolets, Alexey T

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 250 health care workers aged 18 to 68 (mean = 32.5 years) completed the Survey of Health Care Professionals. Self-ratings of their social skills, mental capacity, and physical capability corresponded to their ratings of work demands. Physical tiredness and tension were rated higher than mental tiredness. Worker age did not affect self-ratings of work performance, but physical and mental tiredness increased with increases in the age that one felt. The younger participants felt compared to their calendar ages, the better the level of current work ability they reported. The main concerns of workers were connected with off-the-job factors, most likely caused by the economic crisis and unfavorable ecological conditions in Ukraine. More than half of the participants were quite a bit or extremely concerned with changes in the cost of living, water quality, food safety, and radiation. The variable most closely related to these concerns is the discrepancy between calendar age and how old one feels. Coping strategies of workers can be related to sleeping, entertainment, and other off-the-job activities. These behaviors are related to the discrepancy between calendar age and how old one looks and feels, as well as felt age.

  1. Gender and Management - Changing Perceptions and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela On

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is proposing a study on subjective factors (as changing attitudes or expectations that continue to influence female participation in decision making structures. The main objective of our research is to reveal some profound, less obvious causes of perpetuation of the gender imbalanced structures of most Romanian organizations. Expected influences of modernity on the relationship between the two genders are also questioned in order to verify the perpetuation of some social relations. We are also searching for consistency with other studies and reports on the similar subjective factors influencing the Romanian (or European female representation in different power structures.

  2. Confidence in emotion perception in point-light displays varies with the ability to perceive own emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Lorey

    Full Text Available One central issue in social cognitive neuroscience is that perceiving emotions in others relates to activating the same emotion in oneself. In this study we sought to examine how the ability to perceive own emotions assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale related to both the ability to perceive emotions depicted in point-light displays and the confidence in these perceptions. Participants observed video scenes of human interactions, rated the depicted valence, and judged their confidence in this rating. Results showed that people with higher alexithymia scores were significantly less confident about their decisions, but did not differ from people with lower alexithymia scores in the valence of their ratings. Furthermore, no modulating effect of social context on the effect of higher alexithymia scores was found. It is concluded that the used stimuli are fit to investigate the kinematic aspect of emotion perception and possibly separate people with high and low alexithymia scores via confidence differences. However, a general difference in emotion perception was not detected in the present setting.

  3. Confidence in emotion perception in point-light displays varies with the ability to perceive own emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorey, Britta; Kaletsch, Morten; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Bischoff, Matthias; Kindermann, Stefan; Sauerbier, Isabell; Stark, Rudolf; Zentgraf, Karen; Munzert, Jörn

    2012-01-01

    One central issue in social cognitive neuroscience is that perceiving emotions in others relates to activating the same emotion in oneself. In this study we sought to examine how the ability to perceive own emotions assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale related to both the ability to perceive emotions depicted in point-light displays and the confidence in these perceptions. Participants observed video scenes of human interactions, rated the depicted valence, and judged their confidence in this rating. Results showed that people with higher alexithymia scores were significantly less confident about their decisions, but did not differ from people with lower alexithymia scores in the valence of their ratings. Furthermore, no modulating effect of social context on the effect of higher alexithymia scores was found. It is concluded that the used stimuli are fit to investigate the kinematic aspect of emotion perception and possibly separate people with high and low alexithymia scores via confidence differences. However, a general difference in emotion perception was not detected in the present setting.

  4. Two Portfolio Systems: EFL Students' Perceptions of Writing Ability, Text Improvement, and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2013-01-01

    Research into portfolio assessment ("PA") typically describes teachers' development and implementation of different portfolio models in their respective teaching contexts, however, not much attention is paid to student perceptions of the portfolio approach or its impact on the learning of writing. To this end, this study aims to…

  5. University EFL Learners' Perceptions of Their Autonomous Learning Responsibilities and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razeq, Anwar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness of university students for autonomous learning of English as a foreign language. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. The study assessed learners' readiness for autonomous learning across three dimensions: a) learners' perceptions of their educational responsibilities; b) learners' abilities…

  6. Climate change and the UK house building sector: perceptions, impacts and adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.; Gann, D.; Barlow, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores how climate change could affect the UK house-building sector, focusing on the question of how companies can adapt to changing climatic conditions. It presents the results of in-depth interviews in five house-building companies in the UK. We start from the assumption that climate change is only one driver among many, including technological innovation, shifting consumer expectations and changing regulation, that the industry faces. This approach draws on insights that are well established in the management and innovation literatures, but have often been neglected in studies of climate change. We report research about the perceptions of house builders about future impacts of climate change, potential adaptation measures that may be open to them and their ability to carry out these measures. The paper draws conclusions about the challenges that climate change presents to the UK house building industry. (author)

  7. Brief Report: Developmental Change in Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Shelly; Joseph, Robert M.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated developmental change in theory of mind among 57 children (ages 4-14) with autism. Theory of mind tests were administered on an initial visit and one year later. Data indicated significant developmental improvement in theory of mind ability, which was primarily related to the children's language ability. (Contains…

  8. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R.; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  9. Individual differences in language ability are related to variation in word recognition, not speech perception: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Munson, Cheyenne; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined speech perception deficits associated with individual differences in language ability, contrasting auditory, phonological, or lexical accounts by asking whether lexical competition is differentially sensitive to fine-grained acoustic variation. Adolescents with a range of language abilities (N = 74, including 35 impaired) participated in an experiment based on McMurray, Tanenhaus, and Aslin (2002). Participants heard tokens from six 9-step voice onset time (VOT) continua spanning 2 words (beach/peach, beak/peak, etc.) while viewing a screen containing pictures of those words and 2 unrelated objects. Participants selected the referent while eye movements to each picture were monitored as a measure of lexical activation. Fixations were examined as a function of both VOT and language ability. Eye movements were sensitive to within-category VOT differences: As VOT approached the boundary, listeners made more fixations to the competing word. This did not interact with language ability, suggesting that language impairment is not associated with differential auditory sensitivity or phonetic categorization. Listeners with poorer language skills showed heightened competitors fixations overall, suggesting a deficit in lexical processes. Language impairment may be better characterized by a deficit in lexical competition (inability to suppress competing words), rather than differences in phonological categorization or auditory abilities.

  10. Individual differences in language ability are related to variation in word recognition, not speech perception: Evidence from eye-movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Munson, Cheyenne; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined speech perception deficits associated with individual differences in language ability contrasting auditory, phonological or lexical accounts by asking if lexical competition is differentially sensitive to fine-grained acoustic variation. Methods 74 adolescents with a range of language abilities (including 35 impaired) participated in an experiment based on McMurray, Tanenhaus and Aslin (2002). Participants heard tokens from six 9-step Voice Onset Time (VOT) continua spanning two words (beach/peach, beak/peak, etc), while viewing a screen containing pictures of those words and two unrelated objects. Participants selected the referent while eye-movements to each picture were monitored as a measure of lexical activation. Fixations were examined as a function of both VOT and language ability. Results Eye-movements were sensitive to within-category VOT differences: as VOT approached the boundary, listeners made more fixations to the competing word. This did not interact with language ability, suggesting that language impairment is not associated with differential auditory sensitivity or phonetic categorization. Listeners with poorer language skills showed heightened competitors fixations overall, suggesting a deficit in lexical processes. Conclusions Language impairment may be better characterized by a deficit in lexical competition (inability to suppress competing words), rather than differences phonological categorization or auditory abilities. PMID:24687026

  11. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Infancy: The Influence of Vowel Identity and Infants' Productive Abilities on Sensitivity to (Mis)Matches between Auditory and Visual Speech Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that infants' audiovisual speech perception is influenced by articulatory experience (Mugitani et al., 2008; Yeung & Werker, 2013). The current study extends these findings by testing if infants' emerging ability to produce native sounds in babbling impacts their audiovisual speech perception. We tested 44 6-month-olds…

  12. The Effects of Problem-Based Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Perceptions of Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine the levels of critical thinking disposition and perception of problem-solving ability of pre-service teachers. The second aim was to compare the effects of problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking dispositions and perceptions of…

  13. Perceptions and abilities related to patient engagement in diabetes care among primary health care providers in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Christensen, Ulla; Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Calopietro, Michael

    Background: Malaysia seeks to transform its public health sector to manage the growing number of people with diabetes. Patient engagement is a critical clinical competency for HCPs treating people with diabetes. We investigated perceptions of and ability to practice patient engagement among doctors....... The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Summary of Results: Three main themes emerged: 1) limitations in understanding barriers to self-care and treatment especially from a psychosocial perspective, 2) substantial variation in health care providers’ skills within patient engagement...... health care providers’ ability to place the patient at the center of all therapeutic decisions. Take-home Message: Future efforts to improve self-care should seek to develop competencies within patient engagement especially strengthening understanding of psychosocial barriers to self-care. Organisation...

  14. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  15. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  16. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Denovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy, the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT, the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual

  17. Can Knowledge Deficit Explain Societal Perception of Climate Change Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.; Bondell, H.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change literacy efforts have had a rough journey in the past decade. Although scientists have become increasingly convinced about anthropological climate change, change in public opinion has been underwhelming. The unexplained gap between scientific consensus and public opinion has made this topic an important research area in the realm of public understanding of science. Recent research on climate change risk perception (CCRP) has advanced an intriguing hypothesis, namely, cultural cognition thesis (CCT), which posits that the public has adequate knowledge to understand climate change science but people tend to use this knowledge solely to promote their culturally motivated view-point of climate change. This talk provides evidence to demonstrate that despite culture playing a significant role in influencing CCRP, knowledge deficiency remains a persistent problem in our society and contributes to the aforementioned gap. However, such deficits can remain undiagnosed due to limitations of survey design.

  18. Nurse leaders' perceptions of an approaching organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Susanne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to achieve more profound understanding of nurse leaders' perceptions of an approaching organizational change. We used a three-dimensional hermeneutical method of interpretation to analyze text from 17 interviews. The results suggest that nurse leaders were positive toward and actively engaged in continual change to their units, even though they perceived themselves as mere spectators of the change process. The nurse leaders believed that change might benefit patients and patient care, yet their adaptation lacked deeper engagement. The approaching merger affected the nurse leaders' identities on a deeply personal level. They experienced uneasiness and anxiety with regard to being nurse leaders, the future of nursing care, and their mandate as patient advocates. Nurse leaders are in a critical position to influence the success of organizational change, but the organizations covered in this study were not incorporating their knowledge and experiences into the change.

  19. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  20. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity...

  1. A cross-sectional study of mathematics achievement, estimation skills, and academic self-perception in students of varying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Marjorie; van Garderen, Delinda

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated students' mathematics achievement, estimation ability, use of estimation strategies, and academic self-perception. Students with learning disabilities (LD), average achievers, and intellectually gifted students (N = 135) in fourth, sixth, and eighth grade participated in the study. They were assessed to determine their mathematics achievement, ability to estimate discrete quantities, knowledge and use of estimation strategies, and perception of academic competence. The results indicated that the students with LD performed significantly lower than their peers on the math achievement measures, as expected, but viewed themselves to be as academically competent as the average achievers did. Students with LD and average achievers scored significantly lower than gifted students on all estimation measures, but they differed significantly from one another only on the estimation strategy use measure. Interestingly, even gifted students did not seem to have a well-developed understanding of estimation and, like the other students, did poorly on the first estimation measure. The accuracy of their estimates seemed to improve, however, when students were asked open-ended questions about the strategies they used to arrive at their estimates. Although students with LD did not differ from average achievers in their estimation accuracy, they used significantly fewer effective estimation strategies. Implications for instruction are discussed.

  2. Family scents: developmental changes in the perception of kin body odor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Schaal, Benoist; Roberts, S Craig

    2010-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that human body odors are involved in adaptive behaviors, such as parental attachment in infants or partner choice in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in body-odor perception around puberty, a period largely ignored for odor-mediated behavioral changes, despite major changes in social needs and in odor emission and perception. Nine families with two children (8 pre-pubertal, aged 7-10, and 10 pubertal, aged 11-18) evaluated body odors of family members and unfamiliar individuals for pleasantness, intensity, and masculinity, and performed a recognition task. The hypothesized emergence of a parent-child mutual aversion for the odor of opposite-sex family members at puberty was not found, contradicting one of the few studies on the topic (Weisfeld et al., J. Exp. Child Psychol. 85:279-295, 2003). However, some developmental changes were observed, including reduced aversion for odor of the same-sex parent, and increased ability of adults, compared to children, to recognize odor of family members. Sex and personality (depressive and aggressive traits) also significantly influenced odor judgments. Further research with larger samples is needed to investigate the poorly explored issue of how olfactory perception of self and family members develops, and how it could correlate with normal reorganizations in social interactions at adolescence.

  3. Evaluation of a Coaching Experiential Learning Project on OT Student Abilities and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative teaching methods to address emerging practice needs are critical components of effective occupational therapy education. Experiential learning strategies can enhance skill development and translation of knowledge into OT clinical practice. In addition, skills such as coaching may provide important links to health promotion practices. Thirty-two occupational therapy students took part in an experiential project to connect occupational engagement and health for a community of older adults. A pretest/posttest design was used to evaluate program outcomes in student perceived abilities, and narrative reflection papers provided postexperience qualitative information. The students improved in all 10 areas of abilities selfassessment with mean total scores from pretest (M = 42 improving significantly at posttest (M = 58. Themes from reflection papers indicated a positive response to experiential learning and a desire for more opportunities to prepare for clinical practice, including the use of interprofessional training. The students improved in their abilities to use coaching and health promotion strategies through the use of experiential learning methods. Outcomes suggest that experiential learning opportunities are an effective way to enhance student competencies in coaching, improve readiness for wellness programming, and increase student confidence in application of skills in future clinical practice.

  4. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Brian P; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters-notably, rising average temperature-there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  5. Perceptions of Post-Wildfire Landscape Change and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, C. M.; Hall, T. E.; Paveglio, T.; Carroll, M.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Considering the dynamic nature of the earth and climate systems and the increasing potential for widespread forest disturbances, it is important to understand the implications of landscape changes, and perceptions of changes, on people's responses to forest disturbances. Understanding how people perceive landscape change over time following forest disturbances helps researchers, land managers, and community leaders identify important biophysical and social characteristics that influence the vulnerability of people who experience forest disturbances, as well as their responses to those disturbances. This poster describes people's perceptions of landscape change following a significant wildfire. The lightning ignited Dahl fire burned 12 miles southeast of Roundup, MT mostly on private land in the summer of June 2012. The fire burned approximately 22,000 acres and destroyed 73 residences. We conducted interviews in the summer of 2013 with more than 40 residents, land managers, emergency personnel, and other stakeholders. While interviews covered several topics, this poster focuses on responses to questions regarding perceptions of short- and long-term landscape change after the fire, including both social and biophysical perspectives. Interviews revealed that people's understanding of the role of wildfires as a natural ecosystem process, as well as their connections with the landscape (i.e., sense of place), were important factors that influenced their perceptions of landscape change after the fire. Many respondents discussed the landscape ';recovering' to pre-fire conditions in longer-term timeframes, such as ';multiple generations.' They often referenced previous wildfires, the Hawk Creek fire (1984) and the Majeras fire (2006), by explaining how parts of the landscape affected by the Dahl fire might compare to certain areas of the previous fires. Variations in recovery expectations were often based on perceptions of the severity of the fire (especially temperature

  6. An Exploratory Study Examining the Influence of the Number of Reading Methods Courses on Pre-Service and In-Service Teacher Perceptions of Ability to Teach Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Teacher education programmes (TEPs) are left with limited research on how the coursework they provide influences the perceptions teachers have about their ability to teach young children how to read--especially over the long term. The purpose of this study was to compare how teacher candidates rate their ability to teach reading at the conclusion…

  7. Assessing musical abilities objectively: construction and validation of the profile of music perception skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily N C Law

    Full Text Available A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals' extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch, qualitative (timbre, tuning, temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo, and dynamic (loudness. The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85 and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85. Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon's Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo, the Musical Ear Test (rhythm, and sample instrumental sounds (timbre. Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01. An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery's discriminant validity (-.05, ns. The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery.

  8. Motor skills, haptic perception and social abilities in children with mild speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müürsepp, Iti; Aibast, Herje; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate motor skills, haptic object recognition and social interaction in 5-year-old children with mild specific expressive language impairment (expressive-SLI) and articulation disorder (AD) in comparison of age- and gender matched healthy children. Twenty nine children (23 boys and 6 girls) with expressive-SLI, 27 children (20 boys and 7 girls) with AD and 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) with typically developing language as controls participated in our study. The children were examined for manual dexterity, ball skills, static and dynamic balance by M-ABC test, haptic object recognition and for social interaction by questionnaire completed by teachers. Children with mild expressive-SLI demonstrated significantly poorer results in all subtests of motor skills (psocial interaction (p0.05) in measured parameters between children with AD and controls. Children with expressive-SLI performed considerably poorer compared to AD group in balance subtest (psocial interaction are considerably more affected than in children with AD. Although motor difficulties in speech production are prevalent in AD, it is localised and does not involve children's general motor skills, haptic perception or social interaction. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual Local Farmers’ Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Röschel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and environmental changes are expected to affect in particular those regions where the economy is primarily based on the agricultural sector and where the dependency on water availability is high. This study examines how smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania perceived climatic and environmental changes over the past 20 years and the resulting effects on water availability and food security. The study is based on a household survey of 899 farmers in a semi-arid and a sub-humid region in Tanzania. It was found that (a significant differences in perceptions of the environment by farmers can be attributed to agro-climatic location, while the distance to a water source has less impact on individual perception; (b differently perceived changes affect individual water availability and food security; and (c the farm level adaptation methods applied are linked to vulnerability to changes and the household dependence on the immediate environment. The authors conclude that the specific environmental surroundings paired with socio-economic factors can severely compound the negative effects of water scarcity on rural farmers.

  10. Perception of climate change in patients with chronic lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götschke, Jeremias; Mertsch, Pontus; Bischof, Michael; Kneidinger, Nikolaus; Matthes, Sandhya; Renner, Ellen D.; Schultz, Konrad; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Duchna, Hans-Werner; Behr, Jürgen; Schmude, Jürgen; Huber, Rudolf M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate change affects human health. The respective consequences are predicted to increase in the future. Patients with chronic lung disease are particularly vulnerable to the involved environmental alterations. However, their subjective perception and reactions to these alterations remain unknown. Methods In this pilot study, we surveyed 172 adult patients who underwent pulmonary rehabilitation and 832 adult tourists without lung disease in the alpine region about their perception of being affected by climate change and their potential reaction to specific consequences. The patients’ survey also contained the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) to rate the severity of symptoms. Results Most of the patients stated asthma (73.8%), COPD (9.3%) or both (11.0%) as underlying disease while 5.8% suffered from other chronic lung diseases. Patients and tourists feel equally affected by current climate change in general, while allergic subjects in both groups feel significantly more affected (p = 0.04). The severity of symptoms assessed by CAT correlates with the degree of feeling affected (p<0.01). The main disturbing consequences for patients are decreased air quality, increasing numbers of ticks and mosquitos and a rising risk for allergy and extreme weather events such as thunderstroms, while tourists are less disturbed by these factors. Increasing number of heat-days is of little concern to both groups. Conclusion Overall patients are more sensitive to health-related consequences of climate change. Yet, the hazard of heat-days seems underestimated and awareness should be raised. PMID:29045479

  11. Measuring changes in perception using the Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education (SPICE) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorek, Joseph A; MacLaughlin, Eric J; Fike, David S; MacLaughlin, Anitra A; Samiuddin, Mohammed; Young, Rodney B

    2014-05-20

    The Student Perceptions of Physician-Pharmacist Interprofessional Clinical Education (SPICE) instrument contains 10 items, 3 factors (interprofessional teamwork and team-based practice, roles/responsibilities for collaborative practice, and patient outcomes from collaborative practice), and utilizes a five-point response scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). Given the SPICE instrument's demonstrated validity and reliability, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether it was capable of measuring changes in medical (MS) and pharmacy students' (PS) perceptions following an interprofessional education (IPE) experience. In this prospective cohort study, MS and PS completed the SPICE instrument before and after participation in a predefined IPE experience. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize students and pre-post responses. Independent samples t tests and Fisher's Exact tests were used to assess group difference in demographic variables. Mann Whitney U tests were used to assess between-group differences in item scores. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests were used to evaluate post-participation changes in item scores. Spearman correlations were calculated to assess associations between ordinal demographic variables and item scores, and whether the number of clinic visits completed was associated with post-test responses. Paired samples t tests were used to calculate mean score changes for each of the factors. Thirty-four MS and 15 PS were enroled. Baseline differences included age (25.3. ± 1.3 MS vs. 28.7 ± 4.4 PS; p = 0.013), years full-time employment (0.71 ± 0.97 MS vs. 4.60 ± 4.55 PS; p impact of teamwork on patient satisfaction (3.72 vs. 4.34; p location for IPE (4.06 vs. 4.34; p = 0.002). Significant increases were observed for all three factors (teamwork, p = 0.003; roles/responsibilities and patient outcomes, p < 0.001). This study demonstrated the SPICE instrument's ability to measure

  12. Change of lifestyle habits - Motivation and ability reported by pregnant women in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright

  13. The effects of industrial noise of higher spectrum on the workers’ auditory perception abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dobrivoje; Đurić, Nenad; Kovačević, Ivana; Mihailović, Đorđe

    2016-08-01

    Results of previous studies gave support to the idea that machines in power plants produce noise of different levels of loudness and frequency, and that it could cause deterioration of the hearing ability of workers. As a matter of fact, noiseinduced hearing loss is the most widespread occupational disease nowadays. As noise is a complex acoustic phenomenon, more factors have to be considered when studying it, such as frequency, intensity and the period of exposure. The aim of this study was to find if there are differences in the absolute threshold of hearing between workers in the factory production lines that are constantly exposed to the industrial noise of higher spectrum and those exposed to the noise of standard spectrum at different frequencies of sound. In the research plan, there were 308 workers employed in the production line of the Factory “Knjaz Miloš”, Aranđelovac. A total of 205 of them were working in the conditions of higher spectrum noise (4,000 Hz – 8,000 Hz) and 103 workers were exposed to standard noise spectrum (31.5 Hz – 2,000.0 Hz). The objective measures of noise (frequency and amplitude) were acquired by phonometer, and measures of absolute threshold of hearing for both ears were obtained by audiometer by exposure to nine sound frequency levels. Data were statistically analyzed by establishing the significance of differences between absolute thresholds of hearing for both groups and for all nine frequency levels. It was found that the absolute threshold of hearing is significantly higher for the group exposed to highfrequency noise at the 4,000 Hz and 8,000 Hz levels of frequency. Reduction of hearing sensitivity is evident for those exposed to higher spectrum noise, which is particularly evident at the higher frequency levels. Employees are often unaware of its effects because they are the results of prolonged exposure. Therefore, working in those conditions requires preventive measures and regular testing of the hearing

  14. Does arthritis influence perceived ability to fulfill a parenting role? Perceptions of mothers, fathers and grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J H; Cullen, L A; Foster, N E; Harrison, K; Wade, M

    1999-06-01

    The presence of a painful, disabling chronic disease may have implications for perceived ability to fulfill a parenting role. The purpose of this research was to examine the realities of parenting from the perspectives of mothers, fathers and grandparents with arthritis using a combination of methods: a cross sectional survey and in-depth focus group discussions. There was consensus that pain, fatigue and restricted physical functioning combined to interfere with the parenting role. Overall, approximately 35% of the sample had experienced difficulties attributed to arthritis. A gender difference emerged with women reporting more difficulties in relation to caring for babies and toddlers, whereas men reported more problems as children grew older. Key themes concerned: physical limitations; practical and caring issues; social factors; emotional response; hereditary risks and safety issues. Perceived inability to fulfill parenting roles resulted in feelings of frustration, guilt, anger and depression. A number of positive outcomes were mentioned including children's increased awareness of the needs of others. Limitations of the methodological approach adopted are discussed.

  15. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Eslinger, Jessica G; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva

    2016-01-01

    education and retraining, may increase ability to work in those with a disability.

  17. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  18. Repeated sprint ability in young basketball players: one vs. two changes of direction (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, Giuseppe; Laffaye, Guillaume; Chaouachi, Anis; Pizzolato, Fabio; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Padulo, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the training effects based on repeated sprint ability (RSA) (with one change of direction) with an intensive repeated sprint ability (IRSA) (with two changes of direction) on jump performance and aerobic fitness. Eighteen male basketball players were assigned to repeated sprint ability and intensive repeated sprint ability training groups (RSAG and IRSAG). RSA, IRSA, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test were assessed before and after four training weeks. The RSA and IRSA trainings consisted of three sets of six sprints (first two weeks) and eight sprints (second two weeks) with 4-min sets recovery and 20-s of sprints recovery. Four weeks of training led to an overall improvement in most of the measures of RSA, but little evidence of any differences between the two training modes. Jump performance was enhanced: CMJ of 7.5% (P training with one/two changes of direction promotes improvements in both RSA and IRSA respectively but the better increase on jump performance shown a few changes on sprint and endurance performances.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose

    education and retraining, may increase ability to work in those with a disability.

  20. Perceptions of Life Changes: An Alternate Measure of Aging through Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Patricia K.; Kivett, Vira R.

    Retrospective strategies measuring perceived life changes over time can further the advancement of life span developmental research. Researchers have neglected the individual's perception of his/her life changes over time. This study attempts to determine discriminators of change over time as operationalized by perceptions of change. Subjects…

  1. IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES FOR SPEED AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITY IN ELITE FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmonds, S; Nicholson, G; Beggs, CB; Jones, B; Bissas, A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction (CoD) ability in female soccer players. Data were collected on 10 female soccer players who were part of a professional English Women’s Super League team. Player assessments included anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), speed (10m, 30m sprint), CoD ability (505 agility), aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test), lower-body ...

  2. Analysis of Nigerian insurers’ perceptions of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda Anne Elum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, global agricultural productivity has been increasingly affected by climate change. It is believed that societal adoption of insurance as an adaptive response to climate change can have significant implications for insurers. The study investigates empirically insurers’ perceptions of climate change and the challenges they face in Nigeria. It examines the proposition that insurance firms in Nigeria are not mindful of the impact of climate change. The study applied the use of descriptive statistics, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance and principal component analysis on collected primary data. It was found that insurers in Nigeria were highly aware of climate change and its impact but did not believe it affects their operational costs and payments of claims. Although there is great scope for insurers to increase their client base in the Nigerian market, insurers face challenges of insurance rate-cutting, low patronage and environmental factors. The study concludes that there is a need for insurance regulators to enforce a level playing field for all firms. It also advocates for public support of private insurers to enhance insurance coverage for agriculture, the largest employer of labour in the country.

  3. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  4. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  5. The Effects of Plyometric Training on Change-of-Direction Ability: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Arazi, Hamid; Young, Warren B; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    To show a clear picture about the possible variables of enhancements of change-of-direction (COD) ability using longitudinal plyometric-training (PT) studies and determine specific factors that influence the training effects. A computerized search was performed, and 24 articles with a total of 46 effect sizes (ESs) in an experimental group and 25 ESs in a control group were reviewed to analyze the role of various factors on the impact of PT on COD performance. The results showed that participants with good fitness levels obtained greater improvements in COD performance (P plyometric exercises such as drop jumps + vertical jumps + standing long jumps is better than 1 form of exercise. It is apparent that PT can be effective at improving COD ability. The loading parameters are essential for exercise professionals, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends to optimize plyometric-induced COD-ability gains.

  6. PEER GROUP SUPPORT CHANGE PERCEPTION OF HOMELESS AND BEGGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Homeless and beggar are social problem in our society. The reason of people who becomes homeless and beggar can be influenced by internal factors such as lazy to work, mental and physical illness. Meanwhile, it also can be influenced by external factors, such as economy, geography, social, education, pshycology, culture and religion. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of peer group support to perception about the homeless and beggar. Method: A quasy experimental two group pre-post test purposive sampling design was used in this study. The subjects were homeless and beggar which stay at Lingkungan Pondok Sosial (Liponsos Keputih-Surabaya for at least three day. There were 16 respondent who met to the inclusion criteria which divided into two group (controlled and treatment. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that controlled group has significance level p=0.109 and treatment group has significance level p=0.017, statistically by using Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.021. Discussion: It can be concluded that peer group support can change the perception about the homeless and beggar who stayed at Liponsos Surabaya. Peer group support can used continuously as social activity at Liponsos.

  7. Perception and Lexicon Labeling Ability on a Child with Language Delay Diagnosed As Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Psycholinguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the semantics acquisition of a child with language delay diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The research problem is on how the child acquired the ability to comprehend meaning. It aims at answering the questions on how the child identified lexical meanings and how he labeled targeted lexicons of his first language. The approach employed in this research is descriptive qualitative to get adequate explanation on a specific language phenomenon, namely semantics acquisition. Its design is case study with the type neo-ethnographic. As the data collection method, it uses participant observation of longitudinal study considering that the research subject has familial relation with the researcher. The data analysis shows that the semantic acquisition of the research subject has complexity in vocabulary enrichment. The research subject often performs echolalic speech when he is asked to identify or label certain object given. The typical idiosyncratic speech is shown by the unique feature of limited syllable and prosody. In general, his ability to identify lexical meanings is far exceeding his ability to label objects. He also has sensitivity to perceive the non-verbal symbol performed by the people he knows well. The use of verbal language supported by non-verbal language facilitates his perception. He finds it difficult to comprehend the lexicons having similar sound as he assumes that one lexicon represents one object which typically belongs to concrete object. In addition, the ability of the research subject in labeling objects cannot be developed easily because of his difficulty in expressing ideas through words. To pronounce the words correctly, he shows high anxiety by lowering down his speech. In selecting the lexicon he also finds it hard to use pronoun, to label homonyms and to apply both polysemy and hyponym. Accordingly, he tends to communicate only to fulfill his needs by asking things, asking the

  8. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, Mark F; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion. (paper)

  9. Habitat stability affects dispersal and the ability to track climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Brändle, Martin; Dehling, D. Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Habitat persistence should influence dispersal ability, selecting for stronger dispersal in habitats of lower temporal stability. As standing (lentic) freshwater habitats are on average less persistent over time than running (lotic) habitats, lentic species should show higher dispersal abilities ...... that lentic species track climatic changes more rapidly than lotic species. These results are consistent with the proposed hypothesis that habitat persistence affects the evolution of dispersal....... than lotic species. Assuming that climate is an important determinant of species distributions, we hypothesize that lentic species should have distributions that are closer to equilibrium with current climate, and should more rapidly track climatic changes. We tested these hypotheses using datasets...... from 1988 and 2006 containing all European dragon- and damselfly species. Bioclimatic envelope models showed that lentic species were closer to climatic equilibrium than lotic species. Furthermore, the models over-predicted lotic species ranges more strongly than lentic species ranges, indicating...

  10. Changes in social relations in old age. Are they influenced by functional ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland......, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need......), Göteborg (Sweden) and Glostrup (Denmark). The present analyses include the 743 persons who participated in both studies and who answered the questions about social relations. The structure of social relations was measured by: 1) frequency of contacts with children, grand/greatgrandchildren, relatives...

  11. The Influence of Instruction, Prior Knowledge, and Values on Climate Change Risk Perception among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Osman; McNeal, Karen S.; Gold, Anne U.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Harris, Sara

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated influences on the climate change risk perceptions of undergraduate students in an introductory Earth Science course. For this sample, domain-specific content knowledge about climate change was a significant predictor of students' risk perception of climate change while cultural worldviews (individualism, hierarchy) and political…

  12. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  14. Speech-Language Pathologists' Perceptions of the Importance and Ability to Use Assistive Technology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dawaideh, Ahmad Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) frequently work with people with severe communication disorders who require assistive technology (AT) for communication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the SLPs perceptions of the importance of and ability level required for using AT, and the relationship of AT with gender, level of education,…

  15. A Case Study of Student Teachers' Changing Self-Perceptions in a Field Experience Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cals Southern, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the field of education new teacher candidates may not be exposed to best practices and given constructive feedback. In fact, student teachers may be at risk of not recognizing their own growing abilities as teachers, which can impact their performance in the classroom. Student teachers' perceptions of their own teaching abilities are greater…

  16. The courage to change: Patient perceptions of 12-Step fellowships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background From a health services perspective, peer-based resources merit special attention. Participation in self-help fellowships, like the Twelve Step Groups (TSGs), have been shown to improve outcomes of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and they represent a valuable adjunct to the SUD treatment system. This study investigated the relationship between patient perceptions of TSGs and the intent to participate in TSGs after receiving detoxification treatment. Methods We included 139 patients that entered a detoxification unit (detox) in Kristiansand, Norway. We analyzed factors associated with the intention to participate in TSGs post-discharge with contingency tables and ordinal regression analysis. Results Forty-eight percent of patients had participated in TSGs before entering detox. Respondents saw more advantages than disadvantages in TSG participation, but only 40% of patients showed high intentions of participating in TSGs post-discharge. A high intention to participate in TSGs was most strongly correlated with the notion that participation in TSGs could instill the courage to change. In a multivariate analysis, the perception that TSGs were beneficial was the strongest factor related to a high intention of TSG participation after treatment. Conclusions Our findings increased the understanding of factors most likely to influence decisions to attend TSGs in SUD treatment contexts with uncommon TSG participation. Our results suggested that the majority of patients may be sufficiently influenced by highlighting the potential gains of TSG participation. Treatment programs that do not focus on self-help group attendance during and after treatment should consider implementing facilitative measures to enhance utilization of these fellowships. PMID:22171827

  17. The courage to change: Patient perceptions of 12-Step fellowships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vederhus John-Kåre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a health services perspective, peer-based resources merit special attention. Participation in self-help fellowships, like the Twelve Step Groups (TSGs, have been shown to improve outcomes of patients with substance use disorder (SUD and they represent a valuable adjunct to the SUD treatment system. This study investigated the relationship between patient perceptions of TSGs and the intent to participate in TSGs after receiving detoxification treatment. Methods We included 139 patients that entered a detoxification unit (detox in Kristiansand, Norway. We analyzed factors associated with the intention to participate in TSGs post-discharge with contingency tables and ordinal regression analysis. Results Forty-eight percent of patients had participated in TSGs before entering detox. Respondents saw more advantages than disadvantages in TSG participation, but only 40% of patients showed high intentions of participating in TSGs post-discharge. A high intention to participate in TSGs was most strongly correlated with the notion that participation in TSGs could instill the courage to change. In a multivariate analysis, the perception that TSGs were beneficial was the strongest factor related to a high intention of TSG participation after treatment. Conclusions Our findings increased the understanding of factors most likely to influence decisions to attend TSGs in SUD treatment contexts with uncommon TSG participation. Our results suggested that the majority of patients may be sufficiently influenced by highlighting the potential gains of TSG participation. Treatment programs that do not focus on self-help group attendance during and after treatment should consider implementing facilitative measures to enhance utilization of these fellowships.

  18. Changes in perceptions of radiation with social state's alternation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ayako; Morita, Seiichiro; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Umezaki, Noriyoshi

    2001-01-01

    To investigate changes in college student perceptions of radiation over time, we performed questionnaire surveys in November 1992 and January 2000. The subjects were students of the humanities or social sciences, numbering 290 (19.1±1.1 y) in 1992 and 226 (19.9±2.0 y) in 2000. The questionnaires had two sections. First, the students were asked to list words which they associated with the stimulus word 'radiation'. Next, they performed a ten stage-evaluation (0 to 10 points) of the degree of familiarity', 'danger', 'usefulness', and 'acceptability' with regard to 26 items which included radiation and things related to radiation. In both surveys, the top three responses to the stimulus word 'radiation', were roentgen', 'atomic bomb', and 'nuclear power'. The students in 2000 associated the word 'radiation' with words such as 'Tokaimura' which were related to recent accidents. The evaluation ratings of 'familiarity', usefulness', and 'acceptability' for nuclear power changed significantly between 1992 and 2000 (p<0.01). The 'acceptability' ratings for radiation and X-ray photos were negatively correlated with those of 'danger'. This negative correlation coefficient showed an increase between 1992 and 2000 (p<0.05). In conclusion, it was apparent that the students are now showing greater concern about radiation and nuclear power. (author)

  19. Experimental evaluation of ability of Relap5 and DRAKO to calculate water hammer with phase changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Adamkowski, Adam; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical loadings on pipe systems caused by water hammer with phase changes make calculation of final forces difficult in nuclear power plants. The common procedure in Sweden is to calculate the water hammer loadings, according to the classical one-dimensional theory of liquid transient flow in pipeline, and then transfer the results to strength analyses of pipeline structure. This procedure assumes that there is quasi-steady response of the pipeline structure to pressure surges - no dynamic interaction between the fluid and the pipeline construction. The hydraulic loadings are calculated with 1-D so-called 'network' programs. Commonly used in Sweden are Relap5 (Mod3.2.2 and higher) and Drako. As a third party accredited inspection body INSPECTA NUCLEAR AB reviews calculations of water hammer loadings. An important question for the reviewer (and also for the users) is knowledge about their ability to calculate the dynamic loadings. While the ability of Relap5 and DRAKO to calculate water hammer without phase changes is relatively well investigated the skills of the programs when phase changes are present need some more attention. The presented work shall be seen as an attempt to illustrate ability of Relap5, and Drako programs to calculate the water hammer loadings with phase changes. A special attention was paid to using of Relap5 for calculation of water hammer pressure surges (including some aspects of influence of discretisation of space on the calculation results). The calculations are compared with experimental results. The experiments have been conducted at a test rig designed and constructed at the Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IMP PAN) in Gdansk, Poland. The comparison of calculated and measured pressures shows some differences, only the first pressure peak, occurring before evaporation is calculated quite exactly. All next coming pressure peaks differ slightly from the measured with respect to amplitude

  20. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boström, Maria; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hagberg, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Background: Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female

  1. Changing Perception of Physical Properties using Multimodal Augmented Reality: Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, Geert; Sandor, Christian; Hürst, W.O.; Plopski, Alexander; Taketomi, Takafumi; Kato, Hirokazu; Rosa, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    By means of augmented reality (AR) systems it has become increasingly easy to manipulate our perception of real objects. In this position paper we review existing work that changes physical property perception, and propose methods for changing perceived object density during haptic interaction. Our

  2. Southern Foresters' Perceptions of Climate Change: Implications for Educational Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Leslie; Hubbard, William; Megalos, Mark; Morris, Hilary L. C.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of foresters' perceptions of climate change is important for developing effective educational programs on adaptive forest management. We surveyed 1,398 foresters in the southern United States regarding their perceptions of climate change, observations and concerns about climatic and forest conditions, and knowledge of and interest…

  3. Developmental changes in children's abilities to share and allocate attention in a dual task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin-Chase, H; Burns, B

    2000-09-01

    Characterizing developmental changes in children's dual-task performance has been problematic because differences in divided attention abilities are easily confounded with differences in overall capacity. Two experiments showed that after individual differences in children's capacity for single-task performance were controlled for, age differences between second- (M = 8.1 years) and fifth-grade (M = 11.1 years) children did not exist in dual-task performance when tasks were of equal priority. However, when tasks had different priorities, only fifth-grade children could differentially allocate attention in the dual task. Results are discussed within the coordination hypothesis framework (see A. F. Kramer & J. L. Larish, 1996), which suggests that changes in dual-task performance with aging are due to changes in the ability to coordinate and control the allocation of attention. It is argued that linking the investigations of children's attention with research on attention and aging provides both methodological and theoretical benefits. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. The Emergent Properties of Conspecific Attraction Can Limit a Species' Ability to Track Environmental Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Kirk W; Ward, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Multiple biotic, abiotic, and evolutionary constraints interact to determine a species' range. However, most species are not present in all suitable and accessible locations. Dispersal ability may explain why many species do not occupy all suitable habitat, but highly mobile species also exhibit a mismatch. Habitat selection behavior where individuals are site faithful and settle near conspecifics could create a social pressure that make a species' geographic range resistant to change. We investigated this possibility by using an individual-based model of habitat selection where habitat quality moved each year. Our model demonstrated the benefits of conspecific attraction in relatively stable environments and its detrimental influence when habitat quality shifted rapidly. These results were most apparent when adult survival was high, because site fidelity led to more individuals occupying poor-quality habitat areas as habitat quality changed. These individuals attracted other dispersing individuals, thereby decreasing the ability to track shifts in habitat quality, which we refer to as "social inertia." Consequently, social inertia may arise for species that exhibit site fidelity and conspecific attraction, which may have conservation implications in light of climate change and widespread alteration of natural habitats.

  5. Midwives' perceptions of organisational structures and processes influencing their ability to provide caseload care to socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Jane; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Brittain, Hazel; Creedy, Debra K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined midwives' perceptions of organisational structures and processes of care when working in a caseload model (Midwifery Group Practice MGP) for socially disadvantaged and vulnerable childbearing women. This study used Donabedian's theoretical framework for evaluating the quality of health care provision. Of the 17 eligible midwives, 15 participated in focus group discussions and two others provided written comments. Thematic analysis was guided by three headings; clinical outcomes, processes of care and organisational structure. Midwives believed they provided an excellent service to socially disadvantaged and vulnerable childbearing women. Midwives gained satisfaction from working in partnership with women, working across their full scope of practice, and making a difference to the women. However the midwives perceived the MGP was situated within an organisation that was hostile to the caseload model of care. Midwives felt frustrated and distressed by a lack of organisational support for the model and a culture of blame dominated by medicine. A lack of material resources and no identified office space created feelings akin to 'homelessness'. Together these challenges threatened the cohesiveness of the MGP and undermined midwives' ability to advocate for women and keep birth normal. If access to caseload midwifery care for women with diverse backgrounds and circumstances is to be enhanced, then mechanisms need to be implemented to ensure organisational structures and processes are developed to sustain midwives in the provision of 'best practice' maternity care. Women accessing midwifery caseload care have excellent maternal and newborn outcomes. However there remains limited understanding of the impact of organisational structures and processes of care on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Qualified nurses' perceptions of nursing graduates' abilities vary according to specific demographic and clinical characteristics. A descriptive quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison; Larkins, Jo-Ann

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from the literature and anecdotally from clinical settings suggests that newly graduated nurses are not fully prepared to be independent practitioners in healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of qualified nurses in relation to the practice readiness of newly registered nursing graduates and determine whether these views differ according to specific demographic characteristics, clinical settings, and geographical locations. A descriptive quantitative design was used. An online survey tool was used to assess how qualified nurses (n=201) in Victoria, Australia, rated newly graduated nurses' abilities on 51 individual clinical skills/competencies in eight key skill areas. A composite score was calculated for each skill area and a comparative analysis was undertaken on the various cohorts of participants according to their demographic and clinical characteristics using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Newly graduated nurses were found to be lacking competence in two key skill areas and were rated as performing adequately in the remaining six skill areas assessed. Significant differences (p≤0.05) in performance were found according to the age of the nurse, number of years registered, the educational setting in which they undertook their nurse education, their role, and the clinical area in which they worked. There were no significant differences according to whether the nurse worked in the private or public healthcare sector. Few differences were found between nurses working in a metropolitan vs. regional/rural healthcare setting. This is the first study to quantify the scale of this problem. Our findings serve as a reference for both nurse education providers and healthcare settings in better preparing nursing graduates to be competent, safe practitioners in all clinical areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge and perceptions among overweight and obese employees about lifestyle-related health benefit changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Linnan, Laura; Finkelstein, Eric A; Tate, Deborah F; Naseer, Carolyn; Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated perceptions among overweight and obese state employees about changes to health insurance that were designed to reduce the scope of health benefits for employees who are obese or who smoke. Before implementation of health benefit plan changes, 658 state employees who were overweight (ie, those with a body mass index [BMI] of 25-29.9) or obese (ie, those with a BMI of > or = 30) enrolled in a weight-loss intervention study were asked about their attitudes and beliefs concerning the new benefit plan changes. Thirty-one percent of employees with a measured BMI of 40 or greater self-reported a BMI of less than 40, suggesting they were unaware that their current BMI would place them in a higher-risk benefit plan. More than half of all respondents reported that the new benefit changes would motivate them to make behavioral changes, but fewer than half felt confident in their ability to make changes. Respondents with a BMI of 40 or greater were more likely than respondents in lower BMI categories to oppose the new changes focused on obesity (P benefit changes focused on tobacco use (P employees enrolled in a weight-loss study, limiting generalizability to the larger population of state employees. Benefit plan changes that require employees who are obese and smoke to pay more for health care may motivate some, but not all, individuals to change their behaviors. Since confidence to lose weight was lowest among individuals in the highest BMI categories, more-intense intervention options may be needed to achieve desired health behavior changes.

  8. Differences in Brain Function and Changes with Intervention in Children with Poor Spelling and Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Daniela; Fink, Andreas; Kargl, Reinhard; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Previous fMRI studies in English-speaking samples suggested that specific interventions may alter brain function in language-relevant networks in children with reading and spelling difficulties, but this research strongly focused on reading impaired individuals. Only few studies so far investigated characteristics of brain activation associated with poor spelling ability and whether a specific spelling intervention may also be associated with distinct changes in brain activity patterns. We here investigated such effects of a morpheme-based spelling intervention on brain function in 20 children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities using repeated fMRI. Relative to 10 matched controls, children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities showed increased activation in frontal medial and right hemispheric regions and decreased activation in left occipito-temporal regions prior to the intervention, during processing of a lexical decision task. After five weeks of intervention, spelling and reading comprehension significantly improved in the training group, along with increased activation in the left temporal, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. Conversely, the waiting group showed increases in right posterior regions. Our findings could indicate an increased left temporal activation associated with the recollection of the new learnt morpheme-based strategy related to successful training. PMID:22693600

  9. Differences in brain function and changes with intervention in children with poor spelling and reading abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gebauer

    Full Text Available Previous fMRI studies in English-speaking samples suggested that specific interventions may alter brain function in language-relevant networks in children with reading and spelling difficulties, but this research strongly focused on reading impaired individuals. Only few studies so far investigated characteristics of brain activation associated with poor spelling ability and whether a specific spelling intervention may also be associated with distinct changes in brain activity patterns. We here investigated such effects of a morpheme-based spelling intervention on brain function in 20 children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities using repeated fMRI. Relative to 10 matched controls, children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities showed increased activation in frontal medial and right hemispheric regions and decreased activation in left occipito-temporal regions prior to the intervention, during processing of a lexical decision task. After five weeks of intervention, spelling and reading comprehension significantly improved in the training group, along with increased activation in the left temporal, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. Conversely, the waiting group showed increases in right posterior regions. Our findings could indicate an increased left temporal activation associated with the recollection of the new learnt morpheme-based strategy related to successful training.

  10. Objective clinical assessment of change in swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients when wearing obturator prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Miwa; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of treatment outcome is important in maxillofacial rehabilitation. Although eating is one of the oral functions that most strongly influences patients' quality of life, only a few reports exist on the objective assessment of swallowing for maxillectomy patients. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients when wearing obturator prostheses through the use of an objective clinical assessment. The swallowing ability of 38 postmaxillectomy patients consecutively treated with obturator prostheses was objectively evaluated with the "water-drinking test" that was developed for the assessment of dysphagia patients after cerebrovascular disease. In this test, the subjects were instructed to drink 30 mL of water in one swallow. The profile was evaluated with the combination of the time required for drinking the water and the incidence of cough reflex. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the paired t test, and the Chi-square test with StatView 5.0 for the Macintosh. Performance improved significantly when the patients wore prostheses (P = .0026, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The mean drinking times without and with prostheses were 8.2 +/- 6.3 s and 5.0 +/- 3.5 s, respectively. Drinking time was shortened significantly when the prosthesis was worn (P = .0002, paired t test). The assessment of behavior and episodes revealed that the swallowing ability of the maxillectomy patients was significantly improved when a prosthesis was worn (P = .0002, Chi-square test). The swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients was quantitatively and qualitatively improved with obturator prostheses.

  11. Can Perceptions of Similarity Reduce the Ability to See the Other's Needs? The Case of Immigrant Students' Integration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpaizman, Ilana; Kogut, Tehila

    2010-01-01

    In this age of wide migration waves all over the world, when schools' populations become more diverse, educators often make policies regarding groups of immigrant students (from the same origin) with unique needs. Perceptions of homogeneity of the group, as well as perceptions of similarity between the decision maker and the group members are…

  12. Age-related changes in perception of movement in driving scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacherez, Philippe; Turner, Laura; Lester, Robert; Burns, Zoe; Wood, Joanne M

    2014-07-01

    Age-related changes in motion sensitivity have been found to relate to reductions in various indices of driving performance and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the basis of this relationship in terms of determining which aspects of motion perception are most relevant to driving. Participants included 61 regular drivers (age range 22-87 years). Visual performance was measured binocularly. Measures included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and motion sensitivity assessed using four different approaches: (1) threshold minimum drift rate for a drifting Gabor patch, (2) Dmin from a random dot display, (3) threshold coherence from a random dot display, and (4) threshold drift rate for a second-order (contrast modulated) sinusoidal grating. Participants then completed the Hazard Perception Test (HPT) in which they were required to identify moving hazards in videos of real driving scenes, and also a Direction of Heading task (DOH) in which they identified deviations from normal lane keeping in brief videos of driving filmed from the interior of a vehicle. In bivariate correlation analyses, all motion sensitivity measures significantly declined with age. Motion coherence thresholds, and minimum drift rate threshold for the first-order stimulus (Gabor patch) both significantly predicted HPT performance even after controlling for age, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that individual differences in DOH accuracy partly explained these relationships, where those individuals with poorer motion sensitivity on the coherence and Gabor tests showed decreased ability to perceive deviations in motion in the driving videos, which related in turn to their ability to detect the moving hazards. The ability to detect subtle movements in the driving environment (as determined by the DOH task) may be an important contributor to effective hazard perception, and is associated with age, and an individuals' performance on tests of

  13. Ability of the Masimo pulse CO-Oximeter to detect changes in hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Douglas A; Forkin, Katherine T; Durieux, Marcel E; Thiele, Robert H

    2012-04-01

    The decision to administer blood products is complex and multifactorial. Accurate assessment of the concentration of hemoglobin [Hgb] is a key component of this evaluation. Recently a noninvasive method of continuously measuring hemoglobin (SpHb) has become available with multi-wavelength Pulse CO-Oximetry. The accuracy of this device is well documented, but the trending ability of this monitor has not been previously described. Twenty patients undergoing major thoracic and lumbar spine surgery were recruited. All patients received radial arterial lines. On the contralateral index finger, a R1 25 sensor (Rev E) was applied and connected to a Radical-7 Pulse CO-Oximeter (both Masimo Corp, Irvine, CA). Blood samples were drawn intermittently at the anesthesia provider's discretion and were analyzed by the operating room satellite laboratory CO-Oximeter. The value of Hgb and SpHb at that time point was compared. Trend analysis was performed by the four quadrant plot technique, testing directionality of change, and Critchley's polar plot method testing both directionality and magnitude of the change in values. Eighty-eight samples recorded at times of sufficient signal quality were available for analysis. Four quadrant plot analysis revealed 94% of data within the quadrants associated with the correct direction change, and 90% of data points lay within the analysis bounds proposed by Critchley. Pulse CO-Oximetry offers an acceptable trend monitor in patients undergoing major spine surgery. Future work should explore the ability of this device to detect large changes in hemoglobin, as well as its applicability in additional surgical and non-surgical patient populations.

  14. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  15. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  16. Influence of climate changes on the migration ability of technogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, B.; Kovacheva, P.; Djingova, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Global warming and climatic changes in the last decade focus the attention of scientists worldwide. Changes in climate variables (winds, precipitation, currents, temperature, etc.) affect the transport, transfer, and deposition of contaminants in the environment. Numerous investigations show the strong impact of climatic parameters like temperature and precipitations on soil characteristics, and especially on soil organic matter, which plays a significant role in the migration behaviour of the contaminants in the environment. This defines the need of special attention on elucidation of the impact of temperature and precipitations on the chemical behaviour of the radionuclides. This work presents initial results of a research project aiming to elucidate the influence of climate changes on the migration and bioaccumulation of natural and technogenic radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems. Different types of soils were contaminated by technogenic radionuclides ( 241 Am, 137 Cs, and 60 Co) and conditioned under different temperatures and soil humidity, simulating sharp climatic variations. Chemical fractionation of the radionuclides was studied by using two different procedures for sequential extractions, followed by radiation detection by gamma-spectrometry. Evaluation of the chemical behaviour of the investigated radionuclides with respect to soil characteristics, temperature and humidity variations and duration of conditioning was performed. Initial conclusions on the influence of the climate changes on the migration ability of radionuclides of different oxidation states were made

  17. Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.E.; Bord, R.J.; Fisher, A.

    1999-01-01

    The research reported here examines the relationship between risk perceptions and willingness to address climate change. The data are a national sample of 1,225 mail surveys that include measures of risk perceptions and knowledge tied to climate change, support for voluntary and government actions to address the problem, general environmental beliefs, and demographic variables. Risk perceptions matter in predicting behavior intentions. Risk perceptions are not a surrogate for general environmental beliefs, but have their own power to account for behavioral intentions. There are four secondary conclusions. First, behavioral intentions regarding climate change are complex and intriguing. People are neither nonbelievers who will take no initiatives themselves and oppose all government efforts, nor are they believers who promise both to make personal efforts and to vote for every government proposal that promises to address climate change. Second, there are separate demographic sources for voluntary actions compared with voting intentions. Third, recognizing the causes of global warming is a powerful predictor of behavioral intentions independent from believing that climate change will happen and have bad consequences. Finally, the success of the risk perception variables to account for behavioral intentions should encourage greater attention to risk perceptions as independent variables. Risk perceptions and knowledge, however, share the stage with general environmental beliefs and demographic characteristics. Although related, risk perceptions, knowledge, and general environmental beliefs are somewhat independent predictors of behavioral intentions

  18. Determinants of preferences for lifestyle changes versus medication and beliefs in ability to maintain lifestyle changes. A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Ejg Jarbøl

    2017-06-01

    For conclusion we found a pervasive preference for lifestyle changes over medical treatment when individuals were promised the same benefits. Lifestyle risk factors and socioeconomic characteristics were associated with preference for lifestyle changes as well as belief in ability to maintain lifestyle changes. For health professionals risk communication should not only focus on patient preferences but also on patients' beliefs in their own ability to initiate lifestyle changes and possible barriers against maintaining changes.

  19. The development and discussion of computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese characters structures - Concurrent estimation of the overall ability and the domain ability in item response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huey-Min; Lin, Chin-Kai; Yang, Yu-Mao; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2014-11-12

    Visual perception is the fundamental skill required for a child to recognize words, and to read and write. There was no visual perception assessment tool developed for preschool children based on Chinese characters in Taiwan. The purposes were to develop the computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese Characters Structures and to explore the psychometrical characteristic of assessment tool. This study adopted purposive sampling. The study evaluated 551 kindergarten-age children (293 boys, 258 girls) ranging from 46 to 81 months of age. The test instrument used in this study consisted of three subtests and 58 items, including tests of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Based on the results of model fit analysis, the higher-order item response theory was used to estimate the performance in visual perception, basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters simultaneously. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant difference in age groups and gender groups. The difficulty of identifying items in a visual perception test ranged from -2 to 1. The visual perception ability of 4- to 6-year-old children ranged from -1.66 to 2.19. Gender did not have significant effects on performance. However, there were significant differences among the different age groups. The performance of 6-year-olds was better than that of 5-year-olds, which was better than that of 4-year-olds. This study obtained detailed diagnostic scores by using a higher-order item response theory model to understand the visual perception of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Further statistical analysis showed that, for basic strokes and compound characters, girls performed better than did boys; there also were differences within each age group. For single-component characters, there was no difference in performance between boys and girls. However, again the performance of 6-year-olds was better than

  20. The effects of a Korean computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and visual perception ability of patients with acute stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Korean computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program (CBCR) on the cognitive function and visual perception ability of patients with acute stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with acute stroke. [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG subjects received CBCR with the CoTras program. The CG subjects received conventional cognitive reh...

  1. Importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction ability in elite female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmonds, Stacey; Nicholson, G; Beggs, C; Jones, B; Bissas, A

    2017-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction (CoD) ability in female soccer players. Data were collected on 10 female soccer players who were part of a professional English Women's Super League team. Player assessments included anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), speed (10m, 30m sprint), CoD ability (505 agility), aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test), lower-body strength (bilateral knee extensions) and power (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], 30cm drop jump [DJ]) measures. The relationships between the variables were evaluated using eigenvector analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. Multiple linear regression revealed that the performance variables (10 and 20m speed, mean 505, and CoD deficit mean) can be predicted with almost 100% accuracy (i.e. adjusted R > 0.999) using various combinations of the predictor variables (DJ height, CMJ height, SJ height, lean body mass). An increase of one standard deviation (SD) in DJ height was associated with reductions of -5.636 and -9.082 SD in 10 m and 20 m sprint times. A one SD increase in CMJ also results in a reduction of -3.317 and -0.922 SD respectively in mean 505 and CoD deficit mean values. This study provides comparative data for professional English female soccer players that can be used by strength and conditioning coaches when monitoring player development and assessing the effectiveness of training programmes. Findings highlight the importance of developing reactive strength to improve speed and CoD ability in female soccer players.

  2. Age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in decision making ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Mapelli, Cristina; Morielli, Nadia; Pelati, Oriana; Franceschi, Massimo; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco

    2008-01-01

    The "frontal aging hypothesis" predicts that brain senescence affects predominantly the prefrontal regions. Preliminary evidence has recently been gathered in favour of an age-related change in a typically frontal process, i.e. decision making, using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), but overall findings have been conflicting. Following the traditional scoring method, coupled with a qualitative analysis, in the present study we compared IGT performance of 40 young (mean age: 27.9+/-4.7) and 40 old (mean age: 65.4+/-8.6) healthy adults and of 18 patients affected by frontal lobe dementia of mild severity (mean age: 65.1+/-7.4, mean MMSE score: 24.1+/-3.9). Quantitative findings support the notion that decision making ability declines with age; moreover, it approximates the impairment observed in executive dysfunction due to neurodegeneration. Results of the qualitative analysis did not reach statistical significance for the motivational and learning decision making components considered, but approached significance for the attentional component for elderly versus young normals, suggesting a possible decrease in the ability to maintain sustained attention during complex and prolonged tasks as the putative deficit underlying impaired decision making in normal aging.

  3. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  4. Changes in University Students’ Perceptions towards a Two-Week Summer English Immersion Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined how university students perceived a 2-week summer English immersion program organized and designated by Chinese teachers of English in a highly prestigious university in Beijing and whether their perceptions changed during the period. Data included 208 surveys and 19 informal interviews in week 1 and 207 surveys and 19 interviews in week 2 (the participants were largely the same in both weeks. Analyses of the data showed that in both weeks, most students considered the courses interesting and liked most of them for similar reasons (e.g., being interesting and having much participation, that the program improved students’ English abilities in listening, speaking, reading and writing as well as overall English proficiency, and that the program enhanced students’ interpersonal communication ability, confidence in using English, knowledge of the culture of English-speaking countries, interest in and motivation to learn English. The results also revealed that the participants tended to become more positive about the program, have a more comprehensive view of the program and assess it more objectively toward the end of the program. Evidently, the program helped the students in various aspects. To better help students, it is useful to do needs analyses prior to the program so that more acceptable courses and activities can be designed and offered.

  5. Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Han, Ziqiang

    2018-01-08

    This study differentiates the risk perception and influencing factors of climate change along the dimensions of global severity and personal threat. Using the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSGS) data (N = 2001) as a representative sample of adults from Taiwan, we investigated the influencing factors of the risk perceptions of climate change in these two dimensions (global severity and personal threat). Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlations of individual factors (gender, age, education, climate-related disaster experience and risk awareness, marital status, employment status, household income, and perceived social status) and societal factors (religion, organizational embeddedness, and political affiliations) with the above two dimensions. The results demonstrate that climate-related disaster experience has no significant impact on either the perception of global severity or the perception of personal impact. However, climate-related risk awareness (regarding typhoons, in particular) is positively associated with both dimensions of the perceived risks of climate change. With higher education, individuals are more concerned about global severity than personal threat. Regarding societal factors, the supporters of political parties have higher risk perceptions of climate change than people who have no party affiliation. Religious believers have higher risk perceptions of personal threat than non-religious people. This paper ends with a discussion about the effectiveness of efforts to enhance risk perception of climate change with regard to global severity and personal threat.

  6. Exploring Employee Perceptions of Six Sigma as a Change Management Program in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Monica; Fifolt, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Change initiatives in higher education are frequently guided by an institutional change management program which provides employees with a framework and set of skills to better understand problems and facilitate change at the organisational level. In this paper, we explore employee perceptions of Six Sigma as a tool for facilitating change at one…

  7. Influence of work-related characteristics and work ability on changing employer or leaving the profession among nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Schouteten, Roel L.J.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important

  8. Age-Related Changes in Children's Understanding of Effort and Ability: Implications for Attribution Theory and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Amy S.; Cole, David A.; Sigal, Amanda B.; Benbow, Lovisa D.; Satterwhite, Lindsay F.; Swygert, Katherine E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Building on Nicholls's earlier work, we examined developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability when faced with a negative outcome. In a sample of 166 children and adolescents (ages 5-15 years), younger children conflated the meaning of effort and ability, explaining that smart students work hard, whereas older children…

  9. QUANTITATIVE TRANSFORMATION CHANGES OF MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN ADDITIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhedin Hodžić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of this experimental transformational project is in accordance with subject and with problems of this same as previous ones researches and it contents efforts to confirm transformations of morphological characteristics and morphological abilities of students by method of parallel analysis of results from experimental group’s examples and controlled group’s examples. At the same time aim is to confirm which one of available executive models brings more efficient transformational results in morphological and motor space. Quantitative changes were developing in five general directions. First and most important direction describes complete motor space. At the same time this valuable information directs us to the fact that systematic and organized work leads us to the optimization of managing complex movement in whole. The rest of quantitative changes described with four promax factors are morphological and here we notice that morphological mechanisms work in four directions; reduction of fat tissue, longitudinalism of skeleton, total body mass and body volume. Evidently it came to the optimization of the energy resources and incorporation of the resources into bio-morphological complex.

  10. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  11. Pathway evidence of how musical perception predicts word-level reading ability in children with reading difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cogo-Moreira

    Full Text Available To investigate whether specific domains of musical perception (temporal and melodic domains predict the word-level reading skills of eight- to ten-year-old children (n = 235 with reading difficulties, normal quotient of intelligence, and no previous exposure to music education classes.A general-specific solution of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, which underlies a musical perception construct and is constituted by three latent factors (the general, temporal, and the melodic domain, was regressed on word-level reading skills (rate of correct isolated words/non-words read per minute.General and melodic latent domains predicted word-level reading skills.

  12. Fish Farmers' Perception of Climate change impact on fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    closeness of livestock to human beings in urban areas portends many health and ... Greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production and consequent waste are important ... helped to sustain their farming systems over a long term. ... To determine farmers' perception of measures to control the damages done, a list.

  13. Changing motor perception by sensorimotor conflicts and body ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, R.; Fernandez, N. B.; van Elk, M.; Vachicouras, N.; Sabatier, F.; Tychinskaya, A.; Llobera, J.; Blanke, O.

    2016-01-01

    Experimentally induced sensorimotor conflicts can result in a loss of the feeling of control over a movement (sense of agency). These findings are typically interpreted in terms of a forward model in which the predicted sensory consequences of the movement are compared with the observed sensory consequences. In the present study we investigated whether a mismatch between movements and their observed sensory consequences does not only result in a reduced feeling of agency, but may affect motor perception as well. Visual feedback of participants’ finger movements was manipulated using virtual reality to be anatomically congruent or incongruent to the performed movement. Participants made a motor perception judgment (i.e. which finger did you move?) or a visual perceptual judgment (i.e. which finger did you see moving?). Subjective measures of agency and body ownership were also collected. Seeing movements that were visually incongruent to the performed movement resulted in a lower accuracy for motor perception judgments, but not visual perceptual judgments. This effect was modified by rotating the virtual hand (Exp.2), but not by passively induced movements (Exp.3). Hence, sensorimotor conflicts can modulate the perception of one’s motor actions, causing viewed “alien actions” to be felt as one’s own. PMID:27225834

  14. Exploring Change in EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad; Moradi, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    Continuous professional development (CPD) is important for teachers in attaining sustainable education. Accordingly, exploring teachers' perceptions could be a significant endeavor as teachers' beliefs impact their classroom practices, thereby, impacting student learning and, thus have educational implications. Therefore, this study was designed…

  15. Communicating Sustainability: Student Perceptions of a Behavior Change Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, D. Matthew; Feng, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the impacts of a science-based environmental communication campaign at a university dining hall. The impacts are assessed in terms of student attitudes toward sustainability, food consumption choices and perceptions and understanding of the campaign and the information it communicated.…

  16. Perceptions on climate change and its impact on livelihoods in Hwange district, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Nhemachena; Reneth Mano; Shakespear Mudombi; Virginia Muwanigwa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of rural communities on climate change and its impacts on livelihoods. The research was conducted in the semi-arid Hwange district in Matebelel and North province of Zimbabwe. The perceptions were compared with empirical evidence from climatic studies on trends on temperature and rainfall, and impacts on livelihoods in the country and region. The findings from the current study are generally in agreement with those of other studies that indicate changes in ...

  17. Climate Change and Apple Farming in Indian Himalayas: A Study of Local Perceptions and Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (...

  18. Exploring employees' perceptions, job-related attitudes and characteristics during a planned organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsaros, K.K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores employee perceptions regarding organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change during a planned organizational change in a public hospital. Survey data were collected at two time periods, before and five months after the initiation of the planned change. Research findings show a significant increase in perceptive organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change after the planned change implementation. Findings also suggest that differences in the aforementioned perceptions are moderated by certain job-related attitudes, namely, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job involvement; and job-related characteristics, namely, skill variety, task identity, task significance feedback, autonomy and goal clarity. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Puberty and Physical Self-Perceptions of Competitive Female Figure Skaters II: Maturational Timing, Skating Context, and Ability Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Eva V.

    2008-01-01

    One study of figure skaters found that menarcheal status was a stronger predictor than age in explaining the variance in their self-perceptions. Postmenarcheal skaters had significantly lower self-esteem and physical self-concept and were less satisfied with their appearance than premenarcheal skaters. Surprisingly, skating context (i.e., skating…

  20. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  1. Autism and perception of awareness in self and others: two sides of the same coin or dissociated abilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievit, R.A.; Geurts, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graziano and Kastner propose a theoretical framework suggesting that the same cognitive machinery underlies computation and inferences concerning (the content of) awareness in others as underlies the perception of the contents of our own awareness. We draw from this hypothesis a strong prediction:

  2. Chinese Tourists’ Perceptions of Climate Change and Mitigation Behavior: An Application of Norm Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Qiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that tourism development is a prominent contributor to climate change, but is also a “victim” of climate change. Therefore, to mitigate climate change is of great importance for the sustainability of tourism. Yet extant studies regarding tourism and climate change tend to be dominated by a supply-side stance, albeit the core role of the tourist in the tourism industry. While researchers are increasingly adopting a tourist perspective, few seek to understand the linkage between climate change and tourists’ specific mitigation behaviors in a tourism context; this is especially so in China. This study investigates the impact of Chinese tourists’ perceptions of climate change on their mitigation behaviors based on norm activation theory. Drawing on 557 self-administrated questionnaires collected in China, it finds that tourists’ perceptions of climate change and perceived contribution of tourism to climate change both positively affect energy saving and carbon reduction behavior in tourism. Yet, compared with perceived contribution of tourism to climate change, tourists’ perceptions of climate change are found to be a much stronger predictor for energy saving and carbon reduction behavior. Therefore, it suggests that tourists’ perceptions of climate change in a general context is more strongly related to climate change mitigation behavior in tourism, calling for attention to go beyond the tourism context to alleviate the negative impacts of tourism on climate change.

  3. Sprinting, Change of Direction Ability and Horizontal Jump Performance in Youth Runners According to Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanci Javier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess straight sprinting, change of direction ability and horizontal jump performance in youth runners according to age and gender. Two hundred and fifty-five youth runners (116 boys and 139 girls participated in this study. The athletes were divided according to their age into five groups: under 8 yr (U8, under 10 yr (U10, under 12 yr (U12, under 14 yr (U14 and under 16 yr (U16. Significant differences (p 0.05, d = 0.29-1.17 between U14 and U16 were observed in any of the tests. With regard to age and gender, in U8 and U10 groups there were no significant differences (p > 0.05, d = 0.02-0.76 between boys and girls in any test. However, in U12 and U14 groups, significant gender differences (p < 0.05, d = 0.85-1.24 were found in the MAT. Likewise, the boys obtained better results than girls in the horizontal jump tests (p < 0.05, d = 1.01-1.26. After the classification by age, some differences were observed between both genders, depending on the fitness variable evaluated.

  4. Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Himmelfarb; John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; KathErine Dunbar; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    Despite a global scientific consensus on the anthropogenic nature of climate change, the issue remains highly contentious in the United States, stifling public debate and action on the issue. Local perceptions of and attitudes toward climate change-how different groups of people outside of the professional climate science community make sense of changes in climate in...

  5. Cycle Commuting and Perceptions of Barriers: Stages of Change, Gender and Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of cycle commuting barriers in relation to stage of change, gender and occupational role. Stage of change is a key construct of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change that defines behavioural readiness (intentions and actions) into five distinct categories.…

  6. Teacher Change in an Era of Neo-Liberal Policies: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Magnus Rye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how neo-institutional theory may be applied as an analytical framework to investigate the relationships between teachers' perceptions on their professional change on the one hand, and the numerous change efforts embedded in recent neo-liberal educational policies in Norway on the other. Based on biographical…

  7. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Maria; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats

    2012-08-24

    Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men) was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21-25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49-2.12) and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25-1.69) were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43-3.95). For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21-4.54) and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-3.87) were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences.

  8. Fear of falling and changed functional ability following hip fracture among community-dwelling elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesmark, Annette; Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Egerod, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to assess self-reported fear of falling (FOF) and functional ability among community-dwelling elderly people 3-6 months post hospital discharge after a hip fracture, to investigate the association between FOF and functional ability, and to explore the lived experience...... of FOF and disability when recovering from a hip fracture....

  9. Survey mode matters: adults' self-reported statistical confidence, ability to obtain health information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Chisolm, Deena J; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    This study examined adults' self-reported understanding and formatting preferences of medical statistics, confidence in self-care and ability to obtain health advice or information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication measured through dual survey modes (random digital dial and mail). Even while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, significant differences in regard to adults' responses to survey variables emerged as a function of survey mode. While the analyses do not allow us to pinpoint the underlying causes of the differences observed, they do suggest that mode of administration should be carefully adjusted for and considered.

  10. Auditory processing, speech perception and phonological ability in pre-school children at high-risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal study of the auditory temporal processing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school children at high-family risk for dyslexia, compared to a group of well-matched low-risk control children. Based on family risk status and first gra...

  11. IRT-Based Measurement of Short-Term Changes of Ability, with an Application to Assessing the "Mozart Effect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittler, Georg; Fischer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The article extends and applies previous approaches by Klauer and Fischer to the statistical evaluation of ability changes in tests conforming to the Rasch model (RM). Exact uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) hypothesis tests and uniformly most accurate (UMA) confidence intervals (CIs) for the amount of change can be constructed for each…

  12. Stakeholders' perceptions of appropriate management methods: the case of A. youth-village undergoing change

    OpenAIRE

    Bilu, Shabtay S.

    2015-01-01

    The research examined employees and stakeholders' perceptions of a significant educational reform conducted at the A. Youth-Village. The reform aimed at transforming an out-dated agriculture school into a technological-scientific education centre that would be able to train its pupils to meet the challenges of the 21st century. This study investigated the employees and stakeholders' perceptions of the appropriateness of methods used during the organisational change of A. Youth-Village. The st...

  13. Speed and direction changes induce the perception of animacy in 7-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eTräuble

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has documented infants’ ability to classify animate and inanimate objects based on static or dynamic information. It has been shown that infants less than one year of age transfer animacy-specific expectations from dynamic point-light displays to static images. The present study examined whether basic motion cues that typically trigger judgments of perceptual animacy in older children and adults lead 7-month-olds to infer an ambiguous object’s identity from dynamic information. Infants were tested with a novel paradigm that required inferring the animacy status of an ambiguous moving shape. An ambiguous shape emerged from behind a screen and its identity could only be inferred from its motion. Its motion pattern varied distinctively between scenes: it either changed speed and direction in an animate way, or it moved along a straight path at a constant speed (i.e. in an inanimate way. At test, the identity of the shape was revealed and it was either consistent or inconsistent with its motion pattern. Infants looked longer on trials with the inconsistent outcome. We conclude that 7-month-olds’ representations of animates and inanimates include category-specific associations between static and dynamic attributes. Moreover, these associations seem to hold for simple dynamic cues that are considered minimal conditions for animacy perception.

  14. Plasticity in the Human Speech Motor System Drives Changes in Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametti, Daniel R.; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds. PMID:25080594

  15. Perceptions of Climate Change and the Potential for Adaptation in a Rural Community in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejabaledi A. Rankoana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of climate change by rural communities are centered on observations of variations in temperature and rainfall patterns supported by observations and projections on climate alterations in the form of increased temperatures and scarce rainfall by scientists worldwide. The present study documented perceptions of climate variation and the community’s ability to adapt to climate change hazards threatening the production of subsistence crops. Data were collected through interactions with 100 participants. In the study, climate change is explained as variations in temperature and rainfall patterns which resulted in excessive heat, erratic rainfall patterns and drought negatively impacting on subsistence crop production. Community members have the potential to limit the impacts of climate hazards on subsistence crop production. The negative impacts of climate hazards are limited by community members’ indigenous knowledge of rainfall prediction, the seasons, crop diversification and mixed cropping. Mulching and the application of kraal manure improve the soil structure and fertility to reduce crop failure. These adaptation measures are resilient to the negative impact of climate hazards and may be helpful in the development of adaptation policies to assist rural communities vulnerable to climate change hazards.

  16. Impacts of Sensation, Perception, and Motor Abilities of the Ipsilesional Upper Limb on Hand Functions in Unilateral Stroke: Quantifications From Biomechanical and Functional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Ke, Chia-Wen; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Yang, Hsiu-Ching; Tsai, Ching-Liang; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2018-02-01

    The presence of subtle losses in hand dexterity after stroke affects the regaining of independence with regard to activities of daily living. Therefore, awareness of ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) function may be of importance when developing a comprehensive rehabilitation program. However, current hand function tests seem to be unable to identify asymptomatic UE impairments. To assess the motor coordination as well as the sensory perception of an ipsilesional UE using biomechanical analysis of performance-oriented tasks and conducting a Manual Tactile Test (MTT). Case-controlled study. A university hospital. A total of 21 patients with unilateral stroke, along with 21 matched healthy control subjects, were recruited. Each participant was requested to perform a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test, object-transport task, and reach-to-grasp task via motion capture, as well as the MTT. The kinetic data of the PHUA test, kinematics analysis of functional movements, and time requirement of MTT were analyzed. Patients with ipsilesional UE had an inferior ability to scale and produce pinch force precisely when conducting the PHUA test compared to the healthy controls (P perception (P sensation-perception-motor system in the ipsilesional UE. Integration of sensorimotor training programs for ipsilesional UE in future neuro-rehabilitation strategies may provide more beneficial effects to regain patients' motor recovery and to promote daily living activity independence than focusing on paretic arm motor training alone. III. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fish Farmers' Perception of Climate change impact on fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    favourable attitude towards reporting of climate change issues. Some ... Global climate change is a phenomenon that has received increasing attention in ... If people get climate information well in time it could help them develop mitigation.

  18. Comparing farmers' perception of climate change and varia- bility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adopt adaptation measures to climate change, more attention should be given to the role ... known about how climate interacts with other drivers of change in agricultural systems and ..... ta series divided by the standard deviation (Equation 1).

  19. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

  20. L1 and L2 in the Education of Inuit Children in Northern Quebec: Abilities and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina; Lightbown, Patsy M.

    2002-01-01

    Observed primary and secondary classrooms in which students received instruction in their second language (L2), interviewed teachers about students' knowledge and use of the first language and second language, and examined the students' ability to understand and produce written and oral samples in their L2. Students were Inuits in Northern Quebec…

  1. Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

  2. Effects of single-gender mathematics classrooms on self-perception of mathematical ability and post secondary engineering paths: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, D.; Jacobs, B.

    2010-08-01

    This study focused on a population of female engineering students, probing the influences of their secondary school experience on their choice to pursue an engineering course of study at university. The motivating question is: Do unique opportunities exist in an all-female secondary school mathematics classroom, which impact a young woman's self-perception of her mathematics ability as well as promote a positive path towards an engineering-based university major? Using both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments, this study examined a sample of Australian engineering students enrolled at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Demographic statistics show that 40% of UTS' female engineering student population attended a single-gender secondary school, indicating a potential influence of school type (single-gender) on engineering enrolment patterns. Female students were primarily motivated to pursue a post secondary engineering path because of a self-belief that they are good at mathematics. In contrast, male students were more influenced by positive male role models of family members who are practising engineers. In measures of self- perception of mathematical skill and ability, female students from single-gender schools outscored their male engineering counterparts. Additionally, female students seem to benefit from verbal encouragement, contextualisation, same gender problem-solving groups and same gender classroom dynamics.

  3. Climate variability and change in southern Mali : Learning from farmer perceptions and on-farm trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traore, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Corbeels, M.; Rufino, M.C.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural production in the Sudano–Sahelian zone of west Africa is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate variability and climate change. The present study aimed to understand farmers’ perceptions of climate variability and change and to evaluate adaptation options together with farmers,

  4. Understanding Climate Change Perceptions, Attitudes, and Needs of Forest Service Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Franco; Tara J. Haan

    2015-01-01

    Surveys were collected to assess Forest Service (FS) resource managers' perceptions, attitudes, and informational needs related to climate change and its potential impacts on forests and grasslands. Resource managers with three background types were surveyed. All participants generally considered themselves to be well-informed on climate change issues, although...

  5. Alignment between Informal Educator Perceptions and Audience Expectations of Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylinski, Cathlyn; Heimlich, Joe; Palmquist, Sasha; Wasserman, Deborah; Youngs, Renae

    2017-01-01

    To understand the complexities of climate change on educator-visitor relationships, we compared educators' perceptions with audiences' expectations for informal science education institutions. Our findings suggest two disconnects: (a) a professional recognition that climate change education is related to institutional mission but a lack of…

  6. When Elementary Students Change Peer Groups: Intragroup Centrality, Intergroup Centrality, and Self-Perceptions of Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Estell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The current study follows two cohorts of fourth and fifth graders across 1 school year to better understand why some students change peer groups. The study focuses on popularity and intragroup social status. We examined whether differences between individuals' and group members' self-perceptions of popularity were related to changing peer groups.…

  7. Local Perceptions and Responses to Climate Change and Variability: The Case of Laikipia District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayeri Ogalleh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies in Kenya aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods. With projected climate change, these policies are short of mechanisms that promote farmers’ adaptation. As a result, smallholders are confronted with a variety of challenges including climate change, which hinders their agricultural production. Local knowledge can be instrumental in assisting smallholders to cope with climate change and variability. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that demonstrates local knowledge, perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability amongst smallholders of Laikipia district of Kenya. A Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI calculated for one station is compared with smallholders’ perceptions. Data was collected using qualitative and quantitative methods in Umande and Muhonia sub-locations. Qualitative data included 46 transcripts from focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Quantitative data is derived from 206 interviewees. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data using Atlas-ti and SPSS respectively. According to smallholders’ perceptions, climatic variability is increasingly changing. Local perceptions include decreasing rainfalls, increasing temperatures, increasing frosts and increasing hunger. The PDSI shows a trend towards severe droughts in the last four decades, which is in accordance with farmers’ perceptions. Smallholders use a combination of coping and adaptation strategies to respond to variability, including, among others, diversification of crop varieties, migration and sale of livestock. Significant relationships exist between drought perceptions and some adaptations such as migration and sale of livestock. Farmers have an in-depth knowledge of climatic variability, which they use to inform their coping and adaptation strategies. Knowledge of climatic perceptions and adaptations are vital entry points for decision makers and policy makers to learn how and where to enhance the

  8. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ellen J; Campo, Shelly; Colaizy, Tarah T; Mulder, Pamela J; Breheny, Patrick; Ashida, Sato

    2017-12-01

    Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions. Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed. Experiencing trouble with baby's latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16-27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration. Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.

  9. Dynamic change in learning and memorising ability after hemispheric irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuezhong; Bao Shiyao; Zhao Kangren; Tian Yie; Zhang Zhilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the sequence of learning and memory loss in the rat after hemispheric irradiation. Methods: After Sprague-Dawly (SD) female rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate, their cerebral hemispheres were irradiated with a single dose of 5, 15 or 30 Gy by 4 MeV electron. On D3, D7, D30 and D60, the learning and memorizing ability was measured with the Y maze test. Results: On D3 and D7, the learning ability of SD rats was impaired most but partly restored in 1 to 2 months. In observation of memory loss, the intensity of cerebral function damage was in direct proportion to the increase of radiation dose. Conclusion: The learning and memorizing ability of rats can be damage by hemispheric irradiation with the severity of impairment and possibility of recruitment depending on the dose

  10. The public perception of climate change in Taiwan and its paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Kuei Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the risk perceptions of climate change in Taiwan. It probes into the public's views toward governments' risk communication regarding climate change, citizens' participation in decision-making, and their trust in the capacity of governments toward risk governance, as well as their attitude towards corporate social responsibility. For analysis, we developed ten types of perceptions under three dimensions: namely the severity of climate change (Type 1), the development of sustainable society (Types 2, 3, 4 and 5), and the risk governance and communication (Types 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) to discuss whether the Taiwanese public's perception of climate change was prepared for a socially reflective paradigm shift. Regarding the three dimensions in the questionnaire design, although this study individually measured the public's risk perception, there was a high correlation between the variance analysis results among the three dimensions. This could systematically explain the potential change of the governance paradigm in Taiwanese society concerning structural transformation. - Highlights: • The public had critical view on the policy decision-making of climate change. • There is low public trust in the government's capacity to resist climate change. • The public requested more risk communication, transparency and participation. • The pursuit of an alternative sustainable economic society is highly expected. • People supported renewable energy by higher prices for carbon reduction

  11. The Perception of Changes Among Participants of Drug Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive changes among addicted people usually don’t happen by themselves, but they are results of the process which stays under the impact of the aspirations, values and priorities of the person at the moment. Enhancing the motivation of addicted people requires a huge effort from them what helps in making changes in the life style. The presented article contains results of the research. The main aim was describing critical events, which appeared among people addicted to drugs and made them to change their life styles. Additionally the article describes an classifies changes which were noticed by the participants of the stationary psychotherapy of drug addiction.

  12. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is substantial evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy alleviates symptoms in functional somatic syndromes, the mechanisms of change are less investigated. This study examined whether changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy....... Methods We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness...... worry) outcomes were assessed by means of questionnaires at referral, baseline, end of treatment, and 10 and 16 months after randomisation. Multiple mediation analysis determined whether (1) changes in specific illness perceptions during treatment mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy...

  13. RURAL FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ofuoku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.

  14. Public perception of climate change in the cold regions of Russia: an example of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Anisimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of climate change in the Russian cold regions is nearly twice larger than the global‑mean rate. Besides climate risks, such changes lead to new possibilities, which require scientifically based regional adaptation strategies. Climate could be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportuni‑ ties for sustainable development. Long‑term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more read‑ ily available in the cold regions, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges of the 21st century. Adaptation strategies are required for balancing the risks and potential benefits resulting from the changing climate. Success of such strategies depends on the public perception of climate change. This study compares the observational data on climate and environmental changes with the results of the public survey conducted in Yakutia in the period 2012–2017. The survey involved nearly 2000 respondents in several cities and 2 villages (Ust‑Maja, Saskhulakh representing different economical, socio‑ logical, permafrost, vegetation, and climatic conditions. Results indicated that public perception of the climatic and environmental changes is not univocal, and depends on many factors. Low probability extreme events, such as unusual weather patterns or abrupt land‑ scape changes may have greater effect than the long‑term climate trends. Currently less than half of the pop‑ ulation in Yakutia consider climate change as an established fact, and are ready to take actions in this regard. Meanwhile, Yakutia is a region where observational records demonstrate the most pronounced changes in climatic regime compared to other Russian regions. The contrast between the actual changes and public per‑ ception of such changes has important implication for developing adaptation strategies. To be effective, such strategies should combine knowledge coming from instrumental‑ and

  15. Phase change materials and the perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  16. Phase Change Materials and the perception of wetness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  17. Comparing smallholder farmers’ perception of climate change with meteorological data: A case study from southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayansina Ayanlade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate change, climate variability and their impacts, and adaptation strategies adopted over the past three decades. We use ethnographic analysis, combined with Cumulative Departure Index (CDI, Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI analysis, and correlation analysis to compare farmers’ perceptions in Southwestern Nigeria with historical meteorological data, in order to assess the way farmers’ observations mirror the climatic trends. The results show that about 67% of farmers who participated had observed recent changes in climate. Perceptions of rural farmers on climate change and variability are consistent with the climatic trend analysis. RAI and CDI results illustrate that not less than 11 out of 30 years in each study site experienced lower-than-normal rainfall. Climatic trends show fluctuations in both early growing season (EGS and late growing season (LGS rainfall and the 5-year moving average suggests a reduction in rainfall over the 30 years. Climatic trends confirmed farmers’ perceptions that EGS and LGS precipitations are oscillating, that rainfall onset is becoming later, and EGS rainfall is reducing. Overall impacts of climate change on both crops and livestock appear to be highly negative, much more on maize (62.8%, yam (52.2%, poultry (67% and cattle (63.2%. Years of farming experiences and level of income of farmers appear to have a significant relationship with farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies, with r≥0.60@ p<0.05 and r≥0.520@ p<0.05 respectively. The study concluded that farmers’ perceptions of climate change mirror meteorological analysis, though their perceptions were based on local climate parameters. Smallholder farmers are particularly vulnerable to climate change since the majority of them do not have enough resources to cope.

  18. An assessment of change in risk perception and optimistic bias for hurricanes among Gulf Coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Meyer, Michelle A; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on levels of concern for hurricanes among individuals living along the Gulf Coast during the quiescent two-year period following the exceptionally destructive 2005 hurricane season. A small study of risk perception and optimistic bias was conducted immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Two years later, a follow-up was done in which respondents were recontacted. This provided an opportunity to examine changes, and potential causal ordering, in risk perception and optimistic bias. The analysis uses 201 panel respondents who were matched across the two mail surveys. Measures included hurricane risk perception, optimistic bias for hurricane evacuation, past hurricane experience, and a small set of demographic variables (age, sex, income, and education). Paired t-tests were used to compare scores across time. Hurricane risk perception declined and optimistic bias increased. Cross-lagged correlations were used to test the potential causal ordering between risk perception and optimistic bias, with a weak effect suggesting the former affects the latter. Additional cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling was used to look more closely at the components of optimistic bias (risk to self vs. risk to others). A significant and stronger potentially causal effect from risk perception to optimistic bias was found. Analysis of the experience and demographic variables' effects on risk perception and optimistic bias, and their change, provided mixed results. The lessening of risk perception and increase in optimistic bias over the period of quiescence suggest that risk communicators and emergency managers should direct attention toward reversing these trends to increase disaster preparedness. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Changes in endurance and walking ability through functional physical training in children with cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, H.; Holty, L.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Elvers, J.W.H.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and effect of a functional physical training program on aerobic endurance and walking ability of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Thirteen children (8-13 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II, with normal intelligence or mild

  20. Post-diagnostic dietary changes in prostate cancer: associations with patients' wellbeing and the perceptions of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassianos, A P; Raats, M M; Gage, H

    2017-07-01

    This article aims to investigate associations between perceived control and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with dietary changes after prostate cancer diagnosis and to explore General Practitioners' (GPs) perceptions on the role of diet in prostate cancer post-diagnosis. Ninety-five prostate cancer patients completed measures of dietary change, one for after diagnosis and another for after therapy. They also scored their HRQOL and perceived control. There were discrepancies in dietary changes reported between a general question (28.4% no dietary changes) and a specific (42.1%-51.5% range of no change for various food items). Most patients initiated healthy changes. Patients who changed their diet after diagnosis had lower cognitive functioning and external locus of control (doctors). Patients who changed their diet after therapy had lower cognitive and emotional functioning, quality of life and external locus of control (doctors). Then, fourty-four GPs responded to an online survey. Their open-ended responses were analysed using Content Analysis. They reported interest in the role of diet in cancer but also lack of relevant knowledge. They were skeptical on providing information. Clinical interventions should consider patients' cognitive ability, their relationship with their health professional and their wellbeing. Also, GPs' confidence to provide dietary advice needs to be addressed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 78 FR 58343 - Information Collection Activities: Visitor Perceptions of Climate Change in U.S. National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ....NM0000] Information Collection Activities: Visitor Perceptions of Climate Change in U.S. National Parks... Information Collection 1024-NEW, Visitor Perceptions of Climate Change in U.S. National Parks in the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angie Richman, Communication Specialist, Climate Change Response...

  2. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boström Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. Methods A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21–25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Results Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49–2.12 and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25–1.69 were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43–3.95. For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21–4.54 and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10–3.87 were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Conclusions Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences.

  3. Trajectories of Change in Students' Self-Concepts of Ability and Values in Math and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Wigfield, Allan; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    This study extends previous research on the long-term connections between motivation constructs in expectancy-value theory and achievement outcomes. Using growth mixture modelling, we examined trajectories of change for 421 students from 4th grade through college in their self-concept of ability (SCA) in math, interest in math, and perceived…

  4. Assessing Perceptions of Climate Variability and Change among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... data with the subjective recall and memory of change in climate from respondents. ... Also that rainfall data presented in this study represent a broad picture for the ... Key Words: Seasonality, rainfall pattern fluctuations, subsistence farmers, ...

  5. Short-term changes in thermal perception associated with heatwave conditions in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Gallant, Ailie J. E.; Tapper, Nigel J.

    2018-05-01

    Variations in human thermal perception have been described on timescales from minutes to seasons. However, the effect of weather-related thermal extremes on inter-daily changes to outdoor thermal perception has not been well characterised. This study used human thermal comfort data from an outdoor botanic garden in sub-urban Melbourne, Australia as a case study. We examined inter-daily variations in local visitors' thermal perception before (11-12 January 2014) and after (18-19 January 2014) a severe heatwave from 14 to 17 January 2014, when daily maximum temperature exceeded 41 °C for 4 consecutive days. We compared thermal comfort survey results (pre-heatwave: n = 342, post-heatwave: n = 294) with air temperature and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) measurements. Even though the days preceding and following the heatwave had a similar range in temperature (19-25 °C) and UTCI (26-32 °C), the visitors felt cooler in the days following the heatwave (i.e. lower thermal sensation votes). In the 2 days following the heatwave, visitors also wore less clothing compared with before the heatwave. Our results show that the thermal perception of visitors changed significantly following their exposure to the heatwave, even after controlling for changes in clothing choices and the ages of survey participants. Psychological adaptation to heat (such as thermal history and expectation) might be one of the possible explanations for this inter-daily variability of local visitors' thermal perception.

  6. Climate change perceptions and local adaptation strategies of hazard-prone rural households in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Monirul Alam; Khorshed Alam; Shahbaz Mushtaq

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation is a key strategy that can alleviate the severity of climate change impacts on agriculture and food production. Adaptation strategies are unlikely to be effective without an understanding of the farmers’ perceptions of climate change. This paper explores the local knowledge of adaptation in response to the perceived impacts of climate change and climatic hazards using a survey of 380 resource-poor riverbank erosion-prone households in Bangladesh. The results indicate that the respo...

  7. Natural versus anthropogenic climate change: Swedish farmers joint construction of climate perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Therese

    2016-01-01

    While previous research into understandings of climate change has usually examined general public perceptions, this study offers an audience-specific departure point. This article analyses how Swedish farmers perceive climate change and how they jointly shape their understandings. The agricultural sector is of special interest because it both contributes to and is directly affected by climate change. Through focus group discussions with Swedish farmers, this study finds that (1) farmers relat...

  8. Letting in-vehicle navigation lead the way: Older drivers' perceptions of and ability to follow a GPS navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Arne; Gagnon, Sylvain; Kateb, Matthew; Curtis, Meredith; Porter, Michelle M; Polgar, Jan; Bédard, Michel

    2017-09-01

    In-vehicle navigation systems have the potential to simplify the driving task by reducing the drivers' need to engage in wayfinding, especially in unfamiliar environments. This study sought to characterize older drivers' overall assessment of using in-vehicle GPS technology as part of a research study and to explore whether the use of this technology has an impact on participants' driving behaviour. Forty-seven older drivers completed an on-road evaluation where directions were provided by an in-vehicle GPS navigation system and their behaviour was recorded using video technology. They later completed a questionnaire to assess their perception of the navigation system. After the study, participants were grouped based on whether they were able to accurately follow the instructions provided by the navigation system. The results indicated that most drivers were satisfied with the navigation technology and found the directions it provided to be clear. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of on-road errors committed by drivers who did not follow the directions from the navigation system in comparison to drivers who did follow the directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards the innovation for microbiology curriculum change: students' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rumpa; Das, Shukla; Kaur, Iqbal R

    2012-08-01

    For a medical curriculum to be an effective means of learning for today's students, it has to be designed with knowledge of their priorities, needs and abilities. This can be best achieved by inviting students' view-point during curriculum planning. The present study thus elicits opinion of the medical students through a randomly issued set of questionnaires, towards the present microbiology curriculum in order to quantitate from their view-point, the weakness as well as the strengths of the existing curriculum. Their evaluation reveals that they welcome new techniques like problem-based learning but at the same time emphasise the need to integrate what is taught in close association with clinical circumstance. Hence it is important to understand the minds and needs of our students before implementing the syllabus content across to the consumers.

  10. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  11. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES OF MOTORIC ABILITIES CONDITIONED BY KINEZIOLOGY OPERATORS AT THE CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Mikić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic mission of the physical training and health education of children with special needs is to satisfy bio-pshico-social need for motion as an expression of satisfying certain needs that can effect on adaptive and creative abilities in modern life circum stances, as well as, on development of health culture of pupils in order to preserve health, correction of inborn and acquired deviation during their growth in early childhood. The most important goal of this research was to define transformation process of basic-motoric abilities, under the influence of experimental program with special needs pupils categorized in light and moderate category of retardation. The research was performed with the children in the „Centre for special needs children youth“.Sample was made with girls and boys, with total of 71 children devided in to three sub-sample according to gender, age and level of retardation. Euro-fit battery was taken as an instrument of research.During this research it was concluded that systematic influence of kineziology operators can positively influence on improved motoric functions of special needs children which is directly refered to intelectual abilities(balance and orientation.

  12. The Change in Facial Emotion Recognition Ability in Inpatients with Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia After Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkıran, Mihriban; Tasdemir, Akif; Salihoglu, Tamer; Emul, Murat; Duran, Alaattin; Ugur, Mufit; Yavuz, Ruhi

    2017-09-01

    People with schizophrenia have impairments in emotion recognition along with other social cognitive deficits. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the immediate benefits of ECT on facial emotion recognition ability. Thirty-two treatment resistant patients with schizophrenia who have been indicated for ECT enrolled in the study. Facial emotion stimuli were a set of 56 photographs that depicted seven basic emotions: sadness, anger, happiness, disgust, surprise, fear, and neutral faces. The average age of the participants was 33.4 ± 10.5 years. The rate of recognizing the disgusted facial expression increased significantly after ECT (p facial expressions (p > 0.05). After the ECT, the time period of responding to the fear and happy facial expressions were significantly shorter (p Facial emotion recognition ability is an important social cognitive skill for social harmony, proper relation and living independently. At least, the ECT sessions do not seem to affect facial emotion recognition ability negatively and seem to improve identifying disgusted facial emotion which is related with dopamine enriched regions in brain.

  13. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Informing Public Perceptions About Climate Change: A 'Mental Models' Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-01

    As the specter of climate change looms on the horizon, people will face complex decisions about whether to support climate change policies and how to cope with climate change impacts on their lives. Without some grasp of the relevant science, they may find it hard to make informed decisions. Climate experts therefore face the ethical need to effectively communicate to non-expert audiences. Unfortunately, climate experts may inadvertently violate the maxims of effective communication, which require sharing communications that are truthful, brief, relevant, clear, and tested for effectiveness. Here, we discuss the 'mental models' approach towards developing communications, which aims to help experts to meet the maxims of effective communications, and to better inform the judgments and decisions of non-expert audiences.

  15. Perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne; Sommerfeld, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Disagreement within the global science community about the certainty and causes of climate change has led the general public to question what to believe and whom to trust on matters related to this issue. This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken with Australian residents from two rural areas to explore their perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers. While overall, residents tended to agree that climate change is a reality, perceptions varied in terms of its causes and how best to address it. Politicians, government, and the media were described as untrustworthy sources of information about climate change, with independent scientists being the most trusted. The vested interests of information providers appeared to be a key reason for their distrust. The findings highlight the importance of improved transparency and consultation with the public when communicating information about climate change and related policies.

  16. Perceptions of a Changing World Induce Hope and Promote Peace in Intractable Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Crisp, Richard J.; Halperin, Eran

    2015-01-01

    The importance of hope in promoting conciliatory attitudes has been asserted in the field of conflict resolution. However, little is known about conditions inducing hope, especially in intractable conflicts, where reference to the outgroup may backfire. In the current research, five studies yielded convergent support for the hypothesis that hope for peace stems from a general perception of the world as changing. In Study 1, coders observed associations between belief in a changing world, hope regarding peace, and support for concessions. Study 2 revealed the hypothesized relations using self-reported measures. Studies 3 and 4 established causality by instilling a perception of the world as changing (vs. unchanging) using narrative and drawing manipulations. Study 5 compared the changing world message with a control condition during conflict escalation. Across studies, although the specific context was not referred to, the belief in a changing world increased support for concessions through hope for peace. PMID:25713171

  17. Perceptions of a changing world induce hope and promote peace in intractable conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Crisp, Richard J; Halperin, Eran

    2015-04-01

    The importance of hope in promoting conciliatory attitudes has been asserted in the field of conflict resolution. However, little is known about conditions inducing hope, especially in intractable conflicts, where reference to the outgroup may backfire. In the current research, five studies yielded convergent support for the hypothesis that hope for peace stems from a general perception of the world as changing. In Study 1, coders observed associations between belief in a changing world, hope regarding peace, and support for concessions. Study 2 revealed the hypothesized relations using self-reported measures. Studies 3 and 4 established causality by instilling a perception of the world as changing (vs. unchanging) using narrative and drawing manipulations. Study 5 compared the changing world message with a control condition during conflict escalation. Across studies, although the specific context was not referred to, the belief in a changing world increased support for concessions through hope for peace. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Phase change materials and the perception of wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kosters, N Dolfine; Kappers, Astrid M L; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead of cold. In order to investigate if this phenomenon occurs when manipulating textiles, nine subjects were asked to touch or manipulate PCM-treated and untreated fabrics. In 75% of the cases, the subjects indicated that the treated material felt wetter than the untreated material independent of the way the textiles were manipulated. We conclude that incorporating PCMs in textiles may lead to a feeling of wetness which might be uncomfortable. Therefore, we recommend investigating a change in cooling properties to minimise this feeling. This article describes a psychophysical experiment into the sensation of wetness of textiles treated with phase change materials. It was found that in 75% of the cases, subjects found the treated fabric to feel wetter than the untreated. This may affect the comfort of wearing clothes made of these textiles.

  19. 507 community perception on climate change and usage patterns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    forest-dependent communities as a strategy to cope with the impacts of climate change and variability around the ..... minimize or spread risks by managing a mix of crops, crop ... harvesting, processing and marketing of NTFPs is needed so as ...

  20. Fish Farmers' Perception of Climate change impact on fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    causes relate to those activities of man which help to change the chemical .... included awareness and time(year) they noticed and heard about climate .... Telephone calls. 15 .... consensus will lead to invention of holistic and workable solution to climate ... positions in different spheres of life like their male counterpart and ...

  1. Fish Farmers' Perception of Climate change impact on fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    *Department of Agricultural Extension and Management ... Respondents in the area perceived climate change factors ... rural farmers who implement their regular annual farm business plans risk total ... 2010). Constraints to increased fish production in Nigeria include, among others, ..... Build ponds close to water sources.

  2. Principals' Perceptions of Public Schools' Professional Development Changes during NCLB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated public school principals' reports of professional development implementation at the school level while working in different state- and local-level contexts (state accountability level, geographic locations, socioeconomic status, demographics, and grade levels). I attempted to measure principals' reported changes in levels…

  3. Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players: Multi-direction vs. One-Change of Direction (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Padulo, Johnny; Bragazzi, Nicola L.; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Attene, Giuseppe; Pizzolato, Fabio; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Oggianu, Marcello; Migliaccio, Gian M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of a novel multi-direction repeated sprint ability test (RSM; 10×(6×5-m)) compared with a repeated sprint ability test (RSA) with one change of direction (10×(2×15-m)), and the relationship of the RSM and RSA with Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and jump performances [squat jump (SJ) and counter-movement-jump (CMJ)]. Thirty-six (male, n=14, female n=22) young basketball players (age 16.0±0.9 yrs) performed the RS...

  4. The development of coordination abilities and biochemical changes in schoolchildren of primary school age at employment choreography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozhyk Irina Zinov'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the developed technique to dance on the development of coordination abilities and reflects changes some biochemical parameters, namely, urinary creatinine and inorganic phosphorus in primary school children involved in choreography. In the experiment involved students 8-9 years (boys. Found that classes in choreography improved level of coordination abilities of students and the experimental group demonstrated a positive impact choreography lessons on physical performance of students, because their body is more adapted to physical activity, and puts them at lower power consumption.

  5. Sustain ability, energy and climate change, future scenarios; Sostenibilidad, energia y cambio climatico, escenarios con futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Beltran, D.

    2009-07-01

    The permanent social and environmental crisis and the nowadays economic and financial ones add only to the reasons for a change in the development models at all levels. The article reviews the preconditions for change at global level, the EU Agenda for Change to be reinforced and above all implemented at EU level, so that the EU can show the way and lead the Change. Also analyses the scenarios with a future for Spain, so that Spain can participate in both changes and act as a showcase , participating and even leading this third industrial revolution and obtaining the competitive advantages of the pioneers, considering in particular the potentials in renewable energy sources and the need, in any case, of a radical change in Spain's ongoing development model. (Author)

  6. A longitudinal study of altered taste and smell perception and change in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-H; Huang, Z; Vaidya, A; Li, J; Curhan, G C; Wu, S; Gao, X

    2018-05-29

    Previous studies suggest that olfactory receptors, which mediate smell chemosensation, are located in the kidney and involved in blood pressure regulation. Mammalian epithelial sodium channels located in taste receptor cells are also found to participate in blood pressure regulation. However, there is currently no human study that has examined the association between taste and smell function and blood pressure. We thus conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether participants with altered taste and smell perception had larger increases in blood pressure compared with those without altered perception in a community-based cohort. The study included 5190 Chinese adults (4058 men and 1132 women) who were normotensive at baseline. Taste and smell perception were assessed via questionnaire in 2012 (baseline). Blood pressure was measured in 2012 and 2014 to determine relative change in blood pressure. Mean differences of 2-year blood pressure change and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across four categories of taste and smell perception were calculated after adjusting for known risk factors for hypertension. After adjusting for potential confounders, individuals with altered taste and smell perception had larger increases in systolic blood pressure (adjusted mean difference = 5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.1-10.0, p-value: 0.04) and mean arterial pressure (adjusted mean difference = 3.8 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.4-7.1, p-value: 0.03) after two years of follow-up compared with those having neither altered taste nor altered smell perception. No significant association was observed in individuals with altered taste or smell perception only. Our results suggest an association between chemosensory function and blood pressure. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Student Perceptions of Sectional CT/MRI Use in Teaching Veterinary Anatomy and the Correlation with Visual Spatial Ability: A Student Survey and Mental Rotations Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisser, Peter J; Carwardine, Darren

    2017-11-29

    Diagnostic imaging technology is becoming more advanced and widely available to veterinary patients with the growing popularity of veterinary-specific computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Veterinary students must, therefore, be familiar with these technologies and understand the importance of sound anatomic knowledge for interpretation of the resultant images. Anatomy teaching relies heavily on visual perception of structures and their function. In addition, visual spatial ability (VSA) positively correlates with anatomy test scores. We sought to assess the impact of including more diagnostic imaging, particularly CT/MRI, in the teaching of veterinary anatomy on the students' perceived level of usefulness and ease of understanding content. Finally, we investigated survey answers' relationship to the students' inherent baseline VSA, measured by a standard Mental Rotations Test. Students viewed diagnostic imaging as a useful inclusion that provided clear links to clinical relevance, thus improving the students' perceived benefits in its use. Use of CT and MRI images was not viewed as more beneficial, more relevant, or more useful than the use of radiographs. Furthermore, students felt that the usefulness of CT/MRI inclusion was mitigated by the lack of prior formal instruction on the basics of CT/MRI image generation and interpretation. To be of significantly greater use, addition of learning resources labeling relevant anatomy in tomographical images would improve utility of this novel teaching resource. The present study failed to find any correlation between student perceptions of diagnostic imaging in anatomy teaching and their VSA.

  8. Synchronization ability of coupled cell-cycle oscillators in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The biochemical oscillator that controls periodic events during the Xenopus embryonic cell cycle is centered on the activity of CDKs, and the cell cycle is driven by a protein circuit that is centered on the cyclin-dependent protein kinase CDK1 and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Many studies have been conducted to confirm that the interactions in the cell cycle can produce oscillations and predict behaviors such as synchronization, but much less is known about how the various elaborations and collective behavior of the basic oscillators can affect the robustness of the system. Therefore, in this study, we investigate and model a multi-cell system of the Xenopus embryonic cell cycle oscillators that are coupled through a common complex protein, and then analyze their synchronization ability under four different external stimuli, including a constant input signal, a square-wave periodic signal, a sinusoidal signal and a noise signal. Results Through bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain synchronization intervals of the sensitive parameters in the individual oscillator and the coupling parameters in the coupled oscillators. Then, we analyze the effects of these parameters on the synchronization period and amplitude, and find interesting phenomena, e.g., there are two synchronization intervals with activation coefficient in the Hill function of the activated CDK1 that activates the Plk1, and different synchronization intervals have distinct influences on the synchronization period and amplitude. To quantify the speediness and robustness of the synchronization, we use two quantities, the synchronization time and the robustness index, to evaluate the synchronization ability. More interestingly, we find that the coupled system has an optimal signal strength that maximizes the synchronization index under different external stimuli. Simulation results also show that the ability and robustness of the synchronization for the square

  9. Public Perception of Climate Change and the New Climate Dice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    "Climate dice", describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 years, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3 sigma) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming, because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change.

  10. "Being Hit Was Normal": Teachers' (Un)Changing Perceptions of Discipline and Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, D. Sagree; Sookrajh, Reshma

    2014-01-01

    Global and national concerns that corporal punishment is still being used, openly in certain milieus and surreptitiously in others, suggests that education stakeholders need to take cognisance of teachers' perceptions and experiences that influence their classroom discipline in the context of changing curriculum policies and legislation. This…

  11. The Blame Index: Exploring the Change in Social Work Students' Perceptions of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavega, Elena; Kindle, Peter A.; Peterson, Susan; Schwartz, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the development of a new Blame Index to determine attributions of the causes of poverty along a single structural-to-individual dimension. A multisite pre-/post-group design tested the degree of change in social work students' (N = 177) perception of poverty as a result of taking a single BSW social policy course or an MSW…

  12. Changing Social Work Students' Perceptions of the Role of Government in a Policy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granruth, Laura Brierton; Kindle, Peter A.; Burford, Michael L.; Delavega, Elena; Johnson, David H.; Peterson, Susan; Caplan, Mary A.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding student political attitudes--feelings about government and perceptions of its role--has long been of interest to social scientists. One factor that may influence political attitudes is belief in a just world, a complex psychological construct well established in the literature. Our study explores changes in social work students'…

  13. Coaches' Feedback and Changes in Children's Perceptions of Their Physical Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Thelma Sternberg

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between five softball coaches' feedback and changes in their female athletes' self-perceptions of competence; performance control; and expectancy for success. Multivariate regression analyses showed players' psychosocial growth was a function of both players' skill and the coaches' response to player…

  14. The essential toxin: The changing perception of selenium in environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, the perception of selenium has undergone substantial changes. While its toxic effects were recognized causing hair and hoof loss in animals during the 1930s, its essential role in microbial, animal and human metabolism has been recognized later, i.e. with the discovery of

  15. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  16. Civil protection and climate change impacts in the Netherlands: Local risk perceptions and actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Being a delta, one third of the Dutch territory consists of flood-prone areas. This article discusses how the local civil protection system in the Netherlands responds to increasing climate change-induced flooding risks in terms of risk perception and action. Case studies on three Safety Regions are

  17. Household vulnerability to climate change: examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, F.; Koedam, A.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article examines household perceptions of flooding as part of climate change in two low elevation coastal zone cities in the Caribbean. The research examines differences in vulnerability of households as the combined results of socio-economic inequalities in entitlements and exposure to natural

  18. A Social Norms Approach to Changing School Children's Perceptions of Tobacco Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Afzal; Vadera, Sunil; Ravey, Michael; Lovatt, Gary; Kelly, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Over 200,000 young people in the UK embark on a smoking career annually, thus continued effort is required to understand the types of interventions that are most effective in changing perceptions about smoking amongst teenagers. Several authors have proposed the use of social norms programmes, where correcting misconceptions of what is…

  19. Changes in Stress Perception and Coping during Adolescence: The Role of Situational and Personal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…

  20. Teachers' Perception on the Relationship between Change Leadership and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Ahmet Cezmi; Kosker, Erkan; Demir, Selcuk; Utar, Nurten

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to analyze the perception of teachers regarding the relationship between change leadership and organizational commitment. The study sample is 221 teachers working in the schools of Gaziantep, Sanliurfa and Mardin during the 2014-15 educational year since it is easier to reach them. The sample choice of our study has been…

  1. Risk perception: The social construction of spatial knowledge around climate change-related scenarios in Lima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities

  2. Changes in Perception of Selected Concepts That Accompany Differing Leadership Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Laurence Brian

    A study was made of effects of two different leadership treatments on perception of nonverbal stimuli relating to concepts of leaders, authority, and cohesion as measured by changes in the Semantic Differential Scale. Subjects (28 Yaqui Indian and Mexican-American members of the Neighborhood Youth Corps) were randomly assigned to an autocratic…

  3. Farmers' Perception of Climate Change and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of t-test analysis showed significant difference between how the females and males perceived the effect of climate change with regards to rainfall ending early (t(138)=2.5; p<0.05) and time spent to look for water for cooking food has increased(t(138)=2.2;p<0.05). A multi-media enlightenment campagn of the ...

  4. Temporal parameter change of human postural control ability during upright swing using recursive least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akifumi; Ishida, Mizuri; Sagawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive quantitative assessment indicators of the human postural control ability. An inverted pendulum is applied to standing human body and is controlled by ankle joint torque according to PD control method in sagittal plane. Torque control parameters (KP: proportional gain, KD: derivative gain) and pole placements of postural control system are estimated with time from inclination angle variation using fixed trace method as recursive least square method. Eight young healthy volunteers are participated in the experiment, in which volunteers are asked to incline forward as far as and as fast as possible 10 times over 10 [s] stationary intervals with their neck joint, hip joint and knee joint fixed, and then return to initial upright posture. The inclination angle is measured by an optical motion capture system. Three conditions are introduced to simulate unstable standing posture; 1) eyes-opened posture for healthy condition, 2) eyes-closed posture for visual impaired and 3) one-legged posture for lower-extremity muscle weakness. The estimated parameters Kp, KD and pole placements are applied to multiple comparison test among all stability conditions. The test results indicate that Kp, KD and real pole reflect effect of lower-extremity muscle weakness and KD also represents effect of visual impairment. It is suggested that the proposed method is valid for quantitative assessment of standing postural control ability.

  5. Farmers perceptions on climate change in lowland and highland vegetable production centers of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyoga, W.

    2018-02-01

    A survey was carried out in South Sulawesi, Indonesia interviewing 220 vegetable farmers. It was aimed at examining the vegetable farmers’ perception of climate change and assessing the consistency of farmers’ perception with available time series meteorological data. Results suggest that meteorological data analysis is in agreement with farmers’ perception regarding faster start, longer ending, and longer duration of rainy season. Further data analysis supports the claim of most farmers who perceive the occurrence of increasing air temperature, changing or shifting of the hottest and coldest month. Most respondents also suggest that climate change has affected vegetable farm yield and profitability. Other respondents even predict that climate change may affect the quality of life of their future descendants. Meanwhile, significant number of farmers is quite optimistic that they can cope with climate change problems through adaptation strategy. However, the attitude of farmers towards climate change is mostly negative as compared to positive or neutral feeling. Informative and educational campaign should be continuously carried out to encourage farmers in developing positive attitude or positive thinking towards climate change. Positive attitude may eventually lead to constructive behavior in selecting and implementing adaptation options.

  6. Two-year changes in anthropometric and motor ability values as talent identification indexes in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Norikazu; Seki, Taigo

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined 2-year changes in anthropometric variables and motor abilities in elite male youth soccer players to identify potential talent identification indexes. This was a cross-sequential study examining two different age groups at two time points. Height, weight, 40-m sprint speed, muscular power (5-step bounding), and change of direction (COD) ability (10 m×5 COD) were measured in 12- and 14-year-old soccer players and repeated after 2 years (at 14 and 16 years of age). Correlations and changes in ranking between the two measurements were determined. Both groups had small ranking changes in height (12-14-year-olds: r=0.80, 14-16-year-olds: r=0.89; ptalent identification index for youth soccer players. On the other hand, muscular power and COD ability is changeable during growth period suggests that these parameters is not useful for talent identification index. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Pellier

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children

  8. The Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers and Science Teachers About Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Meilinda, M; Rustaman, N. Y; Tjasyono, B

    2017-01-01

    The global climate phenomenon in the context of climate change is the impact of both the dynamic complex climate system and human behaviors that affect environmental sustainability. Human is an important component that should be considered in science teaching that is believed to improve human attitudes towards the environmental sustainability. The research aims to investigate the perceptions of pre-service science teachers and science teachers in South Sumatra who teach climate change and glo...

  9. Peer victimization and changes in physical and relational aggression: The moderating role of executive functioning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9-13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected. At time 2, adult-reported aggression was re-collected. Regression analyses tested whether EF ability moderated the association between peer victimization and increased engagement in aggression. Form-specific (e.g., physical victimization predicting physical aggression) and cross-form (e.g., physical victimization predicting relational aggression) models were tested. EF moderated the association between physical victimization and increases in physical aggression over time and between relational victimization and increases in relational aggression over time. Physical victimization predicted increases in physical aggression only among children with poor EF. However, relational victimization predicted increases in relational aggression for children with good EF skills but decreases in relational aggression for children with poor EF skills. Interaction effects for cross-form models were not significant. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in children's engagement in physical and relational aggression. Established cognitive vulnerability models for engagement in physical aggression should not be assumed to apply to engagement in relational aggression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Elizabeth Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2nd order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses (i.e., increased reaction time, RT, as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in reaction time as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations. Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2nd order faces and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6-8 years, in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9-11 years showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2nd order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2nd order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2nd order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2nd order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood.

  11. Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E.; DiBartolo, Michelle D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2nd order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses [i.e., increased reaction time (RT), as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli]. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations). Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2nd order faces) and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6–8 years), in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9–11 years) showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2nd order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2nd order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2nd order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2nd order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood. PMID:26300838

  12. Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E; DiBartolo, Michelle D; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2015-01-01

    Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2(nd) order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses [i.e., increased reaction time (RT), as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli]. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations). Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2(nd) order faces) and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6-8 years), in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9-11 years) showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2(nd) order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2(nd) order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2(nd) order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2(nd) order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood.

  13. Influence of smallholder farmers’ perceptions on adaptation strategies to climate change and policy implications in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Obert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder agricultural production is largely affected by climate change and variability. Despite the negative effects brought by climate variability, smallholder farmers are still able to derive livelihoods. An understanding of factors that influence farmers’ responses and adaptation to climate variability can improve decision making for governments and development partners. This study investigated farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change and how these influence adaptation policies at local level. A survey was conducted with 100 households randomly selected from Chiredzi district. Data collected was used to derive farmer perceptions to climate change as well as the influence of their perceptions and subsequent adaptation methods to ensuing local agricultural adaptation measures and policies. The results indicated that smallholder farmers perceived general reduction in long-term annual rainfall and rising local average temperatures. Adverse trends in rainfall and average temperature perceived by farmers were consistent with empirical data. These perceptions and other socio-economic factors helped to shape smallholder farmer agricultural adaptation strategies. Policy implications are that the government and development partners should seek ways to assist autonomous adaptations by farmers through investments in planned adaptation initiatives.

  14. Person perception from changing emotional expressions: primacy, recency, or averaging effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xia; van Kleef, Gerben A; Sauter, Disa A

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic changes in emotional expressions are a valuable source of information in social interactions. As the expressive behaviour of a person changes, the inferences drawn from the behaviour may also change. Here, we test the possibility that dynamic changes in emotional expressions affect person perception in terms of stable trait attributions. Across three experiments, we examined perceivers' inferences about others' personality traits from changing emotional expressions. Expressions changed from one emotion ("start emotion") to another emotion ("end emotion"), allowing us to disentangle potential primacy, recency, and averaging effects. Drawing on three influential models of person perception, we examined perceptions of dominance and affiliation (Experiment 1a), competence and warmth (Experiment 1b), and dominance and trustworthiness (Experiment 2). A strong recency effect was consistently found across all trait judgments, that is, the end emotion of dynamic expressions had a strong impact on trait ratings. Evidence for a primacy effect was also observed (i.e. the information of start emotions was integrated), but less pronounced, and only for trait ratings relating to affiliation, warmth, and trustworthiness. Taken together, these findings suggest that, when making trait judgements about others, observers weigh the most recently displayed emotion in dynamic expressions more heavily than the preceding emotion.

  15. Perceptions on climate change and its impact on livelihoods in Hwange district, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nhemachena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated perceptions of rural communities on climate change and its impacts on livelihoods. The research was conducted in the semi-arid Hwange district in Matebelel and North province of Zimbabwe. The perceptions were compared with empirical evidence from climatic studies on trends on temperature and rainfall, and impacts on livelihoods in the country and region. The findings from the current study are generally in agreement with those of other studies that indicate changes in the climate, especially in terms of rainfall. This largely applies to short-term periods; however, for long-term periods it is difficult to accurately relate rural community perceptions to changes in rainfall over time. Despite perceived changes and impacts of climate change on local livelihood activities, mainly agriculture, there are multiple stressors that the communities face which also affect their livelihoods. Further evidence-based research is required to disentangle climate change impacts on livelihoods, including livelihood impacts arising from interactions of climate and non-climatic factors.

  16. Mode choice models' ability to express intention to change travel behaviour considering non-compensatory rules and latent variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Sanko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregate behaviour choice models have been improved in many aspects, but they are rarely evaluated from the viewpoint of their ability to express intention to change travel behaviour. This study compared various models, including objective and latent models and compensatory and non-compensatory decision-making models. Latent models contain latent factors calculated using the LISREL (linear structural relations model. Non-compensatory models are based on a lexicographic-semiorder heuristic. This paper proposes ‘probability increment’ and ‘joint probability increment’ as indicators for evaluating the ability of these models to express intention to change travel behaviour. The application to commuting travel data in the Chukyo metropolitan area in Japan showed that the appropriate non-compensatory and latent models outperform other models.

  17. Force majeure: Will climate change affect our ability to attain Good Environmental Status for marine biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Michael; Borja, Ángel; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Mazik, Krysia; Birchenough, Silvana; Andersen, Jesper H; Painting, Suzanne; Peck, Myron

    2015-06-15

    The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires that Good Environmental Status (GEnS), is achieved for European seas by 2020. These may deviate from GEnS, its 11 Descriptors, targets and baselines, due to endogenic managed pressures (from activities within an area) and externally due to exogenic unmanaged pressures (e.g. climate change). Conceptual models detail the likely or perceived changes expected on marine biodiversity and GEnS Descriptors in the light of climate change. We emphasise that marine management has to accommodate 'shifting baselines' caused by climate change particularly during GEnS monitoring, assessment and management and 'unbounded boundaries' given the migration and dispersal of highly-mobile species. We suggest climate change may prevent GEnS being met, but Member States may rebut legal challenges by claiming that this is outside its control, force majeure or due to 'natural causes' (Article 14 of the MSFD). The analysis is relevant to management of other global seas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does parallel item content on WOMAC's Pain and Function Subscales limit its ability to detect change in functional status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Deborah M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC is considered the leading outcome measure for patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremity, recent work has challenged its factorial validity and the physical function subscale's ability to detect valid change when pain and function display different profiles of change. This study examined the etiology of the WOMAC's physical function subscale's limited ability to detect change in the presence of discordant changes for pain and function. We hypothesized that the duplication of some items on the WOMAC's pain and function subscales contributed to this shortcoming. Methods Two eight-item physical function scales were abstracted from the WOMAC's 17-item physical function subscale: one contained activities and themes that were duplicated on the pain subscale (SIMILAR-8; the other version avoided overlapping activities (DISSIMILAR-8. Factorial validity of the shortened measures was assessed on 310 patients awaiting hip or knee arthroplasty. The shortened measures' abilities to detect change were examined on a sample of 104 patients following primary hip or knee arthroplasty. The WOMAC and three performance measures that included activity specific pain assessments – 40 m walk test, stair test, and timed-up-and-go test – were administered preoperatively, within 16 days of hip or knee arthroplasty, and at an interval of greater than 20 days following the first post-surgical assessment. Standardized response means were used to quantify change. Results The SIMILAR-8 did not demonstrate factorial validity; however, the factorial structure of the DISSIMILAR-8 was supported. The time to complete the performance measures more than doubled between the preoperative and first postoperative assessments supporting the theory that lower extremity functional status diminished over this interval. The DISSIMILAR-8 detected this deterioration in functional

  19. My Changing Perception of Mars: A Whipple Award Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    presence of liquid water in the recent past, rapid change in polar solid CO2 landforms, perhaps related to climate change, and evidence for ancient rainfall in the form of inverted hillslope rills and first-order streams, and evidence for contemporary impact cratering. It is gratifying to be exploring, with cameras we designed for MSL, an area in Gale Crater Ken and I described in 2000.

  20. Online learning in dentistry: the changes in undergraduate perceptions and attitudes over a four year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, P A; Rice, S; Uddin, M

    2007-10-13

    To assess the changing perceptions and attitudes of undergraduate dental students towards e-learning between 2001-2004. DESIGN, SAMPLE AND SETTING: This was a retrospective analysis of online questionnaire data, collected from four successive cohorts of final year students undertaking an online therapeutics course in a large teaching hospital. Students were required to complete a structured and open questionnaire relating to their perceived ICT skills, the course itself, and their perceptions of e-learning. Simple numeric qualitative and qualitative analyses were applied. Questionnaires were returned by 328 students (98% response rate). Students' perceptions of having advanced ICT skills increased from 5.5% to 14.5%, with home internet access rising from 62.3% to 89.1 % (2001-2004). There was an increase in: ease of access (25.3% to 47.3%), perception of time saving (17.9% to 37.4%), appreciation of combining traditional and e-learning methods (43.8% to 57.4%) and online tutor access (21.9% to 40.7%). Free comments supporting good e-learning experiences rose from 7.2% to 32.7% with poor remarks decreasing (3.1% to 1.9%). Students' perceptions of their ICT skills has increased, matched by better equipment and greater appreciation of e-learning. A shift towards preference of a blended approach of traditional and e-learning is evident.

  1. Education Policy Influence Efficacy: Teacher Beliefs in Their Ability to Change Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant-Crawford, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) this study sought to understand how teachers view themselves as educational policy actors and to construct an instrument that measures teacher beliefs about their aptitude to advocate for changes in educational policy. This study employed a sequential explanatory design, characterized by quantitative data…

  2. Expanding Students' Ability to Conceptualise the Dynamics of Changing Places in the Teaching of Environmental Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Mike

    2016-01-01

    "Research has consistently found that pedagogy informed by knowledge of students' existing ideas is more efficient in promoting conceptual change than traditional methods of instruction". Learners in the sub-field of environmental geography exhibit preconceptions that frame and sometimes hinder their knowledge acquisition. Those…

  3. Antioxidants and Autism: Teachers' Perceptions of Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Amy; Berk, Lee S; Mainess, Karen; Daher, Noha S

    2018-06-05

    BACKGROUND- Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate a physiological imbalance between free radicals, resultant from oxidative stress, and antioxidants. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathogenesis of this neurocognitive disorder. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effect of consumption of high concentration antioxidant cacao on behavior of children with ASD. METHODS- This was a 4-week pre-test post-test experimental pilot study of high antioxidant cacao and children with ASD. Participants consumed 8 squares (or 16 grams) per day of the dark chocolate which had a concentration of 70% cacao and 30% organic cane sugar (total antioxidant concentration was 8,320). The two main behavioral measures were the Aberrant Behavior Checklist- 2nd Edition and the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale which were completed by the child's teacher at baseline and end of week four. RESULTS- Sixteen participants were recruited for this study. Follow up data was available on 12 participants (9 males, 3 females, mean age of 10.9 ±3.9 years). Significant improvements on the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale were noted in Social/Communication (p=0.03, η2=0.79), Unusual Behaviors (p=0.02, η2=0.70), and Self-Regulation (p=0.04, η2=0.59). No significant changes were noted on any of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-2 subscales (p>.05). CONCLUSION- Results from this study support the potential therapeutic benefit of antioxidants in improving social communication, unusual behaviors, and self-regulation behaviors of children with ASD. Further robust randomized controlled trials are now necessary to elaborate the validity of these findings.

  4. You're not to dance with the girls: oral history, changing perception and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The learning disability nursing course at the University of Cumbria features people with a learning disability presenting an oral history of their past in a long-stay institution. These are powerful stories which frequently portray very negative life experiences. Student feedback suggests that the resulting learning is profound, possibly transformative and offering a different type of learning to a 'traditional' lesson. Students report that they experience different and more positive perceptions of people with a learning disability. They have a new respect for people who have survived these experiences. This change of perception may, in part, be due to observing people with a learning disability in positive roles such as storyteller, teacher and carer. The students reported that in subsequent placements their professional practice changed as a result of these insights. These changes include being more outspoken against bad practice and being able to listen more effectively.

  5. Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Saylor Mase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change presents unique challenges to the resilience of United States agriculture, and farmers and advisors must utilize effective adaptation strategies to be both economically and environmentally sustainable. This study addresses Midwestern U.S. crop farmers’ beliefs about climate change, perceived risks from weather and climate, and attitudes toward adaptation that influence their decisions to adopt adaptation strategies. Analyzing a 2012 survey of nearly 5000 corn farmers across 22 Midwestern U.S. Watersheds, we investigate the most common weather and climate risk management strategies, including purchasing additional crop insurance, implementing conservation practices, and adding new technology. U.S. farmers’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of changing weather patterns, climate risks to their farm and attitudes toward adapting are analyzed. Farmers’ perceptions of risk to their own farm, attitudes toward innovation and adaptation attitudes were the most important determinants of adaptation. This study highlights the critical role of risk perceptions in adaptation attitudes as well as behaviors among agriculturalists. Finally, we discuss how these findings could be applied to increase uptake of adaptation strategies and thus resilience of U.S. agriculture to a changing climate.

  6. Natural versus anthropogenic climate change: Swedish farmers' joint construction of climate perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Therese

    2016-07-01

    While previous research into understandings of climate change has usually examined general public perceptions, this study offers an audience-specific departure point. This article analyses how Swedish farmers perceive climate change and how they jointly shape their understandings. The agricultural sector is of special interest because it both contributes to and is directly affected by climate change. Through focus group discussions with Swedish farmers, this study finds that (1) farmers relate to and understand climate change through their own experiences, (2) climate change is understood either as a natural process subject to little or no human influence or as anthropogenic and (3) various communication tools contribute to the formation of natural and anthropogenic climate change frames. The article ends by discussing frame resonance and frame clash in public understanding of climate change and by comparing potential similarities and differences in how various segments of the public make sense of climate change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A framework for testing the ability of models to project climate change and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Madsen, H.; Andréassian, V.

    2014-01-01

    Models used for climate change impact projections are typically not tested for simulation beyond current climate conditions. Since we have no data truly reflecting future conditions, a key challenge in this respect is to rigorously test models using proxies of future conditions. This paper presents...... a validation framework and guiding principles applicable across earth science disciplines for testing the capability of models to project future climate change and its impacts. Model test schemes comprising split-sample tests, differential split-sample tests and proxy site tests are discussed in relation...... to their application for projections by use of single models, ensemble modelling and space-time-substitution and in relation to use of different data from historical time series, paleo data and controlled experiments. We recommend that differential-split sample tests should be performed with best available proxy data...

  8. Age-Related Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Decision Making Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Isella, Valeria; Mapelli, Cristina; Morielli, Nadia; Pelati, Oriana; Franceschi, Massimo; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco

    2008-01-01

    The ?frontal aging hypothesis? predicts that brain senescence affects predominantly the prefrontal regions. Preliminary evidence has recently been gathered in favour of an age-related change in a typically frontal process, i.e. decision making, using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), but overall findings have been conflicting. Following the traditional scoring method, coupled with a qualitative analysis, in the present study we compared IGT performance of 40 young (mean age: 27.9 ? 4.7) and 40 ol...

  9. Will Changes to Medicare Payment Rates Alter Hospice's Cost-Saving Ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald H; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Bull, Janet H; Kassner, Cordt T; Olson, Andrew; Boucher, Nathan A

    2018-05-01

    On January 1, 2016, Medicare implemented a new "two-tiered" model for hospice services, with per diem rates increased for days 1 through 60, decreased for days 61 and greater, and service intensity add-on payments made retrospectively for the last seven days of life. To estimate whether the Medicare hospice benefit's potential for cost savings will change as a result of the January 2016 change in payment structure. Analysis of decedents' claims records using propensity score matching, logistic regression, and sensitivity analysis. All age-eligible Medicare decedents who received care and died in North Carolina in calendar years 2009 and 2010. Costs to Medicare for hospice and other healthcare services. Medicare costs were reduced from hospice election until death using both 2009-2010 and new 2016 payment structures and rates. Mean cost savings were $1,527 with actual payment rates, and would have been $2,105 with the new payment rates (p payment rate change. Cost savings were found for all primary diagnoses analyzed except dementia.

  10. Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, C.Z.; Ran, L.Y.; Li, J.P.; Guan, Z.Z. [Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang (China). Dept. of Pathology

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the investigation is to reveal the mechanism of the decreased ability of learning and memory induced by coal burning fluorosis. Ten offspring SD rats aged 30 days, who were born from the mothers with chronic coal burning fluorosis, and ten offspring with same age from the normal mothers as controls were selected. Spatial learning and memory of the rats were evaluated by Morris Water Maze test. Cholinesterase activity was detected by photometric method. The expressions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at protein and mRNA levels were detected by Western blotting and Real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that in the rat offspring exposed to higher fluoride as compared to controls, the learning and memory ability declined; the cholinesterase activities in the brains were inhibited; the protein levels of alpha 3, alpha 4 and alpha 7 nAChR subunits were decreased which showed certain significant correlations with the declined learning and memory ability; and the mRNA levels of alpha 3 and alpha 4 nAChRs were decreased, whereas the alpha 7 mRNA increased. The data indicated that coal burning fluorosis can induce the decreased ability of learning and memory of rat offspring, in which the mechanism might be connected to the changed nAChRs and cholinesterase.

  11. Relationship between children's performance-based motor skills and child, parent, and teacher perceptions of children's motor abilities using self/informant-report questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Aislinn; Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2016-04-01

    Occupational therapists often assess the motor skill performance of children referred to them as part of the assessment process. This study investigated whether children's, parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's motor skills using valid and reliable self/informant-report questionnaires were associated with and predictive of children's actual motor performance, as measured by a standardised performance-based motor skill assessment. Fifty-five typically developing children (8-12 years of age), their parents and classroom teachers were recruited to participate in the study. The children completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The parents completed the Developmental Profile III (DP-III) and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, whereas the teachers completed the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Behavior. Children's motor performance composite scores were determined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were calculated to identify if significant correlations existed and multiple linear regression was used to identify whether self/informant report data were significant predictors of children's motor skill performance. The child self-report scores had the largest number of significant correlations with the BOT-2 composites. Regression analysis found that the parent report DP-III Physical subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Manual Coordination composite and the child-report questionnaire PSDQ. Endurance subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Strength and Agility composite. The findings support the use of top-down assessment methods from a variety of sources when evaluating children's motor abilities. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa—Treatment Satisfaction and the Perception of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Lindvall Dahlgren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has recently been developed for children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN. It focuses on decreasing rigid cognitions and behaviors, as well as increasing central coherence. Overall, CRT has been proven feasible for young individuals with AN, but little is known regarding the specifics of its feasibility, and the perception of change associated with the intervention. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to explore service users’ perspective on CRT with a specific focus on treatment delivery, treatment content, and perceived change. Twenty adolescents (age 13–18 with AN participated in a 10-session course of CRT. A 20-item treatment evaluation questionnaire was administered at the end of treatment, focusing on four aspects of the intervention: (1 general attitudes towards treatment, (2 treatment specifics, (3 the perception of change and (4 the patient-therapist relation. The main findings suggest high levels of treatment satisfaction, but somewhat limited perceptions of change. The current study is one of the most detailed accounts of adolescents’ perspective on CRT published on eating disorders, and highlights several important aspects of the treatment viewed through the eye of the receiver.

  13. AN EVALUATION OF FARMERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF AND ADAPTATION TO THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary K. Ndambiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate how farmers in Kyuso District have perceived and adapted to climate change. Data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The Heckman probit model was fitted to the data to avoid sample selection bias since not every farmer who may perceive climate change responds by adapting. The analysis revealed that 94% of farmers in Kyuso District had a perception that climate was changing and as a result, 85% of these farmers had responded by adapting. In this regard, age of the household head, gender, education, farm experience, household size, distance to the nearest market, access to irrigation water, local agro-ecology, on and off farm income, access to information on climate change through extension services, access to credit, changes in temperature and precipitation were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to perceive and/or adapt to climate change. With the level of perception to climate change being more than that of adaptation, the study suggests that more policy efforts should be geared towards helping farmers to adapt to climate change

  14. Convinced, ambivalent or annoyed: Tyrolean ski tourism stakeholders and their perceptions of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawöger, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners , annoyed deniers , ambivalent optimists , convinced wait-and-seers . Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level.

  15. Measuring perceptions of climate change in northern Alaska: pairing ethnography with cultural consensus analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Carothers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given current and projected warming trends in the Arctic and the important role played by subsistence hunting and fishing in the life of northern rural communities, it is increasingly important to document local observations of climate change and its impacts on livelihood practices. We describe ethnographic research exploring local observations of climate changes and related impacts on subsistence fisheries in three Iñupiat communities in northwest Alaska and six Athabascan communities in the Yukon River drainage. We found consistent agreement among perceptions concerning a broad range of environmental changes affecting subsistence practices in these communities. These observations of environmental changes are not experienced in isolation but within the context of accompanying social changes that are continually reshaping rural Alaskan communities and subsistence economies. In this paper we reflect on our research approach combining multiple methods of inquiry. Participant observation and semidirected interviews provided the conceptual framework for broadening our focus from climate and environmental change to community residents' understanding of climate change in the context of their holistic human-environment worldview. Cultural consensus analysis allowed us to assess the extent to which perceptions of change are shared among hunters and fishers within and between villages and regions and to identify those phenomena occurring or experienced at smaller scales. Reflecting on this multimethods approach, we highlight important questions that have emerged about how we understand, synthesize, and represent local knowledge, especially as it is used in regulatory or management arenas.

  16. One Year Sustain ability of Risk Factor Change from a 9-Week Workplace Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.C.; Cumin, M.B.; Migriauli, L.; Ferguson, L.R.; Plank, L.D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effect of a 9-week diet and physical activity intervention provided in the workplace by a group education session where personal dietary and physical activity goals were proposed. Measurements of anthropometry, fasting blood lipids, glucose and insulin, assays for antioxidant activity (AOA) and questionnaires were completed at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks in 50 healthy workers (50% male, mean age 46y). Followup measurements in 39 (56% male) were possible at 52 weeks. At week 3 a group dietary and physical activity motivational seminar was held. At week 6, half the group were supplied daily kiwifruit for 3 weeks with cross over at week 9 until week 12. Compared to baseline, lipid, glucose, insulin and AOA measurements were improved at 12 and 52 weeks. Body measurements did not change. Group diet and physical activity advice reinforced over 9 weeks is associated with a sustained improvement in cardiovascular risk factors at 52 weeks.

  17. Effects of cognitive training on change in accuracy in inductive reasoning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron, Julie Blaskewicz; Turiano, Nicholas A; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner

    2007-05-01

    We investigated cognitive training effects on accuracy and number of items attempted in inductive reasoning performance in a sample of 335 older participants (M = 72.78 years) from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. We assessed the impact of individual characteristics, including chronic disease. The reasoning training group showed significantly greater gain in accuracy and number of attempted items than did the comparison group; gain was primarily due to enhanced accuracy. Reasoning training effects involved a complex interaction of gender, prior cognitive status, and chronic disease. Women with prior decline on reasoning but no heart disease showed the greatest accuracy increase. In addition, stable reasoning-trained women with heart disease demonstrated significant accuracy gain. Comorbidity was associated with less change in accuracy. The results support the effectiveness of cognitive training on improving the accuracy of reasoning performance.

  18. Examining the "Matthew Effect" on the motivation and ability to make lifestyle changes in 217 heart rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildestvedt, Thomas; Meland, Eivind

    2007-01-01

    Those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged and people with emotional problems have a poorer prognosis for cardiovascular disease. The authors wanted to examine: (1) what effect household income, emotional status, high-risk smoking status, and severity of heart disease had on the ability of individuals to make dietary and exercise improvements after heart disease and (2) to what extent unfavourable lifestyle outcomes among disadvantaged people were mediated by motivational problems. A two-year follow-up study of the combined cohorts of a randomized controlled trial. Level of exercise and present dietary habits were measured at inclusion and after 6 and 24 months. Different motivational factors and emotional distress were measured during rehabilitation. Autonomous self-regulation was lowest among smokers (b = -0.31, p = 0.02) and female participants (b = 0.39, p = 0.004). Participants with high scores of emotional distress predicted lower motivation for all the measures. We found no association between socioeconomic status (household income) and the ability to perform lifestyle changes. Current smoking status predicted lower ability to obtain lifestyle changes on all measures. Emotional distress was related to lower ability to increase physical activity at 6 months' but not at 24 months' follow-up. The mediating effects of motivational factors were insignificant. The results of this study do not support the suspicion that preventive efforts accentuate the socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular health. Health-promotive efforts after heart disease should safeguard that high-risk groups such as smokers are not discouraged from improving their lifestyle in other areas.

  19. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  20. Factors influencing change in walking ability in patients with heart failure undergoing exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Natasha; Harrison, Alexander; Doherty, Patrick

    2018-05-17

    Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective intervention for patients with heart failure (HF), in which one of the main targets is to increase physical capacity. In the HF population this is traditionally assessed using distance covered during a walking test. This study aims to establish the extent to which change in walking ability, in HF patients attending CR, is determined by patient characteristics and service provision. The study utilised routine clinical data from the National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation to perform a robust analysis. Change, in metres, between pre- and post-CR six-minute walk tests was calculated. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the relationship between patient characteristics, service-level variables, and change in metres walked. Complete and valid data from 633 patients was analysed, and a mean change of 51.30 m was calculated. Female gender (-34.13 m, p = 0.007), being retired (-36.41 m, p = 0.001) and being married/in a relationship (-32.54 m, p = 0.023) were all significant negative predictors of change. There was an additional negative relationship with body mass index (BMI) whereby for every unit increase in BMI, predicted change reduces by 2.48 m (p = 0.006). This study identified significant patient-level characteristics strongly associated with limited improvement in walking ability following CR. Improving physical capacity is a core component of CR, therefore services should aim to account for baseline characteristics identified in this study as part of tailoring the CR intervention around the individual. Pre- and post-CR physical capacity assessments, which constitute minimum standards for CR, are worryingly low and should be given high priority. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-01-01

    The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution ...

  2. Change of Japanese risk perception after Tohoku earthquake March 11, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports change of Japanese risk perception based on the results of national surveys carried out in 2010 and 2011. Major earthquake and nuclear power plant risk items were perceived much more serious, while other risks such as global warming, illicit drugs, terrorism were perceiver less serious, after Tohoku earthquake. Anxiety about radiological material was differently according to the distance from the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. Local Climate Experts: The Influence of Local TV Weather Information on Climate Change Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodhart, Brittany; Maibach, Edward; Myers, Teresa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who identify changes in their local climate are also more likely to report that they have personally experienced global climate change. One way that people may come to recognize that their local climate is changing is through information provided by local TV weather forecasters. Using random digit dialing, 2,000 adult local TV news viewers in Virginia were surveyed to determine whether routine exposure to local TV weather forecasts influences their perceptions of extreme weather in Virginia, and their perceptions about climate change more generally. Results indicate that paying attention to TV weather forecasts is associated with beliefs that extreme weather is becoming more frequent in Virginia, which in turn is associated with stronger beliefs and concerns about climate change. These associations were strongest for individuals who trust their local TV weathercaster as a source of information about climate change, and for those who identify as politically conservative or moderate. The findings add support to the literature suggesting that TV weathercasters can play an important role in educating the public about climate change.

  4. Local Climate Experts: The Influence of Local TV Weather Information on Climate Change Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodhart, Brittany; Maibach, Edward; Myers, Teresa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who identify changes in their local climate are also more likely to report that they have personally experienced global climate change. One way that people may come to recognize that their local climate is changing is through information provided by local TV weather forecasters. Using random digit dialing, 2,000 adult local TV news viewers in Virginia were surveyed to determine whether routine exposure to local TV weather forecasts influences their perceptions of extreme weather in Virginia, and their perceptions about climate change more generally. Results indicate that paying attention to TV weather forecasts is associated with beliefs that extreme weather is becoming more frequent in Virginia, which in turn is associated with stronger beliefs and concerns about climate change. These associations were strongest for individuals who trust their local TV weathercaster as a source of information about climate change, and for those who identify as politically conservative or moderate. The findings add support to the literature suggesting that TV weathercasters can play an important role in educating the public about climate change. PMID:26551357

  5. Exploring Associations among Writing Self-Perceptions, Writing Abilities, and Native Language of English-Spanish Two-Way Immersion Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina R.; Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The current study, with 409 fourth graders in two-way immersion programs, explored the writing self-perceptions of native English and native Spanish speakers and the relationship between self-perceptions and writing performance. An adapted version of the Writer Self-Perception Scale (WSPS) was administered along with a writing task. Native English…

  6. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Pettey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN, and African Americans (AAs are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years. Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group.

  7. Subjective perception of radioactivity. No change post successful treatment with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Mueller, S.P.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the attitude of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity before and after radioiodine therapy by means of a cultural-anthropological approach. We evaluate in patient interviews how their subjective attitude towards radioactivity as an abstract term and towards radioactivity in the medical context on the basis of their personal experiences with radionuclide therapy. 29 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (17 women, 12 men, 35-79 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed prior to and 22-27 month post radioiodine therapy in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1: positive, 5: negative) to quantify their perception of radioactivity. The personal perception of radioactivity as an abstract term does not change significantly (p = 0.15) before and after radioiodine therapy. This perception is linked to mostly negative impressions of radiactivity. However, patients become more positive when assessing the value of radioactivity as part of their therapy regimen. Thus, we observe a significant increase in percepted value of radioactivity post radioiodine therapy (p = 0.03). Patients continue to view radioactivity as something negative despite treatment success following radioiodine therapy. Our results provide useful information for patient information by the nuclear medicine physician prior to a radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  8. Changing perceptions of protected area benefits and problems around Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Catrina A; Salerno, Jonathan; Hartter, Joel; Chapman, Colin A; Reyna, Rafael; Tumusiime, David Mwesigye; Drake, Michael

    2017-09-15

    Local residents' changing perceptions of benefits and problems from living next to a protected area in western Uganda are assessed by comparing household survey data from 2006, 2009, and 2012. Findings are contextualized and supported by long-term data sources for tourism, protected area-based employment, tourism revenue sharing, resource access agreements, and problem animal abundance. We found decreasing perceived benefit and increasing perceived problems associated with the protected area over time, with both trends dominated by increased human-wildlife conflict due to recovering elephant numbers. Proportions of households claiming benefit from specific conservation strategies were increasing, but not enough to offset crop raiding. Ecosystem services mitigated perceptions of problems. As human and animal populations rise, wildlife authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa will be challenged to balance perceptions and adapt policies to ensure the continued existence of protected areas. Understanding the dynamic nature of local people's perceptions provides a tool to adapt protected area management plans, prioritize conservation resources, and engage local communities to support protected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate Change. India's Perceptions, Positions, Policies and Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, J.K.; Parikh, K. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    In January 2001, the OECD held an expert seminar as part of a pilot project to investigate interactions between the long term agenda for climate change and sustainable development strategies. Experts from both OECD and developing countries attended. Participants identified issues and approaches, based on their regional perspectives, relevant to an evolving, equitable regime for addressing climate change, given various national circumstances, political interests, institutions and capacities to achieve sustainable development objectives. They stressed the importance of both climate mitigation and adaptation policy within a sustainable development framework. Discussions and presentations centred around two broad themes: Synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development objectives and long-term strategies to limit climate change; and How to build analytical and implementation capacity in developing countries to maximise synergies at local, regional and global levels of decision-making. To support seminar discussions, the OECD commissioned several papers (including this one) from non- OECD country experts; authors were asked to comment on key interactions between climate change and sustainable development from their own regional or national perspectives. This paper is being released as an informal working paper in the hope that it will continue to stimulate interest and discussions on these topics in other fora. The paper presents Indian perceptions on the problem of climate change and sustainable development; the kind of negotiating positions that follow from these perceptions; the policies India has undertaken so far and finally India's possibilities for action that can help contain the threat of climate change.

  10. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Basannagari

    Full Text Available Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m. At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills, reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  11. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  12. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced...... changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural...

  13. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver...... of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind...

  14. Change over a service learning experience in science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about elementary school students' ability to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Camille A.

    This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated

  15. The predictive ability of triglycerides and waist (hypertriglyceridemic waist) in assessing metabolic triad change in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, James P; King, Roderick F; Gately, Paul; Pemberton, Philip; Smith, Alexander; Barth, Julian H; Harman, Nicola; Davies, Ian; Carroll, Sean

    2013-10-01

    The metabolic triad [fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and low-density lipoporotein (LDL) peak particle density] is characteristic of increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance and can be predicted by the simple and adoptable screening tool, the hypertriglyceridemic waist. The associations between hypertriglyceridemic waist components [fasting triglycerides (TG) and waist circumference cut-points derived from a child-specific metabolic syndrome definition] with the metabolic triad were examined in obese youth before and after weight loss. A continuous metabolic triad score (MTS) was calculated as a cumulative and standardized residual score of fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and LDL peak particle density (z-scores of the metabolic triad variables regressed onto age and sex). The predictive ability of TG and waist in assessing metabolic triad change was undertaken in 75 clinically obese boys and girls, aged 8-18, body mass index (BMI) 34.2±6.4 kg/m(2) before and after weight loss. Fasting TG concentrations (r(2)=0.216, PFasting TG change was the only significant predictor of the MTS change (r(2)=0.177, Pfasting TG concentration (but not waist circumference) was the only significant predictor of MTS change. Fasting TG may be the most important metabolic syndrome component to best characterize the metabolic heterogeneity in obese cohorts and the changes in metabolic risk in clinically obese youth.

  16. Climate Change in China : Exploring Informants' Perceptions of Climate Change through a Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lipin, Tan

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is not only a natural phenomenon, but also a global social issue. Many studies try to explore the mechanisms behind climate change and the consequences of climate change, and provide information for developing the measures to mitigate or adapt to it. For example, the IPCC reviews and assesses climate-change-related scientific information produced worldwide, thus aiming to support decision-making from a scientific perspective. However, though various international and regional c...

  17. Perception, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies of Irrigated Paddy Farmer Community to Face Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Rasiska Suantapura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has a real impact on the condition of agriculture in developing countries, including Indonesia. Irrigated paddy farmers are the ones really feeling the impact of climate change. Therefore, we need to understand the perceptions, mitigation and adaptation strategies of irrigated paddy farmer community to face climate change. The study is conducted in Indramayu and Tasikmalaya Regency in West Java by using descriptive survey method, regression analysis and path analysis through Structural Equation Modelling approach with Lisrel TM 8.5. The results showes that: (1 changes to climate variability affects the productivity of rice; (2 perception of irrigated paddy farmer community on climate change and its affects are influenced by internal and external factors; and (3 adaptation strategy are influenced by internal and external factors, whereas no mitigation strategy. Therefore, mitigation and adaptation strategies with site specific location are very necessary improving climate information services, increasing empowerment of farmers through field schools, and providing the provision of facilities that are practical and adaptive to climate.

  18. Climate change perceptions and local adaptation strategies of hazard-prone rural households in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Monirul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a key strategy that can alleviate the severity of climate change impacts on agriculture and food production. Adaptation strategies are unlikely to be effective without an understanding of the farmers’ perceptions of climate change. This paper explores the local knowledge of adaptation in response to the perceived impacts of climate change and climatic hazards using a survey of 380 resource-poor riverbank erosion-prone households in Bangladesh. The results indicate that the respondents’ perceptions of changes in the climate and of extreme climatic events are similar to the observed climate data. Households have recognized the impacts on their livelihood and resources, resulting in an increased sense of vulnerability. To build resilience, households have undertaken a range of farming and non-farming adaptation strategies, which vary significantly among the farming groups. The important adaptation strategies include adopting new crop varieties, changing planting time, homestead gardening, planting trees and migration. Improved access to finance and to information about appropriate strategies appears to be crucial to support adaptation processes locally and thus to enhance the resilience of vulnerable households.

  19. Substantial changes in mastery perceptions of dementia caregivers with the placement of a care recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H

    2013-03-01

    The current study examined how a key component of caregiving stress processes, global mastery perceptions, changes with placing the care recipient in a nursing home or institution. We also explored the role of primary stressors in accounting for mastery changes with placement and whether characteristics of the caregiver and care recipient moderate reactions to placement. We applied multiphase growth curve models to prospective longitudinal data from 271 caregivers in the Caregiver Stress and Coping Study who experienced placement of their care recipient. Using a time-to/from-placement metric, we found that caregivers typically experienced declines in mastery preceding placement, followed by a significant increase within 1 year after placement and further increases thereafter. Corresponding changes in primary stressors (role overload) mediated the placement-related increase in mastery. Caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms and activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living dependencies of the care recipient were more likely to experience larger placement-related increases in mastery perceptions. Our findings suggest that placement alters psychological resources of caregivers and this effect is driven by corresponding changes in primary stressors. Findings also underscore the importance of examining change processes across salient life events and transitions.

  20. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang; Wright, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help policy makers to develop and implement effective

  1. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Thanh Toan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design: We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results: The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively. About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions: The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of

  2. Changing perception about nuclear power in Slovenia in the changing political climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, Andrej; Istenff, Radko

    1998-01-01

    Public opinion about nuclear energy and in particular about the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko has experienced some fluctuations during last years. There were periods when attacks in media by the opponents were very heavy, which resulted also in a more negative public opinion about this kind of energy production. In the year 1995 and 1996 there was a very strong anti nuclear motion initiated by opponents. They wanted to organize a national referendum for the premature closure of the NPP Krsko. The motion was quite a big disaster, since they have managed to collect only about 6 of needed 40.000 signatures for the support of the referendum. After that there were very few open attacks against nuclear energy present in media. At the Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana we are continuing our long-term program of public education about nuclear energy. Elementary and High schools have a permanent invitation to visit us. We receive about 7000 students per year together with about 300 teachers. They all have opportunity to listen to the lecture about nuclear energy or about radioactive waste and to visit our permanent exhibition. In June 1997 we have repeated the pool among visitors, which was conducted already in years 1990, 91, 92, 93 and 1995. In the paper we will compare the results and try to draw some conclusions. Nuclear power is not the largest headline in Slovenia anymore. The influence of that can be seen also on public perception. Our poll of young people shows their better and more favorable perception of this way of energy production than in the past

  3. Local Perception of Drought Impacts in a Changing Climate: The Mega-Drought in Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Aldunce

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are a recurrent and complex natural hazard whose frequency and magnitude are expected to increase with climate change. Despite the advances in responding and adapting to droughts (with the development of new policies, for example, droughts continue to cause serious impacts and suffering. Developing well-targeted public policies requires further research on adaptation. Specifically, understanding the public perception of drought can help to identify drivers of and barriers to adaptation and options. This research seeks to understand the public perception of drought in central Chile in order to inform adaptation-related policies and decision-making processes. This study focused on the Mega-drought, which was a protracted dry spell afflicting central Chile since 2010.

  4. The role of medical language in changing public perceptions of illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith E Young

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of medical terminology on perceptions of disease. Specifically, we look at the changing public perceptions of newly medicalized disorders with accompanying newly medicalized terms (e.g. impotence has become erectile dysfunction disorder. Does using "medicalese" to label a recently medicalized disorder lead to a change in the perception of that condition? Undergraduate students (n = 52 rated either the medical or lay label for recently medicalized disorders (such as erectile dysfunction disorder vs. impotence and established medical conditions (such as a myocardial infarction vs. heart attack for their perceived seriousness, disease representativeness and prevalence. Students considered the medical label of the recently medicalized disease to be more serious (mean = 4.95 (SE = .27 vs. mean = 3.77 (SE = .24 on a ten point scale, more representative of a disease (mean = 2.47 (SE = .09 vs. mean = 1.83 (SE = .09 on a four point scale, and have lower prevalence (mean = 68 (SE = 12.6 vs. mean = 122 (SE = 18.1 out of 1,000 than the same disease described using common language. A similar pattern was not seen in the established medical conditions, even when controlled for severity. This study demonstrates that the use of medical language in communication can induce bias in perception; a simple switch in terminology results in a disease being perceived as more serious, more likely to be a disease, and more likely to be a rare condition. These findings regarding the conceptualization of disease have implications for many areas, including medical communication with the public, advertising, and public policy.

  5. The Relationship between School Leaders' Perceptions of High Involvement Model Characteristics in Their Organizations and Their Attitudes towards the Use of the Change Toolkit to Facilitate Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between school leaders' perceptions regarding High Involvement Model variables as components of their organizations, including power, knowledge, information, leadership, instructional guidance, rewards, and resources, and the leaders' ability to successfully use the IBM…

  6. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods. Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  7. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women’s changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  8. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy.

  9. Do familiarity and expectations change perception? Drivers’ glances and response to changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Fox, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study shows that repeated exposure to a road environment changes eye movement behaviour. In addition, repeated exposure may result in inadequate responses to unexpected changes in the road environment. Participants drove a low-cost simulator while their eye movements were recorded. With

  10. Indicators of climate change in Idaho: An assessment framework for coupling biophysical change and social perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is well documented at the global scale, but local and regional changes are not as well understood. Finer, local-to-regional scale information is needed for creating specific, place-based planning and adaption efforts. Here we detail the development of an indicator-focused climate chan...

  11. Embodied memory allows accurate and stable perception of hidden objects despite orientation change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing Samantha; Bingham, Ned; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2017-07-01

    Rotating a scene in a frontoparallel plane (rolling) yields a change in orientation of constituent images. When using only information provided by static images to perceive a scene after orientation change, identification performance typically decreases (Rock & Heimer, 1957). However, rolling generates optic flow information that relates the discrete, static images (before and after the change) and forms an embodied memory that aids recognition. The embodied memory hypothesis predicts that upon detecting a continuous spatial transformation of image structure, or in other words, seeing the continuous rolling process and objects undergoing rolling observers should accurately perceive objects during and after motion. Thus, in this case, orientation change should not affect performance. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments and found that (a) using combined optic flow and image structure, participants identified locations of previously perceived but currently occluded targets with great accuracy and stability (Experiment 1); (b) using combined optic flow and image structure information, participants identified hidden targets equally well with or without 30° orientation changes (Experiment 2); and (c) when the rolling was unseen, identification of hidden targets after orientation change became worse (Experiment 3). Furthermore, when rolling was unseen, although target identification was better when participants were told about the orientation change than when they were not told, performance was still worse than when there was no orientation change. Therefore, combined optic flow and image structure information, not mere knowledge about the rolling, enables accurate and stable perception despite orientation change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Longitudinal changes in physical self-perceptions and associations with physical activity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchley, Jo; Kirby, Jo; Currie, Candace

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescents' physical self-perceptions and their associations with physical activity using a longitudinal perspective. Utilizing data from the Physical Activity in Scottish Schoolchildren (PASS) study, changes in exercise self-efficacy, perceived competence, global self-esteem and physical self-worth were assessed among a sample of 641 Scottish adolescents from age 11-15 years. Girls reported lower levels of perceived competence, self-esteem and physical self-worth than boys at each age. Furthermore, girls' physical self-perceptions decreased markedly over time. Among boys, only perceived competence decreased, while global self-esteem increased. Baseline physical activity was a significant predictor of later activity levels for both genders. Findings demonstrate the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to physical activity behavior among adolescents. Among older boys, high perceived competence increased the odds of being active by 3.8 times. Among older girls, high exercise self-efficacy increased the odds of being active by 5.2 times. There is a need for early interventions which promote increased physical literacy and confidence, particularly among girls.

  13. Changes in quality of life and impact on patients′ perception of esthetics after orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavin, Thangavelu; Jagadesan, Anbuselvan Gobichetty Palayam; Venkataraman, Siva Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study is to determine the changes in quality of life and patient′s perception of esthetic improvement after anterior maxillary osteotomy. Materials and Methods: Our prospective study consisted of 14 patients who had been diagnosed of skeletal orthodontic deformity and underwent anterior maxillary osteotomy, along with orthodontic correction. The quality of life was evaluated using questionnaires based on Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire (OHIP-14) and a 22-item orthognathic quality of life questionnaire. They were evaluated at baseline pre-surgical, 8 weeks postoperatively, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Results: Our results showed mild improvement in generic health related quality of life immediately following surgery, while condition-specific quality of life and patient′s perception of esthetic improvement were noted only at 24 weeks following anterior maxillary osteotomy. Conclusion: We conclude that anterior maxillary osteotomy had a positive impact on the quality of life. The improvement in patient's perception of esthetics is seen only 2 months after surgery, while improvements in oral health and function were seen within 2 months following surgery. The acceptance and satisfaction of patient toward surgery was more positive 2 months after surgery. PMID:23066273

  14. Within- and cross-modal distance information disambiguate visual size-change perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Battaglia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perception is fundamentally underconstrained because different combinations of object properties can generate the same sensory information. To disambiguate sensory information into estimates of scene properties, our brains incorporate prior knowledge and additional "auxiliary" (i.e., not directly relevant to desired scene property sensory information to constrain perceptual interpretations. For example, knowing the distance to an object helps in perceiving its size. The literature contains few demonstrations of the use of prior knowledge and auxiliary information in combined visual and haptic disambiguation and almost no examination of haptic disambiguation of vision beyond "bistable" stimuli. Previous studies have reported humans integrate multiple unambiguous sensations to perceive single, continuous object properties, like size or position. Here we test whether humans use visual and haptic information, individually and jointly, to disambiguate size from distance. We presented participants with a ball moving in depth with a changing diameter. Because no unambiguous distance information is available under monocular viewing, participants rely on prior assumptions about the ball's distance to disambiguate their -size percept. Presenting auxiliary binocular and/or haptic distance information augments participants' prior distance assumptions and improves their size judgment accuracy-though binocular cues were trusted more than haptic. Our results suggest both visual and haptic distance information disambiguate size perception, and we interpret these results in the context of probabilistic perceptual reasoning.

  15. Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate to predict metabolism in resting Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Haulena, Martin; Hindle, Allyson G; Trites, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use heart rate (fh) to predict oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text]) in Steller sea lions and other pinnipeds has been investigated in fasting animals. However, it is unknown whether established fh:[Formula: see text] relationships hold under more complex physiological situations, such as when animals are feeding or digesting. We assessed whether fh could accurately predict [Formula: see text] in trained Steller sea lions while fasting and after being fed. Using linear mixed-effects models, we derived unique equations to describe the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship for fasted sea lions resting on land and in water. Feeding did not significantly change the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship on land. However, Steller sea lions in water displayed a different fh:[Formula: see text] relationship after consuming a 4-kg meal compared with the fasting condition. Incorporating comparable published fh:[Formula: see text] data from Steller sea lions showed a distinct effect of feeding after a 6-kg meal. Ultimately, our study illustrated that both feeding and physical environment are statistically relevant when deriving [Formula: see text] from telemetered fh, but that only environment affects the practical ability to predict metabolism from fh. Updating current bioenergetic models with data gathered using these predictive fh:[Formula: see text] equations will yield more accurate estimates of metabolic rates of free-ranging Steller sea lions under a variety of physiological, behavioral, and environmental states.

  16. Repeated sprint ability in young basketball players: multi-direction vs. one-change of direction (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny ePadulo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of a novel multi-direction repeated sprint ability test (RSM; 10×(6×5-m compared with a repeated sprint ability test (RSA with one change of direction (10×(2×15-m, and the relationship of the RSM and RSA with Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1 and jump performances [squat jump (SJ and counter-movement-jump (CMJ]. Thirty-six (male, n=14, female n=22 young basketball players (age 16.0±0.9 yrs performed the RSM, RSA, Yo-Yo IR1, SJ and CMJ, and were re-tested only for RSM and RSA after one week. The absolute error of reliability (standard error of the measurement was lower than 0.212-s and 0.617-s for the time variables of the RSA and RSM test, respectively. Performance in the RSA and RSM test significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ. The best time, worst time and total time of the RSA and RSM test were negatively correlated with Yo-Yo IR1 distance. Based on these findings, consistent with previously published studies, it was concluded that the novel RSM test was valid and reliable.

  17. Attitudes to climate change, perceptions of disaster risk, and mitigation and adaptation behavior in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan; Tung, Chuan-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chien

    2018-02-08

    Issues that are associated with climate change have global importance. Most related studies take a national or regional perspective on the impact of climate change. Taiwan is constrained by its geographical conditions, which increase its vulnerability to climate change, especially in its western coastal areas. The county that is most affected by climate change is Yunlin. In 2013-2014, projects that were sponsored by Taiwan's government analyzed the relationship among synthesized vulnerability, ecological footprint (EF) and adaptation to climate change and proposed 15 categories of synthesized vulnerability and EF values. This study further examines the relationship between vulnerability and EF values and examines how residents of four townships-Linnei, Sihu, Mailiao, and Huwei-cope with the effects of climate change. This study investigates whether the residents of the four townships vary in their attitudes to climate change, their perceptions of disaster risk, and their behavioral intentions with respect to coping with climate change. The structural equation model (SEM) is used to examine the relationships among attitudes to climate change, perceptions of disaster risk, and the behavioral intentions of residents in townships with various vulnerabilities to climate change. The results that are obtained using the SEM reveal that climate change mitigation/adaptation behavior is affected by attitudes to climate change and perceptions of disaster risk. However, the effects of attitudes and perceptions on mitigation and adaptation that are mediated by place attachment are not statistically significant.

  18. Perceptions of health and illness among the Konso people of southwestern Ethiopia: persistence and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Tebaber; Emirie, Guday; Kaba, Mirgissa; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Kloos, Helmut

    2018-02-26

    Cross-cultural studies indicate that every culture has its own particular explanations for health and illness and its own healing strategies. The Konso people have always practiced indigenous medicine and have multifaceted accounts or multiple dimensions of illness perceptions and health-care beliefs and practices. This paper describes how perceptions of health and illness are instrumental in health and treatment outcomes among the Konso people in southwestern Ethiopia. Results may provide an understanding of the perceptions of health and illness in relation to the local cosmology, religion, and environment. The ethnographic method was employed to generate evidence, complemented by focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and direct observation. Thematic analysis was employed to categorize and interpret the data. Findings indicate that the Konso people's worldview, particularly as it relates to health, illness, and healing systems, is closely linked to their day-to-day lives. Older people believe illnesses are caused by a range of supernatural forces, including the wrath of God or local gods, oritta (spirit possession), and karayitta (ancestral spirits), and they use culturally prescribed treatment. Young and formally educated members of the community attribute causes of diseases to germitta (germs) and factorta (bacteria) and tend to seek treatment mostly in modern health facilities. Perceptions of health and illness as well as of healing are part of Konso people's worldview. Local communities comprehend health problems and solutions within their cultural frame of reference, which has changed over the years. The Konso people associate their health situations with socio-cultural and religious factors. The individual's behavior and interactions with the social, natural, and supernatural powers affect the well-being of the whole group. The individual, the family, the clan leaders, and the deceased are intimately linked to one's culturally based health beliefs

  19. Adaptive Changes in the Perception of Fast and Slow Movement at Different Head Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Occhigrossi, Chiara; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Lucertini, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration). The rotations induced a bias in the perception of velocity (more pronounced with fast than with slow motion). At the end of rotation, a marked target position error (TPE) was present. For the on-vertical axis rotations, the TPE was no different if the rotations were performed with a 30° nose-down, a 60° nose-up, or a 90° side-down head tilt. With off-vertical axis rotations, the simultaneous activation of the semicircular canals and otolithic receptors produced a significant increase of TPE for all head positions. This difference between on-vertical and off-vertical axis rotation was probably partly due to the vestibular transfer function and partly due to different adaptation to the speed of rotation. Such a phenomenon might be generated in different components of the vestibular system. The adaptive process enhancing the perception of dynamic movement around the vertical axis is not related to the specific semicircular canals that are activated; the addition of an otolithic component results in a significant increase of the TPE.Panichi R, Occhigrossi C, Ferraresi A, Faralli M, Lucertini M, Pettorossi VE. Adaptive changes in the perception of fast and slow movement at different head positions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):463-468.

  20. Teachers' perceptions of effective science, technology, and mathematics professional development and changes in classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriack, Anna Christine

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' perceptions of professional development and changes in classroom practice. A proposed conceptual framework for effective professional development that results in changes in classroom practices was developed. Data from two programs that provided professional development to teachers in the areas of technology, mathematics, and science was used to inform the conceptual framework. These two programs were Target Technology in Texas (T3) and Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Preparation Academies (MSTTPA). This dissertation used a multiple article format to explore each program separately, yet the proposed conceptual framework allowed for comparisons to be made between the two programs. The first study investigated teachers' perceptions of technology-related professional development after their districts had received a T3 grant. An online survey was administrated to all teachers to determine their perceptions of technology-related professional development along with technology self-efficacy. Classroom observations were conducted to determine if teachers were implementing technology. The results indicated that teachers did not perceive professional development as being effective and were not implementing technology in their classrooms. Teachers did have high technology self-efficacy and perceived adequate school support, which implies that effective professional development may be a large factor in whether or not teachers implement technology in their classrooms. The second study evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of mathematics and science professional development offered through a MSTTP academy. Current and former participants completed an online survey which measured their perceptions of academy activities and school environment. Participants also self-reported classroom implementation of technology. Interviews and open-ended survey questions were used to provide further insight into

  1. Perceptions of inpatient rehabilitation changes after the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service 2010 regulatory updates contrasted with actual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Richard V; Roberts, Pamela S; DiVita, Margaret A; Niewczyk, Paulette; Granger, Carl V

    2014-01-01

    To compare and contrast subjective perceptions with objective compliance of the impact of the 2010 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service updates of the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual. Cross-sectional survey. An electronic survey was sent by the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation to all enrolled inpatient rehabilitation facility subscribers (n = 817). The survey was sent April 15, 2011, and responses were tabulated if they were received by May 15, 2011. Comparing and contrasting of the subjective perception to objective evaluation and/or compliance with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual on case mix index, length of stay, admissions by diagnostic category as well as perception of preadmission screening, postadmission evaluation, plan of care, and interdisciplinary conferencing. Twenty-five percent of the 817 facilities responded, for a total of 209 responses. Complete data were present in 148 of the respondents. For most diagnostic categories, perception of change did not mirror reality of change; neither did the perception between change in case mix index and length of stay. Perception did match reality in stroke and multiple trauma cases; respondents perceived an increase in admissions for the 2 impairments, and there was an overall increase in reality. Comparison with actual data identified that gaps exist between diagnostic category perceptions and actual diagnostic category admission performance. Regulations such as the 75%-60% rule and audit focus on non-neurologic conditions as well as actual inpatient rehabilitation facility program payment reports may have influenced respondents perceptions to change associated with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual modifications. This disparity between perception and actual data may have implications for programmatic planning, forecasting, and resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Benefits of rehabilitation with implants in masticatory function: is patient perception of change in accordance with the real improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rogeria Acedo; Melo, Ana Cláudia Moreira; Budel, Lucimara A; Gama, Josiane Cristina; de Mattias Sartori, Ivete Aparecida; Thomé, Geninho

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the index of satisfaction and masticatory function of edentulous patients before and after rehabilitation and to evaluate if patients' perception of the changes in their oral health status is in agreement with the results of masticatory performance test. Fourteen edentulous patients were rehabilitated with lower implant-supported fixed prosthesis and upper removable dentures. Index of satisfaction and masticatory capacity (subjective analysis) and performance test (objective analysis) were evaluated before and 20 days and 8 months after rehabilitation. The patients were asked to respond a yes/no masticatory capacity questionnaire and to rate their oral satisfaction on a 0 to 10 Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Masticatory performance test comprised the ability of the individual to pulverize an artificial test food (Optocal), after 20 and 40 masticatory strokes. When baseline answers were compared to answers 8 months after treatment, all questions, excepting the ones that considered pain and social disability, were statistically different. Wilcoxon test was used to compare index of satisfaction before and after treatment. All answers showed statistically significant differences, excluding the one that referred to ease of cleaning the prostheses. Considering the masticatory performance test, Student t test (normally distributed) and Wilcoxon test (non-normally distributed) were used to test the null hypothesis that the weight of the particles of the test food left in sieves were equal in all times of evaluation. In the larger sieve with 20 cycles, statistically significant differences were observed between baseline and 8 months, 20 days and 8 months. With 40 strokes, baseline and 20 days, baseline and 8 months and 20 days and 8 months showed significant differences. It was concluded that oral rehabilitation leads to better masticatory function in edentulous patients and there is a coincidence between patient perception and real improvement on

  3. An Investigation of Teacher, Principal, and Superintendent Perceptions on the Ability of the National Framework for Principal Evaluations to Measure Principals' Leadership Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions of effective principals' leadership competencies; determine if the perceptions of teachers, principals, and superintendents aligned with the proposed National Framework for Principal Evaluations initiative. This study examined the six domains of leadership outlined by the…

  4. Danish geography teachers' perceptions of their own teaching professionalism according to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports from research examining eight Geography teachers’ own perceptions of their teaching professionalism, understood as Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), in relation to the topic of climate change. Apparently, Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Physical Geography...... and natural science are more familiar to teach the sub-subject of weather formation in connection to climatic change, than Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Human Geography and social science. The teachers orientated against Human Geography put emphasis on the more problem......-oriented/discursive aspects of teaching climate change, some of them neglecting parts of the curriculum focused on weather formation. Most of the interviewed Geography teachers emphasize the collegial cooperation with science colleagues e.g. during professional development activities, when reflecting on their own teaching...

  5. Knowledge and Perceptions of Overweight Employees about Lifestyle-Related Health Benefit Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Linnan, Laura; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Tate, Deborah; Naseer, Carolyn; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated overweight state employees’ perceptions about health insurance benefit changes designed to reduce the scope of health benefits for employees who were obese or smoked. Methods Prior to implementation of health benefit plan changes, 658 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2] state employees enrolled in a weight loss intervention study were asked about their attitudes and beliefs of the new benefit plan changes. Results Thirty-one percent of employees with a BMI≥40 kg/ m2 were unaware that their current BMI would place them in a higher risk benefit plan. More than half reported that the new benefit change would motivate them to make behavioral changes, but less than half felt confident in making changes. Respondents with a BMI≥40 kg/m2 were more likely to oppose the new changes focused on BMI categories compared to respondents in lower BMI categories (Pnon-smokers (Pconfidence to lose weight was lowest among those in the highest weight categories, health plan benefit modifications may be required to achieve desired health behavior changes. PMID:21901911

  6. Painful procedures and analgesia in the NICU: what has changed in the medical perception and practice in a ten‐year period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Yoshikumi Prestes

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite an increase in the medical perception of neonatal pain and in analgesic use during painful procedures, the gap between clinical practice and neonatologist perception of analgesia need did not change during the ten‐year period.

  7. Climate change and consequences in the Arctic: perception of climate change by the Nenets people of Vaigach Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, Alexander N; Mikhailova, Galina V

    2011-01-01

    Arctic climate change is already having a significant impact on the environment, economic activity, and public health. For the northern peoples, traditions and cultural identity are closely related to the natural environment so any change will have consequences for society in several ways. A questionnaire was given to the population on the Vaigach island, the Nenets who rely to a large degree on hunting, fishing and reindeer herding for survival. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted about perception of climate change. Climate change is observed and has already had an impact on daily life according to more than 50% of the respondents. The winter season is now colder and longer and the summer season colder and shorter. A decrease in standard of living was noticeable but few were planning to leave. Climate change has been noticed in the region and it has a negative impact on the standard of living for the Nenets. However, as of yet they do not want to leave as cultural identity is important for their overall well-being.

  8. Positive Change in Feedback Perceptions and Behavior: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Mejia, Erika; Rezet, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Providing and learning from feedback are essential components of medical education, and typically described as resistant to change. But given a decade of change in the clinical context in which feedback occurs, the authors asked if, and how, perceptions of feedback and feedback behaviors might have changed in response to contextual affordances. In 2017, the authors conducted a follow-up, ethnographic study on 2 general pediatric floors at the same children's hospital where another ethnographic study on a general pediatric floor was conducted in 2007. Data sources included (1) 21 and 34 hours of observation in 2007 and 2017, respectively, (2) 35 and 25 interviews with general pediatric attending physicians and residents in 2007 and 2017, respectively, and (3) a review of 120 program documents spanning 2007 to 2017. Data were coded and organized around 3 recommendations for feedback that were derived from 2007 data and served as standards for assessing change in 2017. Data revealed progress in achieving each recommendation. Compared with 2007, participants in 2017 more clearly distinguished between feedback and evaluation; residents were more aware of in-the-moment feedback, and they had shifted their orientation from evaluation and grades to feedback and learning. Explanations for progress in achieving recommendations, which were derived from the data, pointed to institutional and national influences, namely, the pediatric milestones. On the basis of follow-up, ethnographic data, changes in the clinical context of pediatric education may afford positive change in perceptions of feedback and feedback behavior and point to influences within and beyond the institution. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Perceptions of Socio-Ecological Changes and Their Implications on Changes in Farming Practises and Agricultural Land Uses in the Savannahs of Northeast Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kojo Boateng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the perceptions of local farming households in the savannahs of northeast Ghana about the patterns of ecological and social changes happening around them over the years. It then unpacks how those perceptions are influencing farming practices and agricultural land use changes. Theoretical and empirical understandings of the value of local resource users’ perceptual judgements about changes in their socio-ecological environment and how they respond to those changes have far-reaching implications for design of agricultural development and sustainable land management policies. Consideration of local perceptions offers more informed basis to design and implement agricultural development policies in ways that encourage active local participation, sustainable livelihoods development, and responsiveness to changing conditions. This departs from current conventional implementation systems, which are usually top-down and based on technical and political aspects of agricultural land management, but do not necessarily comprehend processes influencing the agency of local communities in shaping various agricultural land use outcomes.

  10. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  11. Perceptions of Obvious and Disruptive Climate Change: Community-Based Risk Assessment for Two Native Villages in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Rosales

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work operationalizes the determinants of climate change risk, exposure and vulnerability, through the perceptions held by Native hunters, fishers, and gatherers in Savoonga and Shaktoolik, Alaska. Informed by their skill, experience, and the traditional knowledge of their elders, hunters, fishers, and gatherers in these communities are astute observers of their environment and environmental change. A questionnaire is used to sort and rank their perceptions of the most obvious and disruptive elements of climate change as representations of exposure and vulnerability, respectively. Results represent the relative strength and significance of those perceptions of environmental change. In addition to other changes, storms are among the most obvious and disruptive impacts of climate change to respondents in both communities, while changes to sea ice tend to be more disruptive in Savoonga, a more ice-obligate culture, than Shaktoolik. Changes on the tundra are more obvious in Shaktoolik, but is the least disruptive category of change in both villages. Changes along the coast were both obvious and disruptive, albeit more so in Shaktoolik than Savoonga. The findings suggest that traditional ecological knowledge is a valuable source of information to access perceptions of risk, and develop climate risk management and adaptation plans. The questionnaire design and statistical methodology may be of interest to those working on community-based adaptation and risk assessment projects in high-risk, poor, and marginalized Native communities with small populations.

  12. The effect of a medical opinion on self-perceptions of weight for Mexican adults: perception of change and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Jonathan F; Stephens, Christopher R; Román Sicilia, Heriberto

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the relationship between perceived and actual Body Mass Index (BMI) and the effect of a prior identification of obesity by a medical professional for adults using difference in response for two distinct BMI self-perception questions. Typically, self-perception studies only investigate the relation with current weight, whereas here the focus is on the self-perception of weight differences. A statistical approach was used to assess responses to the Mexican ENSANUT 2006 survey. Adults in the range of BMI from 13 to 60 were tested on responses to a categorical question and a figure rating scale self-perception question. Differences in response by gender and identification of obesity by a medical professional were analysed using linear regression. Results indicated that regardless of current BMI and gender, a verbal intervention by a medical professional will increase perceived BMI independently of actual BMI but does not necessarily make the identified obese more accurate in their BMI estimates. A shift in the average self-perception was seen with a higher response for the identified obese. A linear increase in perceived BMI as a function of actual BMI was observed in the range BMI self-image, to be considerably less. It was seen that an identification of obesity by a health care professional did not improve ability to judge weight but, rather, served as a new anchor from which the identified obese judge their weight, suggesting that even those identified obese who have lost weight, perceive their weight to be greater than it actually is. We believe that these results can be explained in terms of two cognitive biases; the self-serving bias and the anchoring bias.

  13. Hegemonic Masculinity, HIV/AIDS Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior Change Among Young People in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori

    2016-05-01

    Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Changing students' perceptions of the homeless: A community service learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Janet; Emory, Jan

    2018-03-01

    The homeless are an underserved, local vulnerable population that can benefit from a service learning clinical practicum experience for baccalaureate prepared nursing students. Negative attitudes and disrespect among healthcare workers has been identified by the homeless as a barrier to healthcare. A service learning experience with a vulnerable population has been shown to change nursing students' attitudes and beliefs. A large university in a southern city partnered with a community based organization that provided services to the homeless to educate senior nursing students in a service learning experience. The goal of this project was to examine attitudes and perceptions of nursing students toward the homeless population before and after participation in a service learning clinical practicum experience. This case study utilized a pre and post experience questionnaire to collect qualitative data for the purposes of the project. The findings revealed students demonstrated a decrease in fear, an increase in empathy, and a deeper understanding of the advocacy role of nurses for people experiencing homelessness. Nurse educators are challenged to engage students with vulnerable populations to change the attitudes and perceptions for improvement in the overall health of communities served worldwide. Partnerships and service learning experiences can benefit all. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TVA, Abnormal Return, and Investor Perception on Changing of Tick Size 2 May 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Gunarsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the market reaction to the changing of capital market’s tick size regulation in May 2, 2016. The main goal of the regulation was to increase the capital market liquidity, then it’s important to test whether there was a difference in market liquidity before and after the regulation released. The method of this study was studying with Trading Volume Activity (TVA and abnormal return based on secondary data and also investor perception based on primary data. The secondary data consist of 65 samples of listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The primary data consist of 67 investors in Yogyakarta that were selected using purposive sampling method.The result of this study was mix, there was no difference before and after the release of regulation in TVA, but there was a difference in abnormal return. The result of investor perception shows that there was a positive response to the changing of tick size regulation.

  16. Perceptual asymmetry in texture perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D; Julesz, B

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental property of human visual perception is our ability to distinguish between textures. A concerted effort has been made to account for texture segregation in terms of linear spatial filter models and their nonlinear extensions. However, for certain texture pairs the ease of discrimination changes when the role of figure and ground are reversed. This asymmetry poses a problem for both linear and nonlinear models. We have isolated a property of texture perception that can account for...

  17. Perceptions of water access in the context of climate change by rural households in the Seke and Murewa districts, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mudombi, Shakespear; Muchie, Mammo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess perceptions of rural household heads with regard to various aspects of water access and climate change, and to evaluate whether there were significant differences in perceptions of respondents from female-headed and male-headed households. The study is based on a cross-sectional survey of 300 respondents conducted in the Seke and Murewa districts of Zimbabwe in 2011. The analysis included mainly descriptive statistics. The majority of both female-heade...

  18. [Developmental changes in reading ability of Japanese elementary school children--analysis of 4 kana reading tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Kaga, Makiko; Goto, Takaaki; Koike, Toshihide; Wakamiya, Eiji; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight Japanese elementary school children aged from 6 (Grade 1) to 12 (Grade 6) were tested for their abilities to read Hiragana characters, words, and short sentences. They were typically developing children whom the classroom teachers judged to have no problems with reading and writing in Japanese. Each child was asked to read four tasks which were written in Hiragana script: single mora reading task, four syllable non-word reading task, four syllable word reading task, and short sentence reading task. The total articulation time for reading and performance in terms of accuracy were measured for each task. Developmental changes in these variables were evaluated. The articulation time was significantly longer for the first graders, and it gradually shortened as they moved through to the upper grades in all tasks. The articulation time reached a plateau in the 4th grade for the four syllable word and short sentence reading tasks, while it did so for the single mora and four syllable non-word reading tasks in the 5th grade. The articulation times for the four syllable word and short sentence reading tasks correlated strongly. There were very few clear errors for all tasks, and the number of such errors significantly changed between the school grades only for the single mora and four syllable word reading tasks. It was noted that more than half of the children read the beginning portion of the word or phrase twice or more, in order to read it accurately, and developmental changes were also seen in this pattern of reading. This study revealed that the combination of these reading tasks may function as a screening test for reading disorders such as developmental dyslexia in children below the age of ten or eleven years old.

  19. A Study of Rural Senegalese Attitudes and Perceptions of Their Behavior to Changes in the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Amadou M.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Semi-structured focus group discussions were employed to capture rural Senegalese attitudes and perceptions of their behavior to changes in the climate and their land use and livelihood strategies. Seven focus groups stratified by gender, ethnicity (Wolof and Peulh) and dominant production system (cultivators and pastoralists) in five villages in semi-arid northern Senegal revealed seven main themes. Rural livelihoods remain predominantly based on rainfall dependant practices, and although cultivators and pastoralists had a clear appreciation of changes in natural resources compared to a perceived more favorable past, few adaptive coping strategies beyond established ones were advocated. The seven themes are discussed in detail and their implications for rural livelihoods under future long term climate predictions discussed with the implications of this study for the development of scenarios of future land cover land use.

  20. NASA Family Science Night: Changing perceptions one family at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara E.; Drobnes, Emilie; Sol Colina-Trujillo, M.; Noel-Storr, Jacob

    2008-12-01

    Parents and families have the greatest influence on children's attitudes towards education and career choices. If students' attitudes towards science, particularly the physical sciences, are not influenced positively by parental/familial attitudes, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching of these subjects in school may be futile. Research shows that parental involvement increases student achievement outcomes, and family-oriented programs have a direct impact on student performance. Based on this premise, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center started a series of Family Science Nights for middle school students and their families. The program provides a non-threatening venue for families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by engaging in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

  1. The Pain and Ecstasy: Pre-service Teacher Perceptions On Changing Teacher Roles and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Dyer

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Are pre-service teachers really open to change? Are they prepared for the shifts in their roles that are likely to occur over the next few decades? Are they developing a critical consciousness, to better assume leadership roles in educational change? These questions framed this exploration which qualitatively investigated pre-service teachers' perceptions of their role as educators in relation to advanced technologies. Pre-service teachers were asked to respond to a reading identifying (via an open ended think paper assignment what they liked and did not like about the future vision of education offered in the reading. Their responses indicate a strong conflict between the desire to work with motivated, responsible students who are actively engaged in their own learning and their notion of what a teacher should be, based on their own experiences in schools.

  2. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  3. Constructing Perceptions of Climate Change: a case study of regional political decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D.

    2012-12-01

    This case study of climate change communications assesses the salient means of communication and the message adopted by regional political decision makers on the German Baltic coast. Realizing that cultural factors and local values (and not simply knowledge) are significant influences in explaining attitudes towards climate change, this analysis draws from the records of regional weather, from scientists with a specific focus on the region, from the political decision makers for that region, and the media message reaching the decision makers, ensuring all elements of the analysis are drawn from the same socioeconomic, geophysical, political and cultural context. This is important as the social dynamics surrounding the trust in science is of critical importance and, as such, all elements of the case study are specifically contained within a common context. If the utility of climate change knowledge is to prompt well conceived adaptation/mitigation strategies then the political decision process, or at least the perceptions shaping it, can best be understood by locating it within the world view of the decision makers involved in the production process. Using the results of two survey questionnaires, one of regional climate scientists and one of regional political decision makers, ten years of local weather records, and a summary of the message from mass media circulation, the discord in perceptions of regional climate change are quantitatively explored. The conclusions drawn from the analysis include, compared to the scientific assessment: The decision makers' perceptions of recent past differ from actual observations. The decision makers' perceptions of the future differ from scientific assessments. The decision makers tend to over estimate the magnitude of regional climate change and its impacts. The decision makers tend to over estimate the sense of immediacy for adaptation measures. The conclusions drawn suggest that in the regional political realm, it is often a

  4. Smallholder Farmers’ Perceptions on Climate Change and the Use of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Makate

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing regions with high levels of poverty and a dependence on climate sensitive agriculture, studies focusing on climate change adaptation, planning, and policy processes, have gained relative importance over the years. This study assesses the impact of farmer perceptions regarding climate change on the use of sustainable agricultural practices as an adaptation strategy in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa. In this empirical approach, we adopt methods that account for the plausibility that unmeasured characteristics exist, which are correlated with perceptions and the adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Practices. We use a unique and representative dataset collected in December 2012 and June 2013, from smallholder farmers in the Chinyanja Triangle. The results indicate that farmer’s perceptions significantly influence the use of sustainable agricultural practices. Specifically, we established that farmer perceptions considerably impact the use of grain legume rotations, inorganic fertilizers, compost, and farmyard manure. Our results highlight the need for a serious and perhaps equal consideration of farmer perceptions regarding climate change, as important inputs to climate change adaptation policies targeted at enhancing climatic resilience in smallholder farming communities. This is plausible as the adaptation and pliability of farmers to the effects of climate change should be a social process involving the collective efforts from various stakeholders.

  5. A value orientation approach to assess and compare climate change risk perception among trout anglers in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Paudyal; Neelam C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; Adrienne M. Dorison; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Gary T. Green

    2015-01-01

    Trout in Georgia could experience early impacts from climate change as the streams in the region are located at the southern most edge of their North American home range. This study surveyed trout anglers in Georgia to understand how anglers perceive the potential impact of climate change on trout, and whether and how their perception and response to declines in trout...

  6. "I'm Not Stupid after All"--Changing Perceptions of Self as a Tool for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willans, Julie; Seary, Karen

    2007-01-01

    When adult learners return to formal education after a period of absence, coping with change is a constant and often omnipresent challenge. As they come to break down previous barriers to success in an educational arena, many adult learners are able to change the perceptions they have of themselves as learners. Previously held assumptions are…

  7. Forest Cover Change, Key Drivers and Community Perception in Wujig Mahgo Waren Forest of Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negasi Solomon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed forest cover change from 1985 to 2016, analyzed community perception on forest cover change and its drivers, and suggested possible solutions in northern Ethiopia. Landsat images of 1985, 2000 and 2016, household interviews and focus group discussions were used. While dense forests and open forests increased by 8.2% and 32.3% respectively between 1985 and 2000, they decreased by 10.4% and 9.8% respectively from 2000 to 2016. Grasslands and cultivated land decreased in the first period by 37.3% and 5.5% but increased in the second period by 89.5% and 28.5% respectively. Fuel wood collection, cultivated land expansion, population growth; free grazing, logging for income generation and drought were the major drivers of the change reported by local communities. Soil erosion, reduction in honey bee production, flooding and drought were the most perceived impacts of the changes. Most of the farmers have a holistic understanding of forest cover change. Strengthening of forest protection, improving soil and water conservation, enrichment planting, awareness creation, payment for ecosystem services and zero grazing campaigns were mentioned as possible solutions to the current state of deforestation. In addition, concerted efforts of conservation will ensure that the forests’ ecosystems contribute to increased ecosystem services.

  8. Understanding Perceptions of Climate Change, Priorities, and Decision-Making among Municipalities in Lima, Peru to Better Inform Adaptation and Mitigation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siña, Mariella; Wood, Rachel C; Saldarriaga, Enrique; Lawler, Joshua; Zunt, Joseph; Garcia, Patricia; Cárcamo, César

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status.

  9. Changes in Muscle Architecture, Explosive Ability, and Track and Field Throwing Performance Throughout a Competitive Season and After a Taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Harrison, Alex P; Sato, Kimitake; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; DeWeese, Brad H; Stone, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a 1-week overreach followed by a 3-week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly. Athletes were tested pre-ORT and post-ORT on measures of vastus lateralis architecture, unloaded and loaded squat and countermovement jump performance, underhand and overhead throwing performance, and competition throwing performance. There was a statistical reduction in weight training VLd/session (d = 1.21, p ≤ 0.05) and RPETL/session (d = 0.9, p ≤ 0.05) between the in-season and ORT training phases. Five of 6 athletes improved overhead throw and competition throwing performance after the ORT (d = 0.50, p ≤ 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle thickness statistically increased after the in-season training phase (d = 0.28, p ≤ 0.05) but did not change after the ORT. Unloaded countermovement jump peak force and relative peak power improved significantly after the ORT (d = 0.59, p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.31, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). These findings demonstrate that an overreaching week followed by a 3-week taper is an effective means of improving explosive ability and throwing performance in collegiate track and field throwers despite the absence of detectable changes in muscle architecture.

  10. Using virtual reality to augment perception, enhance sensorimotor adaptation, and change our minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances that involve human sensorimotor processes can have both intended and unintended effects on the central nervous system (CNS). This mini review focuses on the use of virtual environments (VE) to augment brain functions by enhancing perception, eliciting automatic motor behavior, and inducing sensorimotor adaptation. VE technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in medical rehabilitation, training simulators, gaming, and entertainment. Although these VE applications have often been shown to optimize outcomes, whether it be to speed recovery, reduce training time, or enhance immersion and enjoyment, there are inherent drawbacks to environments that can potentially change sensorimotor calibration. Across numerous VE studies over the years, we have investigated the effects of combining visual and physical motion on perception, motor control, and adaptation. Recent results from our research involving exposure to dynamic passive motion within a visually-depicted VE reveal that short-term exposure to augmented sensorimotor discordance can result in systematic aftereffects that last beyond the exposure period. Whether these adaptations are advantageous or not, remains to be seen. Benefits as well as risks of using VE-driven sensorimotor stimulation to enhance brain processes will be discussed.

  11. Using virtual reality to augment perception, enhance sensorimotor adaptation, and change our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Geoffrey Wright

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances that involve human sensorimotor processes can have both intended and unintended effects on the central nervous system (CNS. This mini-review focuses on the use of virtual environments (VE to augment brain functions by enhancing perception, eliciting automatic motor behavior, and inducing sensorimotor adaptation. VE technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in medical rehabilitation, training simulators, gaming, and entertainment. Although these VE applications have often been shown to optimize outcomes, whether it be to speed recovery, reduce training time, or enhance immersion and enjoyment, there are inherent drawbacks to environments that can potentially change sensorimotor calibration. Across numerous VE studies over the years, we have investigated the effects of combining visual and physical motion on perception, motor control, and adaptation. Recent results from our research involving exposure to dynamic passive motion within a visually-depicted VE reveal that short-term exposure to augmented sensorimotor discordance can result in systematic aftereffects that last beyond the exposure period. Whether these adaptations are advantageous or not, remains to be seen. Benefits as well as risks of using VE-driven sensorimotor stimulation to enhance brain processes will be discussed.

  12. Linear Parks along Urban Rivers: Perceptions of Thermal Comfort and Climate Change Adaptation in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Giannakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of green space along urban rivers could mitigate urban heat island effects, enhance the physical and mental well-being of city dwellers, and improve flood resilience. A linear park has been recently created along the ephemeral Pedieos River in the urban area of Nicosia, Cyprus. Questionnaire surveys and micrometeorological measurements were conducted to explore people’s perceptions and satisfaction regarding the services of the urban park. People’s main reasons to visit the park were physical activity and exercise (67%, nature (13%, and cooling (4%. The micrometeorological measurements in and near the park revealed a relatively low cooling effect (0.5 °C of the park. However, the majority of the visitors (84% were satisfied or very satisfied with the cooling effect of the park. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of individuals feeling very comfortable under a projected 3 °C future increase in temperature would be 0.34 times lower than the odds of feeling less comfortable. The discrepancies between the observed thermal comfort index and people’s perceptions revealed that people in semi-arid environments are adapted to the hot climatic conditions; 63% of the park visitors did not feel uncomfortable at temperatures between 27 °C and 37 °C. Further research is needed to assess other key ecosystems services of this urban green river corridor, such as flood protection, air quality regulation, and biodiversity conservation, to contribute to integrated climate change adaptation planning.

  13. Has the Traditional Social Perception on Nurses Changed?: attribution of Stereotypes and Gender Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three groups: patients, non-patients and nursing students. Gender stereotypes and gender roles assignment were analyzing using two factors: level of social domination orientation, and the group membership. Results showed that the gender stereotypes assignment to male and female nurses displayed some similarities; therefore a less stereotypical perception was observed comparing with other recent research. Moreover, participants low in social dominance orientation indicated a preference to traditional gender roles. Considering the group we found a traditional assignment of gender stereotypes over female and male nurses, even among nursing students. In sum, despite the dynamism of the nurses' social perception, still remains a gender bias that needs to be avoided.

  14. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Change Perceptions Concerning the Satisfaction of Organization Members' Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan COJOCARU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the innovative use of appreciative inquiry (AI in the organizational environment for changing the perception concerning the satisfaction of its members’ needs. The experiment started from the assumption that organizations are social constructions generated by the interpretations social actors have about this entity and about themselves, being the result of human interactions. The experiment used the appreciative inquiry as form of intervention, run in the four stages of the 4-D cycle. The results of the intervention show that, although appreciative inquiry was directed chiefly towards changing the perceptions concerning the satisfaction of the need for security, the interpretations given by organization members changed with regard to the satisfaction of all needs (security, basic needs, belonging, esteem and self-actualization. The study shows that motivation can be changed through an appreciative approach of events, through their reinterpretation within a process of dialogue and consensus; the reinterpretation of the organization as a text and the application of appreciative inquiry principles results in an organizational reconstruction as a process that can be run in a relatively short period of time. The positive changes of the organizational environment were also a result of the way the organization was researched. The appreciative interviews resulted in individual reinterpretations of organizational contexts, which were negotiated and assumed in the environment of the collectivity. The changes were supported by the organization members’ involvement in building a shared vision, in making a plan in which every person is a voice in the organization, and in developing attachment and ownership in relation to the developed plans.

  15. Farmers' Perceptions of and Adaptations to Changing Climate in the Melamchi Valley of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Maiya Sujakhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of farmers’ perceptions of and adaptations to climate change is important to inform policies addressing the risk of climate change to farmers. This case study explored those issues in the Melamchi Valley of Nepal through a survey of 365 households and focus group discussions in 6 communities using a Community-Based Risk Screening Tool–Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL. Analysis of climate trends in the study area for 1979–2009 showed that mean annual temperatures rose by 1.02°C and the frequency of drought increased measurably after 2003. Farmers reported increases in crop pests, hailstorms, landslides, floods, thunderstorms, and erratic precipitation as climate-related hazards affecting agriculture. They responded in a variety of ways including changing farming practices, selling livestock, milk, and eggs, and engaging in daily wage labor and seasonal labor migration. With more efficient support and planning, some of these measures could be adjusted to better meet current and future risks from climate change.

  16. A Vision and Change Reform of Introductory Biology Shifts Faculty Perceptions and Use of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Increasing faculty use of active-learning (AL) pedagogies in college classrooms is a persistent challenge in biology education. A large research-intensive university implemented changes to its biology majors’ two-course introductory sequence as outlined by the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education final report. One goal of the curricular reform was to integrate core biological concepts and competencies into the courses using AL pedagogical approaches. The purpose of this study was to observe the instructional practices used by faculty (N = 10) throughout the 3-year process of reform to determine whether the use of AL strategies (including student collaboration) increased, given that it can maximize student learning gains. Instructors participated in yearly interviews to track any change in their perceptions of AL instruction. Instructors increased their average use of AL by 12% (group AL by 8%) of total class time throughout the 3-year study. Interviews revealed that instructors shifted their definitions of AL and talked more about how to assess student learning over the 3 years of the project. Collaboration, feedback, and time may have been important factors in the reform, suggesting that small shifts over time can accumulate into real change in the classroom. PMID:29146663

  17. Changing the model of care delivery: nurses' perceptions of job satisfaction and care effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Judith; Manuel, Madonna; Cunning, Glenda

    2011-09-01

    To examine nurses' perceptions of job satisfaction, empowerment, and care effectiveness following a change from team to a modified total patient care (TPC) delivery model. Empirical data related to TPC is limited and inconclusive. Similarly, evidence demonstrating nurses' experience with change and restructuring is limited. A mixed method, longitudinal, descriptive design was used. Registered nurses and licenced practical nurses in two acute-care nursing units completed quantitative and qualitative surveys. Lewin's change theory provided the framework for the study. No significant change in job satisfaction was observed; however, it was less than optimal at all three time-periods. Nurses were committed to their jobs but relatively dissatisfied with their input into the goals and processes of the organization. Client care was perceived to be more effective under TPC. Job satisfaction remained consistent following the transition to TPC. However, nurses perceived that client care within the modified TPC model was more effective than in the previous model. Nursing administration must work collaboratively with nurses to improve processes in nursing practice that could enhance nurses' job satisfaction and improve client care delivery. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Changing job seekers' image perceptions during recruitment visits: the moderating role of belief confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Jerel E; Cable, Daniel M; Turban, Daniel B

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how an important construct in social psychology-confidence in one's beliefs-could both (a) influence the effectiveness of organizations' recruiting processes and (b) be changed during recruitment. Using a sample of recruits to a branch of the United States military, the authors studied belief confidence before and after recruits' formal visits to the organization's recruiting stations. Personal sources of information had a stronger influence on recruits' belief confidence than impersonal sources. Moreover, recruits' confidence in their initial beliefs affected how perceptions of the recruiter changed their employer images. Among participants with low-initial confidence, the relation between recruitment experiences and employer images was positive and linear across the whole range of recruitment experiences. Among recruits with high-initial confidence, however, the recruitment experience-image relationship was curvilinear, such that recruitment experiences were related to images only at more positive recruitment experiences. The relationship between recruitment experiences and changes in belief confidence was also curvilinear, such that only more positive recruitment experiences led to changes in confidence. These results indicate not only that belief confidence influences the effectiveness of recruiting efforts but also that recruiting efforts can influence belief confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Effectiveness of a behavior change communication intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions about abortion in Bihar and Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn L; Warvadekar, Janardan; Pearson, Erin

    2013-09-01

    Although abortion became legal in India in 1971, many women are unaware of the law. Behavior change communication interventions may be an effective way to promote awareness of the law and change knowledge of and perceptions about abortion, particularly in settings in which abortion is stigmatized. To evaluate the effectiveness of a behavior change communication intervention to improve women's knowledge about India's abortion law and their perceptions about abortion, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in intervention and comparison districts in Bihar and Jharkhand. Household surveys were administered at baseline in 2008 and at follow-up in 2010 to independent, randomly selected cross-sectional samples of rural married women aged 15-49. Logistic regression difference-in-differences models were used to assess program effectiveness. Analysis demonstrated program effectiveness in improving awareness and perceptions about abortion. The changes in the odds of knowing that abortion is legal and where to obtain safe abortion services were larger between baseline and follow-up in the intervention districts than the changes in odds observed in the comparison districts (odds ratios, 16.1 and 1.9, respectively). Similarly, the increase in women's perception of greater social support for abortion within their families and the increase in perceived self-efficacy with respect to family planning and abortion between baseline and follow-up was greater in the intervention districts than in the comparison districts (coefficients, 0.17 and 0.18, respectively). Behavior change communication interventions can be effective in improving knowledge of and perceptions about abortion in settings in which lack of accurate knowledge hinders women's access to safe abortion services. Multiple approaches should be used when attempting to improve knowledge and perceptions about stigmatized health issues such as abortion.

  20. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  1. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, María Elena; Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Vera, Alejandro; Bahena, Alejandro; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2016-10-03

    To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men) aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines. Analizar las relaciones existentes entre victimización, percepción de inseguridad y cambios en las rutinas. Participaron en este estudio 8,170 sujetos de ambos sexos (49.9% mujeres y 50.1% hombres) de entre 12 y 60 años, seleccionados a partir de un muestro estratificado proporcional. El instrumento de medida fue una adaptación de la Encuesta Nacional

  2. Effects of requested, forced and denied shift schedule change on work ability and health of nurses in Europe -results from the European NEXT-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsch, Michael; Li, Jian; Derycke, Hanne; Müller, Bernd Hans; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2013-12-05

    Previous cross-sectional findings from the European Nurses Early Exit Study (NEXT) show that nurses who were dissatisfied with their work schedule tended to consider leaving the nursing profession. Mediating factors in this decision process may be caused by self-perceived poor work ability and/or health. The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in work ability and general health among nurses in relation to requested, forced and denied change of shift schedule. Longitudinal data from the NEXT Study was used. In total 11,102 nurses from Belgium, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, France and Italy completed both the 'basic questionnaire' (t1) and the '12 month follow-up questionnaire' (t2). To examine the time-effect (repeated measures) and the group-effect of five defined groups of nurses on the Work Ability Index (WAI) and general health (SF36), an adjusted 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed. The nurses who wanted to, but could not change their shifts during the 12 month follow-up had the lowest initial and follow-up scores for WAI (t1: 37.6, t2: 36.6, p work ability and to a lesser comparatively low extent with increased decline in health scores. A forced change of shift against the nurses' will was significantly associated with a deteriorating work ability and health. The findings would suggest that nurses' desire to change their shift patterns may be an indicator for perceived low work ability and/or low health. The results also indicate that fulfilling nurses' wishes with respect to their shift work pattern may improve their personal resources such as work ability and - to somewhat lesser extent - health. Disregarding nurses' preferences, however, bears the risk for further resource deterioration. The findings imply that shift schedule organization may constitute a valuable preventive tool to promote nurses' work ability and - to lesser extent - their perceived health, not least in aging nursing work forces.

  3. Mental Imagery Induces Cross-Modal Sensory Plasticity and Changes Future Auditory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2018-04-01

    Can what we imagine in our minds change how we perceive the world in the future? A continuous process of multisensory integration and recalibration is responsible for maintaining a correspondence between the senses (e.g., vision, touch, audition) and, ultimately, a stable and coherent perception of our environment. This process depends on the plasticity of our sensory systems. The so-called ventriloquism aftereffect-a shift in the perceived localization of sounds presented alone after repeated exposure to spatially mismatched auditory and visual stimuli-is a clear example of this type of plasticity in the audiovisual domain. In a series of six studies with 24 participants each, we investigated an imagery-induced ventriloquism aftereffect in which imagining a visual stimulus elicits the same frequency-specific auditory aftereffect as actually seeing one. These results demonstrate that mental imagery can recalibrate the senses and induce the same cross-modal sensory plasticity as real sensory stimuli.

  4. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  5. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  6. Changing public perceptions of genetically modified foods: Effects of consumer information and direct product experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    and values. Two policies can be adopted in such a situation: (a) consumers can be actively informed regarding the risks and benefits and (b) consumers can be given the opportunity to evaluate products on the basis of direct experience. The effectiveness of both policies was tested in two experiments....... In experiment 1, attitude change experiments were conducted with consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK (N=1650). Different information strategies were tested against a control group for their ability to change consumers' attitudes and their influence on product choice. Results indicate...... that no attitude change occured. Instead, all stategies seemed to bolster pre-existing attitudes, thereby significantly decreasing consumers' preferences for GM products. The effect did not occur when consumers only saw a labeled product example. In experiment 2, we tested the effects of direct experience...

  7. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  8. Epistemological Beliefs of Prospective Preschool Teachers and Their Relation to Knowledge, Perception, and Planning Abilities in the Field of Mathematics: A Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Eilerts, Katja; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Teacher competence is a multi-dimensional construct that includes beliefs as well as knowledge. The present study investigated the structure of prospective preschool teachers' mathematics-related beliefs and their relation to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, prospective preschool teachers' perception and planning…

  9. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution of the rural settlements were analysed using the nearest neighbour statistical analysis while descriptive statistics such as graphs and tables were used to present data. Rural settlements in Otukpo are randomly distributed and may be tending towards clustering. This is indicated by an Rn index value of 0.96 from the nearest neighbour analysis. Most of the settlements (59% have a distance of two to three kilometres between them. There is an inadequacy of functional facilities and poor access to services in the rural settlements in Otukpo. Respondents in rural settlements in Otukpo are faced with the risk of agricultural occupational loss (22%, water shortages (42%, flooding (29%, land based conflicts (16%, health hazards (12%, erosion (26%, and migration (57%. With evidence of climate change ascertained globally including Nigeria, the study concludes that rural settlements in Otukpo and elsewhere are vulnerable to the effects of climate change which is evident in literature. Government should plan appropriately to optimize standard of living and provide basic functional facilities and services for rural settlements.

  10. Association between perception of body image and stages of behavioral changes among physical education university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the percep­tion of body image and the stages of behavioral changes related to physical activity among Physical Education Students. Two hundred thirty six students were included. We measured the perception of body image (silhouettes scale, the stages of changes in behavior related to physical activity using a questionnaire developed by Marcus et al., and socio-demographic variables (gender, age, parental education, marital status, course, employment situation, housing, period of study and income. We used descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Fischer’s exact test, crude and adjusted multinomial regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. The prevalence of physically inactive behavior was 18.2% for males and 23.9% for females. Dissatisfaction with body image was associated with the stages of behavioral changes in females, with women with physically inactive behavior having greater odds of experiencing dissatisfaction with their body image, both for underweight (OR: 9.69; 95% CI: 1.05-89.30 and overweight (OR: 5.49; 95% CI: 1.07-28.11 when compared with women who were satisfied with their body image. We suggest the development of in­terventions aimed at the adoption of regular physical activity in order to promote greater satisfaction with body image.

  11. Household Perceptions about the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in the Mountainous Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to understand the mountainous households’ perception of climate change and its impacts on food security in the Lamjung district of Nepal. The study attempted to find out changes in households food security and daily activities in the face of climate change for the last twenty years. The study started with the 150 household surveys along with participatory rural appraisal to understand the climate change perception of local people and its impact on dimensions of food security. Households expressed different levels of perception in terms of climate change on food security. The result shows that most of the mountainous households experienced increased temperature, less rainfall in winter, an increasing number of natural disasters and the emergence of insects for the last twenty years. They perceived the role of climate change in decreased crop production, decreased dairy products and increased household work. The situation of food security is likely to be more vulnerable to climate change in the future. It was also observed that households have been using different autonomous adaptation measures, such as high yielding crop varieties, enhanced irrigation systems and fertilizers, to cope with the changing climate. Finally, the study recommended policy instruments to enhance food security in the mountainous region amidst changing climate.

  12. Is there a correlation between physicians' clinical impressions and patients' perceptions of change? Use of the Perceived Change Scale with inpatients with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pavan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Assessment of the results of treatment for mental disorders becomes more complete when the patient's perspective is incorporated. Here, we aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and application of the Perceived Change Scale - Patient version (PCS-P in a sample of inpatients with mental disorders. Methods: One hundred and ninety-one psychiatric inpatients answered the PCS-P and the Patients' Satisfaction with Mental Health Services Scale (SATIS and were evaluated in terms of clinical and sociodemographic data. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA was performed and internal consistency was calculated. The clinical impressions of the patient, family, and physician were correlated with the patient's perception of change. Results: The EFA indicated a psychometrically suitable four-factor solution. The PCS-P exhibited a coherent relationship with SATIS and had a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.856. No correlations were found between the physician's clinical global impression of improvement and the patient's perception of change, although a moderate positive correlation was found between the patients' clinical global impression of improvement and the change perceived by the patient. Conclusions: The PCS-P exhibited adequate psychometric proprieties in a sample of inpatients with mental disorders. The patient's perception of change is an important dimension for evaluation of outcomes in the treatment of mental disorders and differs from the physician's clinical impression of improvement. Evaluation of positive and negative perceptions of the various dimensions of the patient's life enables more precise consideration of the patient's priorities and interests.

  13. Changes in Pain Modulation Occur Soon After Whiplash Trauma but are not Related to Altered Perception of Distorted Visual Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Liesbeth; Nijs, Jo; Cras, Patrick; Wouters, Kristien; Roussel, Nathalie

    2014-09-01

    Widespread sensory hypersensitivity has been observed in acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Changes in descending pain modulation take part in central sensitization. However, endogenous pain modulation has never been investigated in acute WAD. Altered perception of distorted visual feedback has been observed in WAD. Both mechanisms (ie, pain modulation and perception of distorted visual feedback) may be different components of one integrated system orchestrated by the brain. This study evaluated conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in acute WAD. Secondly, we investigated whether changes in CPM are associated with altered perception of distorted visual feedback. Thirty patients with acute WAD, 35 patients with chronic WAD and 31 controls were subjected to an experiment evaluating CPM and a coordination task inducing visual mediated changes between sensory feedback and motor output. A significant CPM effect was observed in acute WAD (P = 0.012 and P = 0.006), which was significantly lower compared to controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.020). No obvious differences in CPM were found between acute and chronic WAD (P = 0.098 and P = 0.041). Changes in CPM were unrelated to altered perception of distorted visual feedback (P > 0.01). Changes in CPM were observed in acute WAD, suggesting less efficient pain modulation. The results suggest that central pain and sensorimotor processing underlie distinctive mechanisms. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  14. Public perceptions about climate change mitigation in British Columbia's forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Shannon; Kozak, Robert; Hoberg, George

    2018-01-01

    The role of forest management in mitigating climate change is a central concern for the Canadian province of British Columbia. The successful implementation of forest management activities to achieve climate change mitigation in British Columbia will be strongly influenced by public support or opposition. While we now have increasingly clear ideas of the management opportunities associated with forest mitigation and some insight into public support for climate change mitigation in the context of sustainable forest management, very little is known with respect to the levels and basis of public support for potential forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. This paper, by describing the results of a web-based survey, documents levels of public support for the implementation of eight forest carbon mitigation strategies in British Columbia’s forest sector, and examines and quantifies the influence of the factors that shape this support. Overall, respondents ascribed a high level of importance to forest carbon mitigation and supported all of the eight proposed strategies, indicating that the British Columbia public is inclined to consider alternative practices in managing forests and wood products to mitigate climate change. That said, we found differences in levels of support for the mitigation strategies. In general, we found greater levels of support for a rehabilitation strategy (e.g. reforestation of unproductive forest land), and to a lesser extent for conservation strategies (e.g. old growth conservation, reduced harvest) over enhanced forest management strategies (e.g. improved harvesting and silvicultural techniques). We also highlighted multiple variables within the British Columbia population that appear to play a role in predicting levels of support for conservation and/or enhanced forest management strategies, including environmental values, risk perception, trust in groups of actors, prioritized objectives of forest management and socio

  15. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygiene compliance and perceptions toward hand hygiene among medical personnel were compared between the second quarter of 2009 (before the start of a hand hygiene promotion program) and the second quarter of 2012. We assessed adherence to hand hygiene among medical personnel quarterly according to the WHO recommended method for direct observation. Also, we used a modified self-report questionnaire to collect perception data. Results Hand hygiene compliance among physicians and nurses improved significantly from 19.0% in 2009 to 74.5% in 2012 (P Hand hygiene compliance among the medical personnel continued to improve, with a slight decline in 2013. Perceptions toward hand hygiene improved significantly between 2009 and 2012. Specifically, improvements were evident in intention to adhere to hand hygiene, knowledge about hand hygiene methods, knowledge about hand hygiene indications including care of a dirty and a clean body site on the same patient, perceived behavioral and subjective norms, positive attitude toward hand hygiene promotion campaign, perception of difficulty in adhering to hand hygiene, and motivation to improve adherence to hand hygiene. Conclusions The examined hand hygiene promotion program resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. The improved perception increased hand hygiene compliance. Especially, the perception of being a role model for other colleagues is very important to improve hand hygiene

  16. Organisational justice, trust and perceptions of fairness in the implementation of agenda for change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Keren, E-mail: williamsonk2@cardiff.ac.u [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN (United Kingdom); Williams, Kristy J. [Radiotherapy Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Background: Agenda for Change (AfC) was introduced to ensure equity of rewards for work of equal value, irrespective of professional background. Radiographer grades were evaluated and matched against job profiles and placed within the relevant pay bands of AfC. Equity theory suggests that individuals will make comparisons between themselves and others with regard to their rewards resulting in justice perceptions which may affect morale and work behaviours. This case study explored the justice perceptions and effect on co-worker relationships of a group of therapeutic radiographers in the process and outcomes of the implementation of AfC within their organisation. Method: An existential phenomenological approach was used and self administered questionnaires utilised for data collection. A sample of band 5-8a therapeutic radiographers from one regional Cancer Centre was questioned. Content analysis was applied to systematically and objectively categorise information into recurring themes. Findings: Open coding identified two main themes which were termed Recognition and Resentment. Data was analysed in terms of organisational justice theory and issues were identified in relation to recognition of extra-role behaviour and trust in those tasked with job matching and decision making. Conclusion: There appeared to be a perceived lack of justice in relation to the implementation of AfC, resulting in a lowering of staff morale and organisational commitment. However, no effect on co-worker relations was reported. Professional values appear to supersede issues of organisational justice, with staff asserting that patient care must override any matter of personal dissatisfaction.

  17. Organisational justice, trust and perceptions of fairness in the implementation of agenda for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Keren; Williams, Kristy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Agenda for Change (AfC) was introduced to ensure equity of rewards for work of equal value, irrespective of professional background. Radiographer grades were evaluated and matched against job profiles and placed within the relevant pay bands of AfC. Equity theory suggests that individuals will make comparisons between themselves and others with regard to their rewards resulting in justice perceptions which may affect morale and work behaviours. This case study explored the justice perceptions and effect on co-worker relationships of a group of therapeutic radiographers in the process and outcomes of the implementation of AfC within their organisation. Method: An existential phenomenological approach was used and self administered questionnaires utilised for data collection. A sample of band 5-8a therapeutic radiographers from one regional Cancer Centre was questioned. Content analysis was applied to systematically and objectively categorise information into recurring themes. Findings: Open coding identified two main themes which were termed Recognition and Resentment. Data was analysed in terms of organisational justice theory and issues were identified in relation to recognition of extra-role behaviour and trust in those tasked with job matching and decision making. Conclusion: There appeared to be a perceived lack of justice in relation to the implementation of AfC, resulting in a lowering of staff morale and organisational commitment. However, no effect on co-worker relations was reported. Professional values appear to supersede issues of organisational justice, with staff asserting that patient care must override any matter of personal dissatisfaction.

  18. Are Changes in Neighbourhood Perceptions Associated with Changes in Self-Rated Mental Health in Adults? A 13-Year Repeat Cross-Sectional Study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Olsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine changes in neighbourhood perceptions on self-rated mental health problems over time, and to explore demographic, geographic and socio-economic factors as determinants of increased or decreased anxiety and depression symptoms. We conducted a repeat cross-sectional study of individuals (N: 4480 living in the same areas of west central Scotland in 1997 and 2010. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire at both time-points, containing 14 questions relating to neighbourhood perceptions and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A three-level linear regression model was fitted to HADS scores and changes in neighbourhood perceptions over time; controlling for a number of individual and area-level variables. Overall, area-level mean HADS scores decreased from 1997 to 2010. When adjusted for individual and area-level variables, this decrease did not remain for HADS anxiety. Applying an overall 14-scale neighbourhood perception measure, worsening neighbourhood perceptions were associated with small increases in depression (0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.01 to 0.07 and anxiety (0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.08 scores over time. This highlights a need for local and national policy to target areas where neighbourhood characteristics are substantially deteriorating in order to ensure the mental health of individuals does not worsen.

  19. Rhythm and theoretical perception of climate change during the 21st century using CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Braconnot, Pascale; Vautard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In most studies, climate change is approached by focusing on the evolution between a fixed current baseline and future, emphasizing stronger warming as we move further from the current climate. This long-term vision is used in order to characterize quantitatively the magnitude and expected effects of mitigation policies across the globe. In this study, an alternative approach more focused on adaptation is envisaged. It considers the rhythm of climate change by following it up with a running baseline over periods of 20 years, defining the time evolution of the speed at which climate changes. Comparing this speed with the variability of the previous 20 years, our work also aims to give an idea on how fast the climate changes from the recent year-to-year variability. This represents a theoretical approach of perception of climate change, as a 20-year period can illustrate the memory of a generation. In this way, we also evaluate how much adapting to the recent past 20 years is sufficient to cope with the expected changes of the coming ones. As a result, we estimate the stress on adaptation needs over the 21st century. Here we are mainly interested on mean and variability of surface air temperature and precipitations. A multi-model study based on CMIP5 RCP8.5 scenario is conducted. Over the 21st century, important changes occur in terms of surface air temperature. These are mainly characterized by an increase of warming speed resulting in its doubling at the end of the century (2071-2090) compared to the IPCC current baseline (1986-2005), although models exhibit a different climate sensitivity. Despite an unanimous stronger speed in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than anywhere else, the speed can increase more rapidly in some other regions. When comparing the warming speed with year-to-year variability, the change of surface air temperature appears to be perceived stronger and sooner in tropical areas than in any other regions, especially in South-East Asia

  20. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygien...

  1. Spatiotemporal frequency characteristics of cerebral oscillations during the perception of fundamental frequency contour changes in one-syllable intonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Sanae; Okumura, Eiichi; Remijn, Gerard B; Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Nagao, Kikuko; Mochiduki, Masayuki; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Norio; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Oi, Manabu; Nakatani, Hideo; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2012-05-02

    Accurate perception of fundamental frequency (F0) contour changes in the human voice is important for understanding a speaker's intonation, and consequently also his/her attitude. In this study, we investigated the neural processes involved in the perception of F0 contour changes in the Japanese one-syllable interjection "ne" in 21 native-Japanese listeners. A passive oddball paradigm was applied in which "ne" with a high falling F0 contour, used when urging a reaction from the listener, was randomly presented as a rare deviant among a frequent "ne" syllable with a flat F0 contour (i.e., meaningless intonation). We applied an adaptive spatial filtering method to the neuromagnetic time course recorded by whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) and estimated the spatiotemporal frequency dynamics of event-related cerebral oscillatory changes in the oddball paradigm. Our results demonstrated a significant elevation of beta band event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the right temporal and frontal areas, in time windows from 100 to 300 and from 300 to 500 ms after the onset of deviant stimuli (high falling F0 contour). This is the first study to reveal detailed spatiotemporal frequency characteristics of cerebral oscillations during the perception of intonational (not lexical) F0 contour changes in the human voice. The results further confirmed that the right hemisphere is associated with perception of intonational F0 contour information in the human voice, especially in early time windows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mixed methods approach to understanding farmer and agricultural advisor perceptions of climate change and adaptation in Vermont, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel E. Schattman; V. Ernesto Méndez; Scott C. Merrill; Asim Zia

    2018-01-01

    The relationships among farmers' belief in climate change, perceptions of climate-related risk, and use of climate adaptation practices is a growing topic of interest in U.S. scholarship. The northeast region is not well represented in the literature, although it is highly agricultural and will likely face climaterelated risks that differ from those faced in other...

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Asylum Seekers Ability Regarding Activities of Daily Living During Their Stay in the Asylum Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona

    2015-01-01

    participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and depression increased......The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL....... Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers should be aware of ADL...

  4. Changes in the perception of alcohol-related stigma in Germany over the last two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Lucht, Michael J; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol dependence is a severely stigmatized disorder. Perceived stigma may deter help-seeking and is associated with higher co-morbidity and self-stigma in persons with alcohol dependence. We assess changes in the perception of alcohol-related stigma over 21 years in the general population. Two representative population surveys using identical methodology were conducted in Germany in 1990 and 2011 (n=1022 and n=967), eliciting the perceived discrimination and devaluation of someone with a history of alcohol problems as measured with an adoption of Link's Perceived Discrimination and Devaluation Scale (aPDDS), and perceived negative stereotypes of an "alcoholic." Both on item level and using factor scores, attitudes changed significantly between 1990 and 2011. Perceived discrimination and devaluation of someone with a history of alcohol dependence decreased considerably by 0.44 standard deviations (SD). Perceived negative stereotypes related to unpredictability of an "alcoholic" increased slightly by 0.15 SD, while perceived stereotypes related to strangeness decreased (-0.23 SD). Our findings suggest that particularly the image of someone who has received treatment for alcohol dependence has improved in Germany. This parallels increasing acceptance of professional treatment for alcohol dependence among the general population over the last twenty years, and contrasts with overall unchanged negative attitudes toward persons who actually suffer from alcohol problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in Urban Youths' Attitude Towards Science and Perception of a Mobile Science Lab Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jared

    This dissertation examined changes in urban youth's attitude towards science as well as their perception of the informal science education setting and third space opportunity provided by the BioBus, a mobile science lab. Science education researchers have often suggested that informal science education settings provide one possible way to positively influence student attitude towards science and engage marginalized urban youth within the traditional science classroom (Banks et al., 2007; Hofstein & Rosenfeld, 1996; National Research Council, 2009; Schwarz & Stolow, 2006; Stocklmayer, Rennie, & Gilbert, 2010). However, until now, this possibility has not been explored within the setting of a mobile science lab nor examined using a theoretical framework intent on analyzing how affective outcomes may occur. The merits of this analytical stance were evaluated via observation, attitudinal survey, open-response questionnaire, and interview data collected before and after a mobile science lab experience from a combination of 239 students in Grades 6, 8, 9, 11, and 12 from four different schools within a major Northeastern metropolitan area. Findings from this study suggested that urban youth's attitude towards science changed both positively and negatively in statistically significant ways after a BioBus visit and that the experience itself was highly enjoyable. Furthermore, implications for how to construct a third space within the urban science classroom and the merits of utilizing the theoretical framework developed to analyze cultural tensions between urban youth and school science are discussed. Key Words: Attitude towards science, third space, mobile science lab, urban science education.

  6. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroly Hermosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education and the dietary intake (ex - ante and ex - post of the Latino immigrant population that emigrated from rural areas in Mexico. The participants were attendees of the Purdue Extension Learning Network of Clinton County, who filled out a questionnaire with open and closed questions. The results evidenced the perception of improved quality of life variables related to housing, access to utilities and education, and a change with a tendency for increases in their consumption of fast food, processed food and soda, generating negative effects in terms of an increase in being overweight and obesity, and particularly a lowered consumption of products from their traditional diet.

  7. Changes in Australian women's perception of the menopause and menopausal symptoms before and after the climacteric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Perz, J

    1994-12-01

    The symptoms and perceptions of menopause of 60 Australian women were studied, by questionnaire, when they were premenopausal and 10 years later when they were postmenopausal. Menopausal symptoms expected and experienced by the women were compared, fewer women experiencing hot flushes, headache, depression and nervousness and more experiencing insomnia, increase in appetite, abdominal fullness, numbness and muscular problems. The symptoms women thought were due to hormonal changes at menopause were compared. In 1993 more women cited osteoporosis, insomnia, loss of libido, obesity and loss of muscle tone as due to hormone change while fewer cited depression. The premenstrual symptoms and their severity experienced by a woman when she was premenopausal significantly predicts the type and severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced by the woman. The expected menopausal symptoms and their severity cited by a woman also significantly predicts the type of severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced. More premenstrual symptoms predict the menopausal symptoms than those menopausal symptoms the women expected. The expectation menopause will be 'a relief' or 'a nuisance' significantly predicted the overall menopause experience described by the women. Their negative attitudes about doctors' understanding and information available about menopause remained unchanged but they forget menstrual cycle problems over the 10 years. The results suggest a possible physiological basis for premenstrual and menopausal symptoms. Assistance for women with their premenstrual and menstrual cycle symptoms may improve their quality of life at menopause.

  8. Risk perception and commitment to reduce global climate change in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Priego, Nuria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An online national survey among the Spanish population (n = 602 was conducted to examine the factors underlying a person’s support for commitments to global climate change reductions. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was conducted in four steps and a structural equations model was tested. A survey tool designed by the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication was applied in order to build scales for the variables introduced in the study. The results show that perceived consumer effectiveness and risk perception are determinant factors of commitment to mitigating global climate change. However, there are differences in the influence that other factors, such as socio-demographics, view of nature and cultural cognition, have on the last predicted variable.Una encuesta online a la población española (n = 602 examina los factores que predicen el apoyo al compromiso con el medio ambiente por parte de los participantes para reducir el cambio climático global. Se realizó una regresión múltiple jerárquica en cuatro pasos y se testó el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales propuesto. En la encuesta se aplicó una herramienta diseñada por el Yale Project on Climate Change Communication con la finalidad de construir escalas para las variables introducidas en el estudio. Los resultados muestran que la efectividad percibida por el consumidor y el riesgo percibido son factores determinantes del apoyo al compromiso para reducir el cambio climático global. No obstante, se encontraron algunas diferencias en cuanto a la influencia de otros factores tales como las variables socio-demográficas, la visión de la naturaleza y la cognición cultural.

  9. Climate change vulnerability, adaptation and risk perceptions at farm level in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Schilling, Janpeter; Scheffran, Jürgen; Zulfiqar, Farhad

    2016-03-15

    Pakistan is among the countries highly exposed and vulnerable to climate change. The country has experienced many severe floods, droughts and storms over the last decades. However, little research has focused on the investigation of vulnerability and adaptation to climate-related risks in Pakistan. Against this backdrop, this article investigates the farm level risk perceptions and different aspects of vulnerability to climate change including sensitivity and adaptive capacity at farm level in Pakistan. We interviewed a total of 450 farming households through structured questionnaires in three districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. This study identified a number of climate-related risks perceived by farm households such as extreme temperature events, insect attacks, animal diseases and crop pests. Limited water availability, high levels of poverty and a weak role of local government in providing proper infrastructure were the factors that make farmers more sensitive to climate-related risks. Uncertainty or reduction in crop and livestock yields; changed cropping calendars and water shortage were the major adverse impacts of climate-related risks reported by farmers in the study districts. Better crop production was reported as the only positive effect. Further, this study identified a number of farm level adaptation methods employed by farm households that include changes in crop variety, crop types, planting dates and input mix, depending upon the nature of the climate-related risks. Lack of resources, limited information, lack of finances and institutional support were some constraints that limit the adaptive capacity of farm households. This study also reveals a positive role of cooperation and negative role of conflict in the adaptation process. The study suggests to address the constraints to adaptation and to improve farm level cooperation through extended outreach and distribution of institutional services, particularly climate-specific farm advisory

  10. Age changes in pain perception : A systematic-review and meta-analysis of age effects on pain and tolerance thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Peters, Jan H.; Heesen, Michael; Scheel, Jennifer; Kunz, Miriam

    Demographic changes, with substantial increase in life expectancy, ask for solid knowledge about how pain perception might be altered by aging. Although psychophysical studies on age-related changes in pain perception have been conducted over more than 70 years, meta-analyses are still missing. The

  11. Changes in Frontal EEG Coherence across Infancy Predict Cognitive Abilities at Age 3: The Mediating Role of Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the…

  12. Changes in chronic disease management among community health centers (CHCs) in China: Has health reform improved CHC ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxin; Shi, Jianwei; Wu, Zhigui; Xie, Huiling; Yu, Yifan; Li, Ping; Liu, Rui; Jing, Limei

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1980s, China has been criticized for its mode of chronic disease management (CDM) that passively provides treatment in secondary and tertiary hospitals but lacks active prevention in community health centers (CHCs). Since there are few systematic evaluations of the CHCs' methods for CDM, this study aimed to analyze their abilities. On the macroperspective, we searched the literature in China's largest and most authoritative databases and the official websites of health departments. Literature was used to analyze the government's efforts in improving CHCs' abilities to perform CDM. At the microlevel, we examined the CHCs' longitudinal data after the New Health Reform in 2009, including financial investment, facilities, professional capacities, and the conducted CDM activities. A policy analysis showed that there was an increasing tendency towards government efforts in developing CDM, and the peak appeared in 2009. By evaluating the reform at CHCs, we found that there was an obvious increase in fiscal and public health subsidies, large-scale equipment, general practitioners, and public health physicians. The benefited vulnerable population in this area also rose significantly. However, rural centers were inferior in their CDM abilities compared with urban ones, and the referral system is still not effective in China. This study showed that CHCs are increasingly valued in managing chronic diseases, especially after the New Health Reform in 2009. However, we still need to improve collaborative management for chronic diseases in the community and strengthen the abilities of CHCs, especially in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: service providers' perceptions of change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; McPherson, Amy; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Stewart, Debra; Glencross-Eimantas, Tanya; Jones-Galley, Kimberlea; Morrison, Andrea; Isihi, Ana Maria; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2015-05-01

    Residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs are designed to equip youth with physical disabilities with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. The objective was to determine RILS service providers' perceptions of the active ingredients of the intervention change process. Thirty-seven service providers from various disciplines completed measures to assess expertise status and participated in qualitative interviews. Qualitative themes were derived, and similarities and differences in themes were identified for blinded groups of novices, intermediates, and experts. The three main themes, reflecting change processes, were: (a) creating a supportive program atmosphere with multiple opportunities for learning, (b) using strategies to support, encourage, and engage youth, and (c) intentionally fostering youth experiences of skill development, social interaction, and pride in accomplishment. In contrast to the novices, experts displayed a more holistic perspective and paid attention to higher-order issues such as providing opportunities and enabling youth. The findings indicate how RILS service providers work to create a program atmosphere and employ strategies to intentionally foster particular youth experiences. The findings explicate service providers' theories of practice, the intentional design of RILS program environments to bring about client change, and the value of service provider expertise. Implications for Rehabilitation Service providers of youth independence-oriented life skills programs can intentionally create a learning-oriented and supportive program atmosphere by using non-directive, coaching/guiding, and engagement strategies Youth experiences of skill development, shared experience with others, and pride in accomplishment can be cultivated by providing a range of learning opportunities, including choice making, problem-solving, and skill mastery Compared to more novice service providers, experts discussed managing the

  14. Hospital employees' perceptions of fairness and job satisfaction at a time of transformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, Susan; Fisher, Ron; McPhail, Ruth; Rice, John; Eljiz, Kathy; Fitzgerald, Anneke; Gapp, Rod; Marshall, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Objective This study examines the relationships between job satisfaction and organisational justice during a time of transformational change. Methods Data collection occurred immediately before a major regional hospital's move to a greenfield site. Existing measures of job satisfaction and organisational justice were used. Data were analysed (n=316) using descriptive, correlation and regression methods together with interactions between predictor variables. Results Correlation coefficients for satisfaction and organisational justice variables were high and significant at the Pemployee job satisfaction. Interactions between the predictor variables showed that job satisfaction increased as the interactions between the predictor variables increased. Conclusions The finding that even at a time of transformational change staff perceptions of fair treatment will in the main result in high job satisfaction extends the literature in this area. In addition, it was found that increasing rewards for staff who perceive low levels of organisational justice does not increase satisfaction as much as for staff who perceive high levels of fairness. If people feel negative about their role, but feel they are well paid, they probably still have negative feelings overall. What is known about the topic? Despite much research highlighting the importance of job satisfaction and organisational justice in healthcare, no research has examined the influence of transformational change, such as a healthcare organisational relocation, on these factors. What does this paper add? The research adds to academic literature relating to job satisfaction and organisational justice. It highlights the importance of organisational justice in influencing the job satisfaction of staff. What are the implications for practitioners? Financial rewards do not necessarily motivate staff but low rewards do demotivate. Shortages of health professionals are often linked to a lack of job satisfaction, and recruitment

  15. Global trends in wildfire - perceptions and realities in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth's surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. Whilst fire and associated impacts have indeed increased in some regions, such parts of western North America, Canada and Russia, fire has been decreasing in other regions such as African savannas. Overall, global area burned appears to have changed little over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is less fire in the global landscape today than centuries ago. Regarding fire severity, limited data are available. For the western USA, they indicate little change overall, and also that area burned at high severity has overall declined compared to pre-European settlement. Direct fatalities from fire and economic losses also show no clear trends over the past three decades. Trends in indirect impacts, such as health problems from smoke or disruption to social functioning may indeed be on the rise, however, they remain insufficiently quantified to be thoroughly examined. Notwithstanding these general observations, the changes in global fire distribution are of concern due to, for example, their detrimental impacts on peat and soil carbon stores in boreal and some tropical regions, or air pollution levels in SE-Asia. These and other impacts are likely to accelerate in a future warmer climate. This presentation aims to contribute to reducing misconceptions in fire trends and to facilitating a more informed understanding of the realities of global fire.

  16. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  17. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  18. Evaluating Tourist Perception of Environmental Changes as a Contribution to Managing Natural Resources in Glacierized Areas: A Case Study of the Forni Glacier (Stelvio National Park, Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Valentina; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pasquale, Vera; Pelfini, Manuela

    2012-12-01

    Climate change effects are noticeably evident above the timberline where glacier and permafrost processes and mass movements drive the surface evolution. In particular, the cryosphere shrinkage is deeply changing the features and characteristics of several glacierized mountain areas of the world, and these modifications can also affect the landscape perception of tourists and mountaineers. On the one hand glacier retreat is increasing the interest of tourists and visitors in areas witnessing clear climate change impacts; on the other hand cryosphere shrinkage can impact the touristic appeal of mountain territories which, diminishing their ice and snow coverage, are also losing part of their aesthetic value. Then, to promote glacierized areas in a changing climate and to prepare exhaustive and actual proposals for sustainable tourism, it is important to deepen our knowledge about landscape perception of tourists and mountaineers and their awareness of the ongoing environmental modifications. Here we present the results from a pilot study we performed in summer 2009 on a representative glacierized area of the Alps, the Forni Valley (Stelvio National Park, Lombardy, Italy), a valley shaped by Forni, the largest Italian valley glacier. During the 2009 summer season we asked tourists visiting the Forni Valley to complete a questionnaire. This study was aimed at both describing the features and characteristics of tourists and mountaineers visiting this Alpine zone in summer and evaluating their landscape perception and their ability to recognize climate change impacts and evidence. Our results suggest that the dissemination strategies in a natural protected area have to take into account not only the main landscape features but also the sites where the information will be given. In particular considering the peculiarities of the huts located in the area, such as their different accessibility and the fact that they are included or not in a mountaineering network like that

  19. Why Change to Active Learning? Pre-Service and In-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Audrey; Simmie, Geraldine Mooney; Kennedy, Therese

    2014-01-01

    This article explores pre-service and in-service science teachers' perceptions on active learning, and examines the effectiveness of active learning by pre-service science teachers in the Irish second level classroom through a two-phase study. In the first phase, data on perceptions were gathered from final year pre-service teachers and in-service…

  20. Trajectory Perception and Object Continuity: Effects of Shape and Color Change on 4-Month-Olds' Perception of Object Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infants use object trajectory continuity as a cue to the constant identity of an object, but results are equivocal regarding the role of object features, with some work suggesting that a change in the appearance of an object does not cue a change in identity. In an experiment involving 72 participants, we…

  1. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...

  2. Does knowledge of coronary artery calcium affect cardiovascular risk perception, likelihood of taking action, and health-promoting behavior change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennie E; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue; Kouba, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that a healthy lifestyle can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, yet many people engage in unhealthy behaviors. New technologies such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening detect atherosclerosis before clinical disease is manifested. Knowledge of an abnormal finding could provide the "teachable moment" to enhance motivation for change. The aim of this study was to examine how knowledge of CAC score affects risk perception, likelihood of taking action, and health-promoting behavior change in persons at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This study used a descriptive prospective design with 174 high-risk adults (≥3 major risk factors) recruited at a radiology center offering CAC scans. Baseline self-report surveys using the Perception of Risk of Heart Disease Scale, the Benefits and Barriers Scale, the Quality of Life Index, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II were completed immediately after a screening CAC scan but before results were known. Follow-up occurred 3 months later using mailed packets. Participants' mean age was 58 years; 62% were men, 89% were white, and most were well educated. There was no significant change in risk perception scores over time or between groups, except for a positive interaction in the moderate-risk group (CAC scores of 101-400) (P = .004). Quality of life remained unchanged. Health-promoting behavior changes increased in all groups over time (P behavior change were perceived barriers (β = -.41; P Knowledge of CAC score does impact risk perception for some at-risk groups. This knowledge does enhance motivation for behavior change. Knowledge of CAC score does not impact quality of life. It is hoped that through improved understanding of the effect of CAC scoring on behavior change, nurses can better assist patients to modify behaviors during teachable moments.

  3. Parallel evolution in an invasive plant species : evolutionary changes in allocation to growth, defense, competitive ability and regrowth of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    Although the introduction of invasive plant species in a given area causes economic and ecological problems, it still provides an ideal opportunity for ecologists to study evolutionary changes. According to the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis and Shifting Defense Hypothesis,

  4. Organizational readiness for change: Preceptor perceptions regarding early immersion of student pharmacists in health-system practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kimberly A; Wolcott, Michael D; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; D'Ostroph, Amanda; Shea, Christopher M; Pinelli, Nicole R

    To examine preceptors' perceptions regarding readiness for change pre- and post-implementation of a pilot early immersion program engaging student pharmacists in direct patient care. Student pharmacists enrolled in the second professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy degree program completed a four-week health-system introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) which was modified to include direct patient care roles in operational (drug preparation and dispensing) and clinical (comprehensive medication management) pharmacy environments. Pharmacy preceptors with direct oversight for program implementation completed a pre/post Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) survey and a 50-min interview or focus group post-experience. The ORIC survey evaluates two dimensions of organizational readiness for change - change commitment and change efficacy. Additional items assessed included implementation needs, support, and perceived value of the change. ORIC survey constructs were compared before and after the experience. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and evaluated by constant comparative analysis. A mixed methods approach was used to triangulate findings and develop greater understanding of the ORIC survey results. Twenty pharmacy preceptors (37 ± 8 years of age, 60% female, 65% clinical pharmacist position, 70% prior preceptor experience) participated in the study. There were no significant changes in pre/post survey constructs, except for a decline in the perception of organizational change commitment (p change (p changes for student pharmacist engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Public perception of climate change in a period of economic crisis in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Santos-Corrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis is performed to measure Puerto Rican citizens’ perceptions of environmental issues and global climate change (GCC. Puerto Rico (PR is presently facing an economic crisis that began in 2010. In addition, the island has faced many extreme weather events that have greatly impacted the economy, including a dry period that lasted from the beginning of 2014 until the end of 2015 [1]. By replicating a study done in Greece (GR, [2] found that the citizens of PR are more informed about GCC (43% than Greeks (34%. However, only 29% of Puerto Ricans said they knew about the effects of greenhouse gases, as compared to 44% of Greeks. The citizens of PR (67% and GR (91% claim they do not have confidence that their respective governments and agencies will be able to face GCC. In both cases, they have a higher confidence level in environmental organizations than in the scientific community. In PR, 89% of the citizens are concerned about the degradation of natural resources. At 64%, this concern is also significant in the case of GR, although the figure has decreased from previous years. Both countries place more responsibility in the hands of those in government and industry to take action on GCC. That being said, the people of GR have made it known they are willing to perform individual actions as well.

  6. Designing Customer Education Activities to Change People’s Perception of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus Pratama Suwito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most people see catfish as an unhygienic fish, so less people want to consume it. In fact, catfish has better nutrition compared to Gourami. Therefore, catfish producers need to educate people. The purpose of this research is to design customer education activities to change people’s perception towards catfish using marketing communication mix. This research is a qualitative research and it uses in-depth interview method in gathering the required data. Based on the preliminary survey conducted to 50 people in Surabaya, it is known that Surabaya people are considered novice customers. As such, catfish producers can conduct customer education activities until people want to taste the catfish. The company can add picture, video, and oral information about the benefits in consuming catfish or the nutrition and the certificate of hygienic cultivation system. The producers can provide tester for the catfish and show the customers the comparison between good and bad quality catfish. The producers can also add two more marketing communication activities i.e. events and experiences as well as public relations and publicity. The producers need to use reliable sources in informing the catfish’s nutrition facts such as the certificate of catfish breeder, and certification from BPOM.

  7. Changes in women's attractiveness perception of masculine men's dances across the ovulatory cycle: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Tessa; Fink, Bernhard

    2013-10-10

    Women's preferences for putative cues of genetic quality in men's voices, faces, bodies, and behavioral displays are stronger during the fertile phase of the ovulatory cycle. Here we show that ovulatory cycle-related changes in women's attractiveness perceptions of male features are also found with dance movements, especially those perceived as highly masculine. Dance movements of 79 British men were recorded with an optical motion-capture system whilst dancing to a basic rhythm. Virtual humanoid characters (avatars) were created and converted into 15-second video clips and rated by 37 women on masculinity. Another 23 women judged the attractiveness of the 10 dancers who scored highest and those 10 who scored lowest on masculinity once in days of high fertility and once in days of low fertility of their ovulatory cycle. High-masculine dancers were judged higher on attractiveness around ovulation than on other cycle days, whilst no such perceptual difference was found for low-masculine dancers. We suggest that women may gain fitness benefits from evolved preferences for masculinity cues they obtain from male dance movements.

  8. Western Sydney is hot! Community arts and changing perceptions of the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Can the arts change how we view cities? How can we evaluate the broad social impacts of arts programs, particularly in elusive areas such as the local image of urban communities? This article examines the cultural renaissance of Western Sydney, long considered a crass, working-class cultural wasteland. In the last two decades, the region has experienced a proliferation of new artistic initiatives, and advocates now hail Sydney’s West as the true face of multicultural Australia’s cultural vitality. This article also documents how community arts and development programs have contributed to these shifting perceptions, analysing these contributions in terms of social impact evaluation. It argues that evaluating social impact expands the parameters of conventional evaluation techniques, which typically focus on program-level outputs and outcomes. It presents a case study of a Western Sydney community organisation, Information and Cultural Exchange (ICE, which, for 20 years, has delivered community cultural development and professional development programs for Western Sydney artists. Engaging with historically disadvantaged communities, the organisation has specialised in art forms that have resonated with the region, including hip hop, digital storytelling, and filmmaking, and in the process has played a key role in re-imagining Western Sydney as a cutting edge, multicultural hub of creative vibrancy. Keywords: Western Sydney, community arts, evaluation, social impact

  9. Changes in Women's Attractiveness Perception of Masculine Men's Dances across the Ovulatory Cycle: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Cappelle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Women's preferences for putative cues of genetic quality in men's voices, faces, bodies, and behavioral displays are stronger during the fertile phase of the ovulatory cycle. Here we show that ovulatory cycle-related changes in women's attractiveness perceptions of male features are also found with dance movements, especially those perceived as highly masculine. Dance movements of 79 British men were recorded with an optical motion-capture system whilst dancing to a basic rhythm. Virtual humanoid characters (avatars were created and converted into 15-second video clips and rated by 37 women on masculinity. Another 23 women judged the attractiveness of the 10 dancers who scored highest and those 10 who scored lowest on masculinity once in days of high fertility and once in days of low fertility of their ovulatory cycle. High-masculine dancers were judged higher on attractiveness around ovulation than on other cycle days, whilst no such perceptual difference was found for low-masculine dancers. We suggest that women may gain fitness benefits from evolved preferences for masculinity cues they obtain from male dance movements.

  10. Aging changes 3D perception: Evidence for hemispheric rebalancing of lateralized processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bridget; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Sapir, Ayelet

    2017-05-01

    When judging the 3D shape of a shaded image, young observers assume that the light source is placed above and to the left. This leftward bias has been attributed to hemispheric lateralization or experiential factors. Since aging is associated with loss of hemispheric lateralization, in the current study we measured the effect of aging on the assumed light source direction. Older participants exhibited, on average, a decreased left bias compared to young participants, as well as greater within-group variability in the distribution of assumed light source directions. In a separate sample of young and old participants, we replicated the age related effect in the assumed light source direction. Furthermore, in both young and old participants the assumed light source direction and the lateralized bias in a line bisection task were correlated. These findings suggest that diminished hemispheric lateralization, which accompanies aging, may affect the perception of the 3D structure of shaded surfaces. Shape from shading may thus provide a simple behavioral tool to track age related changes in hemispheric organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Health Implications of Climate Change: a Review of the Literature About the Perception of the Public and Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Julia; Maibach, Edward W

    2018-03-01

    Through a systematic search of English language peer-reviewed studies, we assess how health professionals and the public, worldwide, perceive the health implications of climate change. Among health professionals, perception that climate change is harming health appears to be high, although self-assessed knowledge is low, and perceived need to learn more is high. Among the public, few North Americans can list any health impacts of climate change, or who is at risk, but appear to view climate change as harmful to health. Among vulnerable publics in Asia and Africa, awareness of increasing health harms due to specific changing climatic conditions is high. Americans across the political and climate change opinion spectra appear receptive to information about the health aspects of climate change, although findings are mixed. Health professionals feel the need to learn more, and the public appears open to learning more, about the health consequences of climate change.

  12. A Comparison of Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Success among High-Ability Students from High- and Low-Income Groups: Exposing Poverty of a Different Kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jennifer Riedl; Frazier, Andrea Dawn; Kim, Mihyeon; Cross, Tracy L.

    2018-01-01

    In 14 focus group interviews, sixth- to eighth-grade high-ability students from high- (n = 36) and low-income (n = 45) families were asked to describe the barriers they perceived to their academic success. Three themes were identified through the qualitative analysis: "Constraining Environments, Integration versus Isolation," and…

  13. Public perception of climate change and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 James O Bamidele,2 Olusola O Odu,2, Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,3 Olugbenga L Abodurin,3 Wasiu O Adebimpe,1 Edward A Oladele,4 Adeleye A Adeomi,3 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Ebenezer O Ojofeitimi31Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Faculty of Clinical Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria; 4SIDHAS Project, Family Health International, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Climate change (CC has received extensive media attention recently, and it is currently on the international public health agenda. A study of knowledge and attitudes to climate change, most especially from rural Nigerian communities, is important for developing adaptation strategies. This is a study of public perceptions of CC and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria.Methods: This was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study of 1,019 rural respondents using a multistage sampling method. The research instrument used was a pretested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. χ2, Cramér's V, and Kendall's τ-c statistics were employed in addition to fitting the data to a logistic regression model to explore associations found significant on bivariate analysis.Results: Mean age of respondents was 36.9 (±12.4 years. About 911 (89.4% of respondents opined that there has been a change in climate in the last 10 years. Supernatural reasons were prominent among respondent-reported causes of CC. Identified risky behavior contributing to CC included smoking (10.7%, bush burning (33.4%, and tree felling (41.0%. Poor knowledge of causes but good knowledge of effects of CC were found in this study. About two-thirds of

  14. Unusual glass-forming ability induced by changes in the local atomic structure in Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y C; Chang, H J; Kim, D H; Kim, W T; Cha, P R

    2007-01-01

    The effect of partial replacement of Cu by Be in Ti 50 Cu 32 Ni 15 Sn 3 alloy on the thermal properties, structure, and forming ability of an amorphous phase were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Ti 50 Cu 25 Ni 15 Sn 3 Be 7 alloy shows enhanced glass-forming ability, enabling one to fabricate a fully amorphous bulk metallic glass sample 2 mm in diameter by injection casting. With the replacement, the supercooled liquid region ΔT x (= T x -T g , where T x is the crystallization temperature and T g is the glass transition temperature) decreased from 73 to 45 K and the reduced glass transition temperature T rg (= T g /T 1 , where T 1 is the liquidus temperature) increased from 0.53 to 0.57. The amorphous Ti 50 Cu 25 Ni 15 Sn 3 Be 7 phase showed a formation of short-range-ordered clusters 1-2 nm in size, which is attributed to the strong interaction between Ti and Be. The results show that ΔT x can be used as a thermal parameter reflecting the glass-forming ability of the alloy only when the phase formed during crystallization is the same as the phase competing with the glass transition during solidification

  15. Images of Polar Bears and Penguins, Storms, Deforestation and More - Middle School Students Perceptions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, S.; Melaas, E. K.; Malmrose, M.; Mullokandov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global change studies aim to foster a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of global change on planet Earth. The study of global change presents a rich domain of inquiry, exploration, and discovery at all grade levels. The main objective of this exploratory study was to assess middle school students' perceptions of global change as part of their participation in the NSF GK12 program called GLACIER (Global Change Initiative - Education and Research) during the academic year 2012-13. The middle schools are located in the Metro Boston area. As part of the program, participating students were asked to draw pictures of their perceptions and ideas on global change. The drawings of 150 children, ages 11 to 13, were qualitatively analyzed. The analysis focused on (a) the type of concepts children chose to convey, (b) the specific context of the global change described (polar bears in floating glaciers), (c) students direct representation of anthropocentric impacts (such as pollution or deforestation), and (d) the match between students concepts and the recent IPCC reports. About 20% of the students focused on the iconic imagery of the melting glaciers and impact on animals such as penguins and polar bears, more than 25% focused on natural disasters (such as storms, sea level changes) while 30% focused on urban problems. These concepts are matched with the recent IPCC report. These results are notable and suggest students in middle schools understand the varied dimensions of global change and the role of human activities in bringing about change. Students' perspectives may help in developing a suitable curriculum using existing science standards to discuss this significant topic in middle school classrooms. In addition, students' drawings illustrate their perception of the coupled human and natural systems.

  16. Risk communication: climate change as a human-health threat, a survey of public perceptions in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Roberto; Vincenti, Karen; Calleja, Neville

    2012-02-01

    Scientific evidence shows that climate change is very likely the product of human behaviour and lifestyle. The effects of climate change on human health are diverse in nature and range from direct effects due to extreme weather events such as heat waves, floods and storms, to indirect effects such as those caused by water and food shortages. A telephone survey was conducted between January and February 2009, on a stratified representative random sample of the Maltese population over the age of 18 years (N = 310,819). Five hundred and forty-three individuals successfully participated in the survey giving a response rate of 92.7%. The respondent sample was very similar to the target population by gender (P = 0.977), age (P = 0.767) and district (P = 0.812). The results of the study demonstrate a very strong relationship between the perception of climate change as a threat to health and well-being, support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to implement measures to address climate change. The findings of this study show that the perception that climate change may claim lives, cause disease, reduce the standard of living and worsen water shortages, may be the strongest driver behind support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to act. It is recommended that, in order to gain more public support, climate change campaigns and risk communication strategies should frame climate change as a threat to human health and general well-being.

  17. A study on the Secondary School Teacher's Perception Change for Nuclear Power through an Experiment Practice Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ByungChae; Kim, JuHyun; Na, JungHyun; Yoo, DaYoung; Kim, WoongKi

    2016-01-01

    It is important to correct mis-understanding perception of general public for nuclear power for development of nuclear industry and the nation‟s advancement. It is required to provide secondary school students and teachers with correct information by learning activities in addition to mass media and textbook. If teachers have wrong concept, students are affected by the negative impact. Therefore, teachers should understand nuclear power correctly. KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has served an education program entitled „to understand nuclear power correctly by experiment and practice‟ as an practice and improvement program for the secondary school teachers. We checked the change of the secondary teacher‟s recognition for nuclear power by the survey. In this study, we checked the change of the secondary school teacher‟s recognition level for nuclear power by the survey before and after the education program. Nuclear Perception level was increased by 8% showing optimistic mind for the safety, dangerousness, and necessity of nuclear power plants after the education. Nuclear knowledge level also went up 15% through the education program. It is concluded that the nuclear perception of the secondary school teachers can be improved through the education program for nuclear power. Secondary school students form general public in the future. Perception of the students is influenced by teachers deeply

  18. Changes in nursing students' perceptions of research and evidence-based practice after completing a research course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keib, Carrie N; Cailor, Stephanie M; Kiersma, Mary E; Chen, Aleda M H

    2017-07-01

    Nurses need a sound education in research and evidence-based practice (EBP) to provide patients with optimal care, but current teaching methods could be more effective. To evaluate the changes in nursing students 1) perceptions of research and EBP, 2) confidence in research and EBP, and 3) interest in research participation after completing a course in research and EBP. A pre-post assessment design was utilized to compare changes in students. This project was conducted at a small, private liberal arts institution with Bachelor of Science (BSN) students. Two cohorts of third-year BSN students (Year 1 N=55, Year 2 N=54) who were taking a required, semester-long Nursing Research and EBP course. Students' perceptions of and confidence in research and EBP were assessed pre- and post-semester using the Confidence in Research and EBP survey, which contained 7 demographic items, 9 Research Perceptions items, and 19 Confidence in Research items (5-point Likert scale; 1=Not at all confident, 5=Extremely confident). Two years of data were collected and analyzed in SPSS v.24.0. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Mann-Whitney-U tests were utilized to examine the data. Students had significant improvements in perceptions of and confidence in research and EBP (pnursing practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A study on the Secondary School Teacher's Perception Change for Nuclear Power through an Experiment Practice Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ByungChae; Kim, JuHyun; Na, JungHyun; Yoo, DaYoung; Kim, WoongKi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is important to correct mis-understanding perception of general public for nuclear power for development of nuclear industry and the nation‟s advancement. It is required to provide secondary school students and teachers with correct information by learning activities in addition to mass media and textbook. If teachers have wrong concept, students are affected by the negative impact. Therefore, teachers should understand nuclear power correctly. KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has served an education program entitled „to understand nuclear power correctly by experiment and practice‟ as an practice and improvement program for the secondary school teachers. We checked the change of the secondary teacher‟s recognition for nuclear power by the survey. In this study, we checked the change of the secondary school teacher‟s recognition level for nuclear power by the survey before and after the education program. Nuclear Perception level was increased by 8% showing optimistic mind for the safety, dangerousness, and necessity of nuclear power plants after the education. Nuclear knowledge level also went up 15% through the education program. It is concluded that the nuclear perception of the secondary school teachers can be improved through the education program for nuclear power. Secondary school students form general public in the future. Perception of the students is influenced by teachers deeply.

  20. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  1. Context-dependent Changes in Functional Connectivity of Auditory Cortices during the Perception of Object Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, W.O. van; Dongen, E.V. van; Bekkering, H.; Rüschemeyer, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Embodied theories hold that cognitive concepts are grounded in our sensorimotor systems. Specifically, a number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies have buttressed the idea that language concepts are represented in areas involved in perception and action [Pulvermueller, F. Brain mechanisms

  2. Context-dependent changes in functional connectivity of auditory cortices during the perception of object words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, W.O.; Dongen, E.V. van; Bekkering, H.; Rueschemeyer, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Embodied theories hold that cognitive concepts are grounded in our sensorimotor systems. Specifically, a number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies have buttressed the idea that language concepts are represented in areas involved in perception and action [Pulvermueller, F. Brain mechanisms

  3. Change in Women's Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing Attitudes in Turkey: A Three Generation Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Leyla

    1989-01-01

    Found significant differences across generations in perceptions of child rearing practices, attitudes, and beliefs. Found a decreasing emphasis on authoritarian control and an increasing emphasis on encouraging independence, open expression, and expression of affect. (PCB)

  4. Ambiguous figures – What happens in the brain when perception changes but not the stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eKornmeier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During observation of ambiguous figures our perception alternates spontaneously although the visual information stays unchanged. Research on this phenomenon so far suffered from the difficulty to determine the instant of the endogenous reversals with sufficient precision. A novel experimental paradigm with discontinuous stimulus presentation improved on previous temporal estimates of the reversal event by factor 3. It revealed that disambiguation of ambiguous visual information takes roughly 50 ms or two loops of recurrent neural activity. Further, the decision about the perceptual outcome has taken place at least 340 ms before the observer is able to indicate the consciously perceived reversal manually. We provide a short review about physiological studies on multistable perception with a focus on electrophysiological data and present a new perspective on multistable perception that can easily integrate previous apparently contradicting explanatory approaches. Finally we propose possible extensions towards other research fields where ambiguous figure perception may be useful as an investigative tool.

  5. Long-term Satellite NDVI Data Sets: Evaluating Their Ability to Detect Ecosystem Functional Changes in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Germán; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Aragón, Roxana; Aversa, Fernando; Paruelo, José M; Jobbágy, Esteban G

    2008-09-03

    In the last decades, South American ecosystems underwent important functional modifications due to climate alterations and direct human intervention on land use and land cover. Among remotely sensed data sets, NOAA-AVHRR "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index" (NDVI) represents one of the most powerful tools to evaluate these changes thanks to their extended temporal coverage. In this paper we explored the possibilities and limitations of three commonly used NOAA-AVHRR NDVI series (PAL, GIMMS and FASIR) to detect ecosystem functional changes in the South American continent. We performed pixel-based linear regressions for four NDVI variables (average annual, maximum annual, minimum annual and intra-annual coefficient of variation) for the 1982-1999 period and (1) analyzed the convergences and divergences of significant multi-annual trends identified across all series, (2) explored the degree of aggregation of the trends using the O-ring statistic, and (3) evaluated observed trends using independent information on ecosystem functional changes in five focal regions. Several differences arose in terms of the patterns of change (the sign, localization and total number of pixels with changes). FASIR presented the highest proportion of changing pixels (32.7%) and GIMMS the lowest (16.2%). PAL and FASIR data sets showed the highest agreement, with a convergence of detected trends on 71.2% of the pixels. Even though positive and negative changes showed substantial spatial aggregation, important differences in the scale of aggregation emerged among the series, with GIMMS showing the smaller scale (≤11 pixels). The independent evaluations suggest higher accuracy in the detection of ecosystem changes among PAL and FASIR series than with GIMMS, as they detected trends that match expected shifts. In fact, this last series eliminated most of the long term patterns over the continent. For example, in the "Eastern Paraguay" and "Uruguay River margins" focal regions, the

  6. How Blogging on Earth and Environmental Science Changed One Student's Passion, Perception, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, I started a WordPress blog to engage more with my undergraduate education field of study - communications. Starting out with blog posts about social media, this blog's initial goal was to showcase my interest in the media as well as to blog about my first conference attendance and presentations. However, blogging turned into more than that for me. As I was pursuing a minor in Environmental Inquiry and therefore taking more Earth and environmental science classes, I learned that I love to write about environmental issues, particularly about how issues can be addressed and resolved. Because of this shift in my personal and professional interests, I began to blog about global topics such as global water consumption, environmental conservation and arctic sea ice. This change in direction was unprecedented, but helped define my online presence. Over the two years I have been writing my blog, the science posts have been the most successful, with WordPress.com users liking and reading the posts. Readers from all over the globe are brought to my blog from search engines, as shown through the analytics on the WordPress dashboard. However, the impact of my blog on others is challenging to quantify apart from the analytics, because most people do not comment on the posts. Regardless, and most importantly, my blog has changed MY perception of science. Before I started blogging about science topics, I was unaware of how complicated and connected Earth's processes are, including climate change, natural disasters, human actions and pollution. Overall, this blog has been important to me because it helped define my interests academically, leading me to apply and be accepted to a Masters program at the University of Montana starting in August 2013. The program in Environmental Science and Natural Resource Journalism umbrellas over both my training in communications and my love for the environment. Because of my personal growth through my blog, I am also motivated to create

  7. Are Changes in Students' Perceptions of the Learning Environment Related to Changes in Emotional and Behavioural Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuen, Elin; Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional based research suggests that students' perceptions of the learning environment are associated with emotional and behavioural problems (EBP). However, it is not clear to what extent the associations identified are merely reflections of individual student characteristics. The present study explored this issue by utilizing a…

  8. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation

  9. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmo Angélica MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural

  10. Perceptions of environmental changes and lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmo, Angélica M S; Tognella, Mônica M P; Có, Walter L O; Barboza, Raynner R D; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2011-11-16

    Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation.

  11. CHANGES IN PAIN PERCEPTION IN WOMEN DURING AND FOLLOWING AN EXHAUSTIVE INCREMENTAL CYCLING EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Drury

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been found to alter pain sensitivity with a hypoalgesic response (i.e., diminished sensitivity to pain typically reported during and/or following high intensity exercise. Most of this research, however, has involved the testing of men. Thus, the purpose of the following investigation was to examine changes in pain perception in women during and following exercise. Seventeen healthy female subjects (age 20.47±.87; VO2 peak 36.77± 4.95 volunteered to undergo pain assessment prior to, during, and after a graded exhaustive VO2 peak cycling challenge. Heart Rate (HR and Oxygen Uptake (VO2 were monitored along with electro-diagnostic assessments of Pain Threshold (PT and Pain Tolerance (PTOL at: 1 baseline (B, 2 during exercise (i.e., 120 Watts, 3 at exhaustive intensity (VO2 peak, and 4 10 minutes into recovery (R. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to determine differences across trials. Significant differences in PT and PTOL were found across trials (PT, p = 0.0043; PTOL p = 0.0001. Post hoc analyses revealed that PT were significantly elevated at VO2 peak in comparison to B (p = 0.007, 120 Watts (p = 0.0178 and R (p = 0.0072. PTOL were found to be significantly elevated at 120 Watts (p = 0.0247, VO2 peak (p < 0.001, and R (p = 0.0001 in comparison to B. In addition, PTOL were found to be significantly elevated at VO2 peak in comparison to 120 Watts (p = 0.0045. It is concluded that exercise-induced hypoalgesia occurs in women during and following exercise, with the hypoalgesic response being most pronounced following exhaustive exercise

  12. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R; Sala, R; Oltra, C

    2007-09-27

    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Changes in pheromone production, release, mating behaviour and reproductive ability of the gamma-irradiated cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.

    1978-01-01

    Mature males of Nauphoeta cinerea produce a sex pheromone 'seducin' which has short-range effects in attracting mature females of the same species. Exposure of newly-emerged adult males to 3.5, 7, 14 or 21 krad of gamma-radiation decreased their life expectancy and affected their mating behaviour. Bioassay of dichloromethane extracts of males showed that radiation doses (14 krad) sufficient to induce sterility did not affect the ability to produce pheromone but significantly reduced the release of pheromone by inhibiting wing-raising. The sterile-male technique using males sterilized by ionizing radiation in air may not be the method of choice for control of Nauphoeta cinerea. (author)

  14. Targeted changes of the cell wall proteome influence Candida albicans ability to form single- and multi-strain biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cabral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We have combined gene overexpression, strain barcoding and microarray profiling to screen a library of 531 C. albicans conditional overexpression strains (∼10% of the genome for genes affecting biofilm development in mixed-population experiments. The overexpression of 16 genes increased strain occupancy within a multi-strain biofilm, whereas overexpression of 4 genes decreased it. The set of 16 genes was significantly enriched for those encoding predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-modified proteins, namely Ihd1/Pga36, Phr2, Pga15, Pga19, Pga22, Pga32, Pga37, Pga42 and Pga59; eight of which have been classified as pathogen-specific. Validation experiments using either individually- or competitively-grown overexpression strains revealed that the contribution of these genes to biofilm formation was variable and stage-specific. Deeper functional analysis of PGA59 and PGA22 at a single-cell resolution using atomic force microscopy showed that overexpression of either gene increased C. albicans ability to adhere to an abiotic substrate. However, unlike PGA59, PGA22 overexpression led to cell cluster formation that resulted in increased sensitivity to shear forces and decreased ability to form a single-strain biofilm. Within the multi-strain environment provided by the PGA22-non overexpressing cells, PGA22-overexpressing cells were protected from shear forces and fitter for biofilm development. Ultrastructural analysis, genome-wide transcript profiling and phenotypic analyses in a heterologous context suggested that PGA22 affects cell adherence through alteration of cell wall structure and/or function. Taken together, our findings reveal that several novel predicted GPI-modified proteins contribute to the cooperative behaviour between biofilm cells and are important participants during C. albicans biofilm formation. Moreover, they illustrate the power

  15. Changes in Student Perceptions and Study Strategies Over Time in a Veterinary Clinical Pathology Course Using Case-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nicole J; Wagg, Catherine R; Warren, Amy L

    2018-06-13

    Veterinary students are challenged to develop new, nonlinear ways of thinking as they learn diagnostic reasoning skills. To support this process, we use real-life cases in our clinical pathology course. Changes in student perceptions regarding the use of cases and changes in study strategies over time have not been previously investigated or compared to student grades. Students participated in three voluntary online surveys that included 4-point Likert scale questions and open-ended questions on the helpfulness of cases for learning and study strategies used during the course. We used Friedman tests to detect any differences in perceptions over time; McNemar's test and "Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to detect any differences in study strategies over time. Fisher's exact tests'were used to examine the association between the Likert scale responses and grades in quartiles. Before beginning the course, 29% of students responded that cases were very helpful to their learning, with similar "responses for helpfulness in applying course material and grasping important concepts. There was a significant trend of increasing positivity over the duration of the course, with 74% responding that cases were very helpful at the end of the course. The most-reported study strategy was working individually on cases before the midterm (74% of students), and the most helpful study strategy was attending class regularly (88% reported it as very "helpful). Study strategies did not change significantly over time. Overall, perceptions and study strategies did not vary significantly with grades.

  16. A multi-species modelling approach to examine the impact of alternative climate change adaptation strategies on range shifting ability in a fragmented landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Synes, Nicholas W.; Watts, Kevin; Palmer, Stephen C.F.; Bocedi, Greta; Bartoń, Kamil A.; Osborne, Patrick E.; Travis, Justin M.J.

    2015-01-01

    An individual-based model of animal dispersal and population dynamics was used to test the effects of different climate change adaptation strategies on species range shifting ability, namely the improvement of existing habitat, restoration of low quality habitat and creation of new habitat. These strategies were implemented on a landscape typical of fragmentation in the United Kingdom using spatial rules to differentiate between the allocation of strategies adjacent to or away from existing h...

  17. The students’ ability in mathematical literacy for the quantity, and the change and relationship problems on the PISA adaptation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hongki; Sanjaya, Febi; Yudhi Anggoro, Ant.

    2017-09-01

    One of purposes of this study was to describe the solution profile of the junior high school students for the PISA adaptation test. The procedures conducted by researchers to achieve this objective were (1) adapting the PISA test, (2) validating the adapting PISA test, (3) asking junior high school students to do the adapting PISA test, and (4) making the students’ solution profile. The PISA problems for mathematics could be classified into four areas, namely quantity, space and shape, change and relationship, and uncertainty. The research results that would be presented in this paper were the result test for quantity, and change and relationship problems. In the adapting PISA test, there were fifteen questions that consist of two questions for the quantity group, six questions for space and shape group, three questions for the change and relationship group, and four questions for uncertainty. Subjects in this study were 18 students from 11 junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Central Java, and Banten. The type of research that used by the researchers was a qualitative research. For the first quantity problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 3. For the second quantity problem, there were 88.89 % students who achieved level 2. For part a of the first change and relationship problem, there were 55.56 % students who achieved level 5. For part b of the first change and relationship problem, there were 77.78 % students who achieved level 2. For the second change and relationship problem, there were 38.89 % students who achieved level 2.

  18. Assessment of perception and adaptation to climate-related glacier changes in the arid Rivers Basin in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guofeng, Zhu; Dahe, Qin; Jiawen, Ren; Feng, Liang; Huali, Tong

    2017-06-01

    In many mountainous areas of the world, glaciers serve as a source of fresh water that is of critical importance and contributes to the sustainability of agriculture and other socio-economic activities. An enhanced understanding of socio-economic consequences of the climate-related glacier changes is essential to the identification of vulnerable entities and the development of well-targeted environmental adaptation policies. A questionnaire and interviews of farmers in the Heihe River Basin were used to analyze their perception of cryospheric changes, attitudes towards mitigation of cryospheric changes, and the ways in which they perceived their responsibility. Preferred responses and interventions for cryospheric change and views on responsible parties were also collected and evaluated. Our investigation revealed that most rural residents were concerned about glacier changes and believed they would bring harm to present society, individuals, and families, as well as to future generations. The respondents' perceptions were mainly influenced by the mass media. Most respondents tended to favor adaptation measures implemented by the government and other policy-making departments. An integrated approach will be needed to deal with the challenges to tackling climate-related glacier change.

  19. What Butterfly Effect? The Contextual Differences in Public Perceptions of the Health Risk Posed by Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Stoutenborough

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most difficult aspects of persuading the public to support climate change policy is the lack of recognition that climate change will likely have a direct impact on an individual’s life. Anecdotal evidence and arguments within the media suggest that those who are skeptical of climate change are more likely to believe that the negative externalities associated with climate change will be experienced by others, and, therefore, are not a concern to that individual. This project examines public perceptions of the health risk posed by climate change. Using a large national public opinion survey of adults in the United States, respondents were asked to evaluate the health risk for themselves, their community, the United States, and the world. The results suggest that individuals evaluate the risk for each of these contexts differently. Statistical analyses are estimated to identify the determinants of each risk perception to identify their respective differences. The implications of these findings on support for climate change policy are discussed.

  20. The impact of an intensive yearlong staff development program on science teachers' perceptions of pedagogical change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueni, Joneen A. Stone

    The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of how teachers perceive their implementation of pedagogical change during and after their involvement in a yearlong staff development project in the Rice Model Lab (RML). The following questions were used to guide the inquiry: (1) How do participants of the RML describe their involvement with pedagogical change? (2) How do participants of the RML perceive their ability to handle a different pedagogical approach to classroom instruction? (3) How do participants describe their usage of different pedagogical approaches once they leave the RML and return to their own classrooms? The RML is a joint venture between Rice University and the Houston Independent School District. Annually, eight middle school science teachers spend a year's sabbatical in the RML engaged in learning about educational research and pedagogy. The teachers have opportunities to prepare and teach lessons to one class using their new knowledge and skills. Operational for seven years, the RML was chosen as the context and provided the fifteen participants. Participants chosen included previous and current RML program members with varying amounts of teaching experience. This inquiry was an ethnographic study in which the participants responded to open-ended questions about their experiences with pedagogical change. Data, collected during the 1997--1998 school year, included formal and informal interviews; portfolio and reflective journal entries; and observations of group interactions during meetings, social events, workshops, and activities at the RML. The collected data were analyzed by the qualitative procedures of unitization and constant comparative methods to reveal categories of similarity. The categories of collaboration, learner-centered instruction, grounding in classroom practice, feelings of stress, time, support, and increased content knowledge emerged from the analysis of unitized data. The emergent categories interlocked with

  1. Investigation into the visual perceptive ability of anaesthetists during ultrasound-guided interscalene and femoral blocks conducted on soft embalmed cadavers: a randomised single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A; Seeley, J; Munirama, S; Columb, M; McKendrick, M; Schwab, A; Corner, G; Eisma, R; Mcleod, G

    2018-04-01

    Errors may occur during regional anaesthesia whilst searching for nerves, needle tips, and test doses. Poor visual search impacts on decision making, clinical intervention, and patient safety. We conducted a randomised single-blind study in a single university hospital. Twenty trainees and two consultants examined the paired B-mode and fused B-mode and elastography video recordings of 24 interscalene and 24 femoral blocks conducted on two soft embalmed cadavers. Perineural injection was randomised equally to 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ml volumes. Tissue displacement perceived on both imaging modalities was defined as 'target' or 'distractor'. Our primary objective was to test the anaesthetists' perception of the number and proportion of targets and distractors on B-mode and fused elastography videos collected during femoral and sciatic nerve block on soft embalmed cadavers. Our secondary objectives were to determine the differences between novices and experts, and between test-dose volumes, and to measure the area and brightness of spread and strain patterns. All anaesthetists recognised perineural spread using 0.25 ml volumes. Distractor patterns were recognised in 133 (12%) of B-mode and in 403 (38%) of fused B-mode and elastography patterns; P<0.001. With elastography, novice recognition improved from 12 to 37% (P<0.001), and consultant recognition increased from 24 to 53%; P<0.001. Distractor recognition improved from 8 to 31% using 0.25 ml volumes (P<0.001), and from 15 to 45% using 1 ml volumes (P<0.001). Visual search improved with fusion elastography, increased volume, and consultants. A need exists to investigate image search strategies. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona

    Abstract WFOT Title: Occupational performance amongst asylum seekers in Denmark Introduction: Increased health problems are reported among asylum seekers, often related to torture, but there is no knowledge regarding occupational performance and whether there are any changes in asylum seekers...... changes in occupational performance and general health over time. Methods: At baseline 43 newly arrived asylum seekers, age 20-43, were consecutively enrolled in the study. All participants were assessed using AMPS and the questionnaires WHO-5, Major Depression Inventory, Pain Detect Questionnaire...... and the general health problems had increased. Further, the preliminary findings indicated an association between number of torture incidents and a decline in occupational performance and general health at follow-up. Conclusion: The findings showed that the asylum seekers had an occupational performance...

  3. Perceptions of climate change across the Canadian forest sector: The key factors of institutional and geographical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, John R.; Houle, Daniel; Messier, Christian; Gravel, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the perception of key stakeholders within the forest sector is critical to evaluating their readiness to engage in adapting to climate change. Here, we report the results of the most comprehensive survey carried out in the Canadian forestry sector to date regarding perceptions of climate change. A total of 1158 individuals, representing a wide range of stakeholders across the five most important forestry provinces in Canada, were asked about climate change, its impact on forest ecosystems, and the suitability of current forest management for addressing future impacts. Overall, we found that respondents were more concerned about climate change than the general population. More than 90% of respondents agreed with the anthropogenic origins of climate change, and > 50% considered it a direct threat to their welfare. Political view was the main driver of general beliefs about the causes of climate change and its future consequences, while the province of origin proved to be the best predictor of perceived current impacts on forest ecosystems and its associated risks; and type of stakeholder was the main driver of perceived need for adaptation. Industrial stakeholders were the most skeptical about the anthropogenic cause(s) of climate change (18% disagreed with this statement, compared to an average of 8% in the other stakeholders), its impacts on forest ecosystems (28% for industry vs. 10% for other respondents), and the need for new management practices (18% vs. 7%). Although the degree of awareness and the willingness to implement adaptive practices were high even for the most skeptical groups, our study identified priority sectors or areas for action when designing awareness campaigns. We suggest that the design of a strategic framework for implementing climate adaptation within the Canadian forest sector should focus on the relationship between climate change and changes in disturbance regimes, and above all on the economic consequences of these changes

  4. Using Models to Teach about Climate Change: A look at NGSS Expectations and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

    2013-12-01

    none of them mention or discuss the predictive power of models. Although models are a useful way to explain a complex phenomenon concisely, arguably the most important role science models play in scientific inquiry is their ability to allow scientists to make prediction, especially when it comes to climate change. Since all three teachers overlooked the predictive power of models, it indicates that that they do not have a firm understanding of the role science models play in making scientific predictions. In conclusion, there is discrepancy between what the NGSS indicate students should be learning about modeling and what teachers are prepared to teach. In order to better prepare teachers to meet the demands required of them, they need to be better educated about models, what they are, what they do, and how scientists use them. By preparing teachers to teach K-12 students about the role models play in climate research, we can build a more knowledgeable society that is better prepared to make informed decisions on how to deal with issues in our changing climate.

  5. Selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs change the ability of neutrophils to form extracellular traps (NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrotniak, Marcin; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against infections that combat pathogens using two major mechanisms, the phagocytosis or the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The netosis (NET formation) exerts additional, unfavorable effects on the fitness of host cells and is also involved at the sites of lung infection, increasing the mucus viscosity and in the circulatory system where it can influence the intravascular clot formation. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the netosis are still incompletely understood, a role of NADPH oxidase that activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the initiation of NETs has been well documented. Since several commonly used drugs can affects the netosis, our current study was aimed to determine the effects of selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs on NET formation, with a special emphasis on ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity. The treatment of neutrophils with N-acetylcysteine, ketoprofen and ethamsylate reduced the production of ROS by these cells in a dose-dependent manner. NET formation was also modulated by selected drugs. N-acetylcysteine inhibited the netosis but in the presence of H2O2 this neutrophil ability was restored, indicating that N-acetylcysteine may influence the NET formation by modulating ROS productivity. The administration of ethamsylate led to a significant reduction in NET formation and this effect was not restored by H2O2 or S. aureus, suggesting the unexpected additional side effects of this drug. Ketoprofen seemed to promote ROS-independent NET release, simultaneously inhibiting ROS production. The results, obtained in this study strongly suggest that the therapeutic strategies applied in many neutrophil-mediated diseases should take into account the NET-associated effects.

  6. Tourist perceptions of air travel and climate change: an assessment of the polluters pay principle in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate about possible taxation of air travel and the inclusion of aviation in emission trading schemes. One proposal is the introduction of a carbon tax as part of a broad range of mitigation options to address climate change. However, the effectiveness of such a tax depends largely on the responsiveness to it by tourists. Consequently, the aim of the study is to explore the attitudes of domestic tourists in South Africa toward the introduction of a carbon tax, together with their knowledge and perceptions of climate change. Therefore, the perceptions of the polluters pay principle amongst domestic tourists who use air travel in South Africa are investigated. Data was collected using a structured survey involving two hundred domestic air travel passengers at O.R. Tambo International airport, selected through a random sampling technique. The study is the first of its kind in South Africa and it concludes that the average domestic tourist has moderate to good knowledge regarding climate change, believes climate change to be very serious and in need of attention and is willing to pay a carbon tax in order to offset their contribution to climate change; provided that it is regulated and used effectively.

  7. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation...... for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb....

  8. Further psychometric validation of the BODY-Q: ability to detect change following bariatric surgery weight gain and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Cano, Stefan J; Kaur, Manraj; Breitkopf, Trisia; Pusic, Andrea L

    2017-11-25

    Recent systematic reviews have identified that current patient-reported outcome instruments have content limitations when used to measure change following bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to measure change after bariatric surgery using the BODY-Q, a PRO instrument designed for weight loss and body contouring. The BODY-Q is composed of 18 independently functioning scales and an obesity-specific symptom checklist that measure appearance, health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and experience of health-care. The sample for this study included patients who were exploring or seeking bariatric surgery in Hamilton (Canada) at the time of the BODY-Q field-test study and who agreed to further contact from the research team. These patients were invited to complete 12 BODY-Q scales and the symptom checklist between 7 June 2016 and 29 November 2016. Data were collected online (REDCap) and via postal surveys. Clinical change was measured using paired t-tests with effect sizes and standardized response means. The survey was completed by 58 of 89 (65%) pre-bariatric participants from the original BODY-Q field-test sample. The non-participants did not differ from participants in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, BMI or initial BODY-Q scale scores. Participants who had undergone bariatric surgery had a mean BMI of 49 (SD = 7) at time 1 and 35 (SD = 7) at time 2. Time since bariatric surgery was on average 2 years (SD = 0.5) (range 0.4 to 3 years). Percentage total weight loss ranged from 12 to 51 (mean 31, SD = 9). The difference in the proportion of patients to report an obesity-specific symptom on the BODY-Q checklist was significantly lower at follow-up for 5 of 10 symptoms. Participants improved on BODY-Q scales measuring appearance (of abdomen, back, body, buttocks, hips/outer thighs, inner thigh), body image and physical function (p weight loss. BODY-Q scales were responsive to measuring clinical change associated with weight loss 2 years after

  9. A Window into Mathematical Support: How Parents' Perceptions Change Following Observations of Mathematics Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenskow, Arla; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the perceptions of 24 parents of rising 5th-grade students with mathematics learning difficulties as part of a 10-week summer mathematics tutoring experience. During the summer tutoring program, parents observed their children participating in mathematics learning experiences during one-to-one tutoring sessions. At the…

  10. Changes in the Perceptions of the Nature of Science and Religious Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflalo, Ester

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS) is one of the challenging objectives in science education due, in part, to the complex relationship between religion and science. This study examines how NOS teaching affects the perception of the NOS amongst religious, as compared to secular, students. The participants included 205 religious and secular…

  11. Adapting to Change: Teacher Perceptions of Implementing the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Brooke A.; Beziat, Tara L. R.; Danley, Sheree; Davis, Kashara; Lowery, Holly; Lucas, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The current research study looked at secondary teachers' (grades 6-12) perceptions of their preparedness to implement the Common Core State Standards as well as their feelings about the training they have or have not received related to implementing the standards. The problem: Many conflicting views exist among teachers, parents, and others…

  12. An Examination of Cross Sectional Change in Student's Metaphorical Perceptions towards Heat, Temperature and Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Harun

    2016-01-01

    In science teaching, metaphors are important tools for understanding meaningful learning and conceptual formation by the help of daily life language. This study aims to evaluate how the concepts of heat, temperature and energy are perceived by students in secondary school science classes and how the perceptions of these concepts vary in terms of…

  13. Changes in the perception of mental illness stigma in Germany over the last two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Matschinger, Herbert; Carta, Mauro G; Schomerus, Georg

    2014-08-01

    To examine the evolution of the perception of the stigma attached to mental illness in Germany since 1990 up to the present. Population surveys were conducted in the old German States (former Federal Republic of Germany) in 1990, 2001, and 2011. The perception of stigma attached to people with mental illness was assessed with the help of Link's perceived discrimination and devaluation scale. In the 2011 survey, less mental illness stigma was perceived by respondents than in the previous surveys. In the eyes of the German public, the devaluation and rejection of people with mental illness has substantially decreased since 1990. The perception of a decline of the stigmatization is in contrast to the development of the German public's attitudes towards persons with mental disorders, which remained unchanged or even worsened. Perceived and personal attitudes towards persons with mental illness have developed differently, and it remains to be seen whether perceptions of less public stigma will ultimately be followed by improved personal attitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Changing Perceptions about Feminists and (Still Not) Claiming a Feminist Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Suzette; Hurd, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    We examine student perceptions about feminists and feminism, and the willingness to claim a feminist identity and engage in collective activism, as stated at the beginning and end of a Women's Studies course. Course participation simultaneously fostered more positive views towards feminists and feminism and entrenched the unwillingness to claim a…

  15. Changing people's perceptions and behavior through partnerships and education: followup on a case study from Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim Kelly; Ron Sushak; Pamela Jakes

    2001-01-01

    A follow-up survey of residents in southeastern Minnesota shows that environmental values were stable over a 5-year period. The authors were unable to measure any impacts of a Minnesota Department of Natural Resources comprehensive watershed planning initiative in the Wells Creek watershed on residents' behaviors and attitudes and perceptions about the...

  16. Perceptions of severe storms, climate change, ecological structures and resiliency three years post-hurricane Sandy in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Global warming is leading to increased frequency and severity of storms that are associated with flooding, increasing the risk to urban, coastal populations. This study examined perceptions of the relationship between severe storms, sea level rise, climate change and ecological barriers by a vulnerable environmental justice population in New Jersey. Patients using New Jersey's Federally Qualified Health Centers were interviewed after Hurricane [Superstorm] Sandy because it is essential to understand the perceptions of uninsured, underinsured, and economically challenged people to better develop a resiliency strategy for the most vulnerable people. Patients ( N = 355) using 6 centers were interviewed using a structured interview form. Patients were interviewed in the order they entered the reception area, in either English or Spanish. Respondents were asked to rate their agreement with environmental statements. Respondents 1) agreed with experts that "severe storms were due to climate change", "storms will come more often", and that "flooding was due to sea level rise", 2) did not agree as strongly that "climate change was due to human activity", 3) were neutral for statements that " Sandy damages were due to loss of dunes or salt marshes". 4) did not differ as a function of ethnic/racial categories, and 5) showed few gender differences. It is imperative that the public understand that climate change and sea level rise are occurring so that they support community programs (and funding) to prepare for increased frequency of storms and coastal flooding. The lack of high ratings for the role of dunes and marshes in preventing flooding indicates a lack of understanding that ecological structures protect coasts, and suggests a lack of support for management actions to restore dunes as part of a coastal preparedness strategy. Perceptions that do not support a public policy of coastal zone management to protect coastlines can lead to increased flooding, extensive property

  17. Short- and long-term changes in perceived work ability after interdisciplinary rehabilitation of chronic musculoskeletal disorders: prospective cohort study among 854 rehabilitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Laimi, Katri; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the changes in rehabilitants' perceived work ability after rehabilitation for chronic musculoskeletal disorders with respect to the baseline characteristics. Prospective cohort study based on register and repeated survey data. Public sector employees in ten towns and five hospital districts. A total of 854 employees who participated in the rehabilitation programme owing to common chronic musculoskeletal disorders between 1997 and 2009. Interdisciplinary, biopsychosocial, inpatient rehabilitation programme targeting people of working age with common chronic musculoskeletal disorders. The programme was executed in different rehabilitation centres across the country and funded by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Differences in perceived work ability level before and after rehabilitation. Data were derived from repeated surveys on average 2.1 years before rehabilitation, and 1.5 years (short-term follow-up) and 6.0 years (long-term follow-up) after rehabilitation. Before the rehabilitation, perceived work ability was 7.13 (SD 1.84) among the rehabilitants and 7.27 (SD 1.72) in the matched reference population. Among rehabilitants, this figure decreased by 0.82 (95% confidence interval -0.98 to -0.67) in the short-term and by 1.26 (95% confidence interval -1.45 to -1.07) in the long-term follow-up. Only slight differences in steepness of this deterioration were observed between subgroups, created based on the participants' baseline characteristics. Perceived work ability of participants, in an interdisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation programme for common musculoskeletal disorders, deteriorated regardless of any studied pretreatment characteristics. The improvement of work ability may be an unrealistic goal for participants in this type of rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. The Girls on Ice program: Improving perceptions of climate change and environmental stewardship by exploring a glacier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Conner, L.; Pettit, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Girls on Ice is a unique, free, science and mountaineering experience for underserved girls aged 16 to 18. Each year, two teams of nine girls spend eight days on a remote Alaska or Washington glacier to learn about glaciology, climate change, and alpine ecology (as well as mountaineering, art and leadership). During the program, the girls live on, explore and study a glacier and the visibly climate change-altered landscape that surrounds it, through both instructor-led modules and scientific field studies the girls design themselves. Time spent on the glacier means witnessing rivers of meltwater running off the surface, climbing 300 m uphill to where the glacier last sat 150 years ago, and learning how scientists monitor the glacier's retreat. Previous studies have shown that pro-environmental behavior in youth is strongly influenced by having significant life experiences outdoors, and that engagement of citizens in a climate change-impacted landscape is emerging as a powerful way to connect people to environment and to motivate environmental action. Given the significant life experience provided by our unique wilderness format, and the interactions with a rapidly changing glacier landscape, this study examines how participation in Girls on Ice impacts the 16 to 18 year-old participants' perceptions of climate change, as well as their sense of environmental identity. We use mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including pre- and post-program questionnaires, an in-program focus group discussion, end-of-program interviews, and early and late in-program concept (node-link) mapping exercises. Preliminary results from qualitative data show a shift in many girls' perceptions of climate change towards being motivated to act to combat it, with particular reference to glaciers as a key component prompting that shift. Ultimately, this study aims to demonstrate the value of tenets of environmental and outdoor education theory, namely significant life experiences and

  19. Effects of divided attention and operating room noise on perception of pulse oximeter pitch changes: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Schlesinger, Joseph J; Wallace, Mark T

    2013-02-01

    Anesthesiology requires performing visually oriented procedures while monitoring auditory information about a patient's vital signs. A concern in operating room environments is the amount of competing information and the effects that divided attention has on patient monitoring, such as detecting auditory changes in arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry. The authors measured the impact of visual attentional load and auditory background noise on the ability of anesthesia residents to monitor the pulse oximeter auditory display in a laboratory setting. Accuracies and response times were recorded reflecting anesthesiologists' abilities to detect changes in oxygen saturation across three levels of visual attention in quiet and with noise. Results show that visual attentional load substantially affects the ability to detect changes in oxygen saturation concentrations conveyed by auditory cues signaling 99 and 98% saturation. These effects are compounded by auditory noise, up to a 17% decline in performance. These deficits are seen in the ability to accurately detect a change in oxygen saturation and in speed of response. Most anesthesia accidents are initiated by small errors that cascade into serious events. Lack of monitor vigilance and inattention are two of the more commonly cited factors. Reducing such errors is thus a priority for improving patient safety. Specifically, efforts to reduce distractors and decrease background noise should be considered during induction and emergence, periods of especially high risk, when anesthesiologists has to attend to many tasks and are thus susceptible to error.

  20. Effects of divided attention and operating room noise on perception of pulse oximeter pitch changes: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Fellow, Postdoctoral; Schlesinger, Joseph J.; Physician, Resident; Wallace, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anesthesiology requires performing visually-oriented procedures while monitoring auditory information about a patient’s vital signs. A concern in operating rooms environments is the amount of competing information and the effects that divided attention have on patient monitoring, such as detecting auditory changes in arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry. Methods We measured the impact of visual attentional load and auditory background noise on the ability of anesthesia residents to monitor the pulse oximeter auditory display in a laboratory setting. Accuracies and response times were recorded reflecting anesthesiologists’ abilities to detect changes in oxygen saturation across three levels of visual attention in quiet and with noise. Results Results show that visual attentional load substantially impacts the ability to detect changes in oxygen saturation levels conveyed by auditory cues signaling 99 and 98% saturation. These effects are compounded by auditory noise, with up to a 17% decline in performance. These deficits are seen in the ability to accurately detect a change in oxygen saturation and in speed of response. Conclusions Most anesthesia accidents are initiated by small errors that cascade into serious events. Lack of monitor vigilance and inattention are two of the more commonly cited factors. Reducing such errors is thus a priority for improving patient safety. Specifically, efforts to reduce distractors and lower background noise should be considered during induction and emergence, periods of especially high risk, when anesthesiologists must attend to many tasks and are thus susceptible to error. PMID:23263015