WorldWideScience

Sample records for pavement layers

  1. Application of Finite Layer Method in Pavement Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite element (FE method has been widely used in predicting the structural responses of asphalt pavements. However, the three-dimensional (3D modeling in general-purpose FE software systems such as ABAQUS requires extensive computations and is relatively time-consuming. To address this issue, a specific computational code EasyFEM was developed based on the finite layer method (FLM for analyzing structural responses of asphalt pavements under a static load. Basically, it is a 3D FE code that requires only a one-dimensional (1D mesh by incorporating analytical methods and using Fourier series in the other two dimensions, which can significantly reduce the computational time and required resources due to the easy implementation of parallel computing technology. Moreover, a newly-developed Element Energy Projection (EEP method for super-convergent calculations was implemented in EasyFEM to improve the accuracy of solutions for strains and stresses over the whole pavement model. The accuracy of the program is verified by comparing it with results from BISAR and ABAQUS for a typical asphalt pavement structure. The results show that the predicted responses from ABAQUS and EasyFEM are in good agreement with each other. The EasyFEM with the EEP post-processing technique converges faster compared with the results derived from ordinary EasyFEM applications, which proves that the EEP technique can improve the accuracy of strains and stresses from EasyFEM. In summary, the EasyFEM has a potential to provide a flexible and robust platform for the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements and can easily be post-processed with the EEP technique to enhance its advantages.

  2. Flexibl Pavement Analysis Considering Temperature Profile and Anisotropy Behavior in Hot Mix Asphalt Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Joonho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A three Dimensional finite element model (FEM incorporating the anisotropic properties and temperature profile of hot mix asphalt (HMA pavement was developed to predict the structural responses of HMA pavement subject to heavy loads typically encountered in the field. In this study, ABAQUS was adopted to model the stress and strain relationships within the pavement structure. The results of the model were verified using data collected from the Korean Highway Corporation Test Road (KHCTR. The results demonstrated that both the base course and surface course layers follow the anisotropic behavior and the incorporation of the temperature profile throughout the pavement has a substantial effect on the pavement response predictions that impact pavement design. The results also showed that the anisotropy level of HMA and base material can be reduced to as low as 80% and 15% as a result of repeated loading, respectively.

  3. Effects of layer interface slip on the response and performance of elastic multi-layered flexible airport pavement systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available in this study. The new AASHTO pavement design guide for flexible pavements is shifting from an experience (or purely empirical) based design method to a mechanistic-empirical (M-E) design method. The latter approach requires an elastic multi-layered analysis...

  4. Assessing artificial neural network performance in estimating the layer properties of pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Inés Beltran

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in assessing the structural condition of existing flexible pavements is the estimation of the mechanical properties of constituent layers, which is useful for the design and decision-making process in road management systems. This parameter identification problem is truly complex due to the large number of variables involved in pavement behavior. To this end, non-conventional adaptive or approximate solutions via Artificial Neural Networks – ANNs – are considered to properly map pavement response field measurements. Previous investigations have demonstrated the exceptional ability of ANNs in layer moduli estimation from non-destructive deflection tests, but most of the reported cases were developed using synthetic deflection data or hypothetical pavement systems. This paper presents further attempts to back-calculate layer moduli via ANN modeling, using a database gathered from field tests performed on three- and four-layer pavement systems. Traditional layer structuring and pavements with a stabilized subbase were considered. A three-stage methodology is developed in this study to design and validate an “optimum” ANN-based model, i.e., the best architecture possible along with adequate learning rules. An assessment of the resulting ANN model demonstrates its forecasting capabilities and efficiency in solving a complex parameter identification problem concerning pavements.

  5. Effects of cross-anisotropy and stress-dependency of pavement layers on pavement responses under dynamic truck loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul A. Tarefder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies by the authors have determined pavement responses under dynamic loading considering cross-anisotropy in one layer only, either the cross-anisotropic viscoelastic asphalt concrete (AC layer or the cross-anisotropic stress-dependent base layer, but not both. This study evaluates pavement stress–strain responses considering cross-anisotropy in all layers, i.e. AC, base and subbase, using finite element modeling (FEM technique. An instrumented pavement section on Interstate I-40 near Albuquerque, New Mexico was used in ABAQUS framework as model geometry. Field asphalt cores were collected and tested in the laboratory to determine the cross-anisotropy (n-values defined by horizontal to vertical modulus ratio, and other viscoelastic parameters as inputs of the model incorporated through user defined material interface (UMAT functionality in ABAQUS. Field base and subbase materials were also collected and tested in the laboratory to determine stress-dependent nonlinear elastic model parameters, as inputs of the model, again incorporated through UMAT. The model validation task was carried out using field-measured deflections and strain values under falling weight deflectometer (FWD loads at the instrumented section. The validated model was then subjected to an actual truck loading for studying cross-anisotropic effects. It was observed that horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of the AC layer and vertical strains in all layers decreased with an increase in n-value of the asphalt layer, from n < 1 (anisotropy to n=1 (isotropy. This indicates that the increase in horizontal modulus caused the decrease in layer strains. It was also observed that if the base and subbase layers were considered stress-dependent instead of linear elastic unbound layers, the horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer increased and vertical strains on top of the base and subbase also increased.

  6. Effect of interlayer bonding quality of asphalt layers on pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-01

    The quality of interlayer bonding at the interfaces between the asphalt layers in flexible pavements affects the overall pavement performance. Lack or partial lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers can cause pavement’s premature failures such as rutting, slippage of the wearing course, cracking or simply a reduction in the calculated fatigue life of the pavement structure. This paper shows the case studies of investigation of actual or potential premature failure of newly reconstructed and constructed pavements where low quality of interlayer bonding has a dominant meaning. In situ and laboratory tests were performed and followed by analytical calculation of pavement structure where thicknesses of layers and maximum shear strengths obtained from the tests were used. During the investigation it was found out that a low quality of tack coat as well as the same aggregate gradation in the bonded asphalt mixtures were the main reasons behind the weak quality of interlayer bonding. Partial interlayer bonding has a strong influence on reduction of calculated fatigue life of pavement. The summary of the paper includes recommendations on how to avoid the low quality of interlayer bonding of asphalt layers.

  7. ANALYSIS OF STRESS STATE IN UPPER LAYER OF ROAD CONCRETE PAVEMENT WITH TEMPERATURE ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While being operated auto-road pavements are subjected to intensive mechanical impacts, ultraviolet ray irradiation, freeze-thaw temperatures, freezing and thawing, drying and moistening. Due to these actions various types of pavement distresses appear on the road pavement. The most significant and dangerous type of distresses is micro-cracks on the road surface. One of the main reasons for their formation is an action of weather and climatic factors that initiate large changes in temperature of coating surface and occurrence of large temperature gradients in the upper layer. In this context while designing and operating auto-roads it is rather essential to investigate a stress state in road surface which is caused by temperature action. Purpose of the described investigations is to determine permissible temperature gradients for cement-concrete pavements that exclude formation of micro-cracks on their surface and thickness of damaged surface layer. Calculations of road pavement have been carried out at various laws for temperature distribution in its depth. A finite difference method realized in PARUS software has been used for studying a stress state of cement-concrete auto-roads. Regularities for distribution of stresses in cement-concrete pavement of auto-roads have been obtained at various surface temperatures. Permissible temperature gradients in the upper pavement layer have been determined and thickness of the layer where micro-cracks are formed has been assessed in the paper. Strength criterion based on the process of micro-crack formation and development in the concrete has been used for calculations. Risk of micro-crack formation on the auto-road pavement depends on material strength, conditions of plate fixing and temperature gradients.

  8. Design and construction control guidance for chemically stabilized pavement base layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A laboratory and field study was conducted related to chemically stabilized pavement layers, which is also : referred to as soil-cement. Soil-cement practices within MDOT related to Class 9C soils used for base layers : were evaluated in this report....

  9. Inferring pavement layer properties from a moving measurement platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian; Levenberg, Eyal; Andersen, M.B.

    2017-01-01

    was achieved when the correct pavement model and accurate input data were employed. Also, when artificial errors were introduced for assessing sensitivities, only small deviations were generated. Based on these promising outcomes the method will be further studied and developed to support the construction...

  10. Highway pavement performance test for colored thin anti-skidding layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Cui, Wei; Xu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Based on the actual service condition of highway pavement colored thin anti-skidding layers, with materials of color quartz sand and two-component acrylic resin as basis, we designed such tests as the bond strength, shearing strength, tear strength, fatigue performance and aggregate polished value, and included the freeze-thaw cycle and de-icing salt and other factors in the experiment, connecting with the climate characteristics of circumpolar latitude and low altitude in Heilongjiang province. Through the pavement performance test, it is confirmed that the colored thin anti-skidding layers can adapt to cold and humid climate conditions, and its physical mechanical properties are good.

  11. E2CAV, Pavement layer thickness estimation system based on image texture operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Barrios Arcila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public roads are an essential part of economic progress in any country; they are fundamental for increasing the efficiency on transportation of goods and are a remarkable source of employment. For its part, Colombia has few statistics on the condition of its roads; according with INVIAS the state of the roads in Colombia can be classified as “Very Good” (21.1%, “Good” (34.7%, and “Regular” or “Bad” (43.46%. Thus, from the point of view of pavement rehabilitation, it is worth securing the quality of those roads classified as “Regular” or “Bad”. Objective: In this paper we propose a system to estimate the thickness of the pavement layer using image segmentation methods. The pavement thickness is currently estimated using radars of terrestrial penetration, extraction of cores or making pips; and it is part of structural parameters in the systems of evaluation of pavement. Method: The proposed system is composed of a vertical movement control unit, which introduces a video scope into a small hole in the pavement, then the images are obtained and unified in a laptop. Finally, this mosaic is processed through texture operators to estimate the thickness of the pavement. Users can select between the Otsu method and Gabor filters to process the image data. Results: The results include laboratory and field tests; these tests show errors of 5.03% and 11.3%, respectively, in the thickness of the pavement. Conclusion: The proposed system is an attractive option for local estimation of pavement thickness, with minimal structural damage and less impact on mobility and number of operators.

  12. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering the compatibility condition at the interface of the structural layers. By introducing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, some numerical results are presented. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental result implied that the proposed method is reasonable in predicting the stress and displacement of a multi-layered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6071

  13. Influence of changes in surface layer properties on tire/pavement noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Van Keulen, W.; Ceylan, H.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in tire/pavement noise caused by variations in the road surface characteristics. This research is based on the analysis of noise and surface characteristics collected from sections with 25 mm thickness thin layer surfacings in the Netherlands. Investigations are first

  14. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  15. Evaluation of using crushed brick as coarse aggregate in concrete layer within rigid highway pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwash Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the present studies related to the field of highway pavement construction technique tend to make use of the local available materials as substitutes for the imported and necessary materials for some of the practical application. For this reason this research aims at looking for the prospect of used locally available aggregate such as crushed clay bricks for the aim of producing proper concrete with suitable thermal and mechanical properties. Experimental investigations have been carried out to asses the effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregate by free manually crushed Brick with percentages (10, 20, 30 and 40% of virgin coarse aggregate in concrete mix for highway rigid pavement. While the percentage (0% replacement represent reference mix. Mix proportion based on the target of compressive strength for all replacement percentage of (33 MPa at (28 days to achieve AASHTO requirement for highway concrete rigid pavement .The results of flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density and thermal conductivity refers to better performance (less thickness of concrete layer with large spacing between contraction or expansion joints and less stresses due to warping induced concrete layer for concrete mix with 20% crushed brick as replacement of coarse aggregate.

  16. Optimization of compaction specifications for different pavements layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Semmelink, CJ

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The report deals with the site investigations in connection with the compaction standards, that is a comparison between actual in situ dry densities achieved compared to specification requirements, for road layer work for the periods 91/92, 92...

  17. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  18. Stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance of permeable pavement layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Zhen-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the laboratory-scale permeable pavement layers, including a surface permeable brick layer, coarse sand bedding layers (thicknesses = 2, 3.5, and 5 cm), and single-graded gravel sub-base layers (thicknesses = 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm), were built to evaluate stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance. And, the infiltration rate (I) and concentrations of suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen (TN) were measured under the simulated rainfall intensity of 72.4 mm/h over duration of 60 min. The results indicate that the thickness factor primarily influences the infiltration rate and pollutant removal rate. The highest steady infiltration rate was for surface brick layer 51.0 mm/h, for 5-cm sand bedding layer 32.3 mm/h, and for 30-cm gravel sub-base layer 42.3 mm/h, respectively. The SS average removal rate was relative higher (79.8 ∼ 98.6 %) for all layers due to the interception and filtration. The average removal rates of TP and COD were for surface layer 71.2 and 24.1 %, for 5-cm bedding layer 54.8 and 9.0 %, and for 20-cm sub-base layer 72.2 and 26.1 %. Ammonia nitrogen and TN cannot steadily be removed by layers according to the experiment results. The optimal thickness of bedding sands was 5 cm, and that of sub-base gravels was 20 ∼ 30 cm.

  19. Stresses, strains, and displacements in a poroelastic layered pavement model subject to a moving load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morshedi, C.

    1982-01-01

    The response of a layered poroelastic halfspace to a progressing normally distributed load applied at the surface is evaluated for the case in which the constant velocity of the moving load is less than that of the elastic waves in each layer. It is assumed that a steady state exists with respect to the coordinate axes attached to a moving load. A three-dimensional problem for Biot's consolidated equations is then solved by taking Fourier transforms in the horizontal directions to evaluate stresses and displacements at any point in the medium. The analysis is illustrated by numerical examples using an algorithm based on one previously developed to calculate the response to a static load for axisymmetric poroelastic layers. To reduce the amount of computation, attention is restricted to a two-dimensional problem in which the load extends infinitely in the transverse direction. Results are presented for two and three-layered pavement models composed of concrete and gravel over a clay subbase responding to moving traffic, but the method is applicable to any number of layers. The effect of varying the velocity of the load and layer properties is observed

  20. Measurements of the Stiffness and Thickness of the Pavement Asphalt Layer Using the Enhanced Resonance Search Method

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    Nur Mustakiza Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced resonance search (ERS is a nondestructive testing method that has been created to evaluate the quality of a pavement by means of a special instrument called the pavement integrity scanner (PiScanner. This technique can be used to assess the thickness of the road pavement structure and the profile of shear wave velocity by using the principle of surface wave and body wave propagation. In this study, the ERS technique was used to determine the actual thickness of the asphaltic pavement surface layer, while the shear wave velocities obtained were used to determine its dynamic elastic modulus. A total of fifteen locations were identified and the results were then compared with the specifications of the Malaysian PWD, MDD UKM, and IKRAM. It was found that the value of the elastic modulus of materials is between 3929 MPa and 17726 MPa. A comparison of the average thickness of the samples with the design thickness of MDD UKM showed a difference of 20 to 60%. Thickness of the asphalt surface layer followed the specifications of Malaysian PWD and MDD UKM, while some of the values of stiffness obtained are higher than the standard.

  1. PECULIAR FEATURES OF HEAT-HUMIDITY MODE PERTAINING TO POROUS LAYERS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Verenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental investigations and points out the fact that conventional approaches to design and calculations of road pavements that presuppose application of porous asphalt concrete on compact bedding can cause some deformations and destructions initiated due to humidity migration in large internal material pores and lead to material destruction during warm season of the year when water is characterized by high activity. Such processes result in bitumen washing-out, white spot occurrence on the pavement and quick destruction of the pavement.The paper proposes to reconsider existing approaches to design and calculation of road pavements, estimation of reliability and service-ability levels of the applied construction materials. In particular it is necessary to calculate a road pavement with respect to thermo-physical action while excluding condensate and humidity accumulation in porous materials. 

  2. Response of Granular Layers in Flexible Pavements Subjected to Aircraft Loadings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Airfield pavement design is a complex blend of relatively simple linear elastic theory, fatigue concepts, correlations with small-scale and full-scale and full-scale tests, and pragmatic adjustments...

  3. An Efficient and Accurate Genetic Algorithm for Backcalculation of Flexible Pavement Layer Moduli : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Backcalculation of pavement moduli has been an intensively researched subject for more than four decades. Despite the existence of many backcalculation programs employing different backcalculation procedures and algorithms, accurate inverse of the la...

  4. Influence of High Water Contents on Pavement Layers Stiffness Caused by Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokitowski Przemysław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture inside the construction of road pavements is the problem for road engineers all around the world. This issue is mentioned in many European or the US papers and studies, but still it needs to be developed. From the road engineers’ point of view, very important for solving above problems are the studies on the influence of water and moisture inside the construction of road pavement during deflection measurements using Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD. The paper raises this issue by showing a short review of Polish and foreign literature and presenting the first step of research work at the test site on Voivodeship Road 933 in Poland.

  5. Lime utilization in the laboratory, field, and design of pavement layers : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review and report the best practices of using lime (i.e., granulated lime, hydrated lime, and slurry lime) to dry soil, in working tables, and in pavement applications. The project also reviewed and documented the i...

  6. Use of stabilized bottom ash for bound layers of road pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraldo, Emanuele; Saponaro, Sabrina; Careghini, Alessandro; Mariani, Edoardo

    2013-05-30

    This paper reports about the lab scale results obtained by using stabilized bottom ash (SBA) from an Italian municipal solid waste incinerator as aggregates in cement-bound mixes and asphalt concretes for road pavements. The investigation focused on SBA content. From the road construction point of view, performance related to compaction, volumetric and mechanical properties were assessed. The environmental aspects were investigated performing leaching tests. The results suggested that SBA satisfied the environmental Italian law for reuse of non-hazardous waste but affected significantly the stress-strain behavior of the final products. Therefore a maximum percentage of 10% was suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatigue cracking in road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the problem of modelling fatigue phenomena occurring in the road pavement. The example of two selected pavements shows the changes occurring under the influence of the load in different places of the pavement layers. Attention is paid to various values of longitudinal and transverse strains generated at the moment of passing the wheel on the pavement. It was found that the key element in the crack propagation analysis is the method of transferring the load to the pavement by the tire and the strain distribution in the pavement. During the passage of the wheel in the lower layers of the pavement, a complex stress state arises. Then vertical, horizontal and tangent stresses with various values appear. The numerical analyses carried out with the use of finite element methods allowed to assess the strain and stress changes occurring in the process of cracking road pavement. It has been shown that low-thickness pavements are susceptible to fatigue cracks arising "bottom to top", while pavements thicker are susceptible to "top to bottom" cracks. The analysis of the type of stress allowed to determine the cracking mechanism.

  8. Extending the Service Life of Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendt, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    The cost of road construction and expenditures on the maintenance of pavements, i.e., their whole life cost, represents a lot of money. The paper describes a procedure for a pavement management system with degradation models and estimates the length of time for the rehabilitation of an asphalt pavement. Using a theory of pavement mechanics, we calculated the stresses and strains on the layers of two pavement models. High modulus asphalt concrete, an asphalt mix with a high binder content, and an asphalt mix with binder modifications are new road building materials. Prolonging the time for the rehabilitation of pavements is possible.

  9. In situ determination of layer thickness and elastic moduli of asphalt pavement systems by spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azmi Ismail; Sri Atmaja Rosyidi; Abdul Rahim Samsudin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan

    2003-01-01

    Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is a non-destructive and in situ method for determining the stiffness profile of soil and pavement sites. The method consists of generation, measurement, and processing of dispersive elastic waves in layered systems. The test is performed on the pavement surface at strain level below 0.001%, where the elastic properties are considered independent of strain amplitude. During an SASW test, the surface of the medium under investigation is subject to an impact to generate energy at various frequencies. Two vertical acceleration transducers are set up near the impact source to detect the energy transmitted through the testing media. By recording signals in digitised form using a data acquisition system and processing them, surface wave velocities can be determined by constructing a dispersion curve. Through forward modeling, the shear wave velocities can be obtained, which can be related to the variation of stiffness with depth. This paper presents the results of two case studies for near?surface profiling of two different asphalt pavement sites. (Author)

  10. Improving rutting resistance of pavement structures using geosynthetics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting).

  11. Improving Rutting Resistance of Pavement Structures Using Geosynthetics: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Mirzapour Mounes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting.

  12. Influence of Hydrated Lime on the Properties and Permanent Deformation of the Asphalt Concrete Layers in Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tameemi Ahmed F.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or asphalt concrete pavement is the paving system most widely adopted all over the world. It has been recognized that there are many different types of the factors affecting the performance and durability of asphalt concrete pavement, including the service conditions, such as: the variation of temperature from mild to extremes and the repeated excessive axle loading as well as the inadequate quality of the raw materials. All of these when combined together are going to accelerate the occurrence of distresses in flexible pavement such as permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. As the result, there has an urgent need to enhance the ability of asphalt concrete mixture to resist distresses happened in pavement. Use of additives is one of the techniques adopted to improve pavement properties. It has been found that hydrated lime might be one of the effective additives because it is widely available and relatively cheap compared to other modifiers like polymers. This paper presents an experimental study of the hydrated-lime modified asphalt concrete mixtures. Five different percentages of the hydrated lime additive were investigated, namely (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 percent. The hydrated lime additive was used as partial replacement of limestone filler by total weight of the aggregate. The designed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA concretes are for the application of three pavement courses, i.e. Surface, Leveling and Base. These mixtures are designed and tested following Marshall procedure and uniaxial repeated loading to evaluate permanent deformation at different temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C. The experimental results show that the addition of hydrated lime as a partial replacement of ordinary limestone mineral filler results a significant improvement on mechanical properties and the resistant to permanent deformation of the designed asphalt concrete mixtures.

  13. The impact of light-colored pavements on active layer dynamics revealed by Ground-Penetrating Radar monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    further development of depressions in the asphalt pavement. One of these areas has been used in the GPR investigations to compare the variations of the frost table underneath a normal dark asphalt surface to that below a more reflective surface. The GPR results have shown a clear correlation between...... the use of the reflective surface and a reduced depth to frost table. In late summer the difference in the depths to the frost table is approximately 0.9 m. The results should promote the interest in the development and use of light colored pavement materials in order to reduce the effect of a warming...

  14. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios

    2017-05-11

    Inverted base pavements involve a well-compacted granular aggregate base built between a thin asphalt concrete layer and a cement-treated base. Inverted base pavements can be constructed using conventional equipment and procedures but require proper quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost. Inverted base pavements rely on the complementary interaction between layers. The cement-treated base provides a stiff foundation for efficient compaction and constrains the deformation of the stress-sensitive granular aggregate base. The thin asphalt surface layer deforms as a membrane and develops low tensile stress. Additional large-scale field tests should be conducted to assess the performance of inverted base pavement designs in a wide range of conditions relevant to the USA.

  15. Software offers transparent, straightforward assessment of pavement additives : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Adding new materials to pavement layers is a proven technique to : improve performance. Many types of additivesfrom engineered : polymers and acids to recycled pavement, crumb rubber, shingles : and glasshave been used to help construct better ...

  16. Evaluating life cycle costs of perpetual pavements in China using operational pavement management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway transportation is considered as vital factor in China’s economic growth; many high grade highways have been constructed in China during the last decades. The research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology have been deployed in China since 2000. The semi-rigid pavement has been normally considered as typical pavement of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different Chinese perpetual pavements using operational pavement management system and to examine its suitability for use in the design and construction of more economical and durable pavements. It has been found that the use of thin asphalt layers over semi-rigid pavement foundation in PP structure will create more sustainable, economical, and durable PP structures in comparison with typical thick asphalt layers PP structures.

  17. Fatigue and rutting lives in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible pavement is designed based on axle load limits and climatic conditions. The Egyptian code has specified certain load limits that should not be exceeded. The overweight trucks cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The study aims at studying the effect of axle load increase, and the variation in pavement modulus, on the overall pavement life. The research uses the BISAR software and the Egyptian environmental and pavement materials conditions to estimate the tensile strains occurring under the asphalt concrete (AC layer and the compressive strains above the subgrade surface. The results revealed that tensile and compressive strain increased with increasing axle loads and decreased with increasing asphalt layer modulus thus the violating trucks should be unloaded when their weights exceed certain limits. Base thickness and subgrade resilient modulus were the key elements which control the equilibrium between fatigue and rutting lives.

  18. Long Life Pavements; Firmes de larga duracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos Moreno, A.; Marron Fernandez, J. O.; Perez Ayuso, J.

    2009-07-01

    The existence of long-life pavements is not new; they have been built in Europe and the United States for decades. In fact, the concept arises from the observation of in-service roads; it was verified how particular pavements, initially designed for a 20-year service life, did not seem to have reduced the bearing capacity along the time, and its maintenance necessities had been exclusively focused on the wearing course. The base idea of long-life pavements is the existence of a fatigue threshold below which the damage produced by each load application is, in practice, zero or below the healing potential of the asphalt mix. The use practice of long-life pavements design considers a pavements constituted by three asphalt layers, each one with a very specific role: a wearing course that provides with the surface characteristics, an intermediate course that provides with most of the structural capacity and a base course that provides with the fatigue resistance. Furthermore, one of the particularities is the design against specific distress mechanisms. Maintenance strategy also presents specific particularities for long-life pavements. It is essentially focused on the detection of surface deterioration, and the appropriate and timely repair, before the damage extends beyond the wearing course, putting into risk the structural integrity of the pavement. Nowadays, this new way to conceive the design, the construction and the maintenance of road pavements, constitutes one of the main challenges for pavement engineering worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Characterization and Modeling of Recycled Pavement Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Because of its documented cost and environmental benefits, cold central plant recycling (CCPR) has attracted the interest of local and state departments of transportation. In 2015 two test pavement sections with CCPR as base layers were constructed a...

  20. Influence of Pavement on Fatigue Performance of Urban Steel Box Girder Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhongyue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on spatial finite element analysis method, the Influence of pavement on fatigue performance of orthotropic steel deck was analyzed in terms of pavement system, asphalt pavement stiffness. The result shows that compared with asphalt pavement system, RPC pavement system can not only obviously improve the stress condition of steel bridge deck, but also significantly extend the fatigue life of steel bridge panel; Increasing the stiffness of pavement layer can obviously reduce the stress amplitude of fatigue details, especially for direct contact with the pavement.

  1. Fatigue and rutting strain analysis of flexible pavements designed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    The study was carried out with the layered elastic analysis software EVERSTRESS. Key words: Layered elastic analysis, fatigue, rutting, strains, design, flexible pavement, CBR. ..... Numerical Computational Stresses and Strains in Multi-Layer ...

  2. Investigation of the Effect of Recycled Asphalt Pavement Material on Permeability and Bearing Capacity in the Base Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Güneş Seferoğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP and cement content on the permeability and bearing capacity characteristics of aggregate base courses. Mixtures containing untreated RAP ranging between 0 and 100 percent and 1, 2, and 3% cement-treated RAP were subjected to laboratory tests (bitumen content, sieve analysis, modified proctor, soaked California bearing ratio (CBR, and constant-level permeability tests. The results showed that, as the RAP percentage in the mixture increased, CBR values decreased considerably. Moreover, there is a linear increase in the CBR values with cement treatment. Optimum moisture contents (OMC and maximum dry densities (MDD showed a decreasing trend. Increasing the cement percentages in 100% RAP blend increases the OMC and MDD values. The permeability of RAP showed a decrease as the percentage of RAP and cement increased in blends. The study showed that the CBR value of the 20% RAP blend is also obtained in the 100% RAP/3% cement-treated blend. Thus, it has been understood that cement is a suitable material in order to increase the use of RAP. In addition, the increase in the percentage of RAP and cement made the base course more impermeable.

  3. Nondestructive pavement evaluation using finite element analysis based soft computing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Evaluating structural condition of existing, in-service pavements constitutes annually a major part of the : maintenance and rehabilitation activities undertaken by State Highway Agencies (SHAs). Accurate : estimation of pavement geometry and layer m...

  4. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  5. Inverse Analysis of Pavement Structural Properties Based on Dynamic Finite Element Modeling and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Tang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the movement towards the implementation of mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG, an accurate determination of pavement layer moduli is vital for predicting pavement critical mechanistic responses. A backcalculation procedure is commonly used to estimate the pavement layer moduli based on the non-destructive falling weight deflectometer (FWD tests. Backcalculation of flexible pavement layer properties is an inverse problem with known input and output signals based upon which unknown parameters of the pavement system are evaluated. In this study, an inverse analysis procedure that combines the finite element analysis and a population-based optimization technique, Genetic Algorithm (GA has been developed to determine the pavement layer structural properties. A lightweight deflectometer (LWD was used to infer the moduli of instrumented three-layer scaled flexible pavement models. While the common practice in backcalculating pavement layer properties still assumes a static FWD load and uses only peak values of the load and deflections, dynamic analysis was conducted to simulate the impulse LWD load. The recorded time histories of the LWD load were used as the known inputs into the pavement system while the measured time-histories of surface central deflections and subgrade deflections measured with a linear variable differential transformers (LVDT were considered as the outputs. As a result, consistent pavement layer moduli can be obtained through this inverse analysis procedure.

  6. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  7. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  8. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  9. Permanent deformation and deflection relationship from pavement condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Leiva-Villacorta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of permanent deformation in flexible pavements has been a research topic for several decades. Currently there are models included in the structural design of pavements that can predict this type of failure. However, the variables required for the prediction of this distress are complex or difficult to obtain in the field, making its application in pavement evaluation also difficult. Measurement of the deflection of pavement structures by means of non-destructive testing is a technique used to assess the condition of the pavement. This research study seeks to correlate data from deflections of the pavement surface with probable permanent deformation in time. In addition, prediction of the remaining life of the pavement structure using a specified criterion is also analyzed. In order to accomplish these objectives, data acquired from 4 different full scale accelerated pavement test tracks was used to develop a permanent deformation model as a function of deflection, load repetitions and pavement layer thickness. The developed model considered a time series model that incorporates an Auto-regressive parameter of order 1. The proposed model presents an advantage over currently available models because it reduces the required parameters to predict the permanent deformation and/or remaining life in the structure and because these variables can be easily found and updated in a pavement management system. Keywords: HVS, Permanent deformation, Deflections, APT, Time series, Instrumentation

  10. Accelerated load testing of geosynthetic base reinforced pavement test sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the benefits of geosynthetic stabilization and reinforcement of subgrade/base aggregate layers in flexible pavements built on weak subgrades and the effect of pre-rut pavement sections, prior to the ...

  11. Effect of training algorithms on neural networks aided pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Especially, the use of Finite Element (FE) based pavement modeling results for training the NN aided inverse analysis is considered to be accurate in realistically characterizing the non-linear stress-sensitive response of underlying pavement layers in real-time. Efficient NN learning algorithms have been developed and ...

  12. Evaluating the performance of sustainable perpetual pavements using recycled asphalt pavement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast highways network in China is moving from the phase of construction to the phase of maintenance, and with the introduction of new technique of perpetual pavement in last decade, it is necessary to consider recycling as one of the promising solutions for rehabilitation of old asphalt concrete pavement and ultimately to convert them into perpetual pavements. The aim is to reuse the existing pavement materials for several reasons, mainly to preserve natural resources such as aggregates, and to satisfy economic requirements by reducing the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation. A detailed testing program has been carried out on recycled asphalt pavements materials (RAP to evaluate their mechanical and structural characteristics to be used for the construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. Different types of RAP mixes have been stabilized by Portland cement to find the most suitable one from the point of view of design, construction, economy and environment. The analysis of life cycle costs has been carried out using system analysis and management of pavement program (SAMP5. The analysis of life cycle costs showed that the use of Portland cements with small percentages improves the structural characteristics of recycled asphalt materials to be used as stabilized base pavement layers for new or rehabilitated old road pavements and also for the construction and rehabilitation of perpetual pavements. A large amount of savings in construction and rehabilitation cost has been achieved by the use of stabilized RAP materials in addition to important contributions to the environment and preserving of natural resources.

  13. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  14. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper the focus is on quantification of the pavement roughness effects on the calculated structural pavement life and the effects of surfacing maintenance on the moving dynamic tyre loads generated by vehicles. A simplified method for calculating... the moving dynamic tyre load population is used together with standard pavement response analysis methods to quantify the effects of pavement surfacing maintenance on roughness and structural pavement life. This method can be used as a pavement management...

  15. VALIDITY OF GARBER MODEL IN PREDICTING PAVEMENT CONDITION INDEX OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT IN KERBALA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Ewadh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavement Condition Index (PCI is one of the important basics in pavement maintenance management system (PMMS, and it is used to evaluate the current and future pavement condition. This importantance in decision making to limit the maintenance needs, types of treatment, and maintenance priority. The aim of this research is to estimate the PCI value for flexible pavement urban roads in the study area (kerbala city by using Garber et al. developed model. Based on previous researches, data are collected for variables that have a significant impact on pavement condition. Data for pavement age (AGE, average daily traffic (ADT, and structural number (SN were collected for 44 sections in the network roads. A field survey (destructive test (core test and laboratory test (Marshall Test were used to determine the capacity of structure layer of pavement (SN. The condition index (CI output from a developed model was compared with the PCI output of PAVER 6.5.7 by using statistical analysis test. The developed model overestimates value of CI rather than PCI estimated from PAVER 6.5.7 due to statistical test to a 95% degree of confidence, (R = 0.771 for 44 sections (arterial and collector.

  16. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  17. Pavement structure mechanics response of flexible on semi-flexible overlay that based on the old cement concrete pavement damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ruinan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The old cement pavement damage status directly affect the design of the paving renovation. Based on the state of the old road investigation, combined with the research data at home and abroad, use the control index that average deflection, deflection value and CBR value to determine the reasonable time to overlay. Draw up the typical pavement structure according to the principle of combination of old cement pavement overlay structure design, and calculated that the tensile stress and shear stress in asphalt layer ,semi-flexible layer and the tensile in the old cement pavement adopting BISA3.0 statics finite element analysis model when modulus in the old road was diminishing. Use the computed result to analyses the influence of old road damage condition the influence of pavement structure.

  18. Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M A; Abustan, I; Hamzah, M O

    2013-01-01

    Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

  19. Subsurface defect detection in first layer of pavement structure and reinforced civil engineering structure by FRP bonding using active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Ibos, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    In many countries road network ages while road traffic and maintenance costs increase. Nowadays, thousand and thousand kilometers of roads are each year submitted to surface distress survey. They generally lean on pavement surface imaging measurement techniques, mainly in the visible spectrum, coupled with visual inspection or image processing detection of emergent distresses. Nevertheless, optimisation of maintenance works and costs requires an early detection of defects within the pavement structure when they still are hidden from surface. Accordingly, alternative measurement techniques for pavement monitoring are currently under investigation (seismic methods, step frequency radar). On the other hand, strengthening or retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures by externally bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) systems is now a commonly accepted and widespread technique. However, the use of bonding techniques always implies following rigorous installing procedures. To ensure the durability and long-term performance of the FRP reinforcements, conformance checking through an in situ auscultation of the bonded FRP systems is then highly suitable. The quality-control program should involve a set of adequate inspections and tests. Visual inspection and acoustic sounding (hammer tap) are commonly used to detect delaminations (disbonds) but are unable to provide sufficient information about the depth (in case of multilayered composite) and width of debonded areas. Consequently, rapid and efficient inspection methods are also required. Among the non destructive methods under study, active infrared thermography was investigated both for pavement and civil engineering structures through experiments in laboratory and numerical simulations, because of its ability to be also used on field. Pulse Thermography (PT), Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) approaches have been tested onto pavement samples and CFRP bonding on concrete

  20. Finite element analysis of GFRP reinforced concrete pavement under static load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiping; Hu, Chunhua

    2018-02-01

    GFRP was more corrosion resistant than traditional reinforced, it is lightweight, high strength thermal expansion coefficient is more close to the concrete and a poor conductor of electromagnetic. Therefore, the use of GFRP to replace the traditional reinforcement in concrete pavement application has excellent practical value. This paper uses ANSYS to establish delamination and reinforcement of Pavement model and analyzed response of GFRP concrete and ordinary concrete pavement structural mechanics on effects of different factors under the action of static. The results showed that under static load, pavement surface layer presented similar changes on stress of surface layer, vertical and horizontal deformation in two kinds of pavement structure, but indicators of GFRP reinforced concrete pavement were obviously better than that of ordinary concrete pavement.

  1. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...

  2. HMAC layer adhesion through tack coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Tack coats are the asphaltic emulsions applied between pavement lifts to provide adequate bond between the two surfaces. The adhesive bond between the two layers helps the pavement system to behave as a monolithic structure and improves the structura...

  3. Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...

  4. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  5. "Full-Scale Testing of Pavement Response"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ekdahl, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Three pavement sections in southern Sweden were instrumented in late 1991. Each section have instruments for measuring the strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer, vertical stress and strains in the subgrade and temperatures at different depths. The purpose was to evaluate different theoretical...... methods for determining stresses, strains and deflections in pavement structurers.Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test were done on the test sections, and stresses and strains were measured both under FWD loading and under a rolling wheel load. Different back-analysis procedures were used to derive...

  6. The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley

    2007-12-01

    Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.

  7. Analytical approach for evaluating temperature field of thermal modified asphalt pavement and urban heat island effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Hongzhou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Derive an analytical approach to predict temperature fields of multi-layered asphalt pavement based on Green’s function. • Analyze the effects of thermal modifications on heat output from pavement to near-surface environment. • Evaluate pavement solutions for reducing urban heat island (UHI) effect. - Abstract: This paper aims to present an analytical approach to predict temperature fields in asphalt pavement and evaluate the effects of thermal modification on near-surface environment for urban heat island (UHI) effect. The analytical solution of temperature fields in the multi-layered pavement structure was derived with the Green’s function method, using climatic factors including solar radiation, wind velocity, and air temperature as input parameters. The temperature solutions were validated with an outdoor field experiment. By using the proposed analytical solution, temperature fields in the pavement with different pavement surface albedo, thermal conductivity, and layer combinations were analyzed. Heat output from pavement surface to the near-surface environment was studied as an indicator of pavement contribution to UHI effect. The analysis results show that increasing pavement surface albedo could decrease pavement temperature at various depths, and increase heat output intensity in the daytime but decrease heat output intensity in the nighttime. Using reflective pavement to mitigate UHI may be effective for an open street but become ineffective for the street surrounded by high buildings. On the other hand, high-conductivity pavement could alleviate the UHI effect in the daytime for both the open street and the street surrounded by high buildings. Among different combinations of thermal-modified asphalt mixtures, the layer combination of high-conductivity surface course and base course could reduce the maximum heat output intensity and alleviate the UHI effect most.

  8. Calibrating mechanistic-empirical pavement performance models with an expert matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tighe, S.; AlAssar, R.; Haas, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Zhiwei, H. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Proper management of pavement infrastructure requires pavement performance modelling. For the past 20 years, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation has used the Ontario Pavement Analysis of Costs (OPAC) system for pavement design. Pavement needs, however, have changed substantially during that time. To address this need, a new research contract is underway to enhance the model and verify the predictions, particularly at extreme points such as low and high traffic volume pavement design. This initiative included a complete evaluation of the existing OPAC pavement design method, the construction of a new set of pavement performance prediction models, and the development of the flexible pavement design procedure that incorporates reliability analysis. The design was also expanded to include rigid pavement designs and modification of the existing life cycle cost analysis procedure which includes both the agency cost and road user cost. Performance prediction and life-cycle costs were developed based on several factors, including material properties, traffic loads and climate. Construction and maintenance schedules were also considered. The methodology for the calibration and validation of a mechanistic-empirical flexible pavement performance model was described. Mechanistic-empirical design methods combine theory based design such as calculated stresses, strains or deflections with empirical methods, where a measured response is associated with thickness and pavement performance. Elastic layer analysis was used to determine pavement response to determine the most effective design using cumulative Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs), below grade type and layer thickness.The new mechanistic-empirical model separates the environment and traffic effects on performance. This makes it possible to quantify regional differences between Southern and Northern Ontario. In addition, roughness can be calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index or Riding comfort Index

  9. Validation of theoretical models through measured pavement response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1999-01-01

    mechanics was quite different from the measured stress, the peak theoretical value being only half of the measured value.On an instrumented pavement structure in the Danish Road Testing Machine, deflections were measured at the surface of the pavement under FWD loading. Different analytical models were...... then used to derive the elastic parameters of the pavement layeres, that would produce deflections matching the measured deflections. Stresses and strains were then calculated at the position of the gauges and compared to the measured values. It was found that all analytical models would predict the tensile...

  10. The Reflective Cracking in Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reflective cracking is a major concern for engineers facing the problem of road maintenance and rehabilitation. The problem appears due to the presence of cracks in the old pavement layers that propagate into the pavement overlay layer when traffic load passes over the cracks and due to the temperature variation. The stress concentration in the overlay just above the existing cracks is responsible for the appearance and crack propagation throughout the overlay. The analysis of the reflective cracking phenomenon is usually made by numerical modeling simulating the presence of cracks in the existing pavement and the stress concentration in the crack tip is assessed to predict either the cracking propagation rate or the expected fatigue life of the overlay. Numerical modeling to study reflective cracking is made by simulating one crack in the existing pavement and the loading is usually applied considering the shear mode of crack opening. Sometimes the simulation considers the mode I of crack opening, mainly when temperature effects are predominant.

  11. Pavement edge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Four projects were built over two construction seasons using special devices attached to the paving machine that produces a 30 slope on the outside pavement edge instead of the near vertical drop-off common with conventional paving equipment. This ...

  12. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  13. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, synthetic topography DEM...

  14. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, P

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, "synthetic topography" DEM...

  15. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  16. Alternative pavements for snowmobile crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Excessive highway pavement wear from snowmobile traffic is a maintenance problem for the New Hampshire Department of : Transportation. The snowmobiles and trail grooming equipment scar and erode the pavement surfaces, eventually creating wide ruts ac...

  17. Status report on pavement management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This report traces the developments in pavement management in the Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation from the initial efforts in the mid-1970s through early 1984. Included are status reports on pavement management for the interstate, ...

  18. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  19. Perpetual pavement – absorbing stress and functional maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual Pavement combines the well documented smoothness and safety advantages of asphalt with an advanced, multi-layer paving design process, that with routine maintenance, extends the useful life of a roadway. Perpetual provides long lasting road and smoothness for the construction purposes. This study has the design key points of perpetual pavement based on the idea of life cycle, which has a new direction for the new highway construction, reconstruction and expansion. First, the structure of long life pavement design is studied to analyze the effect of stress absorbing layer. Second, researches on stress absorbing layer from the aspects of raw materials, mix proportion are implemented. Third, the design index of stress absorbing layer is determined by the shear strength test. The results show that the design idea of composite perpetual pavement can be realized by reasonable design of the stress absorbing layer and carrying out the surface functional maintenance can ensure the pavement to avoid structural damage in the operation stage.

  20. Drainage investigation of surface runoff for highway pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-adili Aqeel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the effect of heavy rainfall and the chosen pavement layers on the drainage design, material selection and rutting resistance of the flexible pavement. The test in present study was started with wheel track passing without load and without rain falling on the pavement for a period of time, and it was noticed that no distress appeared on the surface of the pavement. Then, the load is gradually added by using wheel track load of 106 psi for five tests without rain falling and five other tests with gradually increasing rain fall duration and intensity. Deterioration and distresses appeared on the pavement when increasing the wheel track load to (150 psi under high intensity rain and long term duration of rain fall. By increasing the number of days, which is 103 days of study, when the pavement is saturated, the extra amount of the water will runoff. The clogging material which caused a decrease in the water seepage, increases the time of runoff ending. The clogging materials of fine particles that get deposited on the surface of the pavement resulted by passing the wheel track loading and wear & tear of the pavement surface, and other clogging materials such as salt in the water will penetrate to the pavement and seal the voids and decrease its water seepage. The water seepage decreases by increasing number of days, so the amount of the absorbed water decreases by 89% after 71 days of testing for high rain intensity (116 ml/min..

  1. Analysis of natural stone block pavements in urban shared areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Zoccali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed and verified an existing block stone pavement in an urban shared area. Fatigue and rutting verification was performed respectively for bound and unbound pavement materials using analytical curves available in the literature. The commercial finite element (FE software Abaqus® was used to calculate the response of the pavement when subjected to different loading, construction and geometrical configurations (i.e. type of analysis, shape and size of meshes, boundary conditions, and bonding contacts between the pavements layers. At the end of this study, a static model of a structure with hexahedral blocks having sides of 0.02 m, with full bonded layers and restrained horizontal displacements on the model sides, was implemented to evaluate the maximum tensile stress induced in a block when the load is applied at its centre. This analysis highlighted the need for rigorous criteria for a correct design, in order to avoid inappropriate and expensive use of road materials. Keywords: Block pavement, Commercial vehicle loads, Finite element model, Hexagonal Stone block, Pedestrian pavement, Shared area

  2. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  3. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  4. Evaluation of Surface and Subsurface Processes in Permeable Pavement Infiltration Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement systems can be affected by clogging of the pavement surface and/or clogging at the interface where the subsurface storage layer meets the underlying soil. As infiltration and exfiltration are the primary functional mechanisms for ...

  5. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  6. Adaptation of AASHTO Pavement Design Guide for Local Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, J.J. [Applied Research Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The methodology used to adapt the 1993 AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures to Ontario conditions was described. The guide expresses the effect of traffic loads on pavement performance using the concept of axle Load Equivalency Factors (LEF). LEF is regarded as a pavement damage factor assigned to each specific load and axle configuration. The size of LEF is related to the damage that is expected to occur from a standard load of 80 kN carried by a single axle with dual tires. The factors are summarized to yield the number of Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs) a pavement is expected to sustain during its life. A summary was also provided of the additional work done to prepare for the transition to the proposed mechanistically-based 2002 AASHTO Guide. The paper focused only on the design of flexible pavements in terms of load characterization using equivalent single axle loads along with axle load spectra, below grade and material characterization, plus initial and terminal serviceability and reliability. The AASHTO Guide uses two parameters to deal with design reliability: design reliability level and overall standard deviation. Data collected on Ontario highway pavements and materials was used for assessing the design inputs. Other data was also collected from research and development studies, laboratory experiments, and from a survey of experienced pavement design engineers. The end result was a new grouping of Ontario soils for pavement design, recommended values for the resilient modulus of below grade soils, recommendations for structural layer coefficients for Ontario pavement materials and recommendations for the initial pavement serviceability based on Ontario smoothness specifications. Results of calibration and verification processes indicate that for new flexible pavements, the AASHTO-Ontario model is in good agreement with the observed results. It was recommended that the calibration and verification of the AASHTO-Ontario model should be a

  7. Experimental pavement delineation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

  8. Modified pavement cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsman, L. N.; Ageeva, M. S.; Botsman, A. N.; Shapovalov, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests design principles of pavement cement concrete, which covers optimization of compositions and structures at the stage of mixture components selection due to the use of plasticizing agents and air-retaining substances that increase the viability of a concrete mixture. It also demonstrates advisability of using plasticizing agents together with air-retaining substances when developing pavement concrete compositions, which provides for the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of concrete and the reduction of cement binding agent consumption thus preserving strength indicators. The paper shows dependences of the main physical-mechanical parameters of concrete on cement consumption, a type and amount of additives.

  9. Heavy vehicle simulator and laboratory testing of a light pavement structure for low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Group sandstones in the area. The engineering properties of the pavement materials are summarised in Table 1. The base layer material did not satisfy the grading and CBR requirements (CSRA, 1984) to be classified as a G4 material and the material... upgrading. Table 1. Engineering properties of the material from the main pavement layers on Road 538 Pavement layerEngineering properties Base Subbase Imported Sand In situ sand Grading Modulus (GM) 2.101 1.422 1.179 1.030 Liquid Limit (LL) 17 SP NP...

  10. Pavement Performance : Approaches Using Predictive Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Acceptable pavement condition is paramount to road safety. Using predictive analytics techniques, this project attempted to develop models that provide an assessment of pavement condition based on an array of indictors that include pavement distress,...

  11. Optimization and standardization of pavement management processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report addresses issues related to optimization and standardization of current pavement management processes in Kentucky. Historical pavement management records were analyzed, which indicates that standardization is necessary in future pavement ...

  12. A guide for local agency pavement managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide Washington's local agencies with a practical document that will assist pavement managers in understanding the pavement management process and the steps necessary to implement their own pavement management syste...

  13. Usage of digital image correlation in assessment of behavior of block element pavement structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygierek, M.; Grzesik, B.; Rokitowski, P.; Rusin, T.

    2018-05-01

    In diagnostics of existing road pavement structures deflection measurements have fundamental meaning, because of ability to assess present stiffness (bearing capacity) of whole layered construction. During test loading the reaction of pavement structure to applied load is measured in central point or in a few points located along a straight on a 1.5 ÷ 1.8 m distance (i.e. Falling Weight Deflectometer) in similar spacing equal to 20 ÷ 30 cm. Typical measuring techniques are productive and precise enough for most common pavement structures such as flexible, semi-rigid and rigid. It should be noted that in experimental research as well as in pavements in complex stress state, measurement techniques allowing observation of pavement deformation in 3D would have been very helpful. A great example of that type of pavements is a block element pavement structure consisting of i.e. paving blocks or stone slabs. Due to high stiffness and confined ability of cooperation of surrounding block elements, in that type of pavements fatigue life is strongly connected with displacement distribution. Unfortunately, typical deflection measurement methods forefend displacement observations and rotation of single block elements like paving blocks or slabs. Another difficult problem is to carry out unmistakable analysis of cooperation between neighboring elements. For more precise observations of displacements state of block element pavements under a wheel load a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used. Application of this method for assessment of behavior of stone slabs pavement under a traffic load enabled the monitoring of deformations distribution and encouraged to formulate conclusions about the initiation mechanism and development of damages in this type of pavement structures. Results shown in this article were obtained in field tests executed on an exploited pavement structure with a surface course made of granite slabs with dimensions 0.5x1.0x0.14 m.

  14. Harnessing Pavement Power : Developing Renewable Energy Technology in the Public Right-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    Intelligent Compaction (IC) of soil and asphalt mixes is an innovative approach that has been utilized to achieve uniform, adequate compaction of pavement layers during construction. Commercially available IC products provide machine specific compact...

  15. Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peide Cui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt pavement is widely used for expressways due to its advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy maintenance. However, pavement failures, including cracking, raveling, and potholes, will appear after long-term service. This research evaluated the residual fatigue properties of asphalt pavement after long-term field service. Fatigue behavior of specimens with different pavement failure types, traffic load, service time, and layers were collected and characterized. Results indicate that after long-term field service, surface layer has a longer fatigue life under small stress levels, but shorter fatigue life under large stress levels. Longer service time results in greater sensitivity to loading stress, while heavier traffic results in shorter fatigue life. Surface and underneath layers present very close fatigue trend lines in some areas, indicating that the fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture in surface and underneath layers are aged to the same extent after eight to ten years of field service.

  16. Novel permeable pavement systems utilising carbon-negative\\ud aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Tota-Maharaj, Kiran; Monrose, John; Hills, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The use of commercially produced Carbon-Negative aggregates from Carbon8 (a British company which applies patented Accelerated Carbonation Technology (ACT) to solidify waste residues producing useful eco-friendly aggregates) is being investigated in the Caribbean islands of Trinidad, Tobago and St. Lucia. Typical construction of the subbase layer of pavements in the Caribbean include layers of virgin aggregate material (gravel, pea gravel) on which the base course layer is located. These mate...

  17. Moisture Content Numerical Simulation on Structural Damage of Hot Mix Asphaltic Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abejide, O. S.; Mostafa, M. M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the merits of road transportation in the economy and communication activities of the modern societies, it is imperative to design a safe, stable, efficient and cost effective road that will lead to increased economic development and growth of the South African nation. Although, the overarching effect of failed roads has in many ways led to increased travel time, loss of life and property; leading to reduced driver control on failed road sections (riding quality). Thus, time rate delamination of flexible pavement is a major focus of this study. Since structural collapse in a flexible pavement structure is caused by the evolution of different types of damage mechanisms; fatigue cracking, advanced crushing, temperature variation, and delamination. The effect of moisture content on HMA was analysed. The analysis from the multi-layered elastic model indicates that increase in moisture content in the underlying layer of HMA pavement results to increase in the strain of the individual layers and culminates to a decrease in the structural carrying capacity of the pavement with respect to number of load cycles that can be carried on the HMA pavement. This study shows a clear relationship between the moisture/saturation coefficient and the Elastic Modulus of the underlying geometric material layer properties of the pavement during the service life of the pavement.

  18. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar at the FAA's National Airport Pavement Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injun, Song

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States has used a ground-coupled Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) since 2005. One of the primary objectives of the testing at the facility is to provide full-scale pavement response and failure information for use in airplane landing gear design and configuration studies. During the traffic testing at the facility, a GSSI GPR system was used to develop new procedures for monitoring Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement density changes that is directly related to pavement failure. After reviewing current setups for data acquisition software and procedures for identifying different pavement layers, dielectric constant and pavement thickness were selected as dominant parameters controlling HMA properties provided by GPR. A new methodology showing HMA density changes in terms of dielectric constant variations, called dielectric sweep test, was developed and applied in full-scale pavement test. The dielectric constant changes were successfully monitored with increasing airplane traffic numbers. The changes were compared to pavement performance data (permanent deformation). The measured dielectric constants based on the known HMA thicknesses were also compared with computed dielectric constants using an equation from ASTM D4748-98 Standard Test Method for Determining the Thickness of Bound Pavement Layers Using Short-Pulse Radar. Six inches diameter cylindrical cores were taken after construction and traffic testing for the HMA layer bulk specific gravity. The measured bulk specific gravity was also compared to monitor HMA density changes caused by aircraft traffic conditions. Additionally this presentation will review the applications of the FAA's ground-coupled GPR on embedded rebar identification in concrete pavement, sewer pipes in soil, and gage identifications in 3D plots.

  19. Modelling of composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive zone model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of the cement bound base material in composite concrete block pavement systems, using a cohesive zone model. The functionality of the proposed model is tested on experimental and numerical investigations of beam bending tests....... The pavement is modelled as a simple slab on grade structure and parameters influencing the response, such as analysis technique, geometry and material parameters are studied. Moreover, the analysis is extended to a real scale example, modelling the pavement as a three-layered structure. It is found...... block pavements. It is envisaged that the methodology implemented in this study can be extended and thereby contribute to the ongoing development of rational failure criteria that can replace the empirical formulas currently used in pavement engineering....

  20. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  1. Evaluation of airfield pavement evenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszewski, Paweł; Poświata, Adam; Wesołowski, Mariusz

    2018-05-01

    The evenness of airfield pavements is one of the basic operating parameters, which characterize them. The evenness determines not only comfort of traffic along an airfield pavement, but also influences the size of dynamic effect on the pavement, hence, the safety of air operations. In addition, the evenness condition changing as a result of dynamic loads, adverse weather conditions or inappropriate airfield pavement construction technology, lead to deviations from the desired condition in the form of longitudinal and transverse unevenness. As a result, systematic and correct performance of tests is a very significant and required factor impacting the improvement of traffic safety on airfield pavements. If the data obtained through the measurements are not sufficiently reliable, they may consequently lead to making incorrect decisions, which can ultimately impact the safety of air operations.

  2. Mechanical Response Analysis of Long-life Asphalt Pavement Structure of Yunluo High-speed on the Semi-rigid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wu, Chuanhai; Xu, Xinquan; Li, Hao; Wang, Zhixiang

    2018-01-01

    In order to grasp the rule of the strain change of the semi-rigid asphalt pavement structure under the FWD load and provide a reliable theoretical and practical basis for the design of the pavement structure, based on the test section of Guangdong Yunluo expressway, taking FWD as the loading tool, by using the finite element analysis software ANSYS, the internal variation rules of each pavement structural layer were obtained. Based on the results of the theoretical analysis, the measured strain sensor was set up in the corresponding layer of the pavement structure, and the strain test plan was determined. Based on the analysis of the strain data obtained from several structural layers and field monitoring, the rationality of the type pavement structure and the strain test scheme were verified, so as to provide useful help for the design and the maintenance of the pavement structure.

  3. Mechanochemical Polarization of Contiguous Cell Walls Shapes Plant Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Mateusz; Grones, Peter; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Vain, Thomas; Milani, Pascale; Krupinski, Pawel; Zagórska-Marek, Beata; Viotti, Corrado; Jönsson, Henrik; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Hamant, Olivier; Robert, Stéphanie

    2017-11-06

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells. Combining genetics, atomic force microscopy, and immunolabeling, we demonstrate that contiguous cell walls indeed exhibit hybrid mechanochemical properties. Such biochemical wall heterogeneities precede wall bending. Altogether, this provides a possible mechanism for the generation of complex plant cell shapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pavement system with rubber tire chips in subgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtakala, B.; Hoque, A.K.M.M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A pavement design method was developed in which shredded rubber tire chips mixed with sand were used as a material for pavement subgrade. Rubber tire chips are highly compressible and produce both elastic and plastic deformations under the application of loads. Sand was added to fill the void between the tire chips and make the mixture a strong material. The design method considered the vertical compressive strain produced by the design life traffic load 18k (80 KN) repetitions. The equivalent thicknesses of the layers above the subgrade corresponding to this vertical compressive strain were determined using contour charts. From this equivalent thickness, the thicknesses for asphalt pavement, base, and sub-base were determined by Odemark`s method. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Pavement maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new pavement management system (PMS) to achieve the optimal pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) strategy for a highway network using genetic algorithms (GAs). Optimal M&R strategy is a set of pavement activities that both minimise the maintenance cost of a highway network and maximise the pavement condition of the road sections on the network during a certain planning period. NSGA-II, a multi-objective GA, is employed to perform pavement maintenance optimisatio...

  6. Accelerated pavement testing of thin RCC over soil cement pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three full-scale roller compacted concrete (RCC pavement sections built over a soil cement base were tested under accelerated pavement testing (APT. The RCC thicknesses varied from 102 mm (4 in. to 152 mm (6 in. and to 203 mm (8 in., respectively. A bi-directional loading device with a dual-tire load assembly was used for this experiment. Each test section was instrumented with multiple pressure cells and strain gages. The objective was to evaluate the structural performance and load carrying capacity of thin RCC-surfaced pavements under accelerated loading. The APT results generally indicated that all three RCC pavement sections tested in this study possessed very high load carrying capacity; an estimated pavement life in terms of equivalent single axle load (ESAL for the thinnest RCC section (i.e., RCC thickness of 102 mm evaluated was approximately 19.2 million. It was observed that a fatigue failure would be the primary pavement distress type for a thin RCC pavement under trafficking. Specifically, the development of fatigue cracking was found to originate from a longitudinal crack at the edge or in the center of a tire print, then extended and propagated, and eventually merged with cracks of other directions. Instrumentation results were used to characterize the fatigue damage under different load magnitudes. Finally, based on the APT performance of this experiment, two fatigue models for predicting the fatigue life of thin RCC pavements were developed. Keywords: Roller compacted concrete, APT, Pavement performance, Non-destructive testing, Fatigue analysis

  7. Nondestructive testing of pavements and pavement bases (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964--Dec 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habercom, G.E. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Eighty references on nondestructive methods for quality assurance of pavements and pavement bases are presented. Vibration, nuclear activation, radiometry, and acoustic detection are among the various techniques employed

  8. Investigation on dynamical interaction between a heavy vehicle and road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua; Lu, Yongjie

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a model for three-dimensional, heavy vehicle-pavement-foundation coupled system, which is modelled as a seven-DOF vehicle moving along a simply supported double-layer rectangular thin plate on a linear viscoelastic foundation. The vertical tyre force is described by a single point-contact model, while the pavement-foundation is modelled as a double-layer plate on a linear viscoelastic foundation. Using the Galerkin method and quick direct integral method, the dynamical behaviour of the vehicle-pavement-foundation coupled system is investigated numerically and compared with that of traditional vehicle system and pavement system. The effects of coupling action on vehicle body vertical acceleration, suspension deformations, tyre forces and pavement displacements are also obtained. The investigation shows that the coupling action could not be neglected even on a smooth road surface, such as highway. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of vehicle and pavement simultaneously based on the vehicle-pavement-foundation coupled system.

  9. Impact of the variation in dynamic vehicle load on flexible pavement responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanuzzaman, Md

    rage of 0.60 to 0.87 were observed the DRC predictive equations. In addition, verification of those generalized equations was evaluated using different sets of asphalt pavement structures and pavement materials. The differences between calculated and predicted values were found to be within +/-20% for the maximum tensile strain and +/-30% for the maximum compressive strain in the asphalt layer.

  10. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  11. Design of semi-rigid type of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranshoo Solanki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the study presented in this paper is to develop design curves for performance prediction of stabilized layers and to compare semi-rigid flexible pavement designs between the empirical AASHTO 1993 and the mechanistic-empirical pavement design methodologies. Specifically, comparisons were made for a range of different sections consisting of cementitious layers stabilized with different types and percentages of additives. It is found that the design thickness is influenced by the type of soil, additive, selection of material property and design method. Cost comparisons of sections stabilized with different percentage and type of additives showed that CKD-stabilization provides economically low cost sections as compared to lime- and CFA-stabilized sections. Knowledge gained from the parametric analysis of different sections using AASHTO 1993 and MEPDG is expected to be useful to pavement designers and others in implementation of the new MEPDG for future pavement design. Keywords: Semi-rigid, Mechanistic, Resilient modulus, Fatigue life, Reliability, Traffic

  12. Heavy vehicle simulator in accelerated pavement testing: a historical overview and new developments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available deformation, Visual distress data, such as cracks, material loss, shear failures, etc. 4 Analysis of this data provided information on wheel load equivalency factors, rutting in untreated granular layers and load-associated cracking in cement...-directional trafficking; - To verify new designs proposed in the pavement design method; - To extend the data from the above to four climatic regions in South Africa; - To verify the theoretical predictions of distress in cemented base pavements; - To evaluate...

  13. Prediction of performance and evaluation of flexible pavement rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Won Wayne Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Five test sections with different additives and strategies were established to rehabilitate a State-maintained highway more effectively in Rhode Island (RI: control, calcium chloride, asphalt emulsion, Portland cement and geogrid. Resilient moduli of subgrade soils and subbase materials before and after full depth rehabilitation were employed as input parameters to predict the performance of pavement structures using AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design (Pavement ME software in terms of rutting, cracking and roughness. It was attempted to use Level 1 input (which includes traffic full spectrum data, climate data and structural layer properties for Pavement ME. Traffic data was obtained from a Weigh-in-Motion (WIM instrument and Providence station was used for collecting climatic data. Volumetric properties, dynamic modulus and creep compliance were used as input parameters for 19 mm (0.75 in. warm mix asphalt (WMA base and 12.5 mm (0.5 in. WMA surface layer. The results indicated that all test sections observed AC top-down (longitudinal cracking except Portland cement section which passed for all criteria. The order in terms of performance (best to worst for all test sections by Pavement ME was Portland cement, calcium chloride, control, geogrid, and asphalt emulsion. It was also observed that all test sections passed for both bottom up and top down fatigue cracking by increasing thickness of either of the two top asphalt layers. Test sections with five different base/subbase materials were evaluated in last two years through visual condition survey and measurements of deflection and roughness to confirm the prediction, but there was no serious distress and roughness. Thus these experiments allowed selecting the best rehabilitation/reconstruction techniques for the particular and/or similar highway, and a framework was formulated to select an optimal technique and/or strategy for future rehabilitation/reconstruction projects. Finally, guidelines for

  14. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  15. Thermal behavior of an asphalt pavement in the laboratory and in the parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkauppi, J B; Mäkiranta, A; Kiijärvi, J; Hiltunen, E

    2015-01-01

    The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5'45'' N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection.

  16. Thermal Behavior of an Asphalt Pavement in the Laboratory and in the Parking Lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Martinkauppi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5′45′′ N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection.

  17. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  18. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  19. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  20. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  1. Sustainable concrete pavements : a manual of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Developed as a more detailed follow-up to a 2009 briefing document, Building Sustainable Pavement with Concrete, this guide provides a clear, concise, and cohesive discussion of pavement sustainability concepts and of recommended practices for maximi...

  2. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost

  3. An approach to pavement management in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report summarizes the objectives and benefits of formal pavement management systems and outlines an approach believed by the author to be practical for Virginia. The management of Virginia interstate pavements and a proposed random-sampling plan ...

  4. Calibration of PMIS pavement performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Improve the accuracy of TxDOTs existing pavement performance prediction models through calibrating these models using actual field data obtained from the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS). : Ensure logical performance superiority patte...

  5. Appraisal of the Causes of Pavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pavement failure) or structural (deep-seated pavement failure). ... is primarily due to shallow groundwater level. Adewole et al. ... processing and interpretation of Landsat-7 ETM+ images covering the study area and it's environ for lineaments.

  6. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  7. Deterioration of jointed Portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Information has been gathered regarding the performance of more than 400 lane-miles of jointed PCC interstate pavements located in five construction districts in Virginia. The factors causing pavement deterioration have been identified, the processes...

  8. Application of the portable pavement seismic analyser (PSPA) for pavement analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available at the selected locations were compared using a one-way ANOVA and a correlation matrix to analyse the repeatability of the PSPA data, and to determine whether there was a significant difference between the three observations obtained at a specific location... behaviour from pavement layers, the PSPA measurements were conducted at 90° angles at the same location. An ANOVA test and correlation matrix was set up for each point to evaluate the isotropy of the moduli. Unfortunately, no comparative data (such as FWD...

  9. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Miao Yu; Guoxiong Wu; Lingyun Kong; Yu Tang

    2017-01-01

    The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systema...

  10. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geogrid reinforced road subgrade influence on the pavement evenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukščius, A.; Vorobjovas, V.; Vaitkus, A.

    2018-05-01

    As a result of increasing geogrid reinforcement applications in the road subgrade, there are number of projects where geogrid reinforcement is used to control road pavement evenness when there are small layers of peat or mud deeper under road construction. For this task geogrid reinforcement application is not documented but widely used in Lithuania for over a decade. This paper evaluates the long term influence of the geogrid reinforced soil influence on the road surface evenness, when the organic soils stratify in the deeper layers of the subgrade. The geological conditions of the investigated sections are reviewed. The experiment methodology and test results are described, which leads to the conclusions and insights how the pavement evenness depend on the geological conditions and its enhancement. The question is raised about the need for including this geogrid application to the normative documentation. Explanation of the problems that are encountered and the need for further research is given.

  12. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE USING MECHANISTIC EMPIRICAL METHOD (CASE STUDY: CIREBON–LOSARI ROAD SEGMENT, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cirebon – Losari flexible pavement which is located on the North Coast of Java, Indonesia, is in the severe damage condition caused by overloading vehicles passing the road. The need for developing improved pavement design and analysis methods is very necessary. The increment of loads and quality of material properties can be evaluated through Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E method. M-E software like KENLAYER has been developed to facilitate the transition from empirical to mechanistic design methods. From the KENLAYER analysis, it can be concluded that the effect of overloading to the pavement structure performance is difficult to minimize even though the first two layers have relatively high modulus of elasticity. The occurrence of 150%, 200%, and 250% overloading have a very significant effect in reducing 84%, 95%, and 98% of the pavement design life, respectively. For the purpose of increasing the pavement service life, it is more effective to manage the allowable load.

  13. The use of accelerometers in the pavement performance monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, T; Belt, J; Pellinen, T

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of sensor technology to enhance the management of highway infrastructure. With the help of monitoring data, it is possible to assess the current analytical pavement analysis method, which is based on multi-layered elastic analysis, and, thus enhance the pavement design practices in use. Pavement response was measured using different sensors, installed at various depths. Most promising sensors for the continuous monitoring purposes were the accelerometers. The drawback of these sensors is that the measured quantity is acceleration, which must be converted to the deflection via mathematical integration. In this paper some issues related to the manipulation of accelerometer data is presented and discussed, in addition of the discussion of the calculated and measured pavement response.

  14. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  15. Mechanistic modelling of weak interlayers in flexible and semi-flexible road pavements: Part 2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper (Part 2 of a two-part set of papers) discusses models and illustrates the adverse effects of weak layers, interlayers, laminations and/or weak interfaces in flexible and semi-flexible pavements, also incorporating lightly cemented layers...

  16. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  17. Mechanics based model for predicting structure-induced rolling resistance (SRR) of the tire-pavement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Maryam; Ozer, Hasan; Ziyadi, Mojtaba; Al-Qadi, Imad L.

    2016-11-01

    The structure-induced rolling resistance of pavements, and its impact on vehicle fuel consumption, is investigated in this study. The structural response of pavement causes additional rolling resistance and fuel consumption of vehicles through deformation of pavement and various dissipation mechanisms associated with inelastic material properties and damping. Accurate and computationally efficient models are required to capture these mechanisms and obtain realistic estimates of changes in vehicle fuel consumption. Two mechanistic-based approaches are currently used to calculate vehicle fuel consumption as related to structural rolling resistance: dissipation-induced and deflection-induced methods. The deflection-induced approach is adopted in this study, and realistic representation of pavement-vehicle interactions (PVIs) is incorporated. In addition to considering viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete layers, the realistic representation of PVIs in this study includes non-uniform three-dimensional tire contact stresses and dynamic analysis in pavement simulations. The effects of analysis type, tire contact stresses, pavement viscoelastic properties, pavement damping coefficients, vehicle speed, and pavement temperature are then investigated.

  18. ICP experiments more durable pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1994-01-01

    A new asphalts technology that will make more durable the pavement in the highways and roads of the cities of Colombia investigates the Colombian Institute of the Petroleum ICP. The project that will have important incidence in the solution of one of the main problems in the roads of cities like Bogota, is only one of the 35 investigation programs and application of new technologies that with relationship to the sector of the hydrocarbons and its influence branches the ICP advances. The investigation looks for to elevate the current average of useful life of the pavements, with that it would be reached a standard that has the developed countries in this field

  19. Teaching Methodology of Flexible Pavement Materials and Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yusuf; Najafi, Fazil

    2004-01-01

    Flexible pavement materials exhibit complex mechanical behavior, in the sense, that they not only show stress and temperature dependency but also are sensitive to moisture conditions. This complex behavior presents a great challenge to the faculty in bringing across the level of complexity and providing the concepts needed to understand them. The…

  20. Quasi-static analysis of flexible pavements based on predicted frequencies using Fast Fourier Transform and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ghanizadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New trend in design of flexible pavements is mechanistic-empirical approach. The first step for applying this method is analyzing the pavement structure for several times and computation of critical stresses and strains, which needs a fast analysis method with good accuracy. This paper aims to introduce a new rapid pavement analysis approach, which can consider the history of loading and rate effect. To this end, 1200 flexible pavement sections were analyzed, and equivalent frequencies (EF were calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method at various depths of asphalt layer. A nonlinear regression equation has been presented for determining EF at different depths of asphalt layer. For more accurate predicting of EF at low frequencies, a feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed, which allows accurate prediction of EF. The frequencies obtained by the proposed regression equation and ANN were compared with frequencies observed in Virginia Smart Road project, and it was found that there is a good agreement between observed and predicted frequencies. Comparison of quasi-static analysis of flexible pavements by frequencies obtained using FFT method and full dynamic analysis by 3D-Move program approves that the critical responses of pavement computed by proposed quasi-static analysis approach are comparable to critical responses computed using full dynamic analysis. Keywords: Equivalent frequency, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Pavement quasi-static analysis, Dynamic modulus, Artificial Neural Network (ANN

  1. LOW-NOISE PAVEMENT AS A WAY OF LIMITATION OF TRAFFIC NOISE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Gardziejczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Road surface can significantlyreduce the trafficnoise level. Depending on the characteristic of the upper surface layers the differences between the maximum rolling noise levels from passing vehicles to reach values about 10 dB (A. A special group is low-noise pavements characterized by the presence of voids above 15%. Application the porous asphalt layers or asphalt mixture type BBTM affects a significantreduction the width of land surrounded the roads where permissible equivalent sound level is exceeded. Such solutions in some cases can replace acoustic barriers. Road pavements with a higher content of voids require proper maintenance because their acoustic performances are reduced during operation.

  2. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  3. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  4. Fracture mechanics in pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available . The paper also seeks to promote the use of size independent material properties to characterize pavement materials. Some material properties used in current methods, such as the concepts of strain at break and flexural strength are known to exhibit size...

  5. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  6. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  7. Texas flexible pavements overlays : review and analysis of existing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Proper calibration of pavement design and rehabilitation performance models to : conditions in Texas is essential for cost-effective flexible pavement design. The degree of : excellence with which TxDOTs pavement design models is calibrated will d...

  8. Design of the First Italian Roundabout with Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Mascio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the overall design of the first Italian roundabout with jointed plain concrete pavement. The examined case study complies with current international standards and practices for geometry of roundabouts and road pavements. The construction of a concrete pavement in an urban roundabout will better manage and slow down fast vehicular flows, and increase traffic fluidity in an important junction, trafficked by heavy vehicles, where maintenance works should be reduced to avoid queues. The design of the roundabout involved several competences for: defining the geometry of the four-arm junction, designing the thickness of the jointed plain concrete pavement both on the circular crown and the arms, studying the mix design of a high resistance concrete. As regard to the pavement, the result of the study was an un-dowelled concrete pavement composed of square slabs laid on a cement concrete subbase and a granular layer. The shape of the slabs has been designed to optimize the structural performance of their material, which is a high strength concrete mix derived from an extensive laboratory test work. In general, the results summarized approaches typical of different design conditions: urban ones for traffic flow and safety needs; high-traffic ones for the chosen pavement type; airport ones for the absence of dowel and tie bars at the joints. Indeed, the article has highlighted that the design process of a concrete roundabout requires multiple analyses to consider various features and correctly re-design an existing urban junction. Its geometrical design, the structural design of the concrete pavement and the theoretical and experimental design of the concrete mix were the main phases of this process and they needed different competences to conduct comprehensive and appropriate analyses.

  9. The use of reflective and permeable pavements as a potential practice for heat island mitigation and stormwater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Harvey, J T; Holland, T J; Kayhanian, M

    2013-01-01

    To help address the built environmental issues of both heat island and stormwater runoff, strategies that make pavements cooler and permeable have been investigated through measurements and modeling of a set of pavement test sections. The investigation included the hydraulic and thermal performance of the pavements. The permeability results showed that permeable interlocking concrete pavers have the highest permeability (or infiltration rate, ∼0.5 cm s −1 ). The two permeable asphalt pavements showed the lowest permeability, but still had an infiltration rate of ∼0.1 cm s −1 , which is adequate to drain rainwater without generating surface runoff during most typical rain events in central California. An increase in albedo can significantly reduce the daytime high surface temperature in summer. Permeable pavements under wet conditions could give lower surface temperatures than impermeable pavements. The cooling effect highly depends on the availability of moisture near the surface layer and the evaporation rate. The peak cooling effect of watering for the test sections was approximately 15–35 °C on the pavement surface temperature in the early afternoon during summer in central California. The evaporative cooling effect on the pavement surface temperature at 4:00 pm on the third day (25 h after watering) was still 2–7 °C lower compared to that on the second day, without considering the higher air temperature on the third day. A separate and related simulation study performed by UCPRC showed that full depth permeable pavements, if designed properly, can carry both light-duty traffic and certain heavy-duty vehicles while retaining the runoff volume captured from an average California storm event. These preliminarily results indicated the technical feasibility of combined reflective and permeable pavements for addressing the built environment issues related to both heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff management. (letter)

  10. Comparison of accelerated pavement test results with long term pavement behaviour and performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the following:how accelerated pavement testing predictions compare with actual road behaviour and performance the relative influences of load and environmental factors on pavement deterioration and how well...

  11. Calibration of full-scale accelerated pavement testing data using long-term pavement performance data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    VdM Steyn, WJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) has always been conducted with the objective of improving the understanding of real pavements under real traffic and environmental conditions. While APT provides an accelerated view of some of the major structural...

  12. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume IV, pavement evaluation tools-data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The overarching goal of the MoDOT Pavement Preservation Research Program, Task 3: Pavement Evaluation Tools Data : Collection Methods was to identify and evaluate methods to rapidly obtain network-level and project-level information relevant to :...

  13. Verification of mechanistic-empirical design models for flexible pavements through accelerated pavement testing : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed by the : highway departments of Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri, has supported an accelerated : pavement testing (APT) project to validate several models incorporated in the NCHRP :...

  14. Verification of mechanistic-empirical design models for flexible pavements through accelerated pavement testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled Fund Program, financed by the highway : departments of Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri, has supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project to : validate several models incorporated in the NCH...

  15. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavement, phase II : field demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) as : aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. An initial phase of research demonstrated that concretes with up to 50 percent : o...

  16. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This research effort was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed : asphalt pavement (RAP) as aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. This research demonstrated : that concretes with up to 50 percent of the fi...

  17. Advanced Pavement Design: Finite Element Modeling for Rigid Pavement Joints, Report II: Model Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hammons, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to obtain data on the response of the ng'id pavement slab-joint-foundation system by conducting laboratory-scale experiments on jointed rigid pavement models...

  18. An integrated pavement data management and feedback system (PAMS) : evaluation of pavement condition rating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of a method for use in the Highway Needs Study pavement condition rating. The methods by which the Department generates and manages pavement condition data in the overall process of providing a network of highways ...

  19. Existing pavement input information for the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate the Iowa Department of Transportations (DOTs) existing Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) with respect to the input information required for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Des...

  20. Integration and Evaluation of Automated Pavement Distress Data in INDOT’s Pavement Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This study was in two parts. The first part established and demonstrated a framework for pavement data integration. This is critical for fulfilling QC/QA needs of INDOTs pavement management system, because the precision of the physical location re...

  1. Factors Affecting Pavement Surface and Evaluation Rating Accuracy and Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Sharlan R; Haddock, John E

    2018-01-01

    The collection of sufficient, accurate, and consistent pavement condition data is essential to an effective pavement management system. Condition data drive a variety of pavement management tasks such as: • Predicting future pavement performance• Identifying current and future maintenance and rehabilitation needs • Estimating budget needs and requirements • Reporting to decision makers • Selecting appropriate pavement management tools Pavement condition data are represented at either th...

  2. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmikanth Premkumar; William R. Vavrik

    2016-01-01

    Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway) with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS) methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) are used by th...

  3. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume III, development of pavement family and treatment performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Pavement performance models describe the deterioration behavior of pavements. They are essential in a pavement management : system if the goal is to make more objective, reliable, and cost-effective decisions regarding the timing and nature of paveme...

  4. Using Tire/Pavement Interface Noise Results to Define Statistically Similar Bituminous Pavements in Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, John; Haas, Edwin; Bennert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) utilized the On-Board Sound Intensity Method in Massachusetts to evaluate seven Open-Graded Friction Courses (OGFC) and eight Asphalt Rubber Gap Graded (ARGG) pavements for MassDOT. Since major concerns regarding pavement selection in the northeast revolve around winter conditions and winter maintenance, if noise level similarities could be found between ARGG and OGFC pavements, pavement engineers would be able ...

  5. Pavement Preservation for Elected Officials: The Inside Story of Pavement Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This session is intended to provide elected officials and practitioners with an introduction to the concept of pavement preservation and its applicability within public agencies. Topics include definitions, budget planning, pavement life, road networks, alternative strategies, pavement distresses, guidelines and preservation treatments.

  6. Investigation of load transfer efficiency in jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sadeghi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to heavy traffic loads, rigid pavements encounter various types of failures at transverse joints during their lifetime. Three-dimensional finite-element method (3D-FEM was used to assess the structural response of jointed concrete pavement under moving tandem axle loads. In this study, 3D FEM was verified using an existing numerical model and field measurement of the concrete slab traversed by a moving truck. This paper also investigated the effects of multiple parameters: material properties, slab geometry, load magnitude and frictional status of the slab and base layer on load transfer efficiency (LTE of the transverse joints. Further study has been done to investigate the slab performance without the dowel bars which occurs when parts of the pavement needed to be repaired using precast slabs. The aggregate interlock between the new slab and the existing slab is simulated by frictional interface. In 3D FEM model, the load transfer efficiency has been improved by increasing the elasticity modules of the concrete slab and the base layer or increasing the slab thickness. This can decrease the joints' deflections, reduces the damages on pavement joints. Removing dowel bars adversely affected the load transfer. Keywords: Concrete pavement, Load transfer, Finite-element method, Dowel bar, Structural behavior

  7. A comparison between linear and non-linear analysis of flexible pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleymani, H.R.; Berthelot, C.F.; Bergan, A.T. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Computer pavement analysis programs, which are based on mathematical simulation models, were compared. The programs included in the study were: ELSYM5, an Elastic Linear (EL) pavement analysis program, MICH-PAVE, a Finite Element Non-Linear (FENL) and Finite Element Linear (FEL) pavement analysis program. To perform the analysis different tire pressures, pavement material properties and asphalt layer thicknesses were selected. Evaluation criteria used in the analysis were tensile strain in bottom of the asphalt layer, vertical compressive strain at the top of the subgrade and surface displacement. Results showed that FENL methods predicted more strain and surface deflection than the FEL and EL analysis methods. Analyzing pavements with FEL does not offer many advantages over the EL method. Differences in predicted strains between the three methods of analysis in some cases was found to be close to 100% It was suggested that these programs require more calibration and validation both theoretically and empirically to accurately correlate with field observations. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Effects on evaporation rates from different water-permeable pavement designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

    2011-01-01

    The urban water balance can be attenuated to the natural by water-permeable pavements (WPPs). Furthermore, WPPs have a 16% higher evaporation rate than impermeable pavements, which can lead to a better urban climate. Evaporation rates from pavements are influenced by the pavement surface and by the deeper layers. By a compared evaporation measurement between different WPP designs, the grain size distribution of the sub-base shows no influence on the evaporation rates in a significant way. On the contrary, a sub-base made of a twin-layer decreases the evaporation by 16% compared to a homogeneous sub-base. By a change in the colour of the paving stone, 19% higher evaporation rates could be achieved. A further comparison shows that the transpiration-effect of the grass in grass pavers increases the evaporation rates more than threefold to pervious concrete pavements. These high evapotranspiration rates can not be achieved with a pervious concrete paving stone. In spite of this, the broad field of application of the pervious concrete paving stone increases the importance in regard to the urban climate.

  9. A theoretical study for the propagation of rolling noise over a porous road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung Lui, Wai; Ming Li, Kai

    2004-07-01

    A simplified model based on the study of sound diffracted by a sphere is proposed for investigating the propagation of noise in a hornlike geometry between porous road surfaces and rolling tires. The simplified model is verified by comparing its predictions with the published numerical and experimental results of studies on the horn amplification of sound over a road pavement. In a parametric study, a point monopole source is assumed to be localized on the surface of a tire. In the frequency range of interest, a porous road pavement can effectively reduce the level of amplified sound due to the horn effect. It has been shown that an increase in the thickness and porosity of a porous layer, or the use of a double layer of porous road pavement, attenuates the horn amplification of sound. However, a decrease in the flow resistivity of a porous road pavement does little to reduce the horn amplification of sound. It has also been demonstrated that the horn effect over a porous road pavement is less dependent on the angular position of the source on the surface of tires.

  10. Sensitivity quantification of airport concrete pavement stress responses associated with top-down and bottom-up cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rezaei-Tarahomi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s rigid pavement design standard employs the NIKE3D-FAA software to compute critical pavement responses of concrete airport pavement structures. NIKE3D-FAA is a modification of the original NIKE3D three-dimensional finite element analysis program developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL of the U.S. Department of Energy, and is currently used in the FAA’s FAARFIELD program. This study evaluated the sensitivity of NIKE3D-FAA rigid pavement responses with respect to top-down and bottom-up cracking. The analysis was conducted by positioning a Boeing 777-300ER (B777-300ERaircraft at different locations (interior, corner, and edge of slab as baseline while varying other NIKE3D-FAA inputs, including rigid pavement geometric features, mechanical properties of paving and foundation materials, equivalent temperature gradient and thermal coefficient of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC layers. Several sensitivity charts were developed by examining the sensitivity of critical pavement responses to each input variation. Sensitivity evaluations were performed using a normalized sensitivity index (NSI as the quantitative metric. Using such sensitivity evaluation, the most significant NIKE3D-FAA input parameters for generating an effective synthetic database that will lower computational cost for future modeling developments were identified. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Airfield concrete pavement, Finite element analysis, Top down cracking

  11. STRESSES IN CEMENT-CONCRETE PAVEMENT SURFACING CAUSED BY THERMAL SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to mention specially so-called thermal shock among various impacts on highway surface. Ice layer is formed on a concrete surface during the winter period of pavement surfacing operation. Sodium chloride which lowers temperature of water-ice transition temperature and causes ice thawing at negative temperature is usually used to remove ice from the pavement surface. Consequently, temperature in the concrete laying immediately under a thawing ice layer is coming down with a run that leads to significant stresses. Such phenomenon is known as a thermal shock with a meaning of local significant change in temperature. This process is under investigation, it has practical importance for an estimation of strength and longevity of a cement-concrete pavement surfacing and consequently it is considered as rather topical issue. The purpose of investigations is to develop a mathematical model and determination of shock blow permissible gradients for a cementconcrete road covering. Finite difference method has been used in order to determine stressed and deformed condition of the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways. A computer program has been compiled and it permits to carry out calculation of a road covering at various laws of temperature distribution in its depth. Regularities in distribution of deformation and stresses in the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways at thermal shock have been obtained in the paper. A permissible parameter of temperature distribution in pavement surfacing thickness has been determined in the paper. A strength criterion based on the process of micro-crack formation and development in concrete has been used for making calculations. It has been established that the thermal shock causes significant temperature gradients on the cement-concrete surfacing that lead to rather large normal stresses in the concrete surface layer. The possibility of micro-crack formation in a road covering is

  12. Sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking on asphalt pavement using MEPDG in permafrost region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal cracking is one of the most important distresses of asphalt pavement in permafrost regions. The sensitivity analysis of design parameters for asphalt pavement can be used to study the influence of every parameter on longitudinal cracking, which can help optimizing the design of the pavement structure. In this study, 20 test sections of Qinghai–Tibet Highway were selected to conduct the sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking on material parameter based on Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG and single factorial sensitivity analysis method. Some computer aided engineering (CAE simulation techniques, such as the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS technique and the multiple regression analysis are used as auxiliary means. Finally, the sensitivity spectrum of material parameter on longitudinal cracking was established. The result shows the multiple regression analysis can be used to determine the remarkable influence factor more efficiently and to process the qualitative analysis when applying the MEPDG software in sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking in permafrost regions. The effect weights of the three parameters on longitudinal cracking in descending order are air void, effective binder content and PG grade. The influence of air void on top layer is bigger than that on middle layer and bottom layer. The influence of effective asphalt content on top layer is bigger than that on middle layer and bottom layer, and the influence of bottom layer is slightly bigger than middle layer. The accumulated value of longitudinal cracking on middle layer and bottom layer in the design life would begin to increase when the design temperature of PG grade increased.

  13. Mechanical behavior of flexible pavements undergoing thermal gradients - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.10848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielli Vassoler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The proper structural understanding of a pavement should consider, according to the pavement mechanics, the aspects related to the traffic load, the environment and material properties. When asphaltic materials are used, the stress/strain relationships and the dependencies of load-time and temperature are key parameters for understanding flexible pavement performance. In this study, we employed the finite elements method to calculate stress/strain in flexible pavements structures considering temperature variation. The input data includes material stiffness, which is function of temperature and changes with position and time. The pavement temperature is obtained through the heat transfer differential equation, applying the Laplace transform and its numerical inversion. The finite elements grid was generated by the software ANSYS® and imported by the software MATLAB®. In order to determine the stiffness of the first layer (asphalt concrete we used the average of four nodes, depending on the each node temperature. The result evidences the importance of thermal gradients for the pavement analysis, both for the fatigue cracking and the accumulation of plastic deformations. The use of unique modulus for asphalt concrete layer generates results far from reality.

  14. Modelling Flexible Pavement Response and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods.......This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods....

  15. Numerical Simulation of Tire-Pavement Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srirangam, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Good skid resistance of a pavement surface is essential for road safety. Loss of skid resistance can lead to property damage and loss of lives. Ever increasing need of driver safety poses challenges to the highway authorities to evaluate pavement conditions even more precisely under different

  16. Load Response Analysis of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the filed data of Fuzhou test road, load response regulation of nonlinear pavement structure was analyzed in this paper; Mechanics software was adopted to analyze linear elastic and nonlinear of the pavement structure, analyzed results and road filed data were compared, and determine the correlation between them and the field data.

  17. Analysis and design optimization of flexible pavement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamlouk, M.S.; Zaniewski, J.P.; He, W.

    2000-04-01

    A project-level optimization approach was developed to minimize total pavement cost within an analysis period. Using this approach, the designer is able to select the optimum initial pavement thickness, overlay thickness, and overlay timing. The model in this approach is capable of predicting both pavement performance and condition in terms of roughness, fatigue cracking, and rutting. The developed model combines the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design procedure and the mechanistic multilayer elastic solution. The Optimization for Pavement Analysis (OPA) computer program was developed using the prescribed approach. The OPA program incorporates the AASHTO equations, the multilayer elastic system ELSYM5 model, and the nonlinear dynamic programming optimization technique. The program is PC-based and can run in either a Windows 3.1 or a Windows 95 environment. Using the OPA program, a typical pavement section was analyzed under different traffic volumes and material properties. The optimum design strategy that produces the minimum total pavement cost in each case was determined. The initial construction cost, overlay cost, highway user cost, and total pavement cost were also calculated. The methodology developed during this research should lead to more cost-effective pavements for agencies adopting the recommended analysis methods.

  18. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  19. Prediction of pavement remaining service life based on repetition of load and permanent deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, R. S.; Setyawan, A.; Suprapto, M.

    2018-03-01

    One of the methods which was applied in the assessment of flexible pavement performance was mechanistic method assuming structures of road pavement to become multi-layer structure for flexible pavement, that the vehicle load working on the pavement layer under repetition with power failure worth 1 (one) unit which was assumed as evenly distributed static load, and therefore the pavement material would provide response in the form of stress, strain, and deflection. This is closely related in order to assess the structure of flexible pavement and to predict the remaining service life on the roads of Pulau Indah sta 0 + 000 to sta. 0 + 845 in Kota Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur. The performance appraisal indicator which was used was fatigue cracking happening bottom of the asphalt layer and permanent deformation (rutting) on the surface of subgrade. The strain estimate on the flexible pavement layer structure needs carefulness and high accuracy and therefore a software like KENPAVE which produces horizontal tensile strain of 8,802E-05 and vertical compressive strain of 2,642E-04 was used. By applying equation of The Asphalt Instituteit was obtained repetition of permit load when reaching fatigue cracking (Nf) was 16.071.516 ESAL and permanent deformation (rutting) was 14.703.867 ESAL and also it was predicted the remaining service life of pavement applied the equation of AASTHO 1993 by considering Traffic Multiplier factor (TM 1.8, TM 1.9 and TM 2.0) obtained the remaining life service due to fatigue of 5.51% in the year of 13th (TM 1.8), 7.95% in the year of12th (TM 1.9) and 3.11% (TM 2.0) in the year of 12th, also the remaining service life due to rutting of 4.69% in the year of 12th(TM 1.8), 7.79% in the year of 11th (TM 1.9), and 2.94 in the year of 11th (TM 2.0).

  20. A FEM Modeling of the Concrete Pavement Made of the Recycling Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šešlija Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is a brief review of the research focused on formulation an numerical model for the concrete pavement which is made by the recycling material. For numerical modeling the finite element model (FEM and the 3D finite element model were applied. The software EverFE 2.25, was used. The results of FEM analysis is in a chapter shape showing move value change, strees and deflections for all layers a construction road model. In the next phase of the research was provided by FEM software with appropriate general purpose non-linear models, which allows the analysis of the real behavior of solid pavement under load.

  1. Influence of Excessive Moisture in the Subgrade on the Durability and Load-Bearing Capacity of Road Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, P.; Budziński, B.

    2018-05-01

    When well performed, pavement renewal or alteration shall ensure the desired properties of the road during the assumed period of operation. Presence of water in the subgrade can be one of the main factors affecting the structural capacity of pavement and can result in cracking of the bituminous layers, even after a very short period of trafficking. Reconstruction of one of regional roads in Poland has been chosen to serve as an example of inappropriate approach to the problem of the presence of water in the road structure. The project included construction of new layers of pavement and increasing the design life of the whole pavement structure to 4.06 million ESAL of 100 kN (as per the Standard Catalogue of Typical Flexible and Semi-rigid Road Pavement Structures, issue of 1997). After a relatively short period of trafficking (3-5 years) localised alligator cracking appeared on the surface along with structural deformations. The pavement condition assessment including FWD tests was carried out to reveal excessive deflections (over 500 μm) which classify the road for renewal. The analysis of data showed that the main cause of distress was softening of the subgrade caused by an ingress of precipitation water under the pavement layers through the roadway and shoulder edges. The deficiencies of the performed reconstruction occurred both in the roadway (including small step-outs in the cement-treated layer) and partly in the shoulders where the existing soil was in places replaced with impervious material, with the existing (cohesive) material left in place on a major part of the overall length.

  2. The application of non-destructive methods in the diagnostics of the approach pavement at the bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskiewicz, M.; Lachowicz, J.; Tysiac, P.; Jaskula, P.; Wilde, K.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the possibility of using non-destructive methods of road pavement diagnostics as an alternative to traditional means to assess the reasons for premature cracks adjacent to bridge objects. Two scanning methods were used: laser scanning to measure geometric surface deformation and ground penetrating radar (GPR) inspection to assess the road pavement condition. With the use of a laser scanner, an effective tool for road deformation assessment several approach pavement surfaces next to the bridges were scanned. As the result, a point cloud was obtained including spatial information about the pavement deformation. The data accuracy was about 3 mm, the deformations were presented in the form of deviation maps between the reference surface and the actual surface. Moreover characteristic pavement surface cross-sections were presented. The in situ measurements of the GPR method were performed and analysed in order to detect non-homogeneity in the density of structural layers of the pavement. Due to the analysis of the permittivity of individual layers, it was possible to detect non-homogeneity areas. The performed GPR measurements were verified by standard invasive tests carried out by drilling boreholes and taking cores from the pavement and testing the compaction and air voids content in asphalt layers. As a result of the measurements made by both methods significant differences in layer compacting factor values were diagnosed. The factor was much smaller in the area directly next to the bridgehead and much larger in the zone located a few meters away. The research showed the occurrence of both design and erection errors as well as those related to the maintenance of engineering structures.

  3. New Technology and Experimental Study on Snow-Melting Heated Pavement System in Tunnel Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid growth of economy and sharp rise of motor vehicles in China, the pavement skid resistance in tunnel portals has become increasingly important in cold region. However, the deicing salt, snow removal with machine, and other antiskid measures adopted by highway maintenance division have many limitations. To improve the treatment effect, we proposed a new snow-melting approach employing electric heat tracing, in which heating cables are installed in the structural layer of road. Through the field experiment, laboratory experiment, and numerical investigation, structure type, heating power, and preheating time of the flexible pavement heating system in tunnel portal were systematically analyzed, and advantages of electric heat tracing technology in improving the pavement skid resistance in tunnel portal were also presented. Therefore, such new technology, which offers new snow-melting methods for tunnel portal, bridge, mountainous area, and large longitudinal slope in cold region, has promising prospect for extensive application.

  4. 3D-FEM Analysis on Geogrid Reinforced Flexible Pavement Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvarano, Lidia Sarah; Palamara, Rocco; Leonardi, Giovanni; Moraci, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the need to increase pavement service life, guarantee high performance, reduce service and maintenance costs has been turned a greater attention on the use of reinforcements. This paper presents findings of a numerical investigation on geogrid reinforced flexible pavement roads, under wheel traffic loads, using a three-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). The results obtained show the effectiveness of glass fibre grids as reinforcement which, with appropriate design and correct installation, by improving interface shear resistance, can be used to expand the performance of flexible pavements in different ways: by increasing the road service life providing a relevant contribution against superficial rutting or by decreasing the construction costs due to the reduction in the reinforced HMA layer thickness and thus of mineral aggregate required for its construction.

  5. Three-dimensional finite element model for flexible pavement analyses based field modulus measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, G.; Thenoux, G.; Rodriguez-Roa, F.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with the present development of empirical-mechanistic tools, this paper presents an alternative to traditional analysis methods for flexible pavements using a three-dimensional finite element formulation based on a liner-elastic perfectly-plastic Drucker-Pager model for granular soil layers and a linear-elastic stress-strain law for the asphalt layer. From the sensitivity analysis performed, it was found that variations of +-4 degree in the internal friction angle of granular soil layers did not significantly affect the analyzed pavement response. On the other hand, a null dilation angle is conservatively proposed for design purposes. The use of a Light Falling Weight Deflectometer is also proposed as an effective and practical tool for on-site elastic modulus determination of granular soil layers. However, the stiffness value obtained from the tested layer should be corrected when the measured peak deflection and the peak force do not occur at the same time. In addition, some practical observations are given to achieve successful field measurements. The importance of using a 3D FE analysis to predict the maximum tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer (related to pavement fatigue) and the maximum vertical comprehensive strain transmitted to the top of the granular soil layers (related to rutting) is also shown. (author)

  6. Application of Monte Carlo filtering method in regional sensitivity analysis of AASHTOWare Pavement ME design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since AASHTO released the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG for public review in 2004, many highway research agencies have performed sensitivity analyses using the prototype MEPDG design software. The information provided by the sensitivity analysis is essential for design engineers to better understand the MEPDG design models and to identify important input parameters for pavement design. In literature, different studies have been carried out based on either local or global sensitivity analysis methods, and sensitivity indices have been proposed for ranking the importance of the input parameters. In this paper, a regional sensitivity analysis method, Monte Carlo filtering (MCF, is presented. The MCF method maintains many advantages of the global sensitivity analysis, while focusing on the regional sensitivity of the MEPDG model near the design criteria rather than the entire problem domain. It is shown that the information obtained from the MCF method is more helpful and accurate in guiding design engineers in pavement design practices. To demonstrate the proposed regional sensitivity method, a typical three-layer flexible pavement structure was analyzed at input level 3. A detailed procedure to generate Monte Carlo runs using the AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design software was provided. The results in the example show that the sensitivity ranking of the input parameters in this study reasonably matches with that in a previous study under a global sensitivity analysis. Based on the analysis results, the strengths, practical issues, and applications of the MCF method were further discussed.

  7. Research on construction technology for orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y. C.; Qian, Z. D.; Zhang, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure the good service quality of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge in Tianjin, and to reduce the occurrence of pavement diseases like lateral and longitudinal cracks, the key working procedures such as steel deck cleaning, anticorrosive coating, bonding layer spraying, seam cutting, epoxy asphalt concrete’s mixing, transportation, paving and compaction were studied. The study was based on the main features of epoxy asphalt concrete which is the pavement materials of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, and combined with the basic characteristics and construction conditions of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge. Furthermore, some processing measures like controlling time and temperature, continuous paving with two pavers, lateral feeding, and improving the compaction method were proposed. The project example shows that the processing measures can effectively solve the technical difficulties in the construction of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, can greatly improve the construction speed and quality, and can provide reference for the same kinds of orthotropic steel deck pavement construction.

  8. Climatic Characteristics of Slovakia in the Years 1971 to 2011 from the Aspect of Pavement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decky, Martin; Remisova, Eva; Kovalcik, Lubomír; Dibdiakova, Jana; Hajek, Matej

    2017-12-01

    Contribution follows the previous work of authors in the field of implementation of objectified results of climate change in the design of roads, especially their pavement [1] to [3]. Climate conditions are besides traffic load, one of the permanent external factors adversely affecting the physical and mechanical properties of the construction layers. For designing concrete pavements is used in SR conditions average annual air temperature Tm and frost index for design of asphalt and concrete pavements. As part of the research activities carried out at the workplace, the authors statistically evaluated average daily temperatures of SR meteorological stations covering most of the SR territory with altitude from 115 to 695 m above sea level in the years 1971 to 2011. Act No. 135/1961 Coll. (Road Act) states that the design of road pavements is performed according to valid Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively identified results of research and development for road infrastructure. On the basis of the presented correlations, it can be stated that the presented research results can be used immediately for SR conditions in the design of road pavements.

  9. Application of viscoelastic continuum damage approach to predict fatigue performance of Binzhou perpetual pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For this study, the Binzhou perpetual pavement test sections constructed in Shandong Province, China, were simulated for long-term fatigue performance using the layered viscoelastic pavement analysis for critical distresses (LVECD finite element software package. In this framework, asphalt concrete was treated in the context of linear viscoelastic continuum damage theory. A recently developed unified fatigue failure criterion that defined the boundaries of the applicable region of the theory was also incorporated. The mechanistic modeling of the fatigue mechanisms was able to accommodate the complex temperature variations and loading conditions of the field pavements in a rigorous manner. All of the material models were conveniently characterized by dynamic modulus tests and direct tension cyclic fatigue tests in the laboratory using cylindrical specimens. By comparing the obtained damage characteristic curves and failure criteria, it is found that mixtures with small aggregate particle sizes, a dense gradation, and modified asphalt binder tended to exhibit the best fatigue resistance at the material level. The 15-year finite element structural simulation results for all the test sections indicate that fatigue performance has a strong dependence on the thickness of the asphalt pavements. Based on the predicted location and severity of the fatigue damage, it is recommended that Sections 1 and 3 of the Binzhou test sections be employed for perpetual pavement design.

  10. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang , Aiguo; Luo , Chagen; Zhou , Chao

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The applications of digital image processing in pavement crack detection, distresses classificati...

  11. Stress Regression Analysis of Asphalt Concrete Deck Pavement Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design and Interlayer Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuntao; Feng, Jianhu; Wang, Hu; Hong, Shidi; Zheng, Supei

    2018-03-01

    A three-dimensional finite element box girder bridge and its asphalt concrete deck pavement were established by ANSYS software, and the interlayer bonding condition of asphalt concrete deck pavement was assumed to be contact bonding condition. Orthogonal experimental design is used to arrange the testing plans of material parameters, and an evaluation of the effect of different material parameters in the mechanical response of asphalt concrete surface layer was conducted by multiple linear regression model and using the results from the finite element analysis. Results indicated that stress regression equations can well predict the stress of the asphalt concrete surface layer, and elastic modulus of waterproof layer has a significant influence on stress values of asphalt concrete surface layer.

  12. Experiences from in-situ monitoring of pavement under weather conditions change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likar Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Very strong winters with temperatures under 0°C and hot summers with temperatures more than 30°C are observed in the South East part of Slovenia. Those big differences in temperature during the year and especially temperatures below freezing point have strong influence on asphalt layer and sub base of road pavement. The freeze/thaw cycles lead to formation of ice lenses in base course causing cracks in asphalt layers and degrade the pavement usually in a few years. For this reason one section of the national road in the South East part of Slovenia was rebuilt with cold in-situ pavement retreatment. A test field with inbuilt sensors for measuring water content, temperature and deformation in various depths and locations was constructed during the remediation works to study the mechanism of freeze-thaw degradation of pavements. The main goal of the test field is to determine water content in sub base, freezing depth, temperature distribution and deformations, which lead to cracks in asphalt layer after the remediation work in the road construction.

  13. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmikanth Premkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT are used by the Tollway to predict the future condition of its network. The model projects future CRS ratings based on pavement type, thickness, traffic, pavement age and current CRS rating. However, with time and inclusion of newer pavement types there was a need to calibrate the existing pavement performance models, as well as, develop models for newer pavement types.This study presents the results of calibrating the existing models, and developing new models for the various pavement types in the Illinois Tollway network. The predicted future condition of the pavements is used in estimating its remaining service life to failure, which is of immediate use in recommending future maintenance and rehabilitation requirements for the network. Keywords: Pavement performance models, Remaining life, Pavement management

  14. Multilayer airdrome pavement modeling on the base of numeically-analythical method of potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.М. Шевченко

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are problems of the take into account the multilayered foundation distributive properties which are ignored in the elementary case of Winkler foundation at calculation of constructions on the elastic foundation. In article the apparatus realization of numerically-analytical method of potential for a problem about stress and strain state analysis is considered for the multilayered pavement consisting from two isotropic layers with a separating layer between.

  15. Nondestructive determination of the load bearing capacity of rigid pavement structures. Zerstoerungsfreie Tragfaehigkeitsbestimmung fuer starre Deckenkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, U. (Bauakademie, IHLGB, Berlin (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Actual parameters of the bearing capacity of traffic areas are in case of intensive use an indispensable necessity for the determination of the remaining use value with the aim to optimize reinforcing layers and reconstruction periods. Until now there is only one adequate measuring method for flexible layers. With the Rollig load test (RLT) initial data can be gained for the calculation of the load bearing capacity of rigid pavement structures. The method is described with the example of an airplane runway. (BWI).

  16. Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    R. Pernicova; D. Dobias

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standa...

  17. Selection of pavement foundation geomaterials for the construction of a new runway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available specifications. A comprehensive laboratory testing study was recently conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to support an expansion project of an international airport in North Carolina. The project involved the construction of a hub... foundation materials. The granular base layers serve a variety of purposes including reducing the stress applied to the subgrade layer and providing drainage for the pavement. This paper presents the engineering properties of three granular materials for a...

  18. Bearing capacity evaluation of rubblized concrete pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings of a research work performed on a real scale concrete pavement project where Rubblizing technology was used for its structural rehabilitation. Rubblizing may be defined as a fracture technique in which a concrete pavement slab is transformed in a granular base with a very high Modulus. This technique, fractures the concrete slab in angular pieces by using a concentrated dynamic load of low amplitude and high frequency. The research work was based on field study on the rehabilitation of 5 km motorway. The structural evaluations where made, before, during and after one year construction. Measurements and site evaluation where made by using DCP, Light Weight Deflectometer and FWD (on top of asphalt layer and excavating inside pits. The structural capacity of the Rubblized layer was evaluated through theoretical analysis. Because of the anisotropic properties of the Rubblized layer the results are presented using AASHTO structural layer coefficient. The structural layer coefficients recommended are between the range of 0.25 and 0.30 for concrete slabs with thickness grater than 220 mm.El trabajo presenta los resultados de un estudio a escala real de la capacidad estructural de un firme de hormigón rehabilitado utilizando la técnica de Rubblizing. La técnica de Rubblizing ha sido traducida como el pulverizado del firme de hormigón pero, es más bien un efecto combinado de trituración y fracturación de la losa de hormigón en todo su espesor para convertir esta en una base granular de alto módulo. Esta tecnica fractura la losa de hormigón en trozos angulares y entrelazados empleando una carga dinámica concentrada, de baja amplitud y alta frecuencia. La investigación se basó en el estudio de la rehabilitación de 5 km de autopista. Los estudios de la capacidad estructural fueron realizados durante, al término y un año después de la construcción. Para las mediciones y evaluaciones de terreno se utilizó, el

  19. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  20. Road Edge of Pavement, EOP (Driveway_Paved, Driveway_Unpaved, Median, Parking_Paved, Parking_Unpaved, Roads_Paved, Roads_Unpaved): Part of 2005 Planimetry-Topography layers, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road Edge of Pavement dataset current as of 2005. EOP (Driveway_Paved, Driveway_Unpaved, Median, Parking_Paved, Parking_Unpaved, Roads_Paved, Roads_Unpaved): Part of...

  1. Comparison Between 2-D and 3-D Stiffness Matrix Model Simulation of Sasw Inversion for Pavement Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Atmaja P. Rosidi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW method is a non-destructive in situ seismic technique used to assess and evaluate the material stiffness (dynamic elastic modulus and thickness of pavement layers at low strains. These values can be used analytically to calculate load capacities in order to predict the performance of pavement system. The SASW method is based on the dispersion phenomena of Rayleigh waves in layered media. In order to get the actual shear wave velocities, 2-D and 3-D models are used in the simulation of the inversion process for best fitting between theoretical and empirical dispersion curves. The objective of this study is to simulate and compare the 2-D and 3-D model of SASW analysis in the construction of the theoretical dispersion curve for pavement structure evaluation. The result showed that the dispersion curve from the 3-D model was similar with the dispersion curve of the actual pavement profile compared to the 2-D model. The wave velocity profiles also showed that the 3-D model used in the SASW analysis is able to detect all the distinct layers of flexible pavement units.

  2. Synthesis/literature review for determining structural layer coefficients (SLC) of bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    FDOTs current method of determining a base material structural layer coefficient (SLC) is detailed in the : Materials Manual, Chapter 2.1, Structural Layer Coefficients for Flexible Pavement Base Materials. : Currently, any new base material not a...

  3. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  4. Global warming potential of pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas J [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 407 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States); Horvath, Arpad, E-mail: njsantero@cal.berkeley.ed, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 215B McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

  5. Global warming potential of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santero, Nicholas J; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

  6. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  7. PAVEMENT AS CONTINUITY - THE CASE FROM LISBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Pimenta

    2009-04-01

    To conclude this practical part of the study a small proposal is presented defining guide lines for an intervention regarding the pavement of the study case, in which its different characteristics are and potential analysed.

  8. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  9. Noise measurements of highway pavements in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise testing performed on Texas pavements between May of 2006 and the : summer of 2008. Two field test methodologies were used: roadside noise measurement with SPL meters and onvehicle : sound intensity measuremen...

  10. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  11. Optimization of safety on pavement preservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a goal of reducing highway crash fatalities by 4% each year to improve roadway safety, the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) is actively seeking opportunities to incorporate safety improvements into its current pavement preservat...

  12. MoDOT pavement preservation research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The following report documents a research project on pavement preservation performed by the Missouri University of Science and : Technology (Missouri S&T) and the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) on behalf of the Missouri Department of Transport...

  13. Life cycle assessment of asphalt pavement maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at developing a life cycle assessment (LCA) model to quantify the impact of pavement preservation on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction stage contains material, manufacture, transportation and plac...

  14. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  15. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  16. Alternative pavement designs : Randolph park and ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Previous research on alternative pavement type bidding has proven that various treatments : are unique in terms of constructability, material characteristics, and associated performance. : While some treatments may have higher initial costs, it is im...

  17. Evaluation of concrete pavement patching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This final report presents the results of a study undertaken to improve in concrete pavement patching techniques. Activities included an evaluation of the suitability of the impact hammer and maturity calculations for determining when a patch is read...

  18. Performance evaluation of precast prestressed concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report describes in detail an experimental investigation of an innovative precast prestressed concrete pavement (PPCP) system used to rehabilitate a 1,000 ft. section of interstate highway located on the northbound lanes of I-57 near Charleston,...

  19. Class C fly ash in pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Portland cement is the most dominant material used in concrete pavements in the state of Nebraska. In order to improve performance, reduce cost, and advance sustainability, a percentage of the Portland cement is replaced with a recycled material know...

  20. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  1. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Xu, Bugao; Yao, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period. (paper)

  2. Nondestructive testing of pavements and pavement bases. (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964-Jan 78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habercom, G.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive methods for quality assurance of pavements and pavement bases are investigated in these Government-sponsored research reports. Vibration, nuclear activation, radiometry, and acoustic detection are among the various techniques employed. The updated bibliography contains 114 abstracts, 17 of which are new entries to the previous edition

  3. Flexible pavement rehabilitation design based on pavement service life time span left

    OpenAIRE

    Gamelyak, I.; Shevchuk, V.

    2005-01-01

    The design of flexible pavement rehabilitation is analysed in terms of durability-cost. A notion of the remaining service life span is described. the model of rehabilitation strategy selection is presented for both design project and operation stages. the results can be used in the pavement management system.

  4. Evaluation of various hot mix asphalt pavement thicknesses over rubblized concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In 1999, the Wisconsin DOT constructed two test sections as part of a rubblized PCC pavement project on I-39 to evaluate whether : increased HMA thickness could extend the pavement system's service life. Design thicknesses of the control and test sec...

  5. Reconsideration of tyre-pavement input parameters for the structural design of flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available of modern truck tyres. Tyre-pavement contact stress measurements were carried out on a busy national road (N3) in South Africa from the port of Durban to the inland province of Gauteng. The three-dimensional tyre-pavement contact stress regimes of 45 227...

  6. Long term pavement performance computed parameter : frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    As the pavement design process moves toward mechanistic-empirical techniques, knowledge of seasonal changes in pavement structural characteristics becomes critical. Specifically, frost penetration information is necessary for determining the effect o...

  7. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary...

  8. Designing Base and Subbase to Resist Environmental Effects on Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    MnDOTs current pavement thickness design procedures do not characterize the effects of subgrade soil frost susceptibility. Previous research indicates frost action is the most severe environmental factor on pavement performance. The most accepted ...

  9. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  10. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  11. Mobile geographic information system solution for pavement condition surveys [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida : Department of Transportation (FDOT) performs : annual Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) of : the Departments extensive pavement network. : This work is performed by single-person crews in : inertial...

  12. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  13. Overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design analysis method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design method, from its development in the early 1970s to the present, is presented. Material characterization, structural analysis, and pavement life prediction are discussed...

  14. Evaluation of microcracking and chemical deterioration in concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-31

    The major objective of this research project was to investigate the : chemistry and morphology of portland cement concrete pavements in : Iowa. The integrity of the various pavements was evaluated qualitatively, : based on the presence or absence of ...

  15. Exploration of Machine Learning Approaches to Predict Pavement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Machine learning (ML) techniques were used to model and predict pavement condition index (PCI) for various pavement types using a variety of input variables. The primary objective of this research was to develop and assess PCI predictive models for t...

  16. A pavement management research program for Oregon highways : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    An extensive program was developed to measure pavement deflection skid resistance, and rideability throughout Oregon. The data from those "objective" measures were then evaluated for correlations with observed pavement distress and traffic factors. :...

  17. Advanced Automated Detection Analysis and Classification of Cracks in Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Functional Session 5: Pavement Management Moderated by Akyiaa Hosten This presentation was held at the Pavement Evaluation 2014 Conference, which took place from September 15-18, 2014 in Blacksburg, Virginia. Presentation only

  18. Implementation of a pavement management system in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The report summarizes the developments in pavement management in the Virginia Department of Transportation through late 1986. Included are discussions of the pavement management process with examples of priority programming, long-range projection of ...

  19. Variability of Pavement Distress Data From Manual Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Daleiden, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Functional Session 5: Pavement Management Moderated by Akyiaa Hosten This presentation was held at the Pavement Evaluation 2014 Conference, which took place from September 15-18, 2014 in Blacksburg, Virginia. Presentation only

  20. A pavement management research program for Oregon highways : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    This is the first in a series of reports documenting progress on a statewide pavement management research project. The overall project is conducting research into pavement life cycles of different rehabilitation treatment; the cost-effectiveness of e...

  1. Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R -1 5 -3 1 Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli G eo te ch n ic al a n d S tr u...August 2015 Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli Lucy P. Priddy and Carlos R. Gonzalez Geotechnical and...USAF’s) airfield pavement structural evaluation procedures. Determining the structural integrity of airfield pavement relies on the analysis of

  2. New Jersey Micro-Surface Pavement Noise Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, John; Haas, Edwin; Tulanowski, Michael; Bennert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    New Jersey DOT is evaluating pavement preservation types for interstate resurfacing as a method to increase network pavement life cycles within depressed budgetary limits. Despite the economic benefits for micro-surface there is concern for the noise quality and pavement noise levels, which will become a significant issue to a greater population as the application increases over an increased area of lane miles throughout the state. Pavement noise research has been conducted on in-service pave...

  3. Precast concrete pavement - systems and performance review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Josef; Kohoutková, Alena; Křístek, Vladimír; Vodička, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term traffic restrictions belong to the key disadvantages of conventional cast-in-plane concrete pavements which have been used for technical structures such as roads, parking place and airfield pavements. As a consequence, the pressure is put on the development of such systems which have short construction time, low production costs, long-term durability, low maintenance requirements etc.. The paper presents the first step in the development of an entirely new precast concrete pavement (PCP) system applicable to airfield and highway pavements. The main objective of the review of PCP systems is to acquire a better understanding of the current systems and design methods used for transport infrastructure. There is lack of information on using PCP systems for the construction of entirely new pavements. To most extensive experience is dated back to the 20th century when hexagonal slab panels and system PAG were used in the Soviet Union for the military airfields. Since cast-in-situ pavements became more common, the systems based on precast concrete panels have been mainly utilized for the removal of damaged sections of existing structures including roads, highways etc.. Namely, it concerns Fort Miller Super Slab system, Michigan system, Uretek Stitch system and Kwik system. The presented review indicates several issues associated with the listed PCP systems and their applications to the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. Among others, the type of manufacturing technology, particularly the position of slots for dowel bars, affects the durability and performance of the systems. Gathered information serve for the development of a new system for airfield and highway pavement construction.

  4. 0-6673 : improvement in pavement ride, distress, and condition based on different pavement types : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Each district is required to develop a 4-year : pavement management plan assigning project : treatment categories for the Pavement : Management Information System (PMIS). : However, there are different interpretations in : the districts about what tr...

  5. Evaluation of current Louisiana flexible pavement structures using PMS data and new M-E pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The proposed study uses the new MEPDG together with data available from LADOTDs Pavement Management System (PMS) and other data sources from LADOTDs main frame to evaluate typical flexible pavement structures currently used and to make changes ...

  6. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; Beecham, Simon

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  7. Pavement sound absorption measurements in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-19

    In the U.S., the topic of pavement sound absorption in regard to tire-pavement noise has shown increased interest and research over the last several years. Four types of pavement sound absorption measurements with various applications are discussed: ...

  8. Knowledge Discovery and Pavement Performance : Intelligent Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miradi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to discover knowledge from data about asphalt road pavement problems to achieve a better understanding of the behavior of them and via this understanding improve pavement quality and enhance its lifespan. Four pavement problems were chosen to be investigated; raveling

  9. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry Lucke; ir. Floris Boogaard; Simon Beecham

    2013-01-01

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  10. Oriented heat release in asphalt pavement induced by high-thermal-conductivity rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yinfei; Wang, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new principle of using aligned high-thermal-conductivity rods to enhance the oriented heat conduction in asphalt pavement was proposed. The results showed that the designed structure absorbed more heat during the day. The heat flow in the designed structure presented a non-uniform horizontal distribution. At the depth of 4 cm, the horizontal and vertical heat fluxes through steel rods were thirteen and ten times higher than those through asphalt mixture, respectively. The maximum temperature of the designed structure reduced by 3.6 °C–6.5 °C at the depth of 4 cm. The results of indoor irradiation test showed a trend consistent with those of numerical simulation. After 500 thousand times of standard axis load were applied, the rutting depth of the designed structure reduced by 43.4%. The principle proposed is expected to be used to induce an oriented heat release accumulated in asphalt pavement and reduce pavement temperature and rutting. - Highlights: • Steel rods were inserted in the middle and bottom layers to build thermal channels. • Steel rods absorbed heat from asphalt mixture and rapidly released them to subgrade. • The heat flux through asphalt mixture decreased and pavement temperature reduced.

  11. Effectiveness of various public private partnership pavement rehabilitation treatments: A big data informatics survival analysis of pavement service life : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Past research efforts have used a wide variety of methodological approaches to analyze pavement performance indicators, pavement rehabilitation treatments, and pavement service life. Using big data informatics methods, the intent of this study is to ...

  12. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O' Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  13. Effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties of crushed recycled pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Saberian, Mohammad; Nguyen, Bao Thach

    2018-07-15

    The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used. The crumb rubber was added to the two groups of C&D aggregates at 0.5, 1 and 2% by weight percentages of the aggregates. The effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties (such as California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength, aggregate crushing value, dynamic lightweight cone penetrometer, Clegg impact value, Los Angeles abrasion values, and resilient modulus) of the C&D aggregates was then examined. Based on the experimental test results, it was found that crumb rubber can be recycled as a waste material for the base and subbase layers in the pavement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on road surface source pollution controlled by permeable pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-06-01

    The increase of impermeable pavement in urban construction not only increases the runoff of the pavement, but also produces a large number of Non-Point Source Pollution. In the process of controlling road surface runoff by permeable pavement, a large number of particulate matter will be withheld when rainwater is being infiltrated, so as to control the source pollution at the source. In this experiment, we determined the effect of permeable road surface to remove heavy pollutants in the laboratory and discussed the related factors that affect the non-point pollution of permeable pavement, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the application of permeable pavement.

  15. Optical microtopographic inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Freitas, E. F.; Torres, H.; Cerezo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Microtopographic and rugometric characterization of surfaces is routinely and effectively performed non-invasively by a number of different optical methods. Rough surfaces are also inspected using optical profilometers and microtopographer. The characterization of road asphalt pavement surfaces produced in different ways and compositions is fundamental for economical and safety reasons. Having complex structures, including topographically with different ranges of form error and roughness, the inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces is difficult to perform non-invasively. In this communication we will report on the optical non-contact rugometric characterization of the surface of different types of road pavements performed at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho.

  16. Comparing the effects of oil palm kernel shell and cockle shell on properties of pervious concrete pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Khankhaje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervious concrete pavement is one of the best materials used in construction industry as a top layer of permeable pavement system to control the storm water at source. In addition, increasing production of waste materials, increased the interest in utilising the waste materials for environmental and technical benefits. Therefore, this paper compared the effect of using two different sizes of oil palm kernel shell (OPKS and cockleshell (CS as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate on properties of pervious concrete pavement. Thirteen mixtures were made, in which 6.30-mm natural gravel was replaced with 0, 25, 50 and 75% of 6.30-mm and 4.75-mm of both shells. The relationships between the properties of pervious concrete mixtures was also determined. The replacement of OPKS and CS as the natural aggregate decreased the compressive strength, while the angular shape of both shells caused higher void content and permeability as compared to those of control pervious concrete. On the other hand, pervious concrete containing CS showed better properties than those of incorporating OPKS. Apart from that, strong relationships between density, void content, permeability, compressive strength values indicated that they can be used as a pervious concrete quality control tests for prediction of properties of pervious concrete pavement before placement in the field. Keywords: Pervious concrete pavement, Void content, Permeability, Cockleshell, Palm oil kernel shell

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  18. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulinβ and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells.

  19. A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, M.J.; Depree, C.V. [National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments Total PAH ({Sigma}{sub 28}PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ('binder'), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200 000 mg kg{sup -1}(10 000 mg kg{sup -1} in binder + aggregate) Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower Sigma(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene + chrysene), benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene + benzo(e)pyrene)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments ({gt} 15 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments.

  20. The Inhabitants of the Historical Pavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    and boulevards to kiosks and cigarette packs.This particular excerpt presents a framed view of a quasi-historical pavement in downtown Chicago and the coming and going of people. Some are passing by without paying much attention, for others it is their daily workplace and for some an exotic starting point...... for yet unknown adventures. The pavement and collective history will outlast all of them – but while they are here, they set each other in motion and even the most trivial elements of the street become part of this choreography.Throughout the film, the reciprocal relationship between the individual...

  1. Cooling permafrost embankment by enhancing oriented heat conduction in asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinfei, Du; Shengyue, Wang; Shuangjie, Wang; Jianbing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar radiation heat was prevented from entering the embankment in summer. • The downward heat transfer efficiency in asphalt pavement and embankment reduced. • The net heat accumulation in the embankment decreased. - Abstract: In this paper, a new method was proposed to decrease the heat accumulation in permafrost embankment by controlling an oriented heat transfer in asphalt pavement. Two highly oriented heat-induced structures, named G-OHIS (only gradient thermal conductivity) and G+R-OHIS (combined gradient thermal conductivity and heat reflective layer), were designed by using two indexes of summertime daily heat absorption and annual net heat accumulation on the top of embankment. The results showed that the heat absorptions on the top of embankments of the G-OHIS and G+R-OHIS in summer decreased by 9.9% and 23.2% respectively. The annual net heat accumulation on the top of embankment decreased by 6.2% for the G-OHIS and 37.9% for the G+R-OHIS. Moreover, the summertime mean daily temperatures on the top of embankments of the G-OHIS and G+R-OHIS reduced by 0.74 °C and 1.66 °C respectively. The annual temperature difference on the top of embankment reduced by 1.07 °C for the G-OHIS and 1.96 °C for the G+R-OHIS. The effectiveness of the G-OHIS in reducing pavement temperature was validated by an indoor irradiation test. It is expected to reduce permafrost thawing and other pavement distresses caused by permafrost thawing by controlling an oriented heat transfer in asphalt pavement.

  2. Interim revision of the South African Mechanistic-Empirical pavement design method for flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pavement design methods, in combination with network level management systems must enable road authorities to develop reliable long-term financial plans based on the estimated structural capacity of the road network. Inaccurate design models...

  3. Tyre-pavement interface contact stresses on flexible pavements - quo vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available on tyre inflation pressure on this route is also given. The paper also discusses an improved definition of the actual tyre/pavement interaction of modern heavy vehicles and their loads on the current flexible road infrastructure....

  4. Performance studies of continuously reinforced concrete pavement : pavements without transverse steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The status of studies of the three continuously reinforced pavement projects near Charlottesville is reported. Of particular interest in these studies are the effects of the elimination of transverse reinforcing steel, the changing characteristics of...

  5. Development of index based pavement performance models for pavement management system (PMS) of LADOTD : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A research study was initiated by the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) in conjunction with the : Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to evaluate the overall performance and eff ectiveness of LADOTDs Pavement Manage...

  6. Development of index based pavement performance models for pavement management system (PMS) of LADOTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report focuses on pavement performance and treatment models for Louisiana Department of : Transportation and Development (LADOTD) and is in continuation of Louisiana Transportation : Research Center (LTRC) Report No. 430 Development of Unifor...

  7. Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ali Ewadh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pavement condition index (PCI is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity were used to find PCI. The filtering and outlier analysis was done by using a polynomial (fourth-degree constrained least squared for statistical process. These processes were done by (PAVER 6.5.7 software. The result of the prediction model of PCI shows that it is valid to be used in the prediction of the condition of pavement for the same family type

  8. Nature based solutions to mitigate soil sealing in urban areas: Results from a 4-year study comparing permeable, porous, and impermeable pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, A; Frangi, P; Mori, J; Donzelli, D; Ferrini, F

    2017-07-01

    transpiration rapidly depleted soil moisture compared to the not-planted scenario, but soil moisture did not fall below wilting point (particularly in the deeper soil layers, i.e. 40-50cm) in any treatment. While C. australis showed similar leaf gas exchange and water relations in all treatments, F. ornus showed a depression in CO 2 assimilation and slight signs of stress of the photosynthetic apparatus when planted in soil covered with impermeable pavement. The effects of soil cover with different materials on tree growth and physiology were little, because newly planted trees have most of their roots still confined in the unpaved planting pit. Still, the reduction of soil sealing around the planting pit triggered the establishment of sensitive species such as ash. Further research is needed to assess the effects of different pavement types on established, larger trees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  10. Relationship between road pavement failures, engineering indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the results of a study carried out to relate the frequency of pavement failures, the engineering indices of the subgrade materials and the underlying geology. The results show a high variability in the indices such as the liquid limit, LL, the plasticity index, PI, the maximum dry density, MDD, the optimum ...

  11. Pavement evaluation using a portable lightweight deflectometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The use of Zorn ZFG-3000 portable Lightweight Deflectometer (LWD) in the in-situ : assessment of pavement quality was investigated in this research. A lower load and a : shorter load pulse duration are used in a LWD as compared to a Falling Weight : ...

  12. Lessons learned : pavement marking warranty contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, UDOT implemented a performance-based warranty on a portion of an I-15 pavement marking : project. The awarded contract requested a contractor warranty on the implemented markings for a total : duration of six years. This is the first time th...

  13. Texas perpetual pavements : new design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Since 2001, the State of Texas has been designing and constructing perpetual pavements : on some of its heavily trafficked highways where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of : 18 kip ESALs is in excess of 30 million (TxDOT, 2001). To date,...

  14. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  15. Pavement management system for City of Madison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project aims to implement a pavement management system (PMS) for the City of Madison using : four specific objectives: 1) build a city-wide GIS database for PMS compatible and incorporable with the : citys GIS system; 2) identify feasible pav...

  16. Effectiveness of weed control methods on pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Verwijs, B.R.; Kempenaar, C.

    2007-01-01

    The policy in the Netherlands is to signifiantly reduce the use of herbicides, also on pavements. Existing non-chemical methods to control weeds are much less effective than spot spraying, the usual method at this moment. Therefore, the cost of non-chemical weed management is often estimated to be 4

  17. Developing a network-level structural capacity index for structural evaluation of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a structural index for use in network-level pavement evaluation to facilitate : the inclusion of the pavements structural condition in pavement management applications. The primary goal of network-level...

  18. On-board sound intensity tire-pavement noise study in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This research investigated tire-pavement noise on various types of pavements across North Carolina by using On- : Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) method. To mitigate traffic noise, quieter pavement may provide advantages that : noise barriers cannot. T...

  19. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    With the development of the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) as a new pavement design tool, the : coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is now considered a more important design parameter in estimating pavement : performance inclu...

  20. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion for Portland Cement Concrete pavements for MEPDG Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) is an important parameter in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavement analysis and design as it is directly proportional to the magnitude of temperature-related pavement deformations throughout the pavement s...

  1. Integration of pavement cracking prediction model with asset management and vehicle-infrastructure interaction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Not long after the construction of a pavement or a new pavement surface, various : forms of deterioration begin to accumulate due to the harsh effects of traffic loading : combined with weathering action. In a recent NEXTRANS project, a pavement crac...

  2. Predicting pavement condition index using international roughness index in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A number of pavement condition indices are used to conduct pavement management assessments, two of which are the : International Roughness Index (IRI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI). The IRI is typically measured using specialized : equipment tha...

  3. Evaluation of steel slag and crushed limestone mixtures as subbase material in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in pavement layers. They are particularly useful in areas where a good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of quantity of steel slag on the mechanical properties of blended mixes with crushed limestone aggregates, which used as subbase material in Egypt. Moreover, a theoretical analysis was employed to estimate the resistance for failure factors such as vertical deformations, vertical and radial stresses and vertical strains of subbase under overweight trucks loads. These loads cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The results indicated that the mechanical characteristics, and the resistance factors were improved by adding steel slag to the crushed limestone.

  4. Expansive soil stabilization with coir waste and lime for flexible pavement subgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra Goud, G.; Hyma, A.; Shiva Chandra, V.; Sandhya Rani, R.

    2018-03-01

    Expansive soil properties can be improved by various methods to make it suitable for construction of flexible pavement. The coir pith is the by-product (bio-waste) generated from coir industry during extraction of coir fiber from coconut husk. Openly disposed coir pith can make the surrounding areas unhygienic. This bio-waste can be one of the potential materials to stabilize the expansive soils. In the present study coir pith and lime are used as stabilizers. Different combinations of coir pith contents (1%, 2% and 3%) and lime contents (2%, 3% and 4%)are used to study the behavior of expansive soil. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of unstabilized and stabilized soils was determined. Optimum content of coir pith and lime are determined based on UCS of the soil. California bearing ratio of soil determined at optimum contents of coir pith and lime. Flexible pavement layer compositions for two levels of traffic using stabilized soil subgrade.

  5. Application Research of Quality Control Technology of Asphalt Pavement based on GPS Intelligent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Gao, Bo; Shang, Fei; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Due to the difficulty of steel deck pavement asphalt layer compaction caused by the effect of the flexible supporting system (orthotropic steel deck plate), it is usually hard and difficult to control for the site compactness to reach the design goal. The intelligent compaction technology is based on GPS control technology and real-time acquisition of actual compaction tracks, and then forms a cloud maps of compaction times, which guide the roller operator to do the compaction in accordance with the design requirement to ensure the deck compaction technology and compaction quality. From the actual construction situation of actual bridge and checked data, the intelligent compaction technology is significant in guaranteeing the steel deck asphalt pavement compactness and quality stability.

  6. A link of full-scale accelerated pavement testing to long-term pavement performance study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability A Link of Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing to Long-Term Pavement Performance Study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa J. K. Anochie-Boateng W. JvdM Steyn C. Fisher L. Truter...

  7. Characterization of cementitiously stabilized subgrades for mechanistic-empirical pavement design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Pranshoo

    Pavements are vulnerable to subgrade layer performance because it acts as a foundation. Due to increase in the truck traffic, pavement engineers are challenged to build more strong and long-lasting pavements. To increase the load-bearing capacity of pavements, subgrade layer is often stabilized with cementitious additives. Thus, an overall characterization of stabilized subgrade layer is important for enhanced short- and long-term pavement performance. In this study, the effect of type and amount of additive on the short-term performance in terms of material properties recommended by the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) is examined. A total of four soils commonly encountered as subgrades in Oklahoma are utilized. Results show that the changes in the Mr, ME and UCS values stabilized specimens depend on the soil type and properties of additives. The long-term performance (or durability) of stabilized soil specimens is investigated by conducting freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling, vacuum saturation and tube suction tests on 7-day cured P-, K- and C-soil specimens stabilized with 6% lime, 10% CFA and 10% CKD. This study is motivated by the fact that during the service life of pavement stabilized layers are subjected to F-T cycles and moisture variations. It is found that that UCS value of all the stabilized specimens decreased with increase in the number of F-T cycles. A strong correlation was observed between UCS values retained after vacuum saturation and F-T cycles indicating that vacuum saturation could be used as a time-efficient and inexpensive method for evaluating durability of stabilized soils. In this study, short- and long-term observations from stabilization of sulfate bearing soil with locally available low (CFA), moderate (CKD) and high (lime) calcium-based stabilizers are determined to evaluate and compare the effect of additive type on the phenomenon of sulfate-induced heave. The impact of different factors on the development of the

  8. Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Pingping; Hou, Suiwen; Guo, Guangqin

    2009-08-01

    Pavement cells have an interlocking jigsaw puzzle-shaped leaf surface pattern. Twenty-three genes involved in the pavement cell morphogenesis were discovered until now. The mutations of these genes through various means lead to pavement cell shape defects, such as loss or lack of interdigitation, the reduction of lobing, gaps between lobe and neck regions in pavement cells, and distorted trichomes. These phenotypes are affected by the organization of microtubules and microfilaments. Microtubule bands are considered corresponding with the neck regions of the cell, while lobe formation depends on patches of microfilaments. The pathway of Rho of plant (ROP) GTPase signaling cascades regulates overall activity of the cytoskeleton in pavement cells. Some other proteins, in addition to the ROPs, SCAR/WAVE, and ARP2/3 complexes, are also involved in the pavement cell morphogenesis.

  9. Numerical Simulation for Mechanical Behavior of Asphalt Pavement with Graded Aggregate Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of asphalt pavement is determined by the combination of its material properties, road structure, and loading configurations. A DEM numerical simulation study was conducted to determine stress distribution and deformation behavior of asphalt pavement with graded aggregate base under standard traffic loading. Stress contour and displacement contour were presented via a self-made program. Compressive stress concentrated area located in both sides of wheel, while tensile stress concentrated area appeared in lower part of the asphalt layer. The traffic loading transferred downward by graded aggregate base and to both sides at the same time, and has a trend to expand gradually with increasing depth within graded aggregate base. Therefore, stress was well distributed in the subgrade soil layer with a great action scope, and the value decreased obviously because of the stress dispersion of graded aggregate base. Vertical displacement was the main displacement of the asphalt layer, and on the both sides of traffic loading, displacement was downward and inclined slightly to the central of loading. Vertical and horizontal deformations included in both graded aggregate base layers, and displacement extended to both sides gradually with increasing depth corresponding to stress-distribution trends. Vertical displacement was dominated in the subgrade soil layer which was relatively small.

  10. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Saad I. Sarsam; Huda N. Al Shareef

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The ...

  11. Crushing damage estimation for pavement with lightly cementitious bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available . Department of Transport. Pretoria, South Africa. Litwinowicz and De Beer., 2013. Long term crushing performance of lightly cementitious pavement materials – update to the South African procedures. Road Materials and Pavement Design. Maina, J.W., De... Beer, M. and van Rensburg, Y., 2013. Modelling Tyre-Road Contact Stresses in Pavement Design and Analysis. Proceedings of 32nd Southern Africa transport conference, Pretoria, July 2013. pp 336-345: SAPDM, (2014). http://www.sapdm.co.za/, last...

  12. Dynamic Modeling of Pavements with Application to Deflection Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Stine Skov

    Pavement surface deflection measurements are the primary means of evaluating the bearing capacity of a pavement. The most common type of device used for measuring pavement surface deflections is the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). However, increasing attention has been given to the Rolling Wheel...... Deflectometer (RWD) type of device due to its ability to measure deflections continuously while driving at traffic speed. To be able to properly interpret deflection measurements from an RWD device, more knowledge about the structural behavior of a pavement when subjected to transient dynamic loads moving...

  13. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  14. Crack identification for rigid pavements using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaddin Ersoz, Ahmet; Pekcan, Onur; Teke, Turker

    2017-09-01

    Pavement condition assessment is an essential piece of modern pavement management systems as rehabilitation strategies are planned based upon its outcomes. For proper evaluation of existing pavements, they must be continuously and effectively monitored using practical means. Conventionally, truck-based pavement monitoring systems have been in-use in assessing the remaining life of in-service pavements. Although such systems produce accurate results, their use can be expensive and data processing can be time consuming, which make them infeasible considering the demand for quick pavement evaluation. To overcome such problems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used as an alternative as they are relatively cheaper and easier-to-use. In this study, we propose a UAV based pavement crack identification system for monitoring rigid pavements’ existing conditions. The system consists of recently introduced image processing algorithms used together with conventional machine learning techniques, both of which are used to perform detection of cracks on rigid pavements’ surface and their classification. Through image processing, the distinct features of labelled crack bodies are first obtained from the UAV based images and then used for training of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model. The performance of the developed SVM model was assessed with a field study performed along a rigid pavement exposed to low traffic and serious temperature changes. Available cracks were classified using the UAV based system and obtained results indicate it ensures a good alternative solution for pavement monitoring applications.

  15. Incorporating moving dynamic tyre loads in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available at the University of Pretoria. 4 REAL LIFE TYRE LOADS Characterisation Pavement loading has been shown by various authors to be a dynamic (time-dependent) phenomenon (Divine, 1997; Cebon, 1999). A pavement experiences a vehicle as a moving, time-varying set... frequencies. Body bounce generally dominates the dynamic loading, and is mainly caused by the response of the sprung mass of the vehicle to the pavement roughness. Axle hop becomes more significant at higher vehicle speeds and higher pavement roughnesses...

  16. Proactive pavement asset management with climate change aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Pavement Asset Management System is a systematic and objective tool to manage pavement network based on the rational, engineering and economic principles. Once implemented and mature Pavement Asset Management System serves the entire range of users starting with the maintenance engineers and ending with the decision-makers. Such a system is necessary to coordinate agency management strategy including proactive maintenance. Basic inputs in the majority of existing Pavement Asset Management System approaches comprise the actual pavement inventory with associated construction history and condition, traffic information as well as various economical parameters. Some Pavement Management System approaches include also weather aspects which is of particular importance considering ongoing climate changes. This paper presents challenges in implementing the Pavement Asset Management System for those National Road Administrations that manage their pavement assets using more traditional strategies, e.g. worse-first approach. Special considerations are given to weather-related inputs and associated analysis to demonstrate the effects of climate change in a short- and long-term range. Based on the presented examples this paper concludes that National Road Administrations should account for the weather-related factors in their Pavement Management Systems as this has a significant impact on the system outcomes from the safety and economical perspective.

  17. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  18. Pavement Management Systems on a Local Level

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez, Cristian A.

    2011-01-01

    Roads are one of the most valuable infrastructure assets within a community. Proper maintenance of the roadway network can promote the prosperity of a community. In recent times maintenance has become much more difficult with the price of asphalt increasing drastically and city budgets contracting due to the economic downturn. With these conditions, the proper management of an agency’s street network is necessary. The use of pavement management systems provides the help needed in the preserva...

  19. Design, development, and application of precast and prestressed concrete system for rigid pavement in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjaman, Hari; Faizal, Lutfi; Suaryana, Nyoman; Hariandja, Binsar; Gambiro, Purnomo, Wicaksono, Siswo

    2017-11-01

    The performance of highways in Indonesia until today is yet to be optimum. Flexible or rigid pavement construction generally do not reach designed service lives, either due to the fact that the construction do not meet specifications or unavoidable excessive load. Precast and prestressed concrete system has been applied since 2007, but unfortunately the application has not been optimum due to the fact that the construction method is not integrally carried out. This paper deals with a construction concept that developed in 2015-2017. The concept applies green construction based on integrated manufacture industry, starting from design, construction, function, maintenance and demolition. The concept is applied on the three highway sub-layers, i.e., sub grade, sub base, and surface, and drainage system. Sub grade improvement may use soil dislocation, chemical improvement or concrete matress. Sub base material uses foam mortar, which is material easy in quality control compared to conventional materials. Pavement material uses precast and prestressed concrete components with controlled quality, quickly function as flexible pavement, and moreover, may anticipate excessive loadings. Cost estimation is carried out integrated by life cycle cost: initial investment, obstruction while construction, and maintenance cost during operation. This innovation has passed tests in technical construction method aspects as well as construction work in 2015-2017, so it is available to support infrastructure construction acceleration which achieves quality demanded to date.

  20. Characterization of the Infiltration Capacity of Porous Concrete Pavements with Low Constant Head Permeability Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio C. Andres-Valeri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous concrete (PC has been extensively used as a surface layer in permeable pavements. The effectiveness of this material in managing stormwater runoff depends not only on subsurface storage, but on infiltration capacity during rainfall events. A variety of tests have been traditionally used for assessing their infiltration capacity, however, there is still uncertainty about whether these tests produce representative performance results under real conditions. This study aims to propose a methodology based on saturated and unsaturated low constant head (LCH permeability tests, in order to characterize in detail the infiltration performance of PC materials during storm events and predict their infiltration behavior over time. To this end, three different infiltration tests were performed on PC specimens, both in newly built conditions and after being clogged. These experiments included unsaturated LCH, Laboratorio Caminos Santander (LCS (one falling head permeameter and saturated LCH tests. The results achieved were analyzed to describe the infiltration performance of the PC pavements tested. Finally, the correlation between the results obtained from on-site tests and laboratory scale devices was studied, providing the regression equations required to apply the infiltration models developed with easily measurable parameters. Consequently, the outputs of this research showed the suitability of the proposed methodology for assessing the infiltration behavior of PC pavements during storm events.

  1. Pavement cells and the topology puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ross; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E; Hartley, Matthew; Grieneisen, Verônica A; Marée, Athanasius F M

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson emphasised the importance of surface tension as a potential driving force in establishing cell shape and topology within tissues. Leaf epidermal pavement cells grow into jigsaw-piece shapes, highly deviating from such classical forms. We investigate the topology of developing Arabidopsis leaves composed solely of pavement cells. Image analysis of around 50,000 cells reveals a clear and unique topological signature, deviating from previously studied epidermal tissues. This topological distribution is established early during leaf development, already before the typical pavement cell shapes emerge, with topological homeostasis maintained throughout growth and unaltered between division and maturation zones. Simulating graph models, we identify a heuristic cellular division rule that reproduces the observed topology. Our parsimonious model predicts how and when cells effectively place their division plane with respect to their neighbours. We verify the predicted dynamics through in vivo tracking of 800 mitotic events, and conclude that the distinct topology is not a direct consequence of the jigsaw piece-like shape of the cells, but rather owes itself to a strongly life history-driven process, with limited impact from cell-surface mechanics. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Strain transfer analysis of optical fiber based sensors embedded in an asphalt pavement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huaping; Xiang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt pavement is vulnerable to random damage, such as cracking and rutting, which can be proactively identified by distributed optical fiber sensing technology. However, due to the material nature of optical fibers, a bare fiber is apt to be damaged during the construction process of pavements. Thus, a protective layer is needed for this application. Unfortunately, part of the strain of the host material is absorbed by the protective layer when transferring the strain to the sensing fiber. To account for the strain transfer error, in this paper a theoretical analysis of the strain transfer of a three-layered general model has been carried out by introducing Goodman’s hypothesis to describe the interfacial shear stress relationship. The model considers the viscoelastic behavior of the host material and protective layer. The effects of one crack in the host material and the sensing length on strain transfer relationship are been discussed. To validate the effectiveness of the strain transfer analysis, a flexible asphalt-mastic packaged distributed optical fiber sensor was designed and tested in a laboratory environment to monitor the distributed strain and appearance of cracks in an asphalt concrete beam at two different temperatures. The experimental results indicated that the developed strain transfer formula can significantly reduce the strain transfer error, and that the asphalt-mastic packaged optical fiber sensor can successfully monitor the distributed strain and identify local cracks. (paper)

  3. Effects of Asphalt Mix Design Properties on Pavement Performance: A Mechanistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Abu Abdo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hot mix asphalt material properties on the performance of flexible pavements via mechanistic approach. 3D Move Analysis software was utilized to determine rutting and cracking distresses in an asphalt concrete (AC layer. Fourteen different Superpave mixes were evaluated by utilizing results of the Dynamic Modulus (|E⁎| Test and the Dynamic Shear Modulus (|G⁎| Test. Results showed that with the increase of binder content, the tendency of rutting in AC layer increased. However, with the increase of binder content, the cracking of AC layer lessened. Furthermore, when different binder grades were evaluated, results showed that with the increase of the upper binder grade number, rutting decreased, and with the increase of the lower binder grade number, rutting increased. Furthermore, analysis showed that with the increase of the lower binder grade number, higher percent of bottom up cracks would result. As a result of the analysis, binder grade should not be solely considered for cracking in AC layer; binder content and aggregate structure play a big role. Finally, results illustrated that the mechanistic approach is a better tool to determine the performance of asphalt pavement than commonly used methods.

  4. Strain transfer analysis of optical fiber based sensors embedded in an asphalt pavement structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Xiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is vulnerable to random damage, such as cracking and rutting, which can be proactively identified by distributed optical fiber sensing technology. However, due to the material nature of optical fibers, a bare fiber is apt to be damaged during the construction process of pavements. Thus, a protective layer is needed for this application. Unfortunately, part of the strain of the host material is absorbed by the protective layer when transferring the strain to the sensing fiber. To account for the strain transfer error, in this paper a theoretical analysis of the strain transfer of a three-layered general model has been carried out by introducing Goodman’s hypothesis to describe the interfacial shear stress relationship. The model considers the viscoelastic behavior of the host material and protective layer. The effects of one crack in the host material and the sensing length on strain transfer relationship are been discussed. To validate the effectiveness of the strain transfer analysis, a flexible asphalt-mastic packaged distributed optical fiber sensor was designed and tested in a laboratory environment to monitor the distributed strain and appearance of cracks in an asphalt concrete beam at two different temperatures. The experimental results indicated that the developed strain transfer formula can significantly reduce the strain transfer error, and that the asphalt-mastic packaged optical fiber sensor can successfully monitor the distributed strain and identify local cracks.

  5. Fast simulated annealing inversion of surface waves on pavement using phase-velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt pavement. The viscoelastic properties of the top asphalt layer are taken into account, and the inverted asphalt stiffness as a function of frequency compares well with laboratory tests on core samples. The thickness and shear-wave velocity of the deeper embedded layers are resolved within 10% deviation from those values measured separately during pavement construction. The proposed method may be equally applicable to normal soil site investigation and in the field of ultrasonic testing of materials. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the water efficiency of a pavement-watering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendel, Martin; Colombert, Morgane; Diab, Youssef; Royon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Pavement-watering as a technique of cooling dense urban areas and reducing the urban heat island effect has been studied since the 1990's. The method is currently considered as a potential tool for and climate change adaptation against increasing heat wave intensity and frequency. However, although water consumption necessary to implement this technique is an important aspect for decision makers, optimization of possible watering methods has only rarely been conducted. An analysis of pavement heat flux at a depth of 5 cm and solar irradiance measurements is proposed to attempt to optimize the watering period, cycle frequency and water consumption rate of a pavement-watering method applied in Paris over the summer of 2013. While fine-tuning of the frequency can be conducted on the basis of pavement heat flux observations, the watering rate requires a heat transfer analysis based on a relation established between pavement heat flux and solar irradiance during pavement insolation. From this, it was found that watering conducted during pavement insolation could be optimized to 30-min cycles and water consumption could be reduced by more than 80% while reducing the cooling effect by less than 13%. - Highlights: • The thermal effects of pavement-watering were investigated in Paris, France. • Pavement-watering was found to significantly affect pavement heat flux 5 cm deep. • When insolated, a linear relation was found between heat flux and solar radiation. • Pavement-watering did not alter its slope, but introduced a negative intercept. • Subsequent improvements of the watering period, frequency and rate are proposed

  7. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has be...

  8. Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

  9. Nutrient Infiltrate Concentrations from Three Permeable Pavement Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha...

  10. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO2 over a length of 150 m ("DeNOx street"). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with

  11. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  12. 3D Tyre/Road pavement contact stress measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR’s proprietary Stress-in-Motion (SIM) measurements provide rational descriptions of 1D, 2D and 3D tyre/road pavement stresses for: Road pavement design testing and evaluation, as well as tyre design, testing and evaluation....

  13. Wet Weather Crater Repair Technologies for Grooved and Smooth Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Dean Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory 3909 Halls Ferry Road ...SUBJECT TERMS Crater Concrete Rain and rainfall ADR Grooved pavement Smooth pavement Runoff Runways (Aeronautics) – Maintenance and repair

  14. Soil Properties And Pavement Performance In The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical properties of the sub-structure of the Shagamu-Ore-Benin pavement were studied in an attempt to identifying the quality of construction materials and the pavement performance. The sub-structure soil materials were collected from the field and were taken to the laboratory for particle size analysis, Atterberg ...

  15. Long-term Metal Performance of Three Permeable Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot surfaced with three permeable pavements (permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt) on the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Samples from each permeable pavement infiltrate were collected...

  16. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad I. Sarsam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The pavement surface course should provide adequate levels of friction and ride quality and maintain low levels of noise and roughness. Many transportation departments perform routine skid resistant testing, the type of equipment used for testing varies depending on the preference of each transportation department. It was felt that modeling of the surface texture condition using different methods of testing may assist in solving such problem. In this work, Macro texture and Micro texture of asphalt and cement concrete pavement surface have been investigated in the field using four different methods (The Sand Patch Method, Outflow Time Method, British Pendulum Tester and Photogrammetry Technique. Two different grain sizes of sand have been utilized in conducting the Sand Patch while the Micro texture was investigated using the British Pendulum tester method at wet pavement surface conditions. The test results of the four methods were correlated to the skid number. It was concluded that such modeling could provide instant data in the field for pavement condition which may help in pavement maintenance management.

  17. Highway pavement failure induced by poor soil geotechnical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of abundant kaolinite peaks and a subdued goethite peak without any trace of montmorrilonite. The presence of excess fines in the pavement construction materials (soils) contributed to the failure of the highway pavement at this locality. The low CBR value is also a noted cause ...

  18. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS... concepts described in the AASHTO's “Pavement Management Guide.” 1 1 “Pavement Management Guide,” AASHTO...

  19. The Simulation Realization of Pavement Roughness in the Time Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, H. L.; He, L.; An, D.

    2017-10-01

    As the needs for the dynamic study on the vehicle-pavement system and the simulated vibration table test, how to simulate the pavement roughness actually is important guarantee for whether calculation and test can reflect the actual situation or not. Using the power spectral density function, the simulation of pavement roughness can be realized by Fourier inverse transform. The main idea of this method was that the spectrum amplitude and random phase were obtained separately according to the power spectrum, and then the simulation of pavement roughness was obtained in the time domain through the Fourier inverse transform (IFFT). In the process, the sampling interval (Δl) was 0.1m, and the sampling points(N) was 4096, which satisfied the accuracy requirements. Using this method, the simulate results of pavement roughness (A~H grades) were obtain in the time domain.

  20. Importance of dowels in transversal joints in concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosek, Jiri; Chupik, Vladimir; Stryk, Josef; Brezina, Ilja

    2017-09-01

    Concrete pavements are designed for heavy loaded road structures. Their usage brings a number of specific issues. It is necessary to solve them all to ensure that concrete pavements will fulfil their function along the whole design period. One of these issues concerns dowels, which are located in transversal joints. Modelling of load, caused by heavy vehicles, with the use of the finite element method, provides valuable information about the stress condition of concrete pavement. The results of modelling can be verified by measurements or experiments in practice. Dowels and tie bars in jointed unreinforced concrete pavements and the importance of their correct placement, dimensions and material quality on pavement behaviour and lifespan were studied as a part of R&D projects of Technology Agency of the Czech Republic Nos. TA02031195 and TE01020168. The paper presents the experience from the modelling and performed experiments and makes conclusions which are important for the use in practice.

  1. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slabej Martin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  2. Photocatalytic pavement blocks. Air purification by pavement blocks. Final results of the research at BRRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The use of materials can influence to a large extent the environmental impact of traffic and of road infrastructure. Especially in urban areas, where the risk on smog formation during hot summer days is high, the use of photocatalytic pavement blocks can reduce the air pollution significantly. A project on environmental friendly concrete pavement blocks is conducted at the Belgian Road Research Centre. The use of photocatalytic material in the surface of pavement blocks to obtain air purifying materials is investigated. In contact with light, TiO2 as photocatalyst, is able to reduce the NO and NO2 content in the air, caused by the exhaust of traffic. The efficiency is tested on pavement blocks, but the technique can as well be applied on other road elements (e.g. noise reducing walls, linear elements) or as a coating on new materials or existing structures. At the previous TRA conference in Gotenborgh, Sweden, the principle of photocatalysis was presented. In this paper, emphasis will be put on the final results of the 4-year project obtained in laboratory as well as on site at the Leien of Antwerp (10,000 m{sup 2}). The results indicate a durable efficiency towards NOx reduction, which is in favour for the diminishing of the risk on ozone formation. However, the precise translation from the laboratory towards the site is still in question. The results obtained during the project are discussed in this paper.

  3. Photocatalytic pavement blocks. Air purification by pavement blocks. Final results of the research at BRRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The use of materials can influence to a large extent the environmental impact of traffic and of road infrastructure. Especially in urban areas, where the risk on smog formation during hot summer days is high, the use of photocatalytic pavement blocks can reduce the air pollution significantly. A project on environmental friendly concrete pavement blocks is conducted at the Belgian Road Research Centre. The use of photocatalytic material in the surface of pavement blocks to obtain air purifying materials is investigated. In contact with light, TiO2 as photocatalyst, is able to reduce the NO and NO2 content in the air, caused by the exhaust of traffic. The efficiency is tested on pavement blocks, but the technique can as well be applied on other road elements (e.g. noise reducing walls, linear elements) or as a coating on new materials or existing structures. At the previous TRA conference in Gotenborgh, Sweden, the principle of photocatalysis was presented. In this paper, emphasis will be put on the final results of the 4-year project obtained in laboratory as well as on site at the Leien of Antwerp (10,000 m 2 ). The results indicate a durable efficiency towards NOx reduction, which is in favour for the diminishing of the risk on ozone formation. However, the precise translation from the laboratory towards the site is still in question. The results obtained during the project are discussed in this paper

  4. Performance of continuously reinforced concrete pavements volume 5 : maintenance and repair of CRC pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This report is one of a series of reports prepared as part of a recent study sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) aimed at updating the state-of-the-art of the design, construction, maintenance, and rehabiilitation of CRC pavements....

  5. Towards Understanding Tyre-Pavement Contact in APT Research on Flexible Pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An important element of Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) is the selection of appropriate test tyre(s) to be used for APT testing. By far the majority of full scale (or scaled) APT devices uses pneumatic rubber tyres. Tyres differ not only in size...

  6. Pavement noise research : modeling of quieter pavements in Florida, final report, October 19, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The research on noise created by the tire/pavement interface, while relatively new, has seen considerable interest over the past few years because of the potential benefits and a general desire by the public for quieter highways. The Florida Departme...

  7. Region Based CNN for Foreign Object Debris Detection on Airfield Pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Peng; Meng, Cai; Bai, Xiangzhi; Gong, Guoping; Liu, Miaoming; Qi, Jun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm based on convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed to detect foreign object debris (FOD) based on optical imaging sensors. It contains two modules, the improved region proposal network (RPN) and spatial transformer network (STN) based CNN classifier. In the improved RPN, some extra select rules are designed and deployed to generate high quality candidates with fewer numbers. Moreover, the efficiency of CNN detector is significantly improved by introducing STN layer. Compared to faster R-CNN and single shot multiBox detector (SSD), the proposed algorithm achieves better result for FOD detection on airfield pavement in the experiment.

  8. Pavement Pre- and Post-Treatment Performance Models Using LTPP Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2012-01-01

    This paper determines that pavement performance in International Roughness Index (IRI) is affected by exogenous interventions such as pavement age, precipitation level, freeze-thaw level, and lower level preservation maintenance strategies. An exponential function of pavement age was used to represent pavement IRI performance curves. Moreover, this paper demonstrates a method which calculates short-term post-pavement performance models from maintenance effect models and pre-treatment performa...

  9. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mubaraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify the common types of distress that exist on the Jazan road network (JRN, either on main roads or secondary roads, and to evaluate the pavement condition based on network level inspection. The study was conducted by collecting pavement distress types from 227 sample units on main roads and 500 sample units from secondary roads. Data were examined through analysis of common types of distress identified in both main and secondary roads. Through these data, pavement condition index (PCI for each sample unit was then calculated. Through these calculations, average PCIs for the main and secondary roads were determined. Results indicated that the most common pavement distress types on main roads were patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, polished aggregate, weathering and raveling, and alligator cracking. The most common pavement distress types on secondary roads were weathering and raveling, patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, potholes, and alligator cracking. The results also indicated that 65% of Jazan's main road network has an average pavement condition rating of very good while only 30% of Jazan's secondary roads network has an average pavement condition.

  10. Fatigue Behavior of Modified Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is the most common distress in road pavement. It is mainly due to the increase in the number of load repetition of vehicles, particularly those with high axle loads, and to the environmental conditions. In this study, four-point bending beam fatigue testing has been used for control and modified mixture under various micro strain levels of (250 μƐ, 400 μƐ, and 750 μƐ and 5HZ. The main objective of the study is to provide a comparative evaluation of pavement resistance to the phenomenon of fatigue cracking between modified asphalt concrete and conventional asphalt concrete mixes (under the influence of three percentage of Silica fumes 1%, 2%, 3% by the weight of asphalt content, and (changing in the percentage of asphalt content by (0.5% ± from the optimum. The results show that when Silica fumes content was 1%, the fatigue life increases by 17%, and it increases by 46% when Silica fumes content increases to 2%, and that fatigue life increases to 34 % when Silica fumes content increases to 3% as compared with control mixture at (250 μƐ, 20°C and optimum asphalt content. From the results above, we can conclude the optimum Silica fumes content was 2%. When the asphalt content was 4.4%, the fatigue life has increased with the use of silica fumes by (50%, when asphalt content was 5.4%, the additives had led to increasing the fatigue life by (69%, as compared with the conventional asphalt concrete pavement.

  11. A bitumen compound for pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanadzava, K.; Simagata, R.

    1982-08-17

    A bitumen compound is proposed which is produced through addition of finely ground coal ash to a bituminous material and subsequent homogenization of the mixture. The following may be used as the bituminous material: solid petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 10 to 150), soft petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 150 to 500), a semioxidized bitumen, a mixture of semioxidized and directly distilled bitumen, bitumen diluted by a petroleum distillate, bituminous mixtures which include rubber, tar, synthetic resins and so on. It is best to use wastes from central thermal electric power plants (TETs), which operate on coal, with a great content of oxides of aluminum, iron and calcium, as the coal ash. The ash is added to the bitumen in a volume of 10 to 40 percent. The compound may include a surfactant (PAV), dispersers, additives which increase the stability to layering and others. The compound is marked by increased resistance to softening in the summer, reduced brittleness at low temperatures and good adhesion to a filler.

  12. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, W; Xu, B

    2013-01-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel −1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s −1 , allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions. (paper)

  13. The leaf phenophase of deciduous species altered by land pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Bo; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely reported that the urban environment alters leaf and flowering phenophases; however, it remains unclear if land pavement is correlated with these alterations. In this paper, two popular deciduous urban trees in northern China, ash (Fraxinus chinensis) and maple (Acer truncatum), were planted in pervious and impervious pavements at three spacings (0.5 m × 0.5 m, 1.0 m × 1.0 m, and 2.0 m × 2.0 m apart). The beginning and end dates of the processes of leaf budburst and senescence were recorded in spring and fall of 2015, respectively. The results show that leaf budburst and senescence were significantly advanced in pavement compared to non-pavement lands. The date of full leaf budburst was earlier by 0.7-9.3 days for ash and by 0.3-2.3 days for maple under pavements than non-pavements, respectively. As tree spacing increases, the advanced days of leaf budburst became longer. Our results clearly indicate that alteration of leaf phenophases is attributed to land pavement, which should be taken into consideration in urban planning and urban plant management.

  14. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Hishamuddin Hussein; Choo Thye Foo; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; MAsliana MUslimin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  15. Development of Improved Mechanistic Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman, Hans Larsen

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a pilot study in Denmark with the main objective of developing improved mechanistic deterioration models for flexible pavements based on an accelerated full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Tessting Machine. The study was the first in "International...... Pavement Subgrade Performance Study" sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA. The paper describes in detail the data analysis and the resulting models for rutting, roughness, and a model for the plastic strain in the subgrade.The reader will get an understanding of the work needed...

  16. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Steyn, Wynand JvdM; Harvey, John

    2014-01-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  17. Review of ice and snow runway pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest, most remote and most pristine place on Earth. Polar operations depend heavily on air transportation and support for personnel and equipment. It follows that improvement in snow and ice runway design, construction and maintenance will directly benefit polar exploration and research. Current technologies and design methods for snow and ice runways remain largely reliant on work performed in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper reviews the design and construction of polar runways using snow and ice as geomaterials. The inability to change existing snow and ice thickness or temperature creates a challenge for polar runway design and construction, as does the highly complex mechanical behaviour of snow, including the phenomena known as sintering. It is recommended that a modern approach be developed for ice and snow runway design, based on conventional rigid and flexible pavement design principles. This requires the development on an analytical model for the prediction of snow strength, based on snow age, temperature history and density. It is also recommended that the feasibility of constructing a snow runway at the South Pole be revisited, in light of contemporary snow sintering methods. Such a runway would represent a revolutionary advance for the logistical support of Antarctic research efforts. Keywords: Runway, Pavement, Snow, Ice, Antarctic

  18. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering; Steyn, Wynand JvdM [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Harvey, John (ed.) [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2014-07-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  19. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  20. The comparisons of computational models of pavement due to the dynamic load act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method (FEM is frequently used to solve current problems of the structural mechanics in engineering practice. The dynamic interaction of the two systems is one of the topics that can be solved using FEM. To simplify the solution of the interaction, it is possible to divide the system in two independent subsystems, vehicle and pavement. Computing software ADINA, based on the principles of the finite element modelling, was adopted to solve the given problem. The results from the first computational model can be used as the inputs for the second model. To analyse stress state of the pavement with different composition, three specific types of pavements were selected – concrete pavement, semi-rigid pavement and flexible pavement. The pavements represent the typical pavement types used for the regular road structures. This article is focused on the analysis of the stress state and the displacements of the pavement induced by the moving load from the traffic.

  1. An Innovative Cellular Automata Technique for Mapping Cracking Pattern of Airport Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Fucheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an innovative cellular automata (CA technique was proposed for mapping cracking pattern of the airport pavement. The CA technique was developed to establish a numerical model describing the effect of boundary condition of pavement on zones (CA cells within the pavement. A state function was used to describe the state values in the cells within the CA lattice. The correction coefficient principle is used as the criterion of zone similarity and the corresponding technique is proposed to find similar zones within and between pavements. Three pavement models, HRS, MRS and LRS, tested in FAA, USA, are set as the base pavements to map the cracking patterns of pavements with different sizes from the base pavements. The mapped cracking patterns of unseen pavements are empirically verified by referring to the relative experimental models.

  2. Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin, Menna; Fricker, Jon D.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values Presented during Session 3: Policy and Funding, moderated by Magdy Mikhail, at the 9th International Conference on Managing Pavement Assets (ICMPA9) in Alexandria, VA. Includes conference paper and PowerPoint slides.

  3. Long-term Performance of Granular Bases Including the Effect of Wet-Dry Cycles on Inverted Base Pavement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to advance the understanding of alternative pavement designs. In particular, potential techniques such as inverted base pavements (IBP) have increased the importance of granular aggregate bases (GAB) in pavement s...

  4. Chloroplast behaviour and interactions with other organelles in Arabidopsis thaliana pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kiah A; Wozny, Michael R; Mathur, Neeta; Jaipargas, Erica-Ashley; Mathur, Jaideep

    2018-01-29

    Chloroplasts are a characteristic feature of green plants. Mesophyll cells possess the majority of chloroplasts and it is widely believed that, with the exception of guard cells, the epidermal layer in most higher plants does not contain chloroplasts. However, recent observations on Arabidopsis thaliana have shown a population of chloroplasts in pavement cells that are smaller than mesophyll chloroplasts and have a high stroma to grana ratio. Here, using stable transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid stroma, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, F-actin and microtubules, we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between the pavement cell chloroplasts (PCCs) and their subcellular environment. Observations on the PCCs suggest a source-sink relationship between the epidermal and the mesophyll layers, and experiments with the Arabidopsis mutants glabra2 ( gl2 ) and immutans ( im ), which show altered epidermal plastid development, underscored their developmental plasticity. Our findings lay down the foundation for further investigations aimed at understanding the precise role and contributions of PCCs in plant interactions with the environment. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Metal concentrations from permeable pavement parking lot in Edison, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements...

  6. Sustainable Mitigation of Stormwater Runoff Through Fully Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report presents the implementation of new design method developed using mechanistic-empirical design approach by University of California Pavement Research Center (UCPRC) through building two test sections at California State University Long Bea...

  7. Evaluation of acceptance strength tests for concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    The North Carolina Department of Transportation has used traditionally flexural strength tests for acceptance : testing of Portland cement concrete pavements. This report summarizes a research project implemented to : investigate the feasibility of u...

  8. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of tirepavement contact behavior (i.e., distribution of contact tractions at the : interface) plays an important role in the analysis of pavement performance and vehicle driving safety. : The tirepavement contact is essentiall...

  9. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  10. Pavement evaluation - an international perspective: Fit for purpose?

    OpenAIRE

    Wix, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plenary Session 1 Moderated by Edgar de León Izeppi This presentation was held at the Pavement Evaluation 2014 Conference, which took place from September 15-18, 2014 in Blacksburg, Virginia. Presentation only

  11. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perrie, BD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  12. DURABILITY OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS: A CASE STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    years, ranking, predominant factors affecting pavement durability and the estimate of durability. In this regard .... subgrade soil into the base course and provide the drainage of ..... [3] Oguara T. M. “A management model for road infrastructure ...

  13. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  14. sensitivity analysis on flexible road pavement life cycle cost model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of sensitivity analysis on a developed flexible pavement life cycle cost model using varying discount rate. The study .... organizations and specific projects needs based. Life-cycle ... developed and completed urban road infrastructure corridor ...

  15. Ground penetrating radar evaluation of new pavement density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this project was to map pavement surface density variations using dielectric : measurements from ground penetrating radar (GPR). The work was carried out as part of an : Asphalt Intelligent Compaction demonstration project on SR 539 ...

  16. Texas pavement preservation center two-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Established August 11, 2005, The TPPC serves the broad range of needs of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), and other agencies within the highway community by promoting awareness of pavement preservation as a feasible and practical maint...

  17. Texas pavement preservation center four-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-04

    The Texas Pavement Preservation Center (TPPC), in joint collaboration with the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) of Texas A&M University, promotes the use of pav...

  18. Mobile geographic information system (GIS) solution for pavement condition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    This report discusses the design and implementation of a software-based solution that will improve the data collection processes during the Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) conducted by the State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida Department of Tr...

  19. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embeded sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging...

  20. Calibration of controlling input models for pavement management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) is currently using the Deighton Total Infrastructure Management System (dTIMS) software for pavement management. This system is based on several input models which are computational backbones to dev...

  1. Pavement subgrade MR design values for Michigan's seasonal changes : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    The resilient modulus (MR) of roadbed soil plays an integral role in the design of pavement systems. Currently, the various regions of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) use different procedures to determine the MR values. Most of these...

  2. Iowa pavement asset management decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Most local agencies in Iowa currently make their pavement treatment decisions based on their limited experience due primarily to : lack of a systematic decision-making framework and a decision-aid tool. The lack of objective condition assessment data...

  3. Benefits and assessment of annual budget requirements for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This research identifies methods and best practices that can be used by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) in : performing various strategies for pavement preservation. It also identifies various methods of calculating the benefits of :...

  4. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  5. Use of nondestructive evaluation to detect moisture in flexible pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the currently available nondestructive evaluation technology that holds the greatest potential to detect moisture in flexible pavements and then apply the technology in multiple locations throughout Virginia....

  6. Evaluation of portable retroreflectometer for use on pavement marking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The subjective rating of the night visibility of pavement marking materials is difficult as it can be influenced by many variables. In an attempt to provide an improved method of determining the night visibility of these materials, a portable retrore...

  7. Tack coat optimization for HMA overlays : accelerated pavement test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements is one : of the most significant factors affecting overlay service life. This study was performed to quantify the effects of HMA type, : tack coat t...

  8. Implementation of warm-mix asphalt mixtures in Nebraska pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving : mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera : synthetic ...

  9. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  10. Long-Term Field Performance of Pervious Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Radlińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work described in this paper provides an evaluation of an aged pervious concrete pavement in the Northeastern United States to provide a better understanding of the long-lasting effects of placement techniques as well as the long-term field performance of porous pavement, specifically in areas susceptible to freezing and thawing. Multiple samples were taken from the existing pavement and were examined in terms of porosity and unit weight, compressive and splitting tensile strength, and the depth and degree of clogging. It was concluded that improper placement and curing led to uneven pavement thickness, irregular pore distribution within the pervious concrete, and highly variable strength values across the site, as well as sealed surfaces that prevented infiltration.

  11. Development of an Overlay Design Procedure for Composite Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The composite overlay design procedure currently used by ODOT sometimes produces very large overlay thicknesses that are deemed structurally unnecessary, especially for composite pavements already with thick asphalt overlays. This study was initiated...

  12. stabilization of dredged spoils for pavement construction in the niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tse

    Natural soils underlying the East-West road are mainly clay and silt of poor quality ... on the dredged soils included particle size distribution, compaction and California ... KEYWORDS: Stabilization, dredge spoil, pavement, Niger Delta, cement.

  13. ANALYSIS OF GROUP MAINTENANCE STRATEGY -ROAD PAVEMENT AND SEWERAGE PIPES-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Keishi; Sugimoto, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Shinya; Nada, Hideki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    Recently, it is critical to manage deteriorating sewerage and road facilities efficiently and strategically. Since the sewerage pipes are mostly installed under road pavement, the works for the replacement of the sewerage pipes are partially common to the works for the road. This means that the replacement cost can be saved by coordinating the timing of the replacements by sewerage pipe and road pavement. The purpose of the study is to develop the model based on Markov decision process to derive the optimal group maintenance policy so as to minimize lifecycle cost. Then the model is applied to case study area and demonstrated to estimate the lifecycle cost using statistical data such as pipe replacement cost, road pavement rehabilitation cost, and state of deterioration of pipes and road pavement.

  14. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  15. Benefit cost models to support pavement management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    A critical role of pavement management is to provide decision makers with estimates of the required budget level to achieve specific steady-state network conditions, and to recommend the best allocation of available budget among competing needs for m...

  16. Inverted base pavements : new field test and design catalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The current economic situation has severely affected the US road infrastructure and funding has become : inadequate for either maintenance or future growth. : The inverted base pavement structure is a promising alternative to achieve high quality roa...

  17. Pavement management system for City of Madison : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Keeping city streets in good state of repair has been a significant challenge for small communities : where both road repair budgets and staff resources are lacking. To prevent pavement deterioration at : a large scale, local governments need to find...

  18. MDOT Pavement Management System : Prediction Models and Feedback System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    As a primary component of a Pavement Management System (PMS), prediction models are crucial for one or more of the following analyses: : maintenance planning, budgeting, life-cycle analysis, multi-year optimization of maintenance works program, and a...

  19. SDDOT'S enhanced pavement management system : visual distress survey manual [2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    In 1993, the South Dakota Department of Transportation initiated the Research Project SD93-14, Enhancement of South Dakotas Pavement Management System. As the Research Project progressed, it was determined that to better evaluate the condition of ...

  20. Pavement management system review : final report, October 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The University of Alabama (UA) researchers worked with Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) managers to investigate various mechanisms to provide quality control of data collection and interpretation for pavements, and to target the data resu...

  1. Design and implementation of PAVEMON: A GIS web-based pavement monitoring system based on large amounts of heterogeneous sensors data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar

    A web-based PAVEment MONitoring system, PAVEMON, is a GIS oriented platform for accommodating, representing, and leveraging data from a multi-modal mobile sensor system. Stated sensor system consists of acoustic, optical, electromagnetic, and GPS sensors and is capable of producing as much as 1 Terabyte of data per day. Multi-channel raw sensor data (microphone, accelerometer, tire pressure sensor, video) and processed results (road profile, crack density, international roughness index, micro texture depth, etc.) are outputs of this sensor system. By correlating the sensor measurements and positioning data collected in tight time synchronization, PAVEMON attaches a spatial component to all the datasets. These spatially indexed outputs are placed into an Oracle database which integrates seamlessly with PAVEMON's web-based system. The web-based system of PAVEMON consists of two major modules: 1) a GIS module for visualizing and spatial analysis of pavement condition information layers, and 2) a decision-support module for managing maintenance and repair (Mℝ) activities and predicting future budget needs. PAVEMON weaves together sensor data with third-party climate and traffic information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) databases for an organized data driven approach to conduct pavement management activities. PAVEMON deals with heterogeneous and redundant observations by fusing them for jointly-derived higher-confidence results. A prominent example of the fusion algorithms developed within PAVEMON is a data fusion algorithm used for estimating the overall pavement conditions in terms of ASTM's Pavement Condition Index (PCI). PAVEMON predicts PCI by undertaking a statistical fusion approach and selecting a subset of all the sensor measurements. Other fusion algorithms include noise-removal algorithms to remove false negatives in the sensor data in addition to fusion algorithms developed for

  2. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    successfully used as interlayers include asphalt rubber and geotextiles, and the applica- tion of recycling techniques to rework the upper 2–4 in. of the...from a set of weights dropped from increasingly greater predetermined heights onto a rubber buffer system connected to a 12 in. diameter segmented...pavement temperature at depth, IR = the infrared pavement surface temperature (°C), D = the asphalt depth to estimate the temperature (mm), 1

  3. Application of surplus and waste materials in roads pavement making

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, S. M.; Fazli, A. H.; Rouzmehr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are a lot of problems about surpluses and debris made by humans all around the world. Lots of these surpluses seriously harm our natural environment. Reuse of this kind of materials in other processes like building constructions or pavement help our natural environment in every aspect. Asphalt concrete is the main part of pavements in most parts of the world with an increasing rate of production in need of more ways and roads. In this paper we will provide...

  4. Evaluation of Nontraditional Airfield Pavement Surfaces for Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    double, triple seals, and cape seals have been used in various airports in the Australian territories (such as Cocos Island) with triple seals and cape...polymers, or fibers with the natural soil. In stabilizing soil, strength, durability, cohesion, and reduced swelling properties may be improved (UFC...2012. Cocos (Keeling) Island Aircraft pavement refurbishment project. Presentation provided by S. Emery, 5 May 2013. Ellis, C. I. 1979. Pavement

  5. Pavement-Watering for Cooling the Built Environment: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hendel , Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pavement-watering is being considered by decision-makers in many cities as a means of cooling the built environment and of adapting to rising extreme heat events due to climate change. In this article we review the existing literature on the topic of pavement-watering. We first focus on the methodological choices made in the literature, including study approach and scale, watering methods used as well as how results are analyzed. We then discuss the cooling effects reported, separating micro-...

  6. Evaluation of pavement skid resistance using high speed texture measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skid resistance is an important parameter for highway designs, construction, management, maintenance and safety. The purpose of this manuscript is to propose the correlation between skid resistance, which is measured as skid resistance trailer, and mean profile depth (MPD or the macro surface texture, which is measured by vehicle mounted laser, so that highway agencies can predict the skid resistance of pavement without the use of expensive and time consuming skid resistance trailer, which also causes disruption of traffic in use. In this research skid numbers and MPD from 5 new asphalt pavements and 4 old asphalt pavements were collected using a locked wheel skid trailer and a vehicle mounted laser. Using the data collected, a correlation between the skid number (SN40R collected by locked wheel skid tester and the texture data or MPD collected by a vehicle mounted laser operating at highway speeds was developed. The proposed correlation for new pavements was positive for MPD values less than 0.75 mm to reach a peak SN40R value, then there was a negative correlation as the MPD increases until the MPD value was equal to 1.1 mm and beyond the MPD value of 1.1 mm to the maximum value of 1.4 mm, SN40R value remained almost constant. There were significant data scatter for the MPD value of 0.8 mm. To explain these results, water film thickness during the friction test was calculated and the critical MPD was defined. The effect of sealed water pool on the SN40R was discussed. The test result showed a similar trend for older asphalt pavements, but with lower SN40R values due to the polishing of pavement micro-texture by traffic. Hence, a reduction factor was proposed for older pavements based on cumulative traffic volume for the above correlation to predict the skid resistance of older pavements.

  7. Influence of pavement condition on horizontal curve safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Banerjee, Ambarish; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2013-03-01

    Crash statistics suggest that horizontal curves are the most vulnerable sites for crash occurrence. These crashes are often severe and many involve at least some level of injury due to the nature of the collisions. Ensuring the desired pavement surface condition is one potentially effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of severe accidents on horizontal curves. This study sought to develop crash injury severity models by integrating crash and pavement surface condition databases. It focuses on developing a causal relationship between pavement condition indices and severity level of crashes occurring on two-lane horizontal curves in Texas. In addition, it examines the suitability of the existing Skid Index for safety maintenance of two-lane curves. Significant correlation is evident between pavement condition and crash injury severity on two-lane undivided horizontal curves in Texas. Probability of a crash becoming fatal is appreciably sensitive to certain pavement indices. Data suggested that road facilities providing a smoother and more comfortable ride are vulnerable to severe crashes on horizontal curves. In addition, the study found that longitudinal skid measurement barely correlates with injury severity of crashes occurring on curved portions. The study recommends exploring the option of incorporating lateral friction measurement into Pavement Management System (PMS) databases specifically at curved road segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10 R 20 tyre size and attached trailer with constant axle load. Measurements were made for actual tyre-pavement contact area. KENPAVE linear elastic program was then used to analyse the effects of the measured actual tyre-pavement contact area and the results was compared using conventional circular tyre contact area. A comparative analysis was then made between the actual contact area and the conventional circular tyre contact area. It was found that high tyre inflation pressure produce smaller contact area, giving more detrimental effect on the flexible pavement. It was also found that the temperature of tyres when the heavy vehicles are operational give less significant impact on tyre inflation pressure for the Malaysian climate.

  9. Effect of speed hump characteristics on pavement condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat Ali Abdel-Wahed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are the most common type of traffic calming devices due to their low cost and easy installation. However, in many Egyptian roads, considerable number of these humps is randomly placed without proper engineering studies and justifications. Deterioration of pavement condition is observed near these humps. This paper presents a case study applied to collect and analyze visual inspection data for the reason of evaluating the impact of speed humps on pavement condition on intercity rural roads. The paper used 52 speed humps located in an intercity two-lane, two-way road that connects two cities, Tahta and Gerga, in Upper Egypt. The total length of this road is about 34 km. Pavement condition index (PCI, in road sections, near speed humps in the two directions of travel were calculated from the visual inspection measurements. The characteristics of each speed hump (width, height, and distance from preceding hump were measured. Using statistical analyses, the correlations between the pavement conditions and hump characteristics were examined. Regression analysis models were developed to represent the relationships between pavement conditions and hump characteristics. Generally, the results proved that the pavement conditions are greatly influenced by the presence of speed humps and hump characteristics.

  10. Urban pavement surface temperature. Comparison of numerical and statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrahmen; Bues, Michel; Bouilloud, Ludovic; Martin, Eric; Chancibaut, Katia

    2015-04-01

    The forecast of pavement surface temperature is very specific in the context of urban winter maintenance. to manage snow plowing and salting of roads. Such forecast mainly relies on numerical models based on a description of the energy balance between the atmosphere, the buildings and the pavement, with a canyon configuration. Nevertheless, there is a specific need in the physical description and the numerical implementation of the traffic in the energy flux balance. This traffic was originally considered as a constant. Many changes were performed in a numerical model to describe as accurately as possible the traffic effects on this urban energy balance, such as tires friction, pavement-air exchange coefficient, and infrared flux neat balance. Some experiments based on infrared thermography and radiometry were then conducted to quantify the effect fo traffic on urban pavement surface. Based on meteorological data, corresponding pavement temperature forecast were calculated and were compared with fiels measurements. Results indicated a good agreement between the forecast from the numerical model based on this energy balance approach. A complementary forecast approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square regression (PLS) was also developed, with data from thermal mapping usng infrared radiometry. The forecast of pavement surface temperature with air temperature was obtained in the specific case of urban configurtation, and considering traffic into measurements used for the statistical analysis. A comparison between results from the numerical model based on energy balance, and PCA/PLS was then conducted, indicating the advantages and limits of each approach.

  11. Cloud Impacts on Pavement Temperature in Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focused on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and subsequent pavement temperatures. The study region was the Great Plains where surface solar radiation data were obtained from the High Plains Regional Climate Center's Automated Weather Data Network stations. Road pavement temperature data were obtained from the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System. Cloud properties and radiative transfer quantities were obtained from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System mission via Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products. An additional cloud data set was incorporated from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classification algorithm. Statistical analyses using a modified nearest neighbor approach were first performed relating shortwave radiation variability with road pavement temperature fluctuations. Then statistical associations were determined between the shortwave radiation and cloud property data sets. Preliminary results suggest that substantial pavement forecasting improvement is possible with the inclusion of cloud-specific information. Future model sensitivity testing seeks to quantify the magnitude of forecast improvement.

  12. Carbonation of lime and cement stabilized layers in road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Netterberg, F

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of deterioration of lime, lime-slag and cement stabilized pavement layers during curing, before sealing and in service is partly ascribed to carbonation of the stabilizer during curing and subsequent exposure to the atmosphere before...

  13. Improve the quality and service life of water-based pavement marking paints on pavements with high-iron aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    White pavement paint marking on airport runways was being discolored by rust-like staining. Discoloration is a critical safety : problem because white paint indicates runways and yellow paint is used for taxiways and aircraft parking. When the white ...

  14. Evaluation and Development of Pavement Scores, Performance Models and Needs Estimates for the TXDOT Pavement Management Information System : Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This project conducted a thorough review of the existing Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) database, : performance models, needs estimates, utility curves, and scores calculations, as well as a review of District practices : concerning th...

  15. Establishing appropriate inputs when using the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide to design rigid pavements in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Each design input in the Mechanistic-Empirical Design Guide (MEPDG) required for the design of Jointed Plain Concrete : Pavements (JPCPs) is introduced and discussed in this report. Best values for Pennsylvania conditions were established and : recom...

  16. 0-6683 : develop a pavement project evaluation index to support the 4-year pavement management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    A pavement management plan (PMP) identifies : candidate maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) : projects for a particular roadway network over a : multi-year planning period. The PMP is a living : document because projects are reevaluated and : reprio...

  17. Use of lime cement stabilized pavement construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M.A.; Raju, G.V.R.P. [JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-08-15

    Expansive clay is a major source of heave induced structural distress. Swelling of expansive soils causes serious problems and produce damages to many structures. Many research organizations are doing extensive work on waste materials concerning the feasibility and environmental suitability. Fly ash, a waste by product from coal burning in thermal power stations, is abundant in India causing severe health, environmental and disposal problems. Attempts are made to investigate the stabilization process with model test tracks over expansive subgrade in flexible pavements. Cyclic plate load tests are carried out on the tracks with chemicals like lime and cement introduced in fly ash subbase laid on sand and expansive subgrades. Test results show that maximum load carrying capacity is obtained for stabilized fly ash subbase compared to untreated fly ash subbase.

  18. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  19. Influence of bitumen type on cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures used in pavement overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, P.; Szydlowski, C.; Stienss, M.

    2018-05-01

    Cracking is one of the predominant distresses occurring in flexible pavements, especially in old pavements that were rehabilitated with an asphalt overlay. In such cases asphalt mixtures should be designed to ensure high resistance to reflective cracking because new asphalt layers are exposed to existing cracks of the old pavement. The nature of these cracks can be various (transverse, longitudinal as well as crazy cracking). One factor that minimizes this type of distress is the proper mix design process, which should involve selection of specific bitumen binder and mineral mix gradation. However, still there is no universally adopted laboratory test method that would allow to clearly assess resistance of asphalt mixtures to reflective cracking. This paper describes the usage of one of the devices developed to test asphalt mixtures in terms of such distress – Texas Overlay Tester. For this test, samples prepared in laboratory conditions (i.e. compacted with the use of Superpave Gyratory Compactor) as well as obtained in the field (by core drilling) can be used. The results are obtained not only quickly and easily, but also with sufficient repeatability. The described method characterizes both crack initiation and crack propagation properties of asphalt mixtures. In this work one type of mineral mixture was tested with 4 different types of bitumen (one neat bitumen, two ordinary polymer-modified and one polymer-modified with high polymer content). For selected cases extra additives (rubber and loose fibres) were also tested. In total, six asphalt mixtures were tested. A ranking of the used binders was created on the basis of the results in order to conclude which bitumen would ensure the best performance characteristics in terms of reflective cracking. The results have clearly shown that deliberate choice of the binder used in the asphalt mixture for the overlay will significantly improve its reflective cracking resistance or even fatigue resistance.

  20. Standard nomenclature and methods for describing the condition of pavements draft TRH 6

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curtayne, PC

    2009-01-26

    Full Text Available The need for describing the condition of pavements occurs frequently in highway engineering. Accurate descriptions are a prerequisite for establishing procedures with which to evaluate the various aspects of the pavement condition. A variety...

  1. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers...

  2. Development of Pavement Performance Prediction Models for Preservation Treatments : Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The implementation of a pavement preservation program was initiated in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 at the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) by appropriating funding for four specific pavement preservation treatments. The types of treatments incl...

  3. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison Environmental Center - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable paver...

  4. Historical performance evaluation of Iowa pavement treatments using data analytics : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate the performance of the most-used pavement treatments in Iowa by considering different parameters such as type of treatment, treatment thickness, traffic, and pavement type : Estimate a service life for each treatment based on the obs...

  5. Modeling of interaction between steel and concrete in continuously reinforced concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) contains continuous longitudinal reinforcement with no transverse : expansion within the early life of the pavement and can continue to develop cracks in the long-term. The : accurate modeling of CRCPs...

  6. Top-down cracking of rigid pavements constructed with fast setting hydraulic cement concrete

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heath, AC

    2009-01-29

    Full Text Available Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) test sections were constructed using fast setting hydrualic cement concrete (FSHCC) as part of the California accelerated pavement testing program (CAL/APT). Many of the longer slabs cracked under environmental...

  7. Assessment of asphalt concrete reinforcement grid in flexible pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to independently assess the potential structural benefit of asphalt geogrid reinforcement of an operational flexible highway pavement. The asphalt interlay...

  8. Nontraditional Fog Seal for Asphalt Pavement : Performance on Shoulder Sections in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The pavement engineering community has recently been introduced to a number of nontraditional products intended for uses as surface sealers for bituminous pavements. Many new products use agricultural-based components and little is known regarding th...

  9. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) has been widely considered as a fundamental property of : Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement but has never played an important role in the thickness design : procedure for PCC pavement until recently. I...

  10. Caltrans accelerated pavement testing (CAL/APT) program - test results: 1993-1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nokes, WA

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available By combining the results of both the HVS and laboratory tests, interpretations of pavement performance are described and recommendations for pavement design and construction have been made to Caltrans....

  11. Engineering properties of stabilized subgrade soils for implementation of the AASHTO 2002 pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive laboratory study was undertaken to determine engineering properties of cementitiously stabilized common subgrade soils in Oklahoma for the design of roadway pavements in accordance with the AASHTO 2002 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement D...

  12. MDOT innovation leading to faster, longer-lasting pavement repairs : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of patching pavement must evolve to meet increasing mobility demands. : To address this need, MDOT has been testing a new generation of rapid set full-depth : pavement repair materials. Initial results are promising. The new materials...

  13. Historical performance evaluation of Iowa pavement treatments using data analytics : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The pavement network in Iowa has reached a mature state making maintenance and rehabilitation activities more important than new construction. As such, a need exists to evaluate the performance of the pavement treatments and estimate their performanc...

  14. Recycled Portland cement concrete pavements : Part II, state-of-the art summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This report constitutes a review of the literature concerning recycling of portland cement concrete pavements by crushing the old pavement and reusing the crushed material as aggregate in a number of applications. A summary of the major projects cond...

  15. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : calibration plans for M-E models and related software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to calibrate and validate m...

  16. Transition from manual to automatic rutting measurements : effect on pavement serviceability index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Pavement Serviceability Index (pSn is used by New Mexico Department of Transportation : (NMDOT) to express the serviceability level of a pavement section at the network level. The PSI : is calculated with distress ratings (including rutting) and ...

  17. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Bureau of Aviation pavement evaluation report : final report, March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    As part of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportations (PennDOT) airport pavement management efforts, the Bureau of : Aviation (BOA) retained Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. (APTech), assisted by DY Consultants, to evaluate the condition of t...

  18. Simulation of dynamic traffic loading based on accelerated pavement testing (APT)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the latest Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) technology as part of the South African Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) efforts, its capabilities and expected impact on road pavement analysis....

  19. Accelerated pavement testing of low-volume paved roads with geocell reinforcement : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed : by the highway departments of Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, and New York, has : supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project to study the rehabilitation : of low-vol...

  20. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2003) : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled Fund Program, financed by : the highway departments of Missouri, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska, has supported an : accelerated pavement testing (APT) project to compare the performance of stabilized ...

  1. Accelerated pavement testing of low-volume paved roads with geocell reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed by the highway : departments of Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, and New York, has supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project : to study the rehabilitation of low-volum...

  2. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with concrete pavements which were finished with a random transverse grooved surface texture (ODOT specification...

  3. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  4. Considerations for rigid vs. flexible pavement designs when allowed as alternate bids : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the research conducted for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) : concerning the use of pavement alternates. The scope of the project includes reviewing the state-of-thepractice : in methods used for pavement type sele...

  5. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  6. A methodology to support the development of 4-year pavement management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A methodology for forming and prioritizing pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) projects was developed. : The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) can use this methodology to generate defensible and cost-effective : 4-year pavement man...

  7. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  8. Comparative Study of Flexible Pavement Designs for New Road in Great Britain and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Hanafi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare the design methods for flexible pavements for new roads and overlays between two countries, Great Britain and Indonesia.Pavement design procedures provide a structure that can be accepted in a specific environmental condition and able to satisfy the anticipated traffic loading. There are many factors influencing the thickness design of pavement, such as pavement materials, traffic load and climatic conditions, there is no doubt that the method of pa...

  9. Using a constructive pavement texture index for skid resistance screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pei Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skid resistance measurement is one of the major measurements used to assess road safety. Typical devices used for measuring skid resistance include single point checking type and continuous measurements type. However, conducting periodic full roadway network skid resistance survey can be a relatively time consuming and difficult task because of the limited water carrying capacity used by all kinds of devices, including the continuous types. On the contrary, measurement of pavement surface texture can be conducted easily and continuously by most profilers. This research investigates the relation between pavement skid resistance and surface texture. The focus is on the development of a texture index that can serve as a screening indicator to filter out the high-risk pavement sections for further skid resistance measurement. Two measuring devices, GripTester (GT and National Taiwan University laser profiler (NTU Profiler, were used to collect data on pavement skid resistance and texture in a network of 555 sections, respectively. The pavement texture index of the mean difference of elevation (MDE is calculated at a 1 mm profile interval, which is a very promising indicator to represent pavement skid resistance. Through a sensitivity study, the MDE threshold of 0.15 mm is observed to provide a relatively reasonable screening function that filters out 29.01% of the entire surveyed network for further skid resistance inspection. It averted more than 70% skid resistance measurement capacity of the entire network. The accuracy of correct judgment by the selected threshold is about 80%, only 3.78% of roadway sections considered for further inspection of the recommended list are not included. Keywords: Skid resistance, Pavement texture, Macrotexture, Laser profiler, GripTester

  10. Temperature prediction model of asphalt pavement in cold regions based on an improved BP neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Dan, Han-Cheng; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pavement temperature prediction model is presented with improved BP neural network. • Dynamic and static methods are presented to predict pavement temperature. • Pavement temperature can be excellently predicted in next 3 h. - Abstract: Ice cover on pavement threatens traffic safety, and pavement temperature is the main factor used to determine whether the wet pavement is icy or not. In this paper, a temperature prediction model of the pavement in winter is established by introducing an improved Back Propagation (BP) neural network model. Before the application of the BP neural network model, many efforts were made to eliminate chaos and determine the regularity of temperature on the pavement surface (e.g., analyze the regularity of diurnal and monthly variations of pavement temperature). New dynamic and static prediction methods are presented by improving the algorithms to intelligently overcome the prediction inaccuracy at the change point of daily temperature. Furthermore, some scenarios have been compared for different dates and road sections to verify the reliability of the prediction model. According to the analysis results, the daily pavement temperatures can be accurately predicted for the next 3 h from the time of prediction by combining the dynamic and static prediction methods. The presented method in this paper can provide technical references for temperature prediction of the pavement and the development of an early-warning system for icy pavements in cold regions.

  11. Integrating Pavement Crack Detection and Analysis Using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS

  12. Prediction of IRI in short and long terms for flexible pavements: ANN and GMDH methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziari, H.; Sobhani, J.; Ayoubinejad, J.; Hartmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of pavement condition is one of the most important issues in pavement management systems. In this paper, capabilities of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and group method of data handling (GMDH) methods in predicting flexible pavement conditions were analysed in three levels: in 1 year,

  13. Effects of moving dynamic tyre loads on tyre-pavement contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to indicate the effect that moving dynamic tyre loads has on the tyre-pavement contact stresses used in pavement analysis. Traditionally tyre loads (in pavement analysis) are modelled as constant loads applied through...

  14. Toward using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available pavement design. Four different tire models were used to represent a single tire type in order to demonstrate its effect on road pavement response of a typical South African pavement structure. Only applied vertical stress was used for the analyses...

  15. Evaluation of the MIT-Scan-T2 for non-destructive PCC pavement thickness determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The MIT-Scan-T2 device is marketed as a non-destructive way to determine pavement thickness on both : HMA and PCC pavements. PCC pavement thickness determination is an important incentivedisincentive : measurement for the Iowa DOT and contractors. Th...

  16. Evaluation of MIT-SCAN-T2 for Thickness Quality Control for PCC and HMA Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Thickness is currently a pay item for PCC pavements and a quality control item for both PCC and HMA pavements. A change in pavement thickness of 0.5 in. can result in a change of multiple years of service. Current thickness measurements are performed...

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF PRESERVATIVE FOR PROTECTION OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT OF HIGHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantages of road concrete pavement quite well known professionals-standards. They were mainly low elasticity modulus asphaltic concrete, as well as a fairly rapid aging of asphalt concrete core component-bitumen. And, as a consequence, is relatively low durability of the coating, the need for frequent repair. To some extent, cement concrete cover signifi cantly outperform this index of asphalt, convinces experience roads of Germany, the United States and other countries. The correct structure of concrete, overall compliance technology laying concrete, comprehensive quality control production  work, sufficient technical personnel qualifications provide long defect-free work road re-coated. However, violations by manufacture of works or in the process of exploitation, particularly in the harsh conditions of freezing and thawing, saturation-drying, especially under the influence of salts-defrosting, cause defects, reduce its durability. There are two directions of increase of durability of the coating. Firstly, it is the primary protection is the creation of concrete with minimal possible on data components mixture water cement ratio that provides reception of concrete with minimum porosity and consequently with maximum durability. Secondly, the secondary protection, providing increased resistance already ready-mixed concrete cover external aggressive actions. In this case against the background of other ways quite promising looks impregnation of the surface concrete integrated structure. Composition must contain multiple components, primarily water repellents, preventing penetration of fluid into the body of the concrete, and finely dispersed silica sol in particular silica, providing reduction of the porosity of the surface layers of concrete by interacting with the free calcium hydroxide. The problem of optimization of impregnation structure and is dedicated to this work.

  18. Rainfall Runoff Mitigation by Retrofitted Permeable Pavement in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement is an effective low impact development (LID practice that can play an important role in reducing rainfall runoff amount in urban areas. Permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP was retrofitted in a tremendously developed area of Seoul, Korea and the data was monitored to evaluate its effect on the hydrology and stormwater quality performance for four months. Rainfall runoff was first absorbed by different layers of the PICP system and then contributed to the sewage system. This not only helps to reduce the runoff volume, but also increase the time of concentration. In this experiment, different real rain events were observed and the field results were investigated to check the effectiveness of the PICP system for controlling the rainfall runoff in Songpa, Korea. From the analysis of data, results showed that the PCIP system was very effective in controlling rainfall runoff. Overall runoff reduction performance from the PCIP was found to be around 30–65% during various storm events. In addition, PICP significantly reduced peak flows in different storm events which is very helpful in reducing the chances of water-logging in an urbanized area. Research results also allow us to sum up that retrofitted PICP is a very effective approach for rainfall runoff management in urban areas.

  19. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Franesqui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA. The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled “Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves” (Franesqui et al., 2017 [1].

  20. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franesqui, Miguel A; Yepes, Jorge; García-González, Cándida

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA). The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled "Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves" (Franesqui et al., 2017) [1].

  1. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance.

  2. Structural Design and Economic Evaluation of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement with Recycled Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Yavuz; Taner Yildirim, Salih

    2017-10-01

    Using recycled aggregates in the concrete offers advantages in many areas such as waste management, energy save and natural resources, conservation of ecological balance, low CO2 emissions, and users are encouraged in this regard to use these materials. In this study, the profit / loss account arising in the structural design phase was investigated when Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), which is limited to use in Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) pavements, was used as coarse aggregate. RAP materials were used as coarse aggregates by the levels of 0%, 15% and 20% and mechanical properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were investigated. In the last stage, the mechanical properties obtained from these experimental studies were entered into KENSLABS software as input, and the slab layer thicknesses were determined according to three different subgrade conditions and a certain fatigue criterion. According to the results, it has been determined that the use of RAP at a level of 20% is a serious reducing effect on mechanical properties and and the use of RAP at a level of 15% does not bring a great economic benefit but it is reasonable to use it as coarse aggregate in RCC mixes in consideration of environmental effects.

  3. Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryer, Pamela J.; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, and 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. - Coal-tar pavement sealants degrade stream invertebrate communities.

  5. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. The permeable pavements are limited to parking spaces while adjacent driving lanes are impermeable and drain to the permeable surfaces. The parking lot is instrumented for continuous monitoring with thermistors and water content reflectometers that measure moisture as infiltrate passes through the storage gallery beneath the permeable pavements into the underlying native soil. Each permeable surface of the parking lot has four lined sections that capture infiltrate in tanks for water quality analyses; these tanks are capable of holding volumes up to 4.1 m3, which represents up to 38 mm (1.5 in.) for direct rainfall on the porous pavement and runoff from adjacent driving lanes that drain into the permeable surface.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, surface hydrology, and infiltration and evaporation rates. This presentation summarizes these past findings and addresses current water quality efforts including pH, solids analysis, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand. Stormwater runoff continues to be a major cause of water pollution in

  6. A User Friendly Software for Rigid Pavement Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Kıcı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pavements as concrete road slab, appear as a strong alternative for flexible superstructures especially because of their low cost for maintenance and repair and the high performance they show under heavy axle loads. The design of these concrete road slabs is quite different from the traditional concrete and reinforced concrete structures’ design. In the design for this kind of pavements, traffic conditions should be defined properly and considered an addition to the concrete and platform properties. There have been designing methods developed based on both experimental and mechanic foundations for concrete pavements. The most important ones of these methods are AASHTO (1993 and PCA (1984. In both design methods, it’s significant to know the maximum deflections and maximum strains the vehicles’ loads cause on the pavement. The calculation of this maximum deflections and maximum strains can be done via the finite element method or the closed formulas which have been developed by Westergaard. In this study, a user-friendly software has been developed based on AASHTO 1993, PCA 1984 design methods and Westergaard formulas. Thanks to this software, the user who wants to design the concrete pavement as concrete road slab can obtain the essential parameters automatically by entering the required data for the design.

  7. Urban evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

    2010-01-01

    In urban areas the natural water balance is disturbed. Infiltration and evaporation are reduced, resulting in a high surface runoff and a typical city climate, which can lead to floods and damages. Water-permeable pavements have a high infiltration rate that reduces surface runoff by increasing the groundwater recharge. The high water retention capacity of the street body of up to 51 l/m(2) and its connection via pores to the surface lead to higher evaporation rates than impermeable surfaces. A comparison of these two kinds of pavements shows a 16% increase in evaporation levels of water-permeable pavements. Furthermore, the evaporation from impermeable pavements is linked directly to rain events due to fast-drying surfaces. Water-permeable pavements show a more evenly distributed evaporation after a rain event. Cooling effects by evaporative heat loss can improve the city climate even several days after rain events. On a large scale use, uncomfortable weather like sultriness or dry heat can be prevented and the urban water balance can be attenuated towards the natural.

  8. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  9. Automatic Pavement Crack Recognition Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasible pavement crack detection system plays an important role in evaluating the road condition and providing the necessary road maintenance. In this paper, a back propagation neural network (BPNN is used to recognize pavement cracks from images. To improve the recognition accuracy of the BPNN, a complete framework of image processing is proposed including image preprocessing and crack information extraction. In this framework, the redundant image information is reduced as much as possible and two sets of feature parameters are constructed to classify the crack images. Then a BPNN is adopted to distinguish pavement images between linear and alligator cracks to acquire high recognition accuracy. Besides, the linear cracks can be further classified into transversal and longitudinal cracks according to the direction angle. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated on the data of 400 pavement images obtained by the Automatic Road Analyzer (ARAN in Northern China and the results show that the proposed method seems to be a powerful tool for pavement crack recognition. The rates of correct classification for alligator, transversal and longitudinal cracks are 97.5%, 100% and 88.0%, respectively. Compared to some previous studies, the method proposed in this paper is effective for all three kinds of cracks and the results are also acceptable for engineering application.

  10. Developing Pavement Distress Deterioration Models for Pavement Management System Using Markovian Probabilistic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promothes Saha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT utilizes their pavement management system (PMS to manage approximately 9,100 miles of interstate, highways, and low-volume roads. Three types of deterioration models are currently being used in the existing PMS: site-specific, family, and expert opinion curves. These curves are developed using deterministic techniques. In the deterministic technique, the uncertainties of pavement deterioration related to traffic and weather are not considered. Probabilistic models that take into account the uncertainties result in more accurate curves. In this study, probabilistic models using the discrete-time Markov process were developed for five distress indices: transverse, longitudinal, fatigue, rut, and ride indices, as a case study on low-volume roads. Regression techniques were used to develop the deterioration paths using the predicted distribution of indices estimated from the Markov process. Results indicated that longitudinal, fatigue, and rut indices had very slow deterioration over time, whereas transverse and ride indices showed faster deterioration. The developed deterioration models had the coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.84. As probabilistic models provide more accurate results, it is recommended that these models be used as the family curves in the CDOT PMS for low-volume roads.

  11. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems; Sistemas de pavimentos reforzados con geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-02-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  12. STUDY OF ASPHALT BINDER OIL RESIDUE AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ASH TO BE USED IN LOW TRAFFIC PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michéle Dal Toé Casagrande

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The great generation of urban solid has been a concern in several countries. This work presents a study with two materials: the asphalt binder oil residue accumulated in the bottom of asphalt tanks and the municipal solid waste ash, to be used, respectively, as a substitute of conventional binder in asphalt mixtures and for soil stabilization in pavements base layers. Were evaluated properties as the mechanical behavior of the mixtures through experimental tests. The results show the potential of incorporating these residues for low traffic roads, allowing the construction of low cost roads and an environmental use of the residue.

  13. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Optimization in Pavement Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI is a group of techniques that have quite a potential to be applied to pavement engineering and management. In this study, we developed a practical, flexible and out of the box approach to apply genetic algorithms to optimizing the budget allocation and the road maintenance strategy selection for a road network. The aim is to provide an alternative to existing software and better fit the requirements of an important number of pavement managers. To meet the objectives, a new indicator, named Road Global Value Index (RGVI, was created to contemplate the pavement condition, the traffic and the economic and political importance for each and every road section. This paper describes the approach and its components by an example confirming that genetic algorithms are very effective for the intended purpose.

  14. Performance of Kaolin Clay on the Concrete Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. E.; Jaya, R. P.; Shahafuddin, M. N. A.; Yaacob, H.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Nazri, F. M.; Ramli, N. I.; Mohammed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the performance of concrete pavement containing kaolin clay with their engineering properties and to determine the optimum kaolin clay content. The concrete used throughout the study was designed as grade 30 MPa strength with constant water to cement ratio of 0.49. The compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption test was conducted in this research. The concrete mix designed with kaolin clay as cement replacement comprises at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by the total weight of cement. The results indicate that the strength of pavement concrete decreases as the percentage of kaolin clay increases. It also shows that the water absorption increases with the percentage of cement replacement. However, 5% kaolin clay is found to be the optimum level to replace cement in a pavement concrete.

  15. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study in the Danish Road Testing Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman Larsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Most existing pavement subgrade criteria are based on the AASHO Road Test, where only one material was tested and for only one climatic condition. To study the validity of these criteria and to refine the criteria a co-operative research program entitled the "International Pavement Subgrade...... Performance Study" was sponsored by the FHWA with American, Finnish and Danish partners. This paper describes the first test series which was carried out in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM).The first step in this program is a full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Testing Machine....... Pressure gauges and strain cells were installed in the upper part of the subgrade, for measuring stresses and strains in all three directions. During and after construction FWD testing was carried out to evaluate the elastic parameters of the materials. These parameters were then used with the theory...

  16. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  17. Determination of Pavement Rehabilitation Activities through a Permutation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyum Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical programming model for optimal pavement rehabilitation planning. The model maximized the rehabilitation area through a newly developed permutation algorithm, based on the procedures outlined in the harmony search (HS algorithm. Additionally, the proposed algorithm was based on an optimal solution method for the problem of multilocation rehabilitation activities on pavement structure, using empirical deterioration and rehabilitation effectiveness models, according to a limited maintenance budget. Thus, nonlinear pavement performance and rehabilitation activity decision models were used to maximize the objective functions of the rehabilitation area within a limited budget, through the permutation algorithm. Our results showed that the heuristic permutation algorithm provided a good optimum in terms of maximizing the rehabilitation area, compared with a method of the worst-first maintenance currently used in Seoul.

  18. Pavement maintenance optimization model using Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiartha, P.; Duffield, C. F.; Razelan, I. S. b. M.; Ismail, A. b. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for selection of pavement maintenance intervention using a theory of Markov Decision Processes (MDP). There are some particular characteristics of the MDP developed in this paper which distinguish it from other similar studies or optimization models intended for pavement maintenance policy development. These unique characteristics include a direct inclusion of constraints into the formulation of MDP, the use of an average cost method of MDP, and the policy development process based on the dual linear programming solution. The limited information or discussions that are available on these matters in terms of stochastic based optimization model in road network management motivates this study. This paper uses a data set acquired from road authorities of state of Victoria, Australia, to test the model and recommends steps in the computation of MDP based stochastic optimization model, leading to the development of optimum pavement maintenance policy.

  19. Rheo-mechanical model for self-healing asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gömze, A L; Gömze, L N

    2017-01-01

    Examining the rheological properties of different asphalt mixtures at different temperatures, pressures and deformation conditions on the combined rheo-tribometers the authors have found that the generally used Burgers-model doesn’t explain the deformation properties of asphalt mixtures and pavements under loading forces and loading pressures. To understand better the rheological and deformation properties of such complex materials like asphalt mixtures and pavements the authors used Malvern Mastersizer X laser granulometer, Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer, Hitachi TM 1000 Scanning Elektronmicroscope, Tristar 3000 specific surface tester and the combined rheo-tribometer developed and patented by the authors. After the complex investigation of different asphalt mixtures the authors have found a new, more complex rheological model for the asphalts including self-healing asphalt pavements. (paper)

  20. Modified asphalt for pavements; Hosoyo kaishitsu asufuaruto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, T. [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Modified asphalt has been used widely in such applications as countermeasure against rutting, countermeasure against wear caused by tire chains in snowy and cold areas, or bridge deck pavement. Features of various kinds of modified asphalt, standards, and standard properties are introduced. Modified asphalt containing natural asphalt is used for steel plate deck pavement. Semi-blown asphalt is used when emphasis must be given to the countermeasure for flowing resistance of asphalt pavement. Features and standards of asphalt containing rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, and thermoplastic resin are described. Asphalt containing heat-setting resin shows excellent characteristics, which other types of modified asphalt do not possess, in the laboratory resistance test for fatigue, flowing, and wear. Change in the history of modified asphalt in Japan from the initial stage to the present are explained and shown in a table together with time and phenomena, and the change in the production of modified asphalt is shown. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. RAPID INSPECTION OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS USING MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at building a robust semi-automated pavement marking extraction workflow based on the use of mobile LiDAR point clouds. The proposed workflow consists of three components: preprocessing, extraction, and classification. In preprocessing, the mobile LiDAR point clouds are converted into the radiometrically corrected intensity imagery of the road surface. Then the pavement markings are automatically extracted with the intensity using a set of algorithms, including Otsu’s thresholding, neighbor-counting filtering, and region growing. Finally, the extracted pavement markings are classified with the geometric parameters using a manually defined decision tree. Case studies are conducted using the mobile LiDAR dataset acquired in Xiamen (Fujian, China with different road environments by the RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrated that the proposed workflow and our software tool can achieve 93% in completeness, 95% in correctness, and 94% in F-score when using Xiamen dataset.

  2. Tactile pavement for guiding walking direction: An assessment of heading direction and gait stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluijter, Nanda; de Wit, Lieke P W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Plaisier, Myrthe A

    2015-10-01

    For maintaining heading direction while walking we heavily rely on vision. Therefore, walking in the absence of vision or with visual attention directed elsewhere potentially leads to dangerous situations. Here we investigated whether tactile information from the feet can be used as a (partial) substitute for vision in maintaining a stable heading direction. If so, participants should be better able to keep a constant heading direction on tactile pavement that indicates directionality than on regular flat pavement. However, such a pavement may also be destabilizing. Thus we asked participants to walk straight ahead on regular pavement, and on tactile pavement (tiles with ridges along the walking direction) while varying the amount of vision. We assessed the effects of the type of pavement as well as the amount of vision on the variability of the heading direction as well as gait stability. Both of these measures were calculated from accelerations and angular velocities recorded from a smartphone attached to the participants trunk. Results showed that on tactile pavement participants had a less variations in their heading direction than on regular pavement. The drawback, however, was that the tactile pavement used in this study decreased gait stability. In sum, tactile pavement can be used as a partial substitute for vision in maintaining heading direction, but it can also decrease gait stability. Future work should focus on designing tactile pavement that does provided directional clues, but is less destabilizing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  4. Functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors and system developed for full-scale pavement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-05-19

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  5. Study on the Vehicle Dynamic Load Considering the Vehicle-Pavement Coupled Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. L.; He, L.; An, D.

    2017-11-01

    The vibration of vehicle-pavement interaction system is sophisticated random vibration process and the vehicle-pavement coupled effect was not considered in the previous study. A new linear elastic model of the vehicle-pavement coupled system was established in the paper. The new model was verified with field measurement which could reflect the real vibration between vehicle and pavement. Using the new model, the study on the vehicle dynamic load considering the vehicle-pavement coupled effect showed that random forces (centralization) between vehicle and pavement were influenced largely by vehicle-pavement coupled effect. Numerical calculation indicated that the maximum of random forces in coupled model was 2.4 times than that in uncoupled model. Inquiring the reason, it was found that the main vibration frequency of the vehicle non-suspension system was similar with that of the vehicle suspension system in the coupled model and the resonance vibration lead to vehicle dynamic load increase significantly.

  6. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  7. Beneficial use of CFB ash in pavement construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Mike Jackson; Scott Schultz; Paul Sander; Lindsay Schopp [Jackson Research Engineers, Inc., Ponte Vedra Beach, FL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The disposal of ash produced from the combustion of solid fuels has been a major subject of research and product development for many years. An innovative application has recently been employed by JEA to recycle both the bottom ash and fly ash from two new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers as a stabilizer for local sandy soils and pavement base course material. The results of laboratory testing and field applications in the north Florida market area illustrate how this by-product is adding value in pavement and roadway construction applications. 14 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Mono-static GPR without transmitting anything for pavement damage inspection: interferometry by auto-correlation applied to mobile phone signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, R.; Slob, E. C.; Thorbecke, J.

    2015-12-01

    Creating virtual sources at locations where physical receivers have measured a response is known as seismic interferometry. A much appreciated benefit of interferometry is its independence of the actual source locations. The use of ambient noise as actual source is therefore not uncommon in this field. Ambient noise can be commercial noise, like for example mobile phone signals. For GPR this can be useful in cases where it is not possible to place a source, for instance when it is prohibited by laws and regulations. A mono-static GPR antenna can measure ambient noise. Interferometry by auto-correlation (AC) places a virtual source on this antenna's position, without actually transmitting anything. This can be used for pavement damage inspection. Earlier work showed very promising results with 2D numerical models of damaged pavement. 1D and 2D heterogeneities were compared, both modelled in a 2D pavement world. In a 1D heterogeneous model energy leaks away to the sides, whereas in a 2D heterogeneous model rays can reflect and therefore still add to the signal reconstruction (see illustration). In the first case the amount of stationary points is strictly limited, while in the other case the amount of stationary points is very large. We extend these models to a 3D world and optimise an experimental configuration. The illustration originates from the journal article under submission 'Non-destructive pavement damage inspection by mono-static GPR without transmitting anything' by R. Feld, E.C. Slob, and J.W. Thorbecke. (a) 2D heterogeneous pavement model with three irregular-shaped misalignments between the base and subbase layer (marked by arrows). Mono-antenna B-scan positions are shown schematically. (b) Ideal output: a real source at the receiver's position. The difference w.r.t. the trace found in the middle is shown. (c) AC output: a virtual source at the receiver's position. There is a clear overlap with the ideal output.

  9. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished...... richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates......Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...

  10. Thermal and hydraulic analysis of multilayered asphalt pavements as active solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual-Muñoz, P.; Castro-Fresno, D.; Serrano-Bravo, P.; Alonso-Estébanez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new type of asphalt solar collector has been introduced in this paper. • The common pipe network has been replaced for a highly porous asphalt layer. • The use of these collectors contributes to achieve current environmental targets. • Excellent thermal efficiencies have been obtained in the laboratory tests. • Further research is needed to increase the low flow rates achieved. - Abstract: The fulfillment of current environmental aims like reducing fossil fuel consumption or greenhouse gas emissions entails the development of new technologies that enable the use of cleaner, cheaper and renewable energies. Furthermore, the need to improve energy efficiency in buildings encourages scientists and engineers to find new ways of harvesting energy for later uses. The use of asphalt pavements as active solar collectors is introduced in this article. Several authors have studied the use of roads as an energy source before. However, a new technology is presented in which a multilayered pavement with a highly porous middle layer is used instead of a solar collector with an embedded pipe network. These collectors are fully integrated within the road infrastructure and may offer low cost solar energy for water heating. The paper includes a brief comment on the state-of-the-art. Then, a broad methodology is presented in which data, materials and procedures needed to run the tests are fully described. Finally, the results of the laboratory tests are stated and discussed. The prototype used in the laboratory provided excellent thermal efficiency. However, these good results contrast with the low flow rate levels registered during the tests. Thus, although this technology seems to be very promising, new experimental tests should be performed before an effective application is possible

  11. Unsaturated hydraulic behaviour of a permeable pavement: Laboratory investigation and numerical analysis by using the HYDRUS-2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Michele; Kodešová, Radka; Brunetti, Giuseppe; Nikodem, Antonín; Fér, Miroslav; Piro, Patrizia

    2017-11-01

    An adequate hydrological description of water flow in permeable pavement systems relies heavily on the knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the construction materials. Although several modeling tools and many laboratory methods already exist in the literature to determine the hydraulic properties of soils, the importance of an accurate materials hydraulic description of the permeable pavement system, is increasingly recognized in the fields of urban hydrology. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose techniques/procedures on how to interpret water flow through the construction system using the HYDRUS model. The overall analysis includes experimental and mathematical procedures for model calibration and validation to assess the suitability of the HYDRUS-2D model to interpret the hydraulic behaviour of a lab-scale permeable pavement system. The system consists of three porous materials: a wear layer of porous concrete blocks, a bedding layers of fine gravel, and a sub-base layer of coarse gravel. The water regime in this system, i.e. outflow at the bottom and water contents in the middle of the bedding layer, was monitored during ten irrigation events of various durations and intensities. The hydraulic properties of porous concrete blocks and fine gravel described by the van Genuchten functions were measured using the clay tank and the multistep outflow experiments, respectively. Coarse gravel properties were set at literature values. In addition, some of the parameters (Ks of the concrete blocks layer, and α, n and Ks of the bedding layer) were optimized with the HYDRUS-2D model from water fluxes and soil water contents measured during irrigation events. The measured and modeled hydrographs were compared using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) index (varied between 0.95 and 0.99) while the coefficient of determination R2 was used to assess the measured water content versus the modelled water content in the bedding layer (R2 = 0.81 ÷ 0.87) . The

  12. Measuring Clogging with Pressure Transducers in Permeable Pavement Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two issues that have a negative affect on the long term hydrologic performance of permeable pavement systems are surface clogging and clogging at the interface with the underlying soil. Surface clogging limits infiltration capacity and results in bypass if runoff rate exceeds in...

  13. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has been developed in this study. The developed model can continuously simulate infiltration through the permeable pavement surface, exfiltration from the storage to the surrounding in situ soils, and clogging impacts on infiltration/exfiltration capacity at the pavement surface and the bottom of the subsurface storage unit. The exfiltration modeling component simulates vertical and horizontal exfiltration independently based on Darcy’s formula with the Green-Ampt approximation. The developed model can be arranged with physically-based modeling parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, Manning’s friction flow parameters, saturated and field capacity volumetric water contents, porosity, density, etc. The developed model was calibrated using high-frequency observed data. The modeled water depths are well matched with the observed values (R2 = 0.90). The modeling results show that horizontal exfiltration through the side walls of the subsurface storage unit is a prevailing factor in determining the hydrologic performance of the system, especially where the storage unit is developed in a long, narrow shape; or with a high risk of bottom compaction and clogging. This paper presents unit

  14. An Assessment of the Models to Predict Pavement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Data collected by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) regarding road conditions across the state of Iowa were used to model pavement condition index (PCI). The data were for calendar year 2013, with the exception of updated PCI values from 20...

  15. Performances of Metal Concentrations from Three Permeable Pavement Infiltrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designed and constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements: permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. Water sampling was con...

  16. Design Basis for Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Søren; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    -crack opening relationship can beused to descibe the properties of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) intension and how the stress-crack opening relationship can beapplied in a simple design scheme for pavements. The projectincludes development of design tools, experiments to determine thestress-crack opening...

  17. Monitoring Strategies in Permeable Pavement Systems to Optimize Maintenance Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the surface in a permeable pavement system clogs and performance decreases, maintenance is required to preserve the design function. Currently, guidance is limited for scheduling maintenance on an as needed basis. Previous research has shown that surface clogging in a permea...

  18. A review on automated pavement distress detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom B.J.; Golroo, Amir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been conducted on pavement distress detection. A large part of these studies applied automated methods to capture different distresses. In this paper, a literature review on the distresses and related detection methods are presented. This review also includes

  19. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrogen Transformations in Three Types of Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, USEPA constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types - permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). The driving lanes...

  1. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation for a second Community Outreach Event called "Chemistry Works!" at West Windsor Public Library on Saturday, November 5th. It will review the permeable pavement research project at the Edison Environmental center. Besides slide persentation, two demo units w...

  2. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  3. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  4. Experimental continuously reinforced concrete pavement parameterization using nondestructive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Salles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Four continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP sections were built at the University of São Paulo campus in order to analyze the pavement performance in a tropical environment. The sections short length coupled with particular project aspects made the experimental CRCP cracking be different from the traditional CRCP one. After three years of construction, a series of nondestructive testing were performed - Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD loadings - to verify and to parameterize the pavement structural condition based on two main properties: the elasticity modulus of concrete (E and the modulus of subgrade reaction (k. These properties estimation was obtained through the matching process between real and EverFE simulated basins with the load at the slab center, between two consecutive cracks. The backcalculation results show that the lack of anchorage at the sections end decreases the E and k values and that the longitudinal reinforcement percentage provides additional stiffness to the pavement. Additionally, FWD loadings tangential to the cracks allowed the load transfer efficiency (LTE estimation determination across cracks. The LTE resulted in values above 90 % for all cracks.

  5. Measuring Carbon Footprint of Flexible Pavement Construction Project in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmoko, Jati Utomo Dwi; Hidayat, Arif; Setiawati, Apsari; Prasetyo, Stefanus Catur Adi

    2018-02-01

    Road infrastructure in Indonesia is mainly dominated by flexible pavement type. Its construction process, however, has raised concerns in terms of its environment impacts. This study aims to track and measure the carbon footprint of flexible pavement. The objectives are to map the construction process in relation to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to quantify them in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) as generated by the process of production and transportation of raw materials, and the operation of plant off-site and on-site project. Data collection was done by having site observations and interviews with project stakeholders. The results show a total emissions of 70.888 tonnes CO2e, consisting of 34.248 tonnes CO2e (48.31%) off-site activities and 36.640 tonnes CO2e (51.687%) on-site activities. The two highest CO2e emissions were generated by the use of plant for asphalt concrete laying activities accounted 34.827 tonnes CO2e (49.130%), and material transportation accounted 24.921 (35.155%). These findings provide a new perspective of the carbon footprint in flexible pavement and suggest the urgent need for the use of more efficient and environmentally friendly plant in construction process as it shows the most significant contribution on the CO2e. This study provides valuable understanding on the environmental impact of typical flexible pavement projects in Indonesia, and further can be used for developing green road framework.

  6. Effects of Interlocking and Supporting Conditions on Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Geetimukta; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-02-01

    Concrete Block Paving (CBP) is widely used as wearing course in flexible pavements, preferably under light and medium vehicular loadings. Construction of CBP at site is quick and easy in quality control. Usually, flexible pavement design philosophy is followed in CBP construction, though it is structurally different in terms of small block elements with high strength concrete and their interlocking aspects, frequent joints and discontinuity, restrained edge etc. Analytical solution for such group action of concrete blocks under loading in a three dimensional multilayer structure is complex and thus, the need of conducting experimental studies is necessitated for extensive understanding of the load—deformation characteristics and behavior of concrete blocks in pavement. The present paper focuses on the experimental studies for load transfer characteristics of CBP under different interlocking and supporting conditions. It is observed that both interlocking and supporting conditions affect significantly on the load transfer behavior in CBP structures. Coro-lock block exhibits better performance in terms of load carrying capacity and distortion behavior under static loads. Plate load tests are performed over subgrade, granular sub-base (GSB), CBP with and without GSB using different block shapes. For an example case, the comparison of CBP with conventional flexible pavement section is also presented and it is found that CBP provides considerable benefit in terms of construction cost of the road structure.

  7. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  8. Influence Of Geology On Pavement Performance: A Case Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory investigations which involved geologic mapping, auger boring, sampling and laboratory testing were carried out to determine the stratigraphy and geotechnical properties of the sub-grade and their relationship to the pavement condition. Field observation indicated that the road may have been based on ...

  9. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 30 May 2017

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available and Pavement Design Vol. 18, Issue 1 2017 http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/trmp20/18/1?nav=tocList Editorial board EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Hervé Di Benedetto - University of Lyon / ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France Andrew Charles Collop - De Montfort University...

  10. Evaluation of pavement life cycle cost analysis: Review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Babashamsi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cost of road construction consists of design expenses, material extraction, construction equipment, maintenance and rehabilitation strategies, and operations over the entire service life. An economic analysis process known as Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA is used to evaluate the cost-efficiency of alternatives based on the Net Present Value (NPV concept. It is essential to evaluate the above-mentioned cost aspects in order to obtain optimum pavement life-cycle costs. However, pavement managers are often unable to consider each important element that may be required for performing future maintenance tasks. Over the last few decades, several approaches have been developed by agencies and institutions for pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA. While the transportation community has increasingly been utilising LCCA as an essential practice, several organisations have even designed computer programs for their LCCA approaches in order to assist with the analysis. Current LCCA methods are analysed and LCCA software is introduced in this article. Subsequently, a list of economic indicators is provided along with their substantial components. Collecting previous literature will help highlight and study the weakest aspects so as to mitigate the shortcomings of existing LCCA methods and processes. LCCA research will become more robust if improvements are made, facilitating private industries and government agencies to accomplish their economic aims. Keywords: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA, Pavement management, LCCA software, Net Present Value (NPV

  11. Time series trends of the safety effects of pavement resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wang, Jung-Han

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety performance of pavement resurfacing projects on urban arterials in Florida using the observational before and after approaches. The safety effects of pavement resurfacing were quantified in the crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimated based on different ranges of heavy vehicle traffic volume and time changes for different severity levels. In order to evaluate the variation of CMFs over time, crash modification functions (CMFunctions) were developed using nonlinear regression and time series models. The results showed that pavement resurfacing projects decrease crash frequency and are found to be more safety effective to reduce severe crashes in general. Moreover, the results of the general relationship between the safety effects and time changes indicated that the CMFs increase over time after the resurfacing treatment. It was also found that pavement resurfacing projects for the urban roadways with higher heavy vehicle volume rate are more safety effective than the roadways with lower heavy vehicle volume rate. Based on the exploration and comparison of the developed CMFucntions, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and exponential functional form of the nonlinear regression models can be utilized to identify the trend of CMFs over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of double drop beads pavement edge lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of Double Drop Bead (DDB) edge lines used on ALDOT-maintained highways. It compares DDB to three other pavement marking types in terms of service lives, life-cycle costs, and both dry-night retroreflectivity and wet...

  13. Texas perpetual pavements : experience overview and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, the State of Texas has been designing and constructing perpetual pavements on some of its heavily : trafficked highways where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of 18 kip ESALs is in excess of 30 million. To : date, there are 10 ...

  14. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability. PMID:28793518

  15. Accelerated Performance Testing on the 2006 NCAT Pavement Test Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The original National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) Pavement Test Track was built in 2000 in Opelika, Alabama where it has served as a state-of-the-art, full-scale, closed-loop accelerated loading facility. The construction, operation, and res...

  16. Use of fiber reinforced concrete for concrete pavement slab replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Unlike ordinary concrete pavement, replacement concrete slabs need to be open to traffic within 24 hours (sooner in : some cases). Thus, high early-strength concrete is used; however, it frequently cracks prematurely as a result of high : heat of hyd...

  17. Evaluation of concrete inlay for continuously reinforced concrete pavement rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    In 1996, WisDOT constructed a concrete inlay test section on I43 in Manitowoc County. The existing pavement was CRCP constructed in 1978 and was badly deteriorated with punchouts. In the area of the 2777foot test section, the existing paveme...

  18. Characterization of pavement distress from test pit observation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available the profiling exercise of an investigation into the causes of the premature failure of a pavement. The field investigation entailed a detailed inspection and recording of the profile exposed in test pits, with particular attention being paid to areas with cracks...

  19. Road Materials and Pavement Design volume 17(2)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17, 2016 - Issue 2 Editorial Board Page ebi | Published online: 03 Oct 2016  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2016.1244475 Editors-in-Chief Hervé DI BENEDETTO - University of Lyon/ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France...

  20. Optimisation of the Crack Pattern in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent field investigations on several new Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (CRCP) in Belgium indicate that its crack pattern is characterized by low mean crack spacing along with a high percentage of clusters of closely spaced cracks. Field surveys also indicate that it is difficult to