WorldWideScience

Sample records for patients areas covered

  1. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  2. Soil cover of gas-bearing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozharova, N. V.

    2010-08-01

    Natural soils with disturbed functioning parameters compared to the background soils with conservative technogenic-pedogenic features were distinguished on vast areas above the artificial underground gas storages in the zones of spreading and predominant impact of hydrocarbon gases. The disturbance of the functioning parameters is related to the increase in the methane concentration, the bacterial oxidation intensity and destruction, and the complex microbiological and physicochemical synthesis of iron oxides. The technogenic-pedogenic features include neoformations of bacteriomorphic microdispersed iron oxides. The impurity components consist of elements typical for biogenic structures. New soil layers, horizons, specific anthropogenically modified soils, and soil-like structures were formed on small areas in the industrial zones of underground gas storages due to the mechanical disturbance, the deposition of drilling sludge, and the chemical contamination. Among the soils, postlithogenic formations were identified—chemotechnosols (soddy-podzolic soils and chernozems), as well as synlithogenic ones: strato-chemotechnosols and stratochemoembryozems. The soil-like bodies included postlithogenic soil-like structures (chemotechnozems) and synlithogenic ones (strato-chemotechnozems). A substantive approach was used for the soil diagnostics. The morphological and magnetic profiles and the physical, chemical, and physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. The micromorphological composition of the soil magnetic fraction was used as a magnetic label.

  3. Tree cover changes in- and ouside protected areas in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, J.-C.

    Protected areas (PAs) are one of the main tools in the global conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems. This is also the case for China. However, only few studies have investigated protected areas´ efficiency in maintaining ecosystems and biodiversity. One way to investigate this is to look...... at tree cover changes inside the PAs and on the surrounding areas. Using MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields we mapped tree-cover changes between 2000-2010 in- and outside PAs in China. The PAs were extracted from the World Database on Protected Areas. Our aim were to investigated the following four...... between tree cover change and general human pressure. We did not find a significant correlation between tree cover change inside and outside PAs with increasing general human pressures. The lack of correlation could be due to the huge reforestation China has carried out the last years, mainly to stop...

  4. [Characteristics of chemical pollution of snow cover in Aktobe areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, A Zh

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives data on the nature of snow cover pollution in the urbanized areas in relation to the remoteness from the basic sources of ambient air pollution. The total snow content of carcinogens has been estimated.

  5. Evaluation of who oral rehydration solution (ORS) and salt tablets in resuscitating adult patients with burns covering more than 15% of total body surface area (TBSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghazy, A M; Adly, O A; Elbadawy, M A; Hashem, R E

    2016-03-31

    Intra-venous (IV) burn resuscitation is effective; nevertheless it has its disadvantages. WHO Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) has shown high effectiveness in treating dehydration. WHO-ORS, with salt supplement, seems to be suitable for burn resuscitation, where IV resuscitation is not available, feasible or possible. The objective of the study was to evaluate acute phase efficacy and safety, as well as limitations and complications of burn resuscitation using WHO-ORS and salt tablets. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the Burn Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. The study group was given WHO-ORS (15% of body weight/day) with one salt tablet (5gm) per liter according to Sørensen's formula. The control group was given IV fluids according to the Parkland formula. Patients' vital signs and urine output were monitored for 72 hours after starting resuscitation. Both groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and percentage, etiology and degree of burns. For all assessed parameters, there were no major significant differences between the study group (10 cases) and control group (20 cases). Even where there was a significant difference, apart from blood pressure in the first hour of the first day, the study group never crossed safe limits for pulse, systolic blood pressure, urine output, respiratory rate and conscious level. WHO-ORS with 5gm salt tablets, given according to Sørenson's formula, is a safe and efficient alternative for IV resuscitation. It could even be a substitute, particularly in low resource settings and fire disasters.

  6. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  7. Effectiveness of Africa's tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, J N; De Vos, A; Ament, J M; Cumming, G S

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forests. Tropical forests house a substantial portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are heavily affected by anthropogenic activity. We analyzed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control sites. Although significant geographical variation existed among parks, the majority of African parks had significantly less forest loss within their boundaries (e.g., Mahale Park had 34 times less forest loss within its boundary) than control sites. Accessibility was a significant driver of forest loss. Relatively inaccessible areas had a higher probability (odds ratio >1, p < 0.001) of forest loss but only in ineffective parks, and relatively accessible areas had a higher probability of forest loss but only in effective parks. Smaller parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks (T = -2.32, p < 0.05), and older parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than younger parks (F 2,154 = -4.11, p < 0.001). Our analyses, the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrated the complexity of factors (such as geographical variation, accessibility, and park size and age) influencing the ability of a park to curb forest loss within its boundaries. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Patient Handoffs: Is Cross Cover or Night Shift Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alanna; Brannen, Melissa L; Heiman, Heather L; Adler, Mark D

    2017-06-01

    Studies show singular handoffs between health care providers to be risky. Few describe sequential handoffs or compare handoffs from different provider types. We investigated the transfer of information across 2 handoffs using a piloted survey instrument. We compared cross-cover (every fourth night call) with dedicated night-shift residents. Surveys assessing provider knowledge of hospitalized patients were administered to pediatric residents. Primary teams were surveyed about their handoff upon completion of daytime coverage of a patient. Night-shift or cross-covering residents were surveyed about their handoff of the same patient upon completion of overnight coverage. Pediatric hospitalists rated the consistency of information between the surveys. Absolute difference was calculated between the 2 providers' rating of a patient's (a) complexity and (b) illness severity. Scores were compared across provider type. Fifty-nine complete handoff pairs were obtained. Fourteen and 45 handoff surveys were completed by a cross-covering and a night-shift provider, respectively. There was no significant difference in information consistency between primary and night-shift (median, 4.0; interquartile range [IQR], 3-4) versus primary and cross-covering providers (median, 4.0; IQR, 3-4). There was no significant difference in median patient complexity ratings (night shift, 3.0; IQR, 1-5, versus cross cover, 3.5; IQR, 1-5) or illness severity ratings (night shift, 2.0; IQR, 1-4, versus cross-cover, 3.0; IQR, 1-6) when comparing provider types giving a handoff. We did not find a difference in physicians' transfer of information during 2 handoffs among providers taking traditional call or on night shift. Development of tools to measure handoff consistency is needed.

  9. Research on clay covering experiment in a abandoned uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Zhang Wei

    2014-01-01

    The clay covering experiment was designed in a abandoned uranium mining area, including experiment principle, determining size of experimental site, experiment method, choosing cover materials and determining cover thickness. According to the experiment results, the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness, the diffusion coefficient of radon in clay were fully discussed. Also, the corresponding function expressions were established. The linear correlation coefficient test results showed that the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness was significantly correlated. According to the correlation function expression between the radon exhalation rate and the cover thickness, the cover thickness of the decommissioning sites can be determined, in order to provide a scientific basis for the design and environmental impact assessment on decommissioning disposal project of a uranium mine. (authors)

  10. 40 CFR 51.25 - What geographic area must my state's inventory cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Reporting Requirements Specific Reporting Requirements § 51.25 What geographic area must my state... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geographic area must my state's inventory cover? 51.25 Section 51.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  11. Simulation of Land-Cover Change in Taipei Metropolitan Area under Climate Change Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Thomas C C

    2014-01-01

    Climate change causes environment change and shows up on land covers. Through observing the change of land use, researchers can find out the trend and potential mechanism of the land cover change. Effective adaptation policies can affect pattern of land cover change and may decrease the risks of climate change impacts. By simulating land use dynamics with scenario settings, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between climate change and land-cover change through efficient adaptation polices. It involves spatial statistical model in estimating possibility of land-cover change, cellular automata model in modeling land-cover dynamics, and scenario analysis in response to adaptation polices. The results show that, without any control, the critical eco-areas, such as estuarine areas, will be destroyed and people may move to the vulnerable and important economic development areas. In the other hand, under the limited development condition for adaptation, people migration to peri-urban and critical eco-areas may be deterred

  12. [Evaluation of pollution of an urban area by level of heavy metals in snow cover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Khamitova, R Ia; Petrova, R S

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to systematize various methodological approaches to evaluating the contamination of the snow cover with heavy metals (HM) by using Kazan, an industrial city with diversified industry, as an example. The findings suggest that it is necessary to characterize the contamination of the snow cover by the actual entrance of an element per area unit of the snow cover for a definite period of time rather than by the concentration of TM in the volume unit of snow water (mg/l), which minimizes the uncertainties with spatial and temporary snow cover variations. The index of the maximum allowable entrance, which is of practical value, may be used to objectively calibrate the pollution of the snow cover, by estimating the amount of a coming element and its toxicity.

  13. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet (ft)) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area

  15. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet [ft]) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire

  16. Engineered covers for mud pit closures Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Two abandoned drilling mud pits impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons were determined to require closure action at the Central Nevada Test Area. The UC-4 Mud Pit C is approximately 0.12 hectares (0.3 acres) and 1.2 meters (4 feet) in depth. The UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) is approximately 1.54 hectares (3.8 acres) and 2.4 meters (8 feet) in depth. Both mud pits contain bentonite drilling muds with a thin dry crust, low shear strength, low permeability, and high moisture content. The following closure methodologies were evaluated: stabilization by mixing/injection with soil, fly ash, and lime; excavation and disposal; on-site drying; thermal destruction; wick drains; administrative closure (postings and land-use restrictions); and engineered covers. Based upon regulatory closure criteria, implementation, and cost considerations, the selected remedial alternative was the construction of an engineered cover. A multilayered cover with a geo-grid and geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) was designed and constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit C to evaluate the constructability and applicability of the design for the CMP cover. The geo-grid provided structural strength for equipment and material loads during cover construction, and the GCL was used as a moisture infiltration barrier. The design was determined to be constructable and applicable. To reduce project costs for the CMP cover, a vegetative cover was designed with drainage toward the center of the cover rather than the perimeter. The vegetative cover with the internal drainage design resulted in a fill volume reduction of approximately 63 percent compared to the multilayered cover design with a GCL

  17. A reconstruction of global agricultural areas and land cover for the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, J.; Reick, C.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.

    2008-09-01

    Humans have substantially modified the Earth's land cover, especially by transforming natural ecosystems to agricultural areas. In preindustrial times, the expansion of agriculture was probably the dominant process by which humankind altered the Earth system, but little is known about its extent, timing, and spatial pattern. This study presents an approach to reconstruct spatially explicit changes in global agricultural areas (cropland and pasture) and the resulting changes in land cover over the last millennium. The reconstruction is based on published maps of agricultural areas for the last three centuries. For earlier times, a country-based method is developed that uses population data as a proxy for agricultural activity. With this approach, the extent of cropland and pasture is consistently estimated since AD 800. The resulting reconstruction of agricultural areas is combined with a map of potential vegetation to estimate the resulting historical changes in land cover. Uncertainties associated with this approach, in particular owing to technological progress in agriculture and uncertainties in population estimates, are quantified. About 5 million km2 of natural vegetation are found to be transformed to agriculture between AD 800 and 1700, slightly more to cropland (mainly at the expense of forested area) than to pasture (mainly at the expense of natural grasslands). Historical events such as the Black Death in Europe led to considerable dynamics in land cover change on a regional scale. The reconstruction can be used with global climate and ecosystem models to assess the impact of human activities on the Earth system in preindustrial times.

  18. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  19. Mapping Rural Areas with Widespread Plastic Covered Vineyards Using True Color Aerial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic covering is used worldwide to protect crops against damaging growing conditions. This agricultural practice raises some controversial issues. While it significantly impacts on local economic vitality, plasticulture also shows several environmental affects. In the Apulia Region (Italy the wide-spreading of artificial plastic coverings for vineyard protection has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. In this study an efficient object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR true color aerial data was developed on eight test areas located in the Ionian area of the Apulia Region in order to support the updating of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

  20. Land cover in single-family housing areas and how it correlates with urban form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Boye; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    Land cover composition is a valuable indicator of the ecological performance of a city. Single-family housing areas constitute a substantial part of most cities and may as such play an important role for sustainable urban development. From aerial photos we performed detailed GIS-based mapping...... of land cover in three detached single-family housing areas in Denmark of different urban form but comparable housing densities (ranging from 10.0 to 11.3 houses per hectare). The findings were subjected to statistical analysis and landscape metrics. Land cover varied with urban form: A traditional...... spatial configuration with rectangular parcels contained significantly more vegetation and less impervious surfaces per parcel than newer Radburn-inspired configurations with more quadratic parcels. Correlation analysis showed size of paved access ways to be positively correlated with distance from road...

  1. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Future Land Use/Cover Change Scenarios in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruci Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulating future land use/cover changes is of great importance for urban planners and decision-makers, especially in metropolitan areas, to maintain a sustainable environment. This study examines the changes in land use/cover in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA from 2007 to 2017 as a first step in using supervised classification. Second, based on the map results, we predicted the expected patterns of change in 2027 and 2037 by employing a hybrid model composed of cellular automata and the Markov model. The next step was to decide the model inputs consisting of the modeling variables affecting the distribution of land use/cover in the study area, for instance distance to central business district (CBD and distance to railways, in addition to the classified maps of 2007 and 2017. Finally, we considered three scenarios for simulating land use/cover changes: spontaneous, sub-region development, and green space improvement. Simulation results show varied patterns of change according to the different scenarios. The sub-region development scenario is the most promising because it balances between urban areas, resources, and green spaces. This study provides significant insight for planners about change trends in the TMA and future challenges that might be encountered to maintain a sustainable region.

  2. Spatial Feature Reconstruction of Cloud-Covered Areas in Daily MODIS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The opacity of clouds is the main problem for optical and thermal space-borne sensors, like the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Especially during polar nighttime, the low thermal contrast between clouds and the underlying snow/ice results in deficiencies of the MODIS cloud mask and affected products. There are different approaches to retrieve information about frequently cloud-covered areas, which often operate with large amounts of days aggregated into single composites for a long period of time. These approaches are well suited for static-nature, slow changing surface features (e.g., fast-ice extent. However, this is not applicable to fast-changing features, like sea-ice polynyas. Therefore, we developed a spatial feature reconstruction to derive information for cloud-covered sea-ice areas based on the surrounding days weighted directly proportional with their temporal proximity to the initial day of interest. Its performance is tested based on manually-screened and artificially cloud-covered case studies of MODIS-derived polynya area data for the polynya in the Brunt Ice Shelf region of Antarctica. On average, we are able to completely restore the artificially cloud-covered test areas with a spatial correlation of 0.83 and a mean absolute spatial deviation of 21%.

  3. The application of remote sensing technique to metallogenetic prognosis in the covered area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Tian Hua; Luo Fusheng; Feng Jie; Huang Shutao; Guo Hongyan; Zhang Shuiming

    1994-08-01

    The idea, method and procedure of remote sensing research in the covered area are discussed. Using satellite image processing method (including faint information processing) in combination with multiple information comprehensive interpretation to decipher information of geological bodies covered with unconsolidated overburden and to predict favourable districts is also introduced. Taking the Yili basin for example, how to interpret ore-controlling factors is described. The concealed productive uranium formations which dominate uranium distribution have been delineated. The uplift and subsidence which are related to sedimentary environment and mineralization concentration have been discriminated. The faults (including the buried faults) which control the formation and development of the basin have been discerned. The stable and active areas, which are connected with uranium concentration, and preservation, and regional discharge zone have been interpreted. The result shows the feasibility of using remote sensing technique to predict the mineralization in the covered area, and six target areas have been optimized for further uranium reconnaissance and exploration in the study area

  4. Vegetation cover and land use of a protected coastal area and its surroundings, southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Caris,Elisa Araujo Penna; Kurtz,Bruno Coutinho; Cruz,Carla Bernadete Madureira; Scarano,Fabio Rubio

    2013-01-01

    We applied remote sensing techniques on a TM Landsat 5 image (1:50,000) to map land use and vegetation cover of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and surroundings. The thematic map generated from the digital classification of the image allowed us to spatially characterize and quantify the different land uses and soil covers of the area. Thirteen classes were identified. The most representative classes in the park were the Clusia (31.99%) and Ericaceae formations (29.14%). More than 90%...

  5. Radiofrequency Field Distribution Assessment in Indoor Areas Covered by Wireless Local Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELBET, R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area networks (WLAN emission solely, as part of environmental radiofrequency pollution. Highly accurate measurements were made indoor by using a frequency-selective measurement system and identifying the correct settings for an error-minimum assessment. We focused on analysis of the electric flux density distribution inside a room, in the far field of the emitting antennas, in case of a single network communication channel. We analyze the influence the network configuration parameters have on the field level. Distance from the source and traffic rate are also important parameters that affect the exposure level. Our measurements indicate that in the immediate vicinity of the WLAN stations the average field may reach as much as 13% from the present accepted reference levels given in the human exposure standards.

  6. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  7. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  8. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-03

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  9. EVALUATION OF DATA APPLICABILITY FOR D-INSAR IN AREAS COVERED BY ABUNDANT VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the frequent geological disasters have caused enormous casualties and economic losses. Therefore, D-InSAR (differential interferometry synthetic aperture radar has been widely used in early-warning and post disaster assessment. However, large area of decorrelation often occurs in the areas covered with abundant vegetation, which seriously affects the accuracy of surface deformation monitoring. In this paper, we analysed the effect of sensor parameters and external environment parameters on special decorrelation. Then Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR datasets acquired by X-band TerraSAR-X, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, and C-band Sentinel-1 in Guizhou province were collected and analysed to generate the maps of coherence, which were used to evaluating the applicability of datasets of different wavelengths for D-InSAR in forest area. Finally, we found that datasets acquired by ALOS-2 had the best monitoring effect.

  10. Hydrological Modelling and data assimilation of Satellite Snow Cover Area using a Land Surface Model, VIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The snow cover plays an important role in Himalayan region as it contributes a useful amount to the river discharge. So, besides estimating rainfall runoff, proper assessment of snowmelt runoff for efficient management and water resources planning is also required. A Land Surface Model, VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity is used at a high resolution grid size of 1 km. Beas river basin up to Thalot in North West Himalayas (NWH have been selected as the study area. At first model setup is done and VIC has been run in its energy balance mode. The fluxes obtained from VIC has been routed to simulate the discharge for the time period of (2003-2006. Data Assimilation is done for the year 2006 and the techniques of Data Assimilation considered in this study are Direct Insertion (D.I and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA to update hydrologic model states. The meteorological forcings were taken from 0.5 deg. resolution VIC global forcing data from 1979-2006 with daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature from Climate Research unit (CRU, rainfall from daily variability of NCEP and wind speed from NCEP-NCAR analysis as main inputs and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD data of 0.25 °. NBSSLUP soil map and land use land cover map of ISRO-GBP project for year 2014 were used for generating the soil parameters and vegetation parameters respectively. The threshold temperature i.e. the minimum rain temperature is -0.5°C and maximum snow temperature is about +0.5°C at which VIC can generate snow fluxes. Hydrological simulations were done using both NCEP and IMD based meteorological Forcing datasets, but very few snow fluxes were obtained using IMD data met forcing, whereas NCEP based met forcing has given significantly better snow fluxes throughout the simulation years as the temperature resolution as given by IMD data is 0.5°C and rainfall resolution of 0.25°C. The simulated discharge has been validated

  11. Urban land use and land cover change analysis and modeling a case study area Malatya, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Gülendam

    2013-01-01

    Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies. This research was conducted to analyze the land use and land cover changes and to model the changes for the case study area Malatya, Turkey. The first step of the study was acquisition of multi temporal data in order to detect the changes over the time. For this purpose satellite images (Landsat 1990-2000-2010) have been used. In order to acquire data from satel...

  12. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Filimonenko, Ekaterina Anatolievna; Osipova, Nina Aleksandrovna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Nadeina, Louise Vasilievna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics sho...

  13. Forward-looking Assimilation of MODIS-derived Snow Covered Area into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Snow cover over land has a significant impact on the surface radiation budget, turbulent energy fluxes to the atmosphere, and local hydrological fluxes. For this reason, inaccuracies in the representation of snow covered area (SCA) within a land surface model (LSM) can lead to substantial errors in both offline and coupled simulations. Data assimilation algorithms have the potential to address this problem. However, the assimilation of SCA observations is complicated by an information deficit in the observation SCA indicates only the presence or absence of snow, and not snow volume and by the fact that assimilated SCA observations can introduce inconsistencies with atmospheric forcing data, leading to non-physical artifacts in the local water balance. In this paper we present a novel assimilation algorithm that introduces MODIS SCA observations to the Noah LSM in global, uncoupled simulations. The algorithm utilizes observations from up to 72 hours ahead of the model simulation in order to correct against emerging errors in the simulation of snow cover while preserving the local hydrologic balance. This is accomplished by using future snow observations to adjust air temperature and, when necessary, precipitation within the LSM. In global, offline integrations, this new assimilation algorithm provided improved simulation of SCA and snow water equivalent relative to open loop integrations and integrations that used an earlier SCA assimilation algorithm. These improvements, in turn, influenced the simulation of surface water and energy fluxes both during the snow season and, in some regions, on into the following spring.

  14. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  15. Proposed hybrid-classifier ensemble algorithm to map snow cover area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Rahul; Raman, Balasubramanian; Das, Josodhir

    2018-01-01

    Metaclassification ensemble approach is known to improve the prediction performance of snow-covered area. The methodology adopted in this case is based on neural network along with four state-of-art machine learning algorithms: support vector machine, artificial neural networks, spectral angle mapper, K-mean clustering, and a snow index: normalized difference snow index. An AdaBoost ensemble algorithm related to decision tree for snow-cover mapping is also proposed. According to available literature, these methods have been rarely used for snow-cover mapping. Employing the above techniques, a study was conducted for Raktavarn and Chaturangi Bamak glaciers, Uttarakhand, Himalaya using multispectral Landsat 7 ETM+ (enhanced thematic mapper) image. The study also compares the results with those obtained from statistical combination methods (majority rule and belief functions) and accuracies of individual classifiers. Accuracy assessment is performed by computing the quantity and allocation disagreement, analyzing statistic measures (accuracy, precision, specificity, AUC, and sensitivity) and receiver operating characteristic curves. A total of 225 combinations of parameters for individual classifiers were trained and tested on the dataset and results were compared with the proposed approach. It was observed that the proposed methodology produced the highest classification accuracy (95.21%), close to (94.01%) that was produced by the proposed AdaBoost ensemble algorithm. From the sets of observations, it was concluded that the ensemble of classifiers produced better results compared to individual classifiers.

  16. Modeling of surface dust concentration in snow cover at industrial area using neural networks and kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, A. P.; Tarasov, D. A.; Buevich, A. G.; Shichkin, A. V.; Tyagunov, A. G.; Medvedev, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of spatial distribution of pollutants in the urbanized territories is difficult, especially if there are multiple emission sources. When monitoring such territories, it is often impossible to arrange the necessary detailed sampling. Because of this, the usual methods of analysis and forecasting based on geostatistics are often less effective. Approaches based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) demonstrate the best results under these circumstances. This study compares two models based on ANNs, which are multilayer perceptron (MLP) and generalized regression neural networks (GRNNs) with the base geostatistical method - kriging. Models of the spatial dust distribution in the snow cover around the existing copper quarry and in the area of emissions of a nickel factory were created. To assess the effectiveness of the models three indices were used: the mean absolute error (MAE), the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and the relative root-mean-square error (RRMSE). Taking into account all indices the model of GRNN proved to be the most accurate which included coordinates of the sampling points and the distance to the likely emission source as input parameters for the modeling. Maps of spatial dust distribution in the snow cover were created in the study area. It has been shown that the models based on ANNs were more accurate than the kriging, particularly in the context of a limited data set.

  17. Next Generation Snow Cover Mapping: Can Future Hyperspectral Satellite Spectrometer Systems Improve Subpixel Snow-covered Area and Grain Size in the Sierra Nevada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Calvin, W. M.; Harpold, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain snow storage is the dominant source of water for humans and ecosystems in western North America. Consequently, the spatial distribution of snow-covered area is fundamental to both hydrological, ecological, and climate models. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected along the entire Sierra Nevada mountain range extending from north of Lake Tahoe to south of Mt. Whitney during the 2015 and 2016 snow-covered season. The AVIRIS dataset used in this experiment consists of 224 contiguous spectral channels with wavelengths ranging 400-2500 nanometers at a 15-meter spatial pixel size. Data from the Sierras were acquired on four days: 2/24/15 during a very low snow year, 3/24/16 near maximum snow accumulation, and 5/12/16 and 5/18/16 during snow ablation and snow loss. Building on previous retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area algorithms that take into account varying grain size we present a model that analyzes multiple endmembers of varying snow grain size, vegetation, rock, and soil in segmented regions along the Sierra Nevada to determine snow-cover spatial extent, snow sub-pixel fraction, and approximate grain size. In addition, varying simulated models of the data will compare and contrast the retrieval of current snow products such as MODIS Snow-Covered Area and Grain Size (MODSCAG) and the Airborne Space Observatory (ASO). Specifically, does lower spatial resolution (MODIS), broader resolution bandwidth (MODIS), and limited spectral resolution (ASO) affect snow-cover area and grain size approximations? The implications of our findings will help refine snow mapping products for planned hyperspectral satellite spectrometer systems such as EnMAP (slated to launch in 2019), HISUI (planned for inclusion on the International Space Station in 2018), and HyspIRI (currently under consideration).

  18. Habitat Characteristics of Bracken-Covered Areas Intended for Afforestation in Ličko Sredogorje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Seletković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Forest cultures in continental part of Croatia are mainly based on bracken-covered areas and moors on deserted agriculture soils and pastures. Successful afforestation i.e. establishment of forest cultures depends among other things on the understanding of habitats and ecology of forest trees. The choice of best species of forest trees for afforestation needs to be based on the research in soil and climate characteristics of target habitats. The aims of this research were to show mesoclimatic characteristics of Ličko sredogorje and microclimatic and pedological characteristics of Ličko polje. Also, based on habitat characteristics and ecology of forest trees, the aim was to determine species of forest trees suitable for afforestation of bracken-covered areas. Materials and Methods: Climate, microclimate, pedological and plant nutrition researches were done at the area of Lika highlands. Climate analysis was done according to air temperatures, amount of precipitation, relative air humidity and other climate elements and appearances. Composite soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm in order to determine plant nutrition potential. Samples were prepared for further analysis in the laboratory. Results: The highest average annual air temperature of 9.6 °C was found at weather station Gračac and the lowest at Korenica station (8.1 °C. Average amount of precipitation for this region was around 1500 mm. Monthly rain factors were ranging from arid to perhumid. Considering thermal character of the climate, the area has moderately warm climate. Average volumetric soil humidity is 14.2 %. Soil has strong acid reaction, is very humus, good to richly supplied with total nitrogen, content of physiologically active phosphorus and potassium is low, and C/N ration normal. Conclusions: According to habitat characteristics in the area of Ličko sredogorje and ecological demands of forest tree species, forest cultures of Common

  19. Evaluation and parameterization of ATCOR3 topographic correction method for forest cover mapping in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle; Lambin, Eric F.

    2012-08-01

    A topographic correction of optical remote sensing data is necessary to improve the quality of quantitative forest cover change analyses in mountainous terrain. The implementation of semi-empirical correction methods requires the calibration of model parameters that are empirically defined. This study develops a method to improve the performance of topographic corrections for forest cover change detection in mountainous terrain through an iterative tuning method of model parameters based on a systematic evaluation of the performance of the correction. The latter was based on: (i) the general matching of reflectances between sunlit and shaded slopes and (ii) the occurrence of abnormal reflectance values, qualified as statistical outliers, in very low illuminated areas. The method was tested on Landsat ETM+ data for rough (Ecuadorian Andes) and very rough mountainous terrain (Bhutan Himalayas). Compared to a reference level (no topographic correction), the ATCOR3 semi-empirical correction method resulted in a considerable reduction of dissimilarities between reflectance values of forested sites in different topographic orientations. Our results indicate that optimal parameter combinations are depending on the site, sun elevation and azimuth and spectral conditions. We demonstrate that the results of relatively simple topographic correction methods can be greatly improved through a feedback loop between parameter tuning and evaluation of the performance of the correction model.

  20. Land related grievances shape tropical forest-cover in areas affected by armed-conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Buritica, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Armed-conflicts often occur in tropical areas considered to be of high ‘conservation-value’, termed as such for their biodiversity or carbon-storage functions. Despite this important overlap, few studies have assessed how forest-biomass is affected by armed-conflicts. Thus, in this paper we develop...... a multinomial logit model to examine how outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage, armed-conflict and deforestation rates are linked to social, institutional and economic factors. We use Colombia as a case study because of its protracted armed-conflict, high forest-cover, sustained deforestation......-ownership disputes, the Colombian government might uphold their international climate change commitments via reducing deforestation and hence forest based carbon emissions, while pursuing their national security objective via undermining opportunities for guerrilla groups to operate....

  1. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  2. Solar radiation measurements and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from vegetal covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandelli, E.V.; Marques Filho, A. de O.

    1999-01-01

    A method by which a physical model of the solar radiation transfer in a vegetal medium is inverted to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) for different types of vegetation is presented here, as an alternative to the destructive experiments, which are a hard task to implement on the vegetation covers. Radiation data were obtained during the dry season — 1996, at the Embrapa Experimental Station, (BR 174 - km 54, 2° 31' S, 60° 01' W), Manaus, Brazil. The method yielded convergent values for the LAI between different adopted radiation classes with more stable estimates at time when there is a predominant diffuse radiation. The application of the inversion algorithm yields the following values for the leaf area index and respective annual foliage increments: 3.5 (0.35 yr. -1 ) for the intact secondary forest; 2.0 (0.5 yr -1 ) for the palm agroforestry system; and 1.6 (0.4 yr -1 ) for the multi-layer ones [pt

  3. HIPAA-protecting patient confidentiality or covering something else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A case of a physician fired from the Veterans Administration (VA for violation of the Health Care Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA illustrates a problem with both the law and the VA. Anil Parikh, a VA physician at the Jesse Brown VA in Chicago, was dismissed on a charge of making unauthorized disclosures of confidential patient information on October 19, 2007. On January 3, 2011 the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB reversed Dr. Parikh’s removal. Dr. Parikh's initially made disclosures to the VA Office of Inspector General and to Senator Barack Obama and Congressman Luis Gutierrez, in whose district the Jesse Brown VA lies. Dr. Parikh alleged that there were systematic problems within the Jesse Brown VA that resulted in untimely and inadequate patient care. The confidential patient information Parikh disclosed included examples of the misdiagnoses and misdirection of patients within the hospital. Specifically, Dr. Parikh alleged that …

  4. Remote Sensing Based Two-Stage Sampling for Accuracy Assessment and Area Estimation of Land Cover Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Gallaun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change processes are accelerating at the regional to global level. The remote sensing community has developed reliable and robust methods for wall-to-wall mapping of land cover changes; however, land cover changes often occur at rates below the mapping errors. In the current publication, we propose a cost-effective approach to complement wall-to-wall land cover change maps with a sampling approach, which is used for accuracy assessment and accurate estimation of areas undergoing land cover changes, including provision of confidence intervals. We propose a two-stage sampling approach in order to keep accuracy, efficiency, and effort of the estimations in balance. Stratification is applied in both stages in order to gain control over the sample size allocated to rare land cover change classes on the one hand and the cost constraints for very high resolution reference imagery on the other. Bootstrapping is used to complement the accuracy measures and the area estimates with confidence intervals. The area estimates and verification estimations rely on a high quality visual interpretation of the sampling units based on time series of satellite imagery. To demonstrate the cost-effective operational applicability of the approach we applied it for assessment of deforestation in an area characterized by frequent cloud cover and very low change rate in the Republic of Congo, which makes accurate deforestation monitoring particularly challenging.

  5. Cloud Cover Assessment for Operational Crop Monitoring Systems in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaque Daniel Rocha Eberhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of optical remote sensing data to identify, map and monitor croplands is well recognized. However, clouds strongly limit the usefulness of optical imagery for these applications. This paper aims at assessing cloud cover conditions over four states in the tropical and sub-tropical Center-South region of Brazil to guide the development of an appropriate agricultural monitoring system based on Landsat-like imagery. Cloudiness was assessed during overlapping four months periods to match the typical length of crop cycles in the study area. The percentage of clear sky occurrence was computed from the 1 km resolution MODIS Cloud Mask product (MOD35 considering 14 years of data between July 2000 and June 2014. Results showed high seasonality of cloud occurrence within the crop year with strong variations across the study area. The maximum seasonality was observed for the two states in the northern part of the study area (i.e., the ones closer to the Equator line, which also presented the lowest averaged values (15% of clear sky occurrence during the main (summer cropping period (November to February. In these locations, optical data faces severe constraints for mapping summer crops. On the other hand, relatively favorable conditions were found in the southern part of the study region. In the South, clear sky values of around 45% were found and no significant clear sky seasonality was observed. Results underpin the challenges to implement an operational crop monitoring system based solely on optical remote sensing imagery in tropical and sub-tropical regions, in particular if short-cycle crops have to be monitored during the cloudy summer months. To cope with cloudiness issues, we recommend the use of new systems with higher repetition rates such as Sentinel-2. For local studies, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs might be used to augment the observing capability. Multi-sensor approaches combining optical and microwave data can be another

  6. Estimating the Fractional Vegetation Cover from GLASS Leaf Area Index Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fractional vegetation cover (FCover is an essential biophysical variable and plays a critical role in the carbon cycle studies. Existing FCover products from satellite observations are spatially incomplete and temporally discontinuous, and also inaccurate for some vegetation types to meet the requirements of various applications. In this study, an operational method is proposed to calculate high-quality, accurate FCover from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS leaf area index (LAI product to ensure physical consistency between LAI and FCover retrievals. As a result, a global FCover product (denoted by TRAGL were generated from the GLASS LAI product from 2000 to present. With no missing values, the TRAGL FCover product is spatially complete. A comparison of the TRAGL FCover product with the Geoland2/BioPar version 1 (GEOV1 FCover product indicates that these FCover products exhibit similar spatial distribution pattern. However, there were relatively large discrepancies between these FCover products over equatorial rainforests, broadleaf crops in East-central United States, and needleleaf forests in Europe and Siberia. Temporal consistency analysis indicates that TRAGL FCover product has continuous trajectories. Direct validation with ground-based FCover estimates demonstrated that TRAGL FCover values were more accurate (RMSE = 0.0865, and R2 = 0.8848 than GEOV1 (RMSE = 0.1541, and R2 = 0.7621.

  7. Multispectral LiDAR Data for Land Cover Classification of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Morsy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR systems usually operate at a monochromatic wavelength measuring the range and the strength of the reflected energy (intensity from objects. Recently, multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, have emerged. This allows for recording of a diversity of spectral reflectance from objects. In this context, we aim to investigate the use of multispectral LiDAR data in land cover classification using two different techniques. The first is image-based classification, where intensity and height images are created from LiDAR points and then a maximum likelihood classifier is applied. The second is point-based classification, where ground filtering and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs computation are conducted. A dataset of an urban area located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, is classified into four classes: buildings, trees, roads and grass. An overall accuracy of up to 89.9% and 92.7% is achieved from image classification and 3D point classification, respectively. A radiometric correction model is also applied to the intensity data in order to remove the attenuation due to the system distortion and terrain height variation. The classification process is then repeated, and the results demonstrate that there are no significant improvements achieved in the overall accuracy.

  8. Multispectral LiDAR Data for Land Cover Classification of Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Salem; Shaker, Ahmed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2017-04-26

    Airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) systems usually operate at a monochromatic wavelength measuring the range and the strength of the reflected energy (intensity) from objects. Recently, multispectral LiDAR sensors, which acquire data at different wavelengths, have emerged. This allows for recording of a diversity of spectral reflectance from objects. In this context, we aim to investigate the use of multispectral LiDAR data in land cover classification using two different techniques. The first is image-based classification, where intensity and height images are created from LiDAR points and then a maximum likelihood classifier is applied. The second is point-based classification, where ground filtering and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVIs) computation are conducted. A dataset of an urban area located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, is classified into four classes: buildings, trees, roads and grass. An overall accuracy of up to 89.9% and 92.7% is achieved from image classification and 3D point classification, respectively. A radiometric correction model is also applied to the intensity data in order to remove the attenuation due to the system distortion and terrain height variation. The classification process is then repeated, and the results demonstrate that there are no significant improvements achieved in the overall accuracy.

  9. Vegetation cover, tidal amplitude and land area predict short-term marsh vulnerability in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald; Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Tommy S.; Wood, Bernard; Piazza, Sarai

    2018-01-01

    The loss of coastal marshes is a topic of great concern, because these habitats provide tangible ecosystem services and are at risk from sea-level rise and human activities. In recent years, significant effort has gone into understanding and modeling the relationships between the biological and physical factors that contribute to marsh stability. Simulation-based process models suggest that marsh stability is the product of a complex feedback between sediment supply, flooding regime and vegetation response, resulting in elevation gains sufficient to match the combination of relative sea-level rise and losses from erosion. However, there have been few direct, empirical tests of these models, because long-term datasets that have captured sufficient numbers of marsh loss events in the context of a rigorous monitoring program are rare. We use a multi-year data set collected by the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) that includes transitions of monitored vegetation plots to open water to build and test a predictive model of near-term marsh vulnerability. We found that despite the conclusions of previous process models, elevation change had no ability to predict the transition of vegetated marsh to open water. However, we found that the processes that drive elevation change were significant predictors of transitions. Specifically, vegetation cover in prior year, land area in the surrounding 1 km2 (an estimate of marsh fragmentation), and the interaction of tidal amplitude and position in tidal frame were all significant factors predicting marsh loss. This suggests that 1) elevation change is likely better a predictor of marsh loss at time scales longer than we consider in this study and 2) the significant predictive factors affect marsh vulnerability through pathways other than elevation change, such as resistance to erosion. In addition, we found that, while sensitivity of marsh vulnerability to the predictive factors varied spatially across coastal Louisiana

  10. Exploring diversity in ensemble classification: Applications in large area land cover mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Andrew; Boukir, Samia

    2017-07-01

    Ensemble classifiers, such as random forests, are now commonly applied in the field of remote sensing, and have been shown to perform better than single classifier systems, resulting in reduced generalisation error. Diversity across the members of ensemble classifiers is known to have a strong influence on classification performance - whereby classifier errors are uncorrelated and more uniformly distributed across ensemble members. The relationship between ensemble diversity and classification performance has not yet been fully explored in the fields of information science and machine learning and has never been examined in the field of remote sensing. This study is a novel exploration of ensemble diversity and its link to classification performance, applied to a multi-class canopy cover classification problem using random forests and multisource remote sensing and ancillary GIS data, across seven million hectares of diverse dry-sclerophyll dominated public forests in Victoria Australia. A particular emphasis is placed on analysing the relationship between ensemble diversity and ensemble margin - two key concepts in ensemble learning. The main novelty of our work is on boosting diversity by emphasizing the contribution of lower margin instances used in the learning process. Exploring the influence of tree pruning on diversity is also a new empirical analysis that contributes to a better understanding of ensemble performance. Results reveal insights into the trade-off between ensemble classification accuracy and diversity, and through the ensemble margin, demonstrate how inducing diversity by targeting lower margin training samples is a means of achieving better classifier performance for more difficult or rarer classes and reducing information redundancy in classification problems. Our findings inform strategies for collecting training data and designing and parameterising ensemble classifiers, such as random forests. This is particularly important in large area

  11. Study Of Land Cover And Condition Catchment Area Groundwater Aquifer In Tanah Merah North Samarinda District Using Resistivity Geoelectric Sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djayus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover is a biophysical cover that maintains land conditions in water balance. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of land cover water catchment groundwater aquifer and correlation. This research begins by collecting data on land cover soil type rainfall slopes and groundwaterinformation. Field activities include observation and data collection of land cover geological conditions community wells and geoelectric sounding. Land cover data is classified according to circumstances and conditions. Geoelectric sounding data was analyzed with IP2WIN software interpretation of lithologic variation of rocks and depth based on resistivity value. Plot the position of each lithology sounding with Surfer software obtained kontour rock field boundary and 3D model of the aquifer position.The results showed that the land cover consisted of vegetated areas forests 27221 Ha 4032 and agricultural land 18336 Ha 2716 non-vegetation area 9880 Ha 1464 constructed land Open land 116.33 Ha 17.23 and water body 4.35 Ha 0.64 The condition of land cover in this water catchment area has decreased 6838 Ha 1014 from the previous condition 34059 Ha 5046 to 27221 Ha 4032. Referring to Permenhut RI No. 32 in 2009 total score catchment area 33 including the somewhat critical condition. Groundwater aquifers based on 3D sounding geolistrik modeling consist of a free aquifer for shallow groundwater depth of water level between 2-30 m with thickness 2-65 m and a distorted aquifer for groundwaterin depth of water between 75-150 m With thickness 75-125 m depth of community well 10-45 m. The transfer of land into open pit mines resulted in the destruction of the balance and water system the decreasing decreasing the discharge of the well water of the community drill the failure and the lack of new water discharge of the new wells the loss of groundwaterin several dug wells landslides and mud floods on the farmland

  12. Standard Enucleation with Aluminium Oxide Implant (Bioceramic Covered with Patient's Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Zigiotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in our study a modified standard enucleation, using sclera harvested from the enucleated eye to cover the prosthesis in order to insert a large porous implant and to reduce postoperative complication rates in a phthisis globe. Methods. We perform initially a standard enucleation. The porous implant (Bioceramic is then covered only partially by the patient's sclera. The implant is inserted in the posterior Tenon's space with the scleral covering looking at front. All patients were followed at least for twelve months (average followup 16 months. Results. We performed nineteen primary procedures (19 patients, 19 eyes, M; F and secondary, to fill the orbital cavity in patients already operated by standard evisceration (7 patients, 7 eyes. There were no cases of implant extrusion. The orbital volume was well reintegrated. Conclusion. Our procedure was safe and effective. All patients had a good cosmetic result after final prosthetic fitting and we also achieved good prothesis mobility.

  13. A neonatal screening of congenital hypothyroidism covered 266 401 cases in Tianjin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Peihua; Lv Mei; Huang Guangyu; Yuan Chengyun; Xu Jing; Yang Qingyan; Wang Xiuying; Ma Xiancheng; Liu Geli; Chen Kunming; Zhang Moling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the incidence, the curative rate and the long term prognosis of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) newborns detected by screening program in Tianjin area initiated at the beginning of 1982. Methods: Primarily, the T 4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) of dried blood sample on filter paper developed in our laboratory were used. The TSH RIA was replaced by a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (Tr-FIA) in 1998. The primary T 4 RIA was replaced by a commercial kit for T 4 RIA in 1999. SPECT imaging on thyroid was performed after intravenous administration of 99 Tc m O 4 - 11.1-18.5 MBq. Results: A total of 266 401 neonates was screened for CH in our laboratory in Tianjin area. 36 cases of permanent CH were confirmed in the program. The incidence of CH was 0.014%; 22 cases of CH here were kept in treatment . Of the 22 cases, 19 cases were recalled in 2000, 18 of them (94.7%) showed currently with normal growth and development in the check-up. Imaging on thyroid ( 99 Tc m ): among 19 patients with CH, 1 case was found with normal gland, 1 with a hypogenetic thyroid, 3 cases with enlarged thyroid, 7 with ectopic gland, and the remaining 7 cases didn't show any image of thyroid. The bone age of 20 CH children was evaluated with the X ray radiography. In 6 cases of them, the bone age was normal, and 7 cases had progressed from development delay to normal. So far, retarded bone age of the remaining 7 CH patients didn't show any renewing yet. The bone age renewal was found in 3 younger children of them, but for the other 3 cases (9-12 years old) of CH patients with thyroid gland absence, the renewal of bone age was slower. Intelligence quotient (IQ) in 16 cases was measured. The scores of IQ in 13 cases of them (81.3%) were 80-119, 2 cases 72-77, 1 case 60. IQs of 6/16 cases of CH patients with thyroid absence were lower. May be it related to that, their hypothyroidism during fetal life was severer. Conclusions: Neonatal

  14. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and

  15. Decision Tree and Texture Analysis for Mapping Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Kangchenjunga Area, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Racoviteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use visible, short-wave infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data validated with high-resolution Quickbird (QB and Worldview2 (WV2 for mapping debris cover in the eastern Himalaya using two independent approaches: (a a decision tree algorithm, and (b texture analysis. The decision tree algorithm was based on multi-spectral and topographic variables, such as band ratios, surface reflectance, kinetic temperature from ASTER bands 10 and 12, slope angle, and elevation. The decision tree algorithm resulted in 64 km2 classified as debris-covered ice, which represents 11% of the glacierized area. Overall, for ten glacier tongues in the Kangchenjunga area, there was an area difference of 16.2 km2 (25% between the ASTER and the QB areas, with mapping errors mainly due to clouds and shadows. Texture analysis techniques included co-occurrence measures, geostatistics and filtering in spatial/frequency domain. Debris cover had the highest variance of all terrain classes, highest entropy and lowest homogeneity compared to the other classes, for example a mean variance of 15.27 compared to 0 for clouds and 0.06 for clean ice. Results of the texture image for debris-covered areas were comparable with those from the decision tree algorithm, with 8% area difference between the two techniques.

  16. Variations of Near Surface Energy Balance Caused by Land Cover Changes in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the Dynamics of Land System (DLS model to simulating the land cover under the designed scenarios and then analyzes the effects of land cover conversion on energy flux in the semiarid grassland area of China with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a steadily upgrowing trend under the coordinated environmental sustainability (CES scenario. Compared to the CES scenario, the rate of increase in grassland cover is lower, while the rate of increase in urban land cover will be higher under the rapid economic growth (REG scenario. Although the conversion from cropland to grassland will reduce the energy flux, the expansion of urban area and decreasing of forestry area will bring about more energy flux. As a whole, the energy flux of near surface will obviously not change under the CES scenario, and the climate therefore will not be possible to be influenced greatly by land cover change. The energy flux under the REG scenario is higher than that under the CES scenario. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and climate change adaptation in the semiarid grassland area of China.

  17. [Retrieval of Copper Pollution Information from Hyperspectral Satellite Data in a Vegetation Cover Mining Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yong-hua; Jiao, Si-hong; Liu, Su-hong; Zhu, Ye-qing

    2015-11-01

    level, using stepwise multiple linear regression and cross validation on the dataset which is consisting of 44 groups of copper ion content information in the polluted vegetation leaves from Dexing Copper Mine in Jiangxi Province to build up a statistical model by also incorporating the HJ-1 satellite images. This model was then used to estimate the copper content distribution over the whole research area at Dexing Copper Mine. The result has shown that there is strong statistical significance of the model which revealed the most sensitive waveband to copper ion is located at 516 nm. The distribution map illustrated that the copper ion content is generally in the range of 0-130 mg · kg⁻¹ in the vegetation covering area at Dexing Copper Mine and the most seriously polluted area is located at the South-east corner of Dexing City as well as the mining spots with a higher value between 80 and 100 mg · kg⁻¹. This result is consistent with the ground observation experiment data. The distribution map can certainly provide some important basic data on the copper pollution monitoring and treatment.

  18. Cover design for radioactive and AMD-producing mine waste in the Ronneburg area, eastern Thuringia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzweiler, R; Jahn, S; Neubert, G; Paul, M

    2001-01-01

    At the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, large scale underground and open pit mining for nearly 40 years resulted in a production of about 113,000 tonnes of uranium and about 200 million cubic metres of mine waste. In their present state, these materials cause risks to human health and strong environmental impacts and therefore demand remedial action. The remediation options available are relocation of mine spoil into the open pit and on site remediation by landscaping/contouring, placement of a cover and revegetation. A suitable vegetated cover system combined with a surface water drainage system provides long-term stability against erosion and reduces acid generation thereby meeting the main remediation objectives which are long-term reduction of radiological exposure and contaminant emissions and recultivation. The design of the cover system includes the evaluation of geotechnical, radiological, hydrological, geochemical and ecological criteria and models. The optimized overall model for the cover system has to comply with general conditions as, e.g. economic efficiency, public acceptance and sustainability. Most critical elements for the long-term performance of the cover system designed for the Beerwalde dump are the barrier system and its long-term integrity and a largely self-sustainable vegetation.

  19. Combining MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 Images For Snow Cover Area Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, A. E.

    2008-12-01

    MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 daily snow cover maps at 500 m resolution are available from MODIS sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. Aqua obtains the image of same region approximately three hours after Terra over Turkey region. MODIS is an optic sensor and cloud cover degrades the usability of derived snow cover maps. Moreover, spectral similarity between clouds and snow complicates their separability in visible imagery. Fortunately, dynamic behavior of clouds enables their discrimination from snow stationary on the surface. Combined use of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 images mostly reduces the cloud cover present in one image alone and provides better representation of surface snow cover. Comparison of merged images with in situ data indicated higher hit ratios. The individual comparison of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 images with ground data each yielded 31% hit ratio whereas, the merged images provided 38%. One-day shifts in comparisons increased hit ratios to 52 % and 46% whereas and two-day shifts gave 77 % and 79 % for MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 respectively. Merged maps yielded 54% and 83% for one and two day shifts. The improvement provided by the merging technique is found to be 7% for the present day, 7 % for one- day and 5% for two-day shifts for the whole season. Monthly decomposition resulted 25% improvement as the maximum. The snow cover product obtained by merging Terra and Aqua satellites provided higher hit ratios, as expected.

  20. GENERATION OF 2D LAND COVER MAPS FOR URBAN AREAS USING DECISION TREE CLASSIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objects...... of stereo-observations of false-colour stereopairs. The stratified statistical assessment of the produced land cover map with six classes and based on 91 points per class reveals a high thematic accuracy for classes ‘building’ (99%, 95% CI: 95%-100%) and ‘road and parking lot’ (90%, 95% CI: 83%-95%). Some...

  1. An airborne gamma ray snow survey of a forest covered area with a deep snowpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, J.E.; Carroll, T.R.; Holman, P.B.; Grasty, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Problems arising from the airborne gamma ray measurement of snow water equivalent over a forest covered deep snowpack are examined. The principal sources of error are believed to be due to the radioactivity in the biomass and to variability in the snow cover. A theoretical model is developed to correct the airborne measurements for these sources of error. The application of the theory to data collected over the St. John River Basin, located in the eastern part of Canada and the United States, is found to significantly improve the airborne results

  2. Characterization Report Operational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report - Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations

  3. Subpixel Snow-covered Area Including Differentiated Grain Size from AVIRIS Data Over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Calvin, W. M.; Harpold, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain snow storage is the dominant source of water for humans and ecosystems in western North America. Consequently, the spatial distribution of snow-covered area is fundamental to both hydrological, ecological, and climate models. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected along the entire Sierra Nevada mountain range extending from north of Lake Tahoe to south of Mt. Whitney during the 2015 and 2016 snow-covered season. The AVIRIS dataset used in this experiment consists of 224 contiguous spectral channels with wavelengths ranging 400-2500 nanometers at a 15-meter spatial pixel size. Data from the Sierras were acquired on four days: 2/24/15 during a very low snow year, 3/24/16 near maximum snow accumulation, and 5/12/16 and 5/18/16 during snow ablation and snow loss. Previous retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area in alpine regions used multiple snow endmembers due to the sensitivity of snow spectral reflectance to grain size. We will present a model that analyzes multiple endmembers of varying snow grain size, vegetation, rock, and soil in segmented regions along the Sierra Nevada to determine snow-cover spatial extent, snow sub-pixel fraction and approximate grain size or melt state. The root mean squared error will provide a spectrum-wide assessment of the mixture model's goodness-of-fit. Analysis will compare snow-covered area and snow-cover depletion in the 2016 year, and annual variation from the 2015 year. Field data were also acquired on three days concurrent with the 2016 flights in the Sagehen Experimental Forest and will support ground validation of the airborne data set.

  4. Snow cover monitoring model and change over both time and space in pastoral area of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Suju; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Juan; Wen, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Snow disaster is a natural phenomenon owning to widespread snowfall for a long time and usually affect people's life, property and economic. During the whole disaster management circle, snow disaster in pastoral area of northern china which including Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Tibet has been paid more attention. Thus do a good job in snow cover monitoring then found snow disaster in time can help the people in disaster area to take effective rescue measures, which always been the central and local government great important work. Remote sensing has been used widely in snow cover monitoring for its wide range, high efficiency, less conditions, more methods and large information. NOAA/AVHRR data has been used for wide range, plenty bands information and timely acquired and act as an import data of Snow Cover Monitoring Model (SCMM). SCMM including functions list below: First after NOAA/AVHRR data has been acquired, geometric calibration, radiometric calibration and other pre-processing work has been operated. Second after band operation, four threshold conditions are used to extract snow spectrum information among water, cloud and other features in NOAA/AVHRR image. Third snow cover information has been analyzed one by one and the maximum snow cover from about twenty images in a week has been selected. Then selected image has been mosaic which covered the pastoral area of China. At last both time and space analysis has been carried out through this operational model ,such as analysis on the difference between this week and the same period of last year , this week and last week in three level regional. SCMM have been run successfully for three years, and the results have been take into account as one of the three factors which led to risk warning of snow disaster and analysis results from it always play an important role in disaster reduction and relief.

  5. Partial pleural covering for intractable pneumothorax in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Akira; Hirono, Tatsuhiko; Watanabe, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Go; Tanaka, Reiko; Furuya, Mitsuko

    2017-03-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an inherited disorder associated with a germline mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene. Most patients with BHD have multiple pulmonary cysts, and are at high risk of repeated pneumothorax. Although an increasing number of patients are diagnosed with BHD by genetic testing, therapeutic approaches for intractable pneumothorax have not yet been described. We treated three patients who had repeated episodes of pneumothorax. All had multiple pulmonary cysts in the lower lobes, and two had a family history of pneumothorax. Video-assisted thoracic surgery was used to perform wedge resections and partial pleural covering of the cystic lesions. The partial pleural covering technique used sheets of polyglycolic acid felt or regenerative oxidized cellulose mesh. The resected tissues underwent histopathological evaluation, and peripheral blood leukocytes were tested for FLCN mutations. The operative times were less than 2 h, and there were no complications. The resected cysts had histopathological features characteristic of BHD lung. All patients were found to have FLCN germline mutations; thus their repeated pneumothoraces were a manifestation of BHD. None of the patients developed respiratory problems after undergoing the partial pleural covering procedure, and they have all been well without pneumothorax for 30 months or more. Partial pleural covering combined with resection of protruding cysts should be a safe and effective therapeutic approach for BHD patients with intractable pneumothorax. Further investigation is needed to establish a detailed protocol for treatment of pneumothorax that results in minimal functional impairment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A large-area, spatially continuous assessment of land cover map error and its impact on downstream analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon; Chen, Peng; Debats, Stephanie; Evans, Tom; Ferreira, Stefanus; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Ragazzo, Gabrielle; Sheffield, Justin; Wolf, Adam; Wood, Eric; Caylor, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess (1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and (2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, and then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security. We also evaluated maps' spatial accuracy based on how precisely they could be used to locate specific landscape features. We found that cropland maps can have substantial biases and poor accuracy at all resolutions (e.g., at 1 km resolution, up to ∼45% underestimates of cropland (bias) and nearly 50% mean absolute error (MAE, describing accuracy); at 100 km, up to 15% underestimates and nearly 20% MAE). National-scale maps derived from higher-resolution imagery were most accurate, followed by multi-map fusion products. Constraining mapped values to match survey statistics may be effective at minimizing bias (provided the statistics are accurate). Errors in downstream analyses could be substantially amplified or muted, depending on the values ascribed to cropland-adjacent covers (e.g., with forest as adjacent cover, carbon map error was 200%-500% greater than in input cropland maps, but ∼40% less for sparse cover types). The average locational error was 6 km (600%). These findings provide deeper insight into the causes and potential consequences of land cover map error, and suggest several recommendations for land

  7. Determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover, based on the use of geotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover in watersheds is directly associated to the probability of effective success of restoration processes. However, considering the complexity of the analysis and the large amount of spatial data necessary to accomplish that purpose, state of the art technological tools capable of processing multi-criteria analysis to support decision making are necessary. Thus, the current work developed for an area of 476 km² corresponding to the Una river watershed in the municipal district of Taubaté, SP, used a multi-criteria analysis based on the continuous classification and on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP paired comparisons techniques, available in the complete GIS package named SPRING (Georeferenced Information Processing System for generating a map of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover in that watershed. Results revealed a large area (26.6% of the entire watershed falling in the “Extreme Priority” class for forest cover re-establishment, what indicates the urgent need of environmental recovery of this basin considering that it is used for Taubaté city water supply. Results from this research support the decision making for resource optimization applied to priority areas in an operational way.

  8. [Covering stoma in anterior rectum resection with TME for rectal cancer in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Barillaro, Ivan; Cacurri, Alban; Koltraka, Bledar; Coccette, Marco; Sciannameo, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the advisability of covering stoma in Anterior Rectum Resection with TME in elderly patients. A research of both the Ministry of Health and Terni Hospital databases has been conducted so as to collect information about patients with rectal tumor. Such research allowed to identify the amount of patients diagnosed with rectal cancer, the type of intervention, and the average hospitalization time. Between January 1997 and June 2008, 209 patients have undergone chirurgical surgery at Terni hospital's General and Emergency Surgical Clinic. An Anterior Rectum Resection with TME has been performed in 135 patients out of the sample (64.59%). The average hospitalization time of geriatric patients does not show significant differences compared to that of younger patients. An age-cohort analysis has been performed among patients who have been subject to stomia and those who have not. The former have been further split up between those who underwent ileostomy and those subject to colostomy. While ileostomy patients face a similar hospitalization time across all age cohorts, geriatric colostomy patients face longer hospitalizations than younger patients. Patients subject to Anterior Rectum Resection show no meaningful differences, in terms of hospitalization time, across all age cohorts. In geriatric patients the construction of covering stoma has resulted in longer hospitalizations only when a loop colostomy was executed, as opposed to loop ileostomy.

  9. DETERMINATION OF LEAF AREA AND PLANT COVER BY USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    LŐKE, ZS.; SOÓS, G.

    2002-01-01

    The development of different crop models, and crop simulation models in particular, pointed out the importance of quantifying the exact value of the leaf area. To measure the leaf size of plants of pinnatifid form, automatic, portable leaf area meters are necessary. In most places these instruments are not available to measure the assimilatory surface size of crops with special leaf shapes. Any cheap and effective method, that could replace the application of expensive portable area meters co...

  10. Projecting large-scale area changes in land use and land cover for terrestrial carbon analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Brett J. Butler

    2004-01-01

    One of the largest changes in US forest type areas over the last half-century has involved pine types in the South. The area of planted pine has increased more than 10-fold since 1950, mostly on private lands. Private landowners have responded to market incentives and government programs, including subsidized afforestation on marginal agricultural land. Timber harvest...

  11. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  12. Land cover mapping with emphasis to burnt area delineation using co-orbital ALI and Landsat TM imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kontoes, Charalambos C.; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the potential of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) radiometer for land cover and especially burnt area mapping from a single image analysis is investigated. Co-orbital imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) was also utilised for comparison purposes. Both images were acquired shortly after the suppression of a fire occurred during the summer of 2009 North-East of Athens, the capital of Greece. The Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers were parameterised and subsequently applied to the acquired satellite datasets. Evaluation of the land use/cover mapping accuracy was based on the error matrix statistics. Also, the McNemar test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between the approaches tested. Derived burnt area estimates were validated against the operationally deployed Services and Applications For Emergency Response (SAFER) Burnt Scar Mapping service. All classifiers applied to either ALI or TM imagery proved flexible enough to map land cover and also to extract the burnt area from other land surface types. The highest total classification accuracy and burnt area detection capability was returned from the application of SVMs to ALI data. This was due to the SVMs ability to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for best classes' separation that was able to better utilise ALI's advanced technological characteristics in comparison to those of TM sensor. This study is to our knowledge the first of its kind, effectively demonstrating the benefits of the combined application of SVMs to ALI data further implying that ALI technology may prove highly valuable in mapping burnt areas and land use/cover if it is incorporated into the development of Landsat 8 mission, planned to be launched in the coming years.

  13. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied

  14. Land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration program areas in China from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The grassland restoration areas in China, most of which was located in arid and semi-arid areas, are affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Using the 3S (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies, quantitative analysis method of landscape patterns and ecological simulation, this study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration areas in China from 2000 to 2010. We apply two parameters land use transfer matrix and land use dynamic degree to explore the speed and regional differentiation of land use change. We propose vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP), soil and water conservation capacity to assess the ecosystem functions. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape patterns at the class and landscape levels and explores the ecological effect of land use pattern and regional ecological processes. The results show that: (1) Grassland and others were the main landscape types in the study area in the past decade. The ecosystem structure was stable. About 0.37% of the total grassland area in 2000 experienced change in land use / land cover types. The area of woodlands, wetlands, farmlands, and built-up areas expanded. The area of others has declined. (2) The dynamic degree of regional land use was less than one percent in the recent ten years. The speed of land use and land cover change was low, and regional differentiation of change between the provinces was small. (3) The matrix of the landscape did not change in the study area. Landscape fragmentation index values decreased progressively; landscape diversity rose continuously; landscape aggregation and continuity decreased slightly; the landscape maintained relative integrity. (4) Ecosystem functions has increased as a whole. The vegetation coverages with significant increase (with a 1.99% yr-1 slope of regression) in the total study area; NPP has a fluctuating and increasing tendency, ranging from 218.23 g

  15. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Wild and Natural Areas 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The wild and natural areas layer was derived from the state forest boundary coverage which is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and...

  16. Temporal distribution of sediment yield from catchments covered by different pine plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Mutiara Basuki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sedimentation are environmental problems faced by tropical countries. Many researches on soil erosion-sedimentation have been conducted with various results. Quantifying soil erosion-sedimentation and its temporal distribution are important for watershed management. Therefore, a study with the objective to quantify the amount of suspended sediment from catchments under various pine plantation areas was conducted. The research was undertaken during 2010 to 2017 in seven catchments with various percentage of pine coverage in Kebumen Regency, Central Java Province. The rainfall data were collected from two rainfall stations. A tide gauge was installed at the outlet of each catchment to monitor stream water level. The water samples for every stream water level increment were analyzed to obtain sediment concentration. The results showed that monthly suspended sediment of the catchments was high in January to April and October to December, and low in May to September. The annual suspended sediment fluctuated during the study period. Non-linear correlations were observed between suspended sediment and rainfall as well as suspended sediment and percentage pine areas. The line trend between suspended sediment and percentage of pine areas showed that the increase in pine areas decreased suspended sediment, with the slope of the graph is sharp at the percentage of pine areas from 8% to 40%, then is gentle for pine plantation areas more than 40%.

  17. Evaluation of impermeable covers for bedding in patients with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terreehorst, Ingrid; Hak, Eelko; Oosting, Albert J.; Tempels-Pavlica, Zana; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A. F. M.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Gerth van Wijk, Roy

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encasing bedding in impermeable covers reduces exposure to house-dust mites, but the clinical benefit of this intervention as part of mite-avoidance measures for patients with allergic rhinitis is not known. We performed a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of one year of

  18. Walrus areas of use in the Chukchi Sea during sparse sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Kochnev, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens feeds on benthic invertebrates on the continental shelf of the Chukchi and Bering Seas and rests on sea ice between foraging trips. With climate warming, ice-free periods in the Chukchi Sea have increased and are projected to increase further in frequency and duration. We radio-tracked walruses to estimate areas of walrus foraging and occupancy in the Chukchi Sea from June to November of 2008 to 2011, years when sea ice was sparse over the continental shelf in comparison to historical records. The earlier and more extensive sea ice retreat in June to September, and delayed freeze-up of sea ice in October to November, created conditions for walruses to arrive earlier and stay later in the Chukchi Sea than in the past. The lack of sea ice over the continental shelf from September to October caused walruses to forage in nearshore areas instead of offshore areas as in the past. Walruses did not frequent the deep waters of the Arctic Basin when sea ice retreated off the shelf. Walruses foraged in most areas they occupied, and areas of concentrated foraging generally corresponded to regions of high benthic biomass, such as in the northeastern (Hanna Shoal) and southwestern Chukchi Sea. A notable exception was the occurrence of concentrated foraging in a nearshore area of northwestern Alaska that is apparently depauperate in walrus prey. With increasing sea ice loss, it is likely that walruses will increase their use of coastal haul-outs and nearshore foraging areas, with consequences to the population that are yet to be understood.

  19. High spatial resolution mapping of land cover types in a priority area for conservation in the Brazilian savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Hess, L. L.; Davis, F. W.; Caylor, K. K.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Savannas are heterogeneous landscapes consisting of highly mixed land cover types that lack clear distinct boundaries. The Brazilian Cerrado is a Neotropical savanna considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation due to its biodiversity richness and rapid transformation of its landscape by crop and pasture activities. The Cerrado is one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes and only 2.2% of its original extent is strictly protected. Accurate mapping and monitoring of its ecosystems and adjacent land use are important to select areas for conservation and to improve our understanding of the dynamics in this biome. Land cover mapping of savannas is difficult due to spectral similarity between land cover types resulting from similar vegetation structure, floristically similar components, generalization of land cover classes, and heterogeneity usually expressed as small patch sizes within the natural landscape. These factors are the major contributor to misclassification and low map accuracies among remote sensing studies in savannas. Specific challenges to map the Cerrado's land cover types are related to the spectral similarity between classes of land use and natural vegetation, such as natural grassland vs. cultivated pasture, and forest ecosystem vs. crops. This study seeks to classify and evaluate the land cover patterns across an area ranked as having extremely high priority for future conservation in the Cerrado. The main objective of this study is to identify the representativeness of each vegetation type across the landscape using high to moderate spatial resolution imagery using an automated scheme. A combination of pixel-based and object-based approaches were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types. The random forest classifier was used to map the major ecosystems present across the area, and demonstrated to have an effective result with 68% of overall accuracy. Post

  20. Mapping Land Cover and Estimating the Grassland Structure in a Priority Area of the Chihuahuan Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rodríguez-Maturino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A field characterization of the grassland vegetation structure, represented by the coverage of grass canopy (CGC and the grass height, was carried out during three years (2009–2011 in a priority area for the conservation of grasslands of North America. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 images were selected and the information of reflectance was obtained based on the geographical location of each field-sampling site. Linear models, constructed with field and satellite data, with high coefficients of determination for CGC (R2 = 0.81, R2 = 0.81 and R2 = 0.72 and grass height (R2 = 0.82, R2 = 0.79 and R2 = 0.73 were obtained. The maps showed a good level of CGC (>25% and grass height (>25 cm, except for the year 2009, which presented the lowest values of grass height in the area. According to the Kappa Index, a moderate concordance among the three CGC maps was presented (0.49–0.59. Conversely, weak and moderate concordances were found among the grass height maps (0.36–0.59. It was observed that areas with a high CGC do not necessarily correspond to areas with greater grass height values. Based on the data analyzed in this study, the grassland areas are highly dynamic, structurally heterogeneous and the spatial distribution of the variables does not show a definite pattern. From the information generated, it is possible to determine those areas that are the most important for monitoring to then establish effective strategies for the conservation of these grasslands and the protection of threatened migratory bird species.

  1. Cancellation of a wind farm project in an area covered by the Mountain law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    In April 2017 the court of appeal of Marseille (South-East France) had to deal with the cancellation request of a prefectorial order authorizing the building of 9 wind turbines. The court, after appraisal of the quality of the area in concern and of the landscape impacts this project should generate, considered that the project would effectively strongly impact the natural areas and thus has ordered the cancellation of the prefectorial order. This paper presents the explanatory statement and the conclusions of the judgement

  2. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io and transmitted radiation (I through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID, which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM. Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68. However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  3. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  4. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  5. Tree basal area as an index of thermal cover for elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Edward Dealy

    1985-01-01

    The relationship of basal area to crown closure was studied in five major forest types of the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. The regressions developed give wildlife and forest managers a tool for estimating the amount of crown closure if data are not available from stand examinations. Information is used in determining quantity and quality of elk thermal...

  6. Trends in vegetation cover changes in Bonny area of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Urban/Industrial/Sand class had a steady increase across the epochs. This class which ... This increment is attributed to influx of humans into the area as a result of increase in Oil and Gas industry activities. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. A Study on the Land-Cover Change Indicators of Taipei Metropolitan Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kuo-Ching; Chan, Shih-Laing

    2014-01-01

    The traditional research of land cover/land use change sets focus on the spatial unit of parcel or grid for analysis and simulation. Since the change of individual land use would be affected by the surrounding land uses, there is another possibility to explore the land use change in terms of spatial pattern. The paper applies indicators of landscape metrics to analyze pattern characteristics of urban structure, and cluster analysis and discriminant analysis to identify the type of spatial pattern. This paper attempts to analyze land use pattern and its changes by metric analysis with patch-corridor-matrix structure. The process includes three phases. The first phase is to explore categories of land use pattern and attributes by cluster analysis. The second phase is to analyze pattern changes with different periods and to identify properties of pattern changes in the whole system. The final phase is to classify the pattern changes and to look for the relation between different patterns. Through analysis of pattern changes, it would be helpful to realize urban development relative to landscape metrics and to offer new thinking other than traditional urban development thinking

  8. Trace element distribution in the snow cover from an urban area in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    This work presents the first results from winter field campaigns focusing on trace metals and metalloid chemistry in the snow cover from an urbanized region in central Poland. Samples were collected between January and March 2013 and trace element concentrations were determined using GF-AAS. A large inter-seasonal variability depending on anthropogenic emission, depositional processes, and meteorological conditions was observed. The highest concentration (in μg L(-1)) was reported for Pb (34.90), followed by Ni (31.37), Zn (31.00), Cu (13.71), Cr (2.36), As (1.58), and Cd (0.25). In addition, several major anthropogenic sources were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA), among which the most significant was the activity of industry and coal combustion for residential heating. It was stated that elevated concentrations of some trace metals in snow samples were associated with frequent occurrence of south and southeast advection of highly polluted air masses toward the sampling site, suggesting a large impact of regional urban/industrial pollution plumes.

  9. Clinical remission following endoscopic placement of retrievable, fully covered metal stents in patients with esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y; Dai, Y-M; Wan, X-J

    2014-01-01

    Metal stents may represent an alternative therapy in the treatment of achalasia. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of retrievable, fully covered metal stents in patients with achalasia. Fifty-nine patients with achalasia were treated with retrievable, fully covered metal stents. Symptoms using a global symptom score (0-10), lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure, LES relaxation, and simultaneous contraction of the esophagus were analyzed before and 1 week and 1 month after intervention. Complications and treatment outcomes were followed up at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. Stent placement was successful, and clinical symptoms resolved (P treatment in patients with achalasia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  10. A Fast Placement Technique for Covered Tracheobronchial Stents in Patients with Complicated Esophagorespiratory Fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazushi; Nakao, Taisei; Goto, Hironobu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Yamanaka, Noboru; Nanjo, Kishio; Sato, Morio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To test an endotracheal placement procedure for malignant esophagorespiratory fistula when endoesophageal placement is inapplicable. Methods. We report on patients with malignant esophagorespiratory fistula to which endoesophageal approaches were complicated with a complete obstruction of the hypopharynx, a collapsible tracheobronchus, or a previously placed endoesophageal stents. Gore-Tex membrane-covered Z-stents were deployed in the trachea using a coaxial introducer system in three patients. A Dumon tube was deployed in the bronchus over the bronchofiberscope in one patient. Results. All fistula were completely sealed by the endotracheal or endobronchial stenting. Symptomatic and clinical improvements were immediate obtained. Conclusion. Endotracheal or endobronchial covered stent placement is thought to be an effective alternative method for sealing esophagorespiratory fistula

  11. Low-cost computer classification of land cover in the Portland area, Oregon, by signature extension techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    Computer-aided techniques for interpreting multispectral data acquired by Landsat offer economies in the mapping of land cover. Even so, the actual establishment of the statistical classes, or "signatures," is one of the relatively more costly operations involved. Analysts have therefore been seeking cost-saving signature extension techniques that would accept training data acquired for one time or place and apply them to another. Opportunities to extend signatures occur in preprocessing steps and in the classification steps that follow. In the present example, land cover classes were derived by the simplest and most direct form of signature extension: Classes statistically derived from a Landsat scene for the Puget Sound area, Wash., were applied to the Portland area, Oreg., using data for the next Landsat scene acquired less than 25 seconds down orbit. Many features can be recognized on the reduced-scale version of the Portland land cover map shown in this report, although no statistical assessment of its accuracy is available.

  12. Monitoring land use/land cover transformations from 1945 to 2007 in two peri-urban mountainous areas of Athens metropolitan area, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinis, Giorgos; Koutsias, Nikos; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2014-08-15

    The aims of this study were to map and analyze land use/land cover transitions and landscape changes in the Parnitha and Penteli mountains, which surround the Athens metropolitan area of Attica, Greece over a period of 62 years. In order to quantify the changes between land categories through time, we computed the transition matrices for three distinct periods (1945-1960, 1960-1996, and 1996-2007), on the basis of available aerial photographs used to create multi-temporal maps. We identified systematic and stationary transitions with multi-level intensity analysis. Forest areas in Parnitha remained the dominant class of land cover throughout the 62 years studied, while transitional woodlands and shrublands were the main classes involved in LULC transitions. Conversely, in Penteli, transitional woodlands, along with shrublands, dominated the study site. The annual rate of change was faster in the first and third time intervals, compared to the second (1960-1996) time interval, in both study areas. The category level analysis results indicated that in both sites annual crops avoided to gain while discontinuous urban fabric avoided to lose areas. At the transition level of analysis, similarities as well as distinct differences existed between the two areas. In both sites the gaining pattern of permanent crops with respect to annual crops and the gain of forest with respect to transitional woodland/shrublands were stationary across the three time intervals. Overall, we identified more systematic transitions and stationary processes in Penteli. We discussed these LULC changes and associated them with human interference (activity) and other major socio-economic developments that were simultaneously occurring in the area. The different patterns of change of the areas, despite their geographical proximity, throughout the period of analysis imply that site-specific studies are needed in order to comprehensively assess the driving forces and develop models of landscape

  13. Land-use and land-cover change shape the sustainability and impacts of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaw, Anteneh T; Pfaff, Alexander; Golden Kroner, Rachel E; Qin, Siyu; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Mascia, Michael B

    2018-02-27

    Protected areas (PAs) remain the dominant policy to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services but have been shown to have limited impact when development interests force them to locations with lower deforestation pressure. Far less known is that such interests also cause widespread tempering, reduction, or removal of protection [i.e., PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD)]. We inform responses to PADDD by proposing and testing a bargaining explanation for PADDD risks and deforestation impacts. We examine recent degazettements for hydropower development and rural settlements in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. Results support two hypotheses: ( i ) ineffective PAs (i.e., those where internal deforestation was similar to nearby rates) were more likely to be degazetted and ( ii ) degazettement of ineffective PAs caused limited, if any, additional deforestation. We also report on cases in which ineffective portions were upgraded. Overall our results suggest that enhancing PAs' ecological impacts enhances their legal durability.

  14. Soil resources, land cover changes and rural areas: towards a spatial mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Agostino; Salvati, Luca; Sabbi, Alberto; Colantoni, Andrea

    2014-04-15

    The present study analyzes the impact of long-term urban expansion on soil depletion in Emilia-Romagna, an agricultural-specialized region of northern Italy. Using settlement density maps at three points in time (1945, 1971 and 2001) dense and diffused urbanization trends were assessed and correlated with soil quality. Non-urbanized land decreased from 11.8% in 1945 to 6.3% in 2001. Urbanization dynamics between 1945 and 1971 reflect the increase of dense settlements around pre-existing urban centers. To the contrary, a discontinuous, low- and medium-density urban expansion along the road network and in the most fertile lowland areas was observed between 1971 and 2001. Overall, urbanization consumed soils with progressively higher quality. However, a diverging trend was observed in the two investigated time intervals: soil with high quality was occupied by compact and dense settlements during 1945-1971 and by discontinuous, medium- and low-density settlements during 1971-2001. These findings document the polarization in areas with low and high soil capital and may reflect disparities in agricultural production and increasing environmental degradation. Moreover, the analysis shows a diverging trend between land and soil consumption patterns suggesting that the edification of pervious land is an unreliable indicator of soil quality depletion. Taken together, the results of this study illustrate the (increasing) spatial mismatch between agricultural land and high-quality soils as a consequence of urbanization-driven landscape transformations and may inform measures to contain soil depletion driven by economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Analysis of Land Use Based on CORINE Land Cover in the Romanian Part of the Tisa Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN MOLDOVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the land use structure of the 13 counties of the Romanian part of Tisa catchment area has been made according to the 2000 edition of CORINE Land Cover, while the 1990 edition has been used for comparative purposes. Out of the total area of 8,269,229.48 hectares, the forests cover 37.92%, the arable lands 35.02% and the grasslands 17.97%. The other types of land use have lower weights, such as the continuous and discontinuous urban fabric 4.81%, the orchards 1.10% and the vineyards 0.98%. In the category of forests, the following types of land use are included: broad-leaved forests, which form the majority (24.72%, coniferous forests (6.22%, mixed forests (3.46% and transitional woodland-shrub areas (3.52%. The forests are mainly located in the Carpathians and the hills. The non-irrigated arable lands (23.50% are predominant within the arable lands. They lie mostly in the Western Plain and in the basins and corridors of the Transylvanian Depression and the Western Hills. The analysis of the dynamics of the land use structure between 1990 and 2000 indicates a relative stability in the case of forests, a decrease of arable lands and an increase of grasslands.

  16. Large-Area, High-Resolution Tree Cover Mapping with Multi-Temporal SPOT5 Imagery, New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fisher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree cover maps are used for many purposes, such as vegetation mapping, habitat connectivity and fragmentation studies. Small remnant patches of native vegetation are recognised as ecologically important, yet they are underestimated in remote sensing products derived from Landsat. High spatial resolution sensors are capable of mapping small patches of trees, but their use in large-area mapping has been limited. In this study, multi-temporal Satellite pour l’Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 High Resolution Geometrical data was pan-sharpened to 5 m resolution and used to map tree cover for the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, an area of over 800,000 km2. Complete coverages of SPOT5 panchromatic and multispectral data over NSW were acquired during four consecutive summers (2008–2011 for a total of 1256 images. After pre-processing, the imagery was used to model foliage projective cover (FPC, a measure of tree canopy density commonly used in Australia. The multi-temporal imagery, FPC models and 26,579 training pixels were used in a binomial logistic regression model to estimate the probability of each pixel containing trees. The probability images were classified into a binary map of tree cover using local thresholds, and then visually edited to reduce errors. The final tree map was then attributed with the mean FPC value from the multi-temporal imagery. Validation of the binary map based on visually assessed high resolution reference imagery revealed an overall accuracy of 88% (±0.51% standard error, while comparison against airborne lidar derived data also resulted in an overall accuracy of 88%. A preliminary assessment of the FPC map by comparing against 76 field measurements showed a very good agreement (r2 = 0.90 with a root mean square error of 8.57%, although this may not be representative due to the opportunistic sampling design. The map represents a regionally consistent and locally relevant record of tree cover for NSW, and

  17. Land cover changes in catchment areas of lakes situated in headwaters of the Tyśmienica River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywna Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze, and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń. The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.

  18. Changing landscape in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Yangtze River from 1977 to 2005: Land use/land cover, vegetation cover changes estimated using multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixian; Zhengjun, Liu; Xiaoxia, Sun

    2009-12-01

    The eco-environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) in China has received much attention due to the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station. Land use/land cover changes (LUCC) are a major cause of ecological environmental changes. In this paper, the spatial landscape dynamics from 1978 to 2005 in this area are monitored and recent changes are analyzed, using the Landsat TM (MSS) images of 1978, 1988, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Vegetation cover fractions for a vegetation cover analysis are retrieved from MODIS/Terra imagery from 2000 to 2006, being the period before and after the rising water level of the reservoir. Several analytical indices have been used to analyze spatial and temporal changes. Results indicate that cropland, woodland, and grassland areas reduced continuously over the past 30 years, while river and built-up area increased by 2.79% and 4.45% from 2000 to 2005, respectively. The built-up area increased at the cost of decreased cropland, woodland and grassland. The vegetation cover fraction increased slightly. We conclude that significant changes in land use/land cover have occurred in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The main cause is a continuous economic and urban/rural development, followed by environmental management policies after construction of the Three Gorges Dam.

  19. Land Cover Change Detection in Urban Lake Areas Using Multi-Temporary Very High Spatial Resolution Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyuan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of very high spatial resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery provides unique opportunities to exploit meaningful change information in detail with object-oriented image analysis. This study investigated land cover (LC changes in Shahu Lake of Wuhan using multi-temporal VHR aerial images in the years 1978, 1981, 1989, 1995, 2003, and 2011. A multi-resolution segmentation algorithm and CART (classification and regression trees classifier were employed to perform highly accurate LC classification of the individual images, while a post-classification comparison method was used to detect changes. The experiments demonstrated that significant changes in LC occurred along with the rapid urbanization during 1978–2011. The dominant changes that took place in the study area were lake and vegetation shrinking, replaced by high density buildings and roads. The total area of Shahu Lake decreased from ~7.64 km2 to ~3.60 km2 during the past 33 years, where 52.91% of its original area was lost. The presented results also indicated that urban expansion and inadequate legislative protection are the main factors in Shahu Lake’s shrinking. The object-oriented change detection schema presented in this manuscript enables us to better understand the specific spatial changes of Shahu Lake, which can be used to make reasonable decisions for lake protection and urban development.

  20. Migration and Enrichment of Arsenic in the Rock-Soil-Crop Plant System in Areas Covered with Black Shale, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Yi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Okchon black shale, which is part of the Guryongsan Formation or the Changri Formation of Cambro-Ordovician age in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched with potentially toxic elements such as U, V, Mo, As, Se, Cd, and Zn. In this study, the Dukpyung and the Chubu areas were selected to investigate the migration and enrichment of As and other toxic elements in soils and crop plants in areas covered with black shale. Rock and soil samples digested in 4-acid solution (HCl+HNO3+HF+HClO4 were analyzed for As and other heavy metals by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, and plant samples by INAA. Mean concentration of As in Okchon black shale is higher than those of both world average values of shale and black shale. Especially high concentration of 23.2 mg As kg-1 is found in black shale from the Dukpyung area. Mean concentration of As is highly elevated in agricultural soils from the Dukpyung (28.2 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (32.6 mg kg-1. As is highly elevated in rice leaves from the Dukpyung (1.14 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (1.35 mg kg-1. The biological absorption coefficient (BAC of As in plant species decreases in the order of rice leaves > corn leaves > red pepper = soybean leaves = sesame leaves > corn stalks > corn grains. This indicates that leafy plants tend to accumulate As from soil to a greater degree than cereal products such as grains.

  1. Total pleural covering technique for intractable pneumothorax in patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Eriko; Kitahara, Naoto; Okura, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    We report a patient with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) who developed pneumothorax and was treated with a total pleural covering technique (TPC). A 24-year-old man developed repeat pneumothorax with intermittent hemo-sputum. Based on unusual radiological manifestations of lung lesions and physical findings, EDS was suspected as an underlying cause of the pneumothorax. Surgical treatment was performed using a mediastinal fat pad and TPC, and no relapse was seen up to 2 years after surgery. TPC is a less invasive surgical approach for selected patients with vEDS. Accurate underlying diagnosis of vEDS and systemic evaluation of vascular complications are necessary before planning surgery.

  2. Aboveground Net Primary Production of tree cover at the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates

  3. DMBLC: An Indirect Urban Impervious Surface Area Extraction Approach by Detecting and Masking Background Land Cover on Google Earth Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Implying the prosperity and development of the city, impervious surface area (ISA is playing an increasingly important role in ecological processes, microclimate, material and energy flows, and urban flood. The free sub-meter resolution Google Earth image, which is integrated by several high spatial resolution data, appears to have potential for high-resolution ISA extraction, where present study is rare and performances remain to be improved. Due to the high spatial and spectral variation of the urban environment as well as confusion between ISA and soil, the accurate delineating of ISA with traditional (direct methods can be costly and time-consuming, which is in a word resource-intensive. However, this paper presents a novel indirect ISA extraction conceptual model and a new detecting and masking background land cover (DMBLC approach that: uses a freely available, high-resolution dataset; requires a reduced set of training samples; and consists of relatively simple, common, and feasible image processing steps. The key characteristic of DMBLC is to detect the background of ISA (vegetation, soil, and water accurately and obtain the ISA by masking the background. The approach relies on background detection to avoid the predicaments of direct ISA extraction. Water can be directly gained by water body vector data, in DMBLC; mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF is exploited to detect vegetation and soil, image segmentation is used to mitigate the spectral variation problem within the same land cover, and segment rectangularity reduces the confusion between ISA and soil. From experiments in a core area of Fuzhou, China, the DMBLC approach reached high performance and outperformed the powerful traditional support vector machines (SVM method (overall accuracy of 94.45% and Kappa coefficient of 0.8885, compared to 86.44% and 0.7329, respectively. From the comparison of different levels of complexity within the inner processing steps, it is confirmed

  4. Land use and land cover classification for rural residential areas in China using soft-probability cascading of multifeatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yueyan; Zhang, Zuyu; Shen, Yonglin

    2017-10-01

    A multifeature soft-probability cascading scheme to solve the problem of land use and land cover (LULC) classification using high-spatial-resolution images to map rural residential areas in China is proposed. The proposed method is used to build midlevel LULC features. Local features are frequently considered as low-level feature descriptors in a midlevel feature learning method. However, spectral and textural features, which are very effective low-level features, are neglected. The acquisition of the dictionary of sparse coding is unsupervised, and this phenomenon reduces the discriminative power of the midlevel feature. Thus, we propose to learn supervised features based on sparse coding, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, and a conditional random field (CRF) model to utilize the different effective low-level features and improve the discriminability of midlevel feature descriptors. First, three kinds of typical low-level features, namely, dense scale-invariant feature transform, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, and spectral features, are extracted separately. Second, combined with sparse coding and the SVM classifier, the probabilities of the different LULC classes are inferred to build supervised feature descriptors. Finally, the CRF model, which consists of two parts: unary potential and pairwise potential, is employed to construct an LULC classification map. Experimental results show that the proposed classification scheme can achieve impressive performance when the total accuracy reached about 87%.

  5. Land Cover Mapping using GEOBIA to Estimate Loss of Salacca zalacca Trees in Landslide Area of Clapar, Madukara District of Banjarnegara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Anggi; Juniansah, Anwar; Nurcahyati, Eka; Dimas Afrizal, Mousafi; Adnan Shafry Untoro, Muhammad; Arifatha, Na'ima; Ramadhani Yudha Adiwijaya, Raden; Farda, Nur Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Landslide is an unpredictable natural disaster which commonly happens in highslope area. Aerial photography in small format is one of acquisition method that can reach and obtain high resolution spatial data faster than other methods, and provide data such as orthomosaic and Digital Surface Model (DSM). The study area contained landslide area in Clapar, Madukara District of Banjarnegara. Aerial photographs of landslide area provided advantage in objects visibility. Object's characters such as shape, size, and texture were clearly seen, therefore GEOBIA (Geography Object Based Image Analysis) was compatible as method for classifying land cover in study area. Dissimilar with PPA (PerPixel Analyst) method that used spectral information as base object detection, GEOBIA could use spatial elements as classification basis to establish a land cover map with better accuracy. GEOBIA method used classification hierarchy to divide post disaster land cover into three main objects: vegetation, landslide/soil, and building. Those three were required to obtain more detailed information that can be used in estimating loss caused by landslide and establishing land cover map in landslide area. Estimating loss in landslide area related to damage in Salak (Salacca zalacca) plantations. This estimation towards quantity of Salak tree that were drifted away by landslide was calculated in assumption that every tree damaged by landslide had same age and production class with other tree that weren't damaged. Loss calculation was done by approximating quantity of damaged trees in landslide area with data of trees around area that were acquired from GEOBIA classification method.

  6. Ensemble-based assimilation of fractional snow-covered area satellite retrievals to estimate the snow distribution at Arctic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalstad, Kristoffer; Westermann, Sebastian; Vikhamar Schuler, Thomas; Boike, Julia; Bertino, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    With its high albedo, low thermal conductivity and large water storing capacity, snow strongly modulates the surface energy and water balance, which makes it a critical factor in mid- to high-latitude and mountain environments. However, estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) is challenging in remote-sensing applications already at medium spatial resolutions of 1 km. We present an ensemble-based data assimilation framework that estimates the peak subgrid SWE distribution (SSD) at the 1 km scale by assimilating fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) satellite retrievals in a simple snow model forced by downscaled reanalysis data. The basic idea is to relate the timing of the snow cover depletion (accessible from satellite products) to the peak SSD. Peak subgrid SWE is assumed to be lognormally distributed, which can be translated to a modeled time series of fSCA through the snow model. Assimilation of satellite-derived fSCA facilitates the estimation of the peak SSD, while taking into account uncertainties in both the model and the assimilated data sets. As an extension to previous studies, our method makes use of the novel (to snow data assimilation) ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ES-MDA) scheme combined with analytical Gaussian anamorphosis to assimilate time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sentinel-2 fSCA retrievals. The scheme is applied to Arctic sites near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, Svalbard, Norway) where field measurements of fSCA and SWE distributions are available. The method is able to successfully recover accurate estimates of peak SSD on most of the occasions considered. Through the ES-MDA assimilation, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the fSCA, peak mean SWE and peak subgrid coefficient of variation is improved by around 75, 60 and 20 %, respectively, when compared to the prior, yielding RMSEs of 0.01, 0.09 m water equivalent (w.e.) and 0.13, respectively. The ES-MDA either outperforms or at least

  7. Ensemble-based assimilation of fractional snow-covered area satellite retrievals to estimate the snow distribution at Arctic sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aalstad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With its high albedo, low thermal conductivity and large water storing capacity, snow strongly modulates the surface energy and water balance, which makes it a critical factor in mid- to high-latitude and mountain environments. However, estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE is challenging in remote-sensing applications already at medium spatial resolutions of 1 km. We present an ensemble-based data assimilation framework that estimates the peak subgrid SWE distribution (SSD at the 1 km scale by assimilating fractional snow-covered area (fSCA satellite retrievals in a simple snow model forced by downscaled reanalysis data. The basic idea is to relate the timing of the snow cover depletion (accessible from satellite products to the peak SSD. Peak subgrid SWE is assumed to be lognormally distributed, which can be translated to a modeled time series of fSCA through the snow model. Assimilation of satellite-derived fSCA facilitates the estimation of the peak SSD, while taking into account uncertainties in both the model and the assimilated data sets. As an extension to previous studies, our method makes use of the novel (to snow data assimilation ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ES-MDA scheme combined with analytical Gaussian anamorphosis to assimilate time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Sentinel-2 fSCA retrievals. The scheme is applied to Arctic sites near Ny-Ålesund (79° N, Svalbard, Norway where field measurements of fSCA and SWE distributions are available. The method is able to successfully recover accurate estimates of peak SSD on most of the occasions considered. Through the ES-MDA assimilation, the root-mean-square error (RMSE for the fSCA, peak mean SWE and peak subgrid coefficient of variation is improved by around 75, 60 and 20 %, respectively, when compared to the prior, yielding RMSEs of 0.01, 0.09 m water equivalent (w.e. and 0.13, respectively. The ES-MDA either

  8. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Doll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources.

  9. Environmental cleaning and disinfection of patient areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Michelle; Stevens, Michael; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2018-02-01

    The healthcare setting is predisposed to harbor potential pathogens, which in turn can pose a great risk to patients. Routine cleaning of the patient environment is critical to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. While many approaches to environmental cleaning exist, manual cleaning supplemented with ongoing assessment and feedback may be the most feasible for healthcare facilities with limited resources. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional MRI in Patients with Intracranial Lesions near Language Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, B; Erdogan, C; Yildirim, N; Bora, I; Bekar, A; Parlak, M

    2006-06-30

    We aimed to depict Broca's area and Wernicke's area by word generation and sentence formation paradigms in patients with various intracranial lesions adjacent to language areas using functional MRI technique and to evaluate the ability of functional MRI to lateralize the hemispheric dominance for language. Twenty-three right-handed patients were included in this study. Lesions were classified as low-grade glioma (n=8), high-grade glioma (n=9), metastasis (n=1), meningioma (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=2) and mesial temporal sclerosis (n=2). We performed blood-oxygenated-level-dependant functional MRI using a 1.5-T unit. Word generation and sentence formation tasks were used to activate language areas. Language areas were defined as Brodmann 44, 45 (Broca's area) and Brodmann 22 area (Wernicke's area). Laterality index was used to show the dominant hemisphere. Two poorly cooperative patients showed no activation and were excluded from the study. Broca's area was localized in 21 patients (100 %). Wernicke's area, on the other hand, could only be localized in eight of the 21 patients (38 %).The left hemisphere was dominant in 86% of patients while atypical language lateralization (right or bilateral) was demonstrated in 14% of the patients. Bilateral activation areas were shown in 10% of those patients while right cerebral hemisphere was dominant in 4% of the patients. Word generation and sentence formation tasks are especially helpful in localizing Broca's area. Wernicke's area could also be demonstrated in some of the cases. Functional MRI can be used as an important and useful means of demonstrating language areas in patients with lesions adjacent to those areas and depicting the hemispheric dominance.

  11. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let

  12. Clearance of buildings for demolition: ways to clearance on the standing structure for covered surfaces and inaccessible areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thraenert, S.; Riemann, T.

    2014-01-01

    structure for about half of this area, and until 2014 most of the remaining area will be treated accordingly. However, due to the building design of Wuergassen NPP, not all surfaces are directly accessible to full-area characterization on the standing structure and not all areas can be completely decontaminated in a cost-effective manner. The most prominent structure is the open gap between the turbine foundations and the surrounding turbine building, but similar gaps also exist between the turbine building and, e.g., the reactor building. In addition, the lower basement floors of the RCA buildings consist of several horizontal layers of concrete which, during construction, did not completely bond. As a result, contaminated liquids propagated along the existing boundary surfaces and hot spots up to 100 kBq are now covered by about 0.5 m of low-activity material. For this variety of challenging examples Wuergassen NPP proposed the release process to the competent authority, performed measurements and provided interpretation of the data. The release process is aimed at verifying compliance with the clearance levels on the standing structure. TUV NORD Nuclear is involved in the release process on behalf of the competent authority to expertise the procedure, to supervise the measurements and to review the data evaluation. Regarding the boundary surfaces between two concrete layers it was possible to gain access to the covered surface by fragmenting the upper concrete layer into blocks. The decontaminated surfaces comply with the clearance levels and the decontaminated concrete blocks may remain on site. An existing gap between the turbine building and the reactor building was characterized by using special equipment. It could be shown, that the residual contamination within the gap complies with the clearance levels. If it is not possible to do a complete decontamination according to static reasons, the residual radioactivity can be determined for further use in the dose

  13. Implication of relationship between natural impacts and land use/land cover (LULC) changes of urban area in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantumur, Byambakhuu; Wu, Falin; Zhao, Yan; Vandansambuu, Battsengel; Dalaibaatar, Enkhjargal; Itiritiphan, Fareda; Shaimurat, Dauryenbyek

    2017-10-01

    Urban growth can profoundly alter the urban landscape structure, ecosystem processes, and local climates. Timely and accurate information on the status and trends of urban ecosystems is critical to develop strategies for sustainable development and to improve the urban residential environment and living quality. Ulaanbaatar city was urbanized very rapidly caused by herders and farmers, many of them migrating from rural places, have played a big role in this urban expansion (sprawl). Today, 1.3 million residents for about 40% of total population are living in the Ulaanbaatar region. Those human activities influenced stronger to green environments. Therefore, the aim of this study is determined to change detection of land use/land cover (LULC) and estimating their areas for the trend of future by remote sensing and statistical methods. The implications of analysis were provided by change detection methods of LULC, remote sensing spectral indices including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI). In addition, it can relate to urban heat island (UHI) provided by Land surface temperature (LST) with local climate issues. Statistical methods for image processing used to define relations between those spectral indices and change detection images and regression analysis for time series trend in future. Remote sensing data are used by Landsat (TM/ETM+/OLI) satellite images over the period between 1990 and 2016 by 5 years. The advantages of this study are very useful remote sensing approaches with statistical analysis and important to detecting changes of LULC. The experimental results show that the LULC changes can image on the present and after few years and determined relations between impacts of environmental conditions.

  14. Anticonvulsant prescription patterns in patients covered by the Colombian Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Plaza, C D; Machado-Alba, J E

    Epilepsy is a group of long-term neurological disorders characterised by seizures that may respond to pharmacological treatment. Determine the prescribing patterns of anticonvulsants for patients covered by the healthcare system in Colombia. Cross-sectional study using a database containing 6.5 million people. From among residents in 88 Colombian cities, we selected patients of both sexes and all ages who were treated continuously with anticonvulsants between June and August 2012. We designed a drug consumption database and performed multivariate analysis for combination treatment and co-medication using SPSS 20.0. A total of 13,793 patients with mean age of 48.9±22.0 years were studied; 52.9% of the participants were women. Of the patient total, 74.4% were treated in monotherapy and 25.6% received two or more anticonvulsants. Globally, 72.9% of the patients were initially treated with classic anticonvulsants and 27.1% with new drugs. The most frequently used drugs were valproic acid (33.3%), carbamazepine (30.2%), clonazepam (15.7%), pregabalin (10.3%), phenytoin (10.0%) and levetiracetam (7.9%). Most agents were used in higher doses than recommended. The most common combinations were valproic acid+clonazepam (10.9%), valproic acid+carbamazepine (10.0%), carbamazepine+clonazepam (5.6%), valproic acid+phenytoin (4.4%). The most frequently prescribed co-medications were antihypertensives (61.0%), lipid-lowering drugs (45.8%), antidepressants (36.7%), antipsychotics (20.1%), anxiolytics (7.9%), and lithium (1.8%). Doctors predominantly prescribe drugs with a high therapeutic value and favour anticonvulsant monotherapy. Most agents were used in higher doses than recommended. This underlines the need to design educational strategies addressing these prescribing habits, and to undertake research on the effectiveness of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Built-Up Area and Land Cover Extraction Using High Resolution Pleiades Satellite Imagery for Midrand, in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundisi, E.; Musakwa, W.

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas, particularly in developing countries face immense challenges such as climate change, poverty, lack of resources poor land use management systems, and week environmental management practices. Mitigating against these challenges is often hampered by lack of data on urban expansion, urban footprint and land cover. To support the recently adopted new urban agenda 2030 there is need for the provision of information to support decision making in the urban areas. Earth observation has been identified as a tool to foster sustainable urban planning and smarter cities as recognized by the new urban agenda, because it is a solution to unavailability of data. Accordingly, this study uses high resolution EO data Pleiades satellite imagery to map and document land cover for the rapidly expanding area of Midrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. An unsupervised land cover classification of the Pleiades satellite imagery was carried out using ENVI software, whereas NDVI was derived using ArcGIS software. The land cover had an accuracy of 85% that is highly adequate to document the land cover in Midrand. The results are useful because it provides a highly accurate land cover and NDVI datasets at localised spatial scale that can be used to support land use management strategies within Midrand and the City of Johannesburg South Africa.

  16. BUILT-UP AREA AND LAND COVER EXTRACTION USING HIGH RESOLUTION PLEIADES SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR MIDRAND, IN GAUTENG PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fundisi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas, particularly in developing countries face immense challenges such as climate change, poverty, lack of resources poor land use management systems, and week environmental management practices. Mitigating against these challenges is often hampered by lack of data on urban expansion, urban footprint and land cover. To support the recently adopted new urban agenda 2030 there is need for the provision of information to support decision making in the urban areas. Earth observation has been identified as a tool to foster sustainable urban planning and smarter cities as recognized by the new urban agenda, because it is a solution to unavailability of data. Accordingly, this study uses high resolution EO data Pleiades satellite imagery to map and document land cover for the rapidly expanding area of Midrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. An unsupervised land cover classification of the Pleiades satellite imagery was carried out using ENVI software, whereas NDVI was derived using ArcGIS software. The land cover had an accuracy of 85% that is highly adequate to document the land cover in Midrand. The results are useful because it provides a highly accurate land cover and NDVI datasets at localised spatial scale that can be used to support land use management strategies within Midrand and the City of Johannesburg South Africa.

  17. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  18. Multitemporal analysis of Landsat images to detect land use land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing in the Nola area (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, Michaela; Allocca, Maria; Franci, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Land Use Land Cover Changes (LULCC) data provide objective information to support environmental policy, urban planning purposes and sustainable land development. Understanding of past land use/cover practices and current landscape patterns is critical to assess the effects of LULCC on the Earth system. Within the framework of soil sealing in Italy, the present study aims to assess the LULCC of the Nola area (Naples metropolitan area, Italy), relating to a thirty year period from 1984 to 2015. The urban sprawl affects this area causing the impervious surface increase, the loss in rural areas and landscape fragmentation. Located near Vesuvio volcano and crossed by artificial filled rivers, the study area is subject to landslide, hydraulic and volcanic risks. Landsat time series has been processed by means of the supervised per-pixel classification in order to produce multitemporal Land Use Land Cover maps. Then, post-classification comparison approach has been applied to quantify the changes occurring between 1984 and 2015, also analyzing the intermediate variations in 1999, namely every fifteen years. The results confirm the urban sprawl. The increase of the built-up areas mainly causes the habitat fragmentation and the agricultural land conversion of the Nola area that is already damaged by unauthorized disposal of urban waste. Moreover, considering the local risk maps, it was verified that some of the new urban areas were built over known hazardous sites. In order to limit the soil sealing, urgent measures and sustainable urban planning are required.

  19. Surface lowering of the debris-covered area of Kanchenjunga Glacier in the eastern Nepal Himalaya since 1975, as revealed by Hexagon KH-9 and ALOS satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Damodar; Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Akiko

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the geodetic mass balance of Kanchenjunga Glacier, one of the largest debris-covered glaciers in the easternmost Nepal Himalaya, which possesses a negative mass balance of -0.18 ± 0.17 m w.e. a-1 for the 1975-2010 study period, estimated using digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from Hexagon KH-9 and ALOS PRISM stereo images. Accurate DEMs, with a relative uncertainty of ±5.5 m, were generated from the intensive and manual editing of triangulated irregular network (TIN) models on a stereo MirrorTM/3D Monitor. The glacier ice-flow velocity field was also calculated using a feature-tracking method that was applied to two ALOS orthoimages taken in 2010. The elevation differences between the two DEMs highlight considerable surface lowering across the debris-covered area, and a slight thickening in the accumulation area of Kanchenjunga Glacier between 1975 and 2010. The magnitude and gradient of surface lowering are similar among the six glacier tributaries, even though they are situated at different elevations, which may reflect variations in the ice-flow velocity field. The pattern of surface lowering correlates well with the ice-flow velocity field over the debris-covered portion of the main tributary, suggesting that the glacier dynamics significantly affect surface lowering by altering the emergence velocity along the glacier, particularly in the compressive ablation area. Surface-lowering patterns partially correspond to the supraglacial pond area fraction of the glacier, with enhanced surface lowering observed in areas that possess a larger pond area fraction. These findings support the hypothesis that supraglacial ponds may intensify ice wastage and play a key role in the heterogeneous surface lowering of debris-covered glaciers. The estimated mass loss of Kanchenjunga Glacier is moderate compared with other debris-covered glaciers in neighboring Himalayan regions, which may be due to the lower pond area fraction of Kanchenjunga

  20. The Effect Of Land Cover/Land Use On Groundwater Resources In Southern Egypt (Luxor Area): Remote Sensing And Field Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, A.M.; Hinz, E.A.; Montgomery, H.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of land cover/land use on groundwater can be critical. Land cover / land use maps give an early warning for planners and developers to protect groundwater resources from depletion and preserve its sustain ability. These land cover / land use maps can be used for the planning of groundwater development to prevent the deterioration of the aquifer. The Research Institute for Groundwater of Egypt (RIGW) has carried out hydrogeological studies in 1990 to evaluate the potentiality of groundwater in Luxor area in southern Egypt close to the Nile valley. The region is characterized by a rapid and continuous increase in land reclamation and development on the fringes which surround the already heavily cultivated land within the Nile valley. This presented a need for continuous monitoring and information updating over a vast region in a short time and at a reasonable cost. This study illustrates how remote sensing techniques can be effectively used for monitoring changes in land cover / land use in an effort to aid groundwater management. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in 1984 and 2000 were processed and analyzed over the study area to produce land cover/land use maps. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique is used for Landsat TM images of to quantify areas which are covered by vegetation. Results indicated significant increase in cultivated areas. Remote sensing results are compared with iso-piezo metric maps and iso-salinity maps that were produced in 1984 and 2000. Comparison of these maps indicates groundwater depletion and salinity increase from 1984 to 2000. We relate this to the increase of the area being cultivated

  1. Spatial and temporal analysis of the land cover in riparian buffer zones (Areas for Permanent Preservation in Sorocaba City, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fundamental role that the riparian vegetation plays in relation to maintenance of the environmental health of a watershed and the necessity of restoring sectors of the buffer zone without natural vegetation, in this paper we investigated what land cover classes occur along the riparian buffer stripes considered Area for Permanent Preservation (APP in the Sorocaba municipality, SP in three periods: 1988, 1995 and 2003. Based on GIS technology and using the drainage network map, the APP stripes (riparian buffer zones map was generated, and this map was overlaid to the land cover map (1988, 1995 and 2003 to provide a land cover map specifically of the riparian buffer zones. The results show that 58.43% of the APPs have no land cover of native vegetation and therefore, need to be reforested, representing 5,400 hectares to be restored.

  2. A Novel Partially Covered Self-Expandable Metallic Stent with Proximal Flare in Patients with Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Naminatsu; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Saito, Tomotaka; Mizuno, Suguru; Yagioka, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Togawa, Osamu; Matsubara, Saburo; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-15

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) has emerged as a palliative treatment for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). Although covered SEMSs can prevent tumor ingrowth, frequent migration of covered SEMSs may offset their advantages in preventing tumor ingrowth. We conducted this multicenter, single-arm, retrospective study at six tertiary referral centers to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a partially covered SEMS with an uncovered large-bore flare at the proximal end as an antimigration system in 41 patients with symptomatic malignant GOO. The primary outcome was clinical success, and the secondary outcomes were technical success, stent dysfunction, adverse events, and survival after stent placement. The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 95%, respectively. Stent dysfunctions occurred in 17 patients (41%), including stent migration in nine (23%), tumor ingrowth in one (2%), and tumor overgrowth in four (10%). Two patients (5%) developed adverse events: one pancreatitis and one perforation. No procedure-related death was observed. A novel partially covered SEMS with a large-bore flare proximal end was safe and effective for malignant GOO but failed to prevent stent migration. Further research is warranted to develop a covered SEMS with an optimal antimigration system.

  3. Conversion of traditional agricultural land to built-up areas. Land use/cover changes in the municipality of Valencia (1956-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valera Lozano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the land use-cover dynamics from the mid- 1950s to 2012 in the municipality of Valencia, eastern Spain. The study area is a very interesting example of the many land use and land cover changes in the landscape of Mediterranean alluvial plains. The analysis was based on photo interpretation of aerial photographs (1956, 1984, 2006 and 2012 and GIS based methodology. At a detailed scale (1:10,000, results show that there has been a highly dynamic process produced by the extent of land developed as urban area. In 1956 11,112 hectares were occupied by agricultural land and natural areas. During fifty five years, the sealed surface was 2,396 hectares. In 2012 the built-up extent was around 33% of the studied area. In the municipality of Valencia much of the land converted to urban use was once highly productive agricultural land.

  4. Strontium-90 and plutonium-239/240 accumulation and distribution in soil-vegetative cover of some Semipalatinsk test site areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Artem'ev, O.I.; Luk'yanova, Yu.A.; Sidorovich, T.V.; Silkina, G.P.; Kurmanbaeva, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of field and laboratory studies of soil-vegetative cover contamination by 90 Sr and 239/240 Pu. Certain parameters of radionuclide migration in the environment of some former Semipalatinsk Test Site areas were determined. (author)

  5. Object-based land cover classification and change analysis in the Baltimore metropolitan area using multitemporal high resolution remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; Morgan Grove

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and timely information about land cover pattern and change in urban areas is crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. This paper presents the methods and results of an object-based classification and post-classification change detection of multitemporal high-spatial resolution Emerge aerial imagery in the...

  6. Variation in wood anatomy of species with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outer, den R.W.; Veenendaal, van W.L.H.

    1976-01-01

    The variation in wood anatomy within 30 hardwood species, each with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, Africa, has been studied. Compared to specimens from the rain forest, material from the savanna tends to have more wood ray tissue (rays are higher,

  7. Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Rocuronium Bromide between Patients from the Plateau Area and from the Plain Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Huang, Jianxin; Li, Peng; Ou, Zhiyan; Hou, Jing

    2016-06-23

    We aimed to conduct a pharmacodynamic comparison of rocuronium bromide between patients from the plateau area and from the plain area. A total of 104 patients who received laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital and Aba Autonomous Prefecture People's Hospital from October 2015 to December 2015 were included in this study. Among them, 46 patients were from the plateau area and 58 were from the plain area. Both groups received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with a dose of 0.6mg/kg rocuronium bromide during induction. In the meantime, neuromuscular block was monitored using a train-of-four (TOF) stimulation mode. The onset time (time to achieve the lowest TOF value after the injection of rocuronium bromide), duration of maximal neuromuscular block (duration of lowest T1 value), time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery, recovery index (time from 25% recovery to 75% recovery), time to extubation, length of stay in Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and muscle strength upon PACU discharge were all recorded. The onset time, time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery and time to extubation were all significantly prolonged in patients from the plateau area after receiving one single dose of rocuronium bromide (P0.05). Compared to patients from the plain area, patients from the plateau area showed prolonged onset time of rocuronium bromide, reduced metabolic capabilities and longer duration of muscular relaxation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecological niche modeling and land cover risk areas for rift valley fever vector, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S; Abdullah, Mohamed A R

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton), was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector in Jazan Province using ArcGIS ver.10 and MaxEnt modeling program. Also, a supervised land cover classification from SPOT5 imagery was developed to assess the land cover distribution within the suitable predicted habitats. Eleven bioclimatic and slope attributes were found to be the significant predictors for this larval suitable breeding habitat. Precipitation and temperature were strong predictors of mosquito distribution. Among six land cover classes, the linear regression model (LM) indicated wet muddy substrate is significantly associated with high-very high suitable predicted habitats (R(2) = 73.7%, Presearchers.

  9. Inappropriate Dietary and Occupational Patterns: Major Risk Factors Associated With Brucellosis in the Area Covered by Karaj Health Center No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Khani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among humans and livestock. Using contaminated and unpasteurized dairy products, having contact with infected livestock and, in general, inappropriate dietary patterns, as well as lack of hygiene, can be noted as the most common modes of transmission for such a disease. Objectives: Since the establishment of Alborz province in Iran and, accordingly, Alborz university of medical sciences, Karaj, Iran, there has been no study on the epidemiological situation of the disease. Therefore, the present study examines the epidemiology of Brucellosis at Karaj Health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran, during 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods: This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study, on patients with Brucellosis, during 2011 - 2012, in the area covered by Karaj health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran. The data about all suspected cases, collected from polyclinic, laboratories and health centers, and confirmed by Wright, combs Wright and 2ME tests were reviewed. After recording the demographic data and laboratory results, they were entered into STATA 11 software and analyzed. Results: The number of patients reported in this study was 67. The incidence of the disease during 2011 - 2012 was, respectively, 3.75 and 4.6 per hundred thousand and the average incidence of the disease was 4.2 per hundred thousand. The highest rate of infection, in terms of occupation, was found among ranchers (40.29%. In 100% of the cases, there was a history of consumption of cottage cheese, fresh cow milk or other unpasteurized dairy products. Considering the incidence season, most cases of the disease (38.80% had occurred in the spring. In terms of gender, 56.71% were male and 43.28% of patients were female. As well, in terms of age, more 50% of the patients were in the age groups of 31 - 40 and 41 - 50 years old. Conclusions: Given the occurrence of more cases of the disease among individuals with risk factors, such as

  10. Effects of tourism and globalization on land cover and the influence on the quality of life of Paphos area in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italos, Chrysostomos; Akylas, Evangelos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    Since 1960 most of the coastal area cites across the Mediterranean Sea concentrates people due mass immigration of people from the rural to urban areas. The extensive tourism development especially across the coastal areas, create demand of infrastructures and new work positions and intensive pressure to the environment. The new spirit of the globalization creates movability of people and goods around the word. The free transfer of people from countries with big population and low economical wealth, which are moved to areas where they can work. All the above generate demands of labor and Paphos is one of these areas where during the last decades was transformed from a small agriculture village in one excellent tourist destination. Across the coastal areas big tourist infrastructure was built and lot of different people travel from all areas around the word especially during the summer months. All these generate continuous changes to the environment, to the people and the society. The globalization of the universe commerce and the free transfer of goods and people modify the community stratification. The inflow of agricultures products from third countries reduces the local production and generates degradation and desertification of the rural areas. The periodical variation of the population of the area during the summer and winter periods affect to the environment. The increment demand of sources (water, energy and food) during the summer months pressurize the coastal strip area. By estimating a ratio of inflows by the outflows of goods, people and services of the study area and a ratio of the tourists by the local population, a general index can by arise which will clarify the effects on the environment on the study area. This paper presents the results obtained by this study by examining the effects of tourism on land cover and effects on quality of life for the Paphos area in Cyprus. The authors explores the potential of blending in the sustainability study the

  11. Investigation the Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Borage (Borago officinalis L. and Cover Crops in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab shirzadi margavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Distribution of leaf area and dry matter are the effective factors that influence on absorption the radiation, evaporation and transpiration of canopy and eventually dry matter accumulation and grain yield in plants. Plant canopy is the spatial arrangement of shoots in a plant population. In plant canopy, leaves are responsible for radiation absorption and gas exchange with the outside. Stem and branches arrange photosynthetic organs somehow, which gas exchange and light distribution best done. The effect of canopy structure on gas exchange and absorption of radiation in plant communities caused detailed study of the canopy structure to be more important. Materials and methods In order to investigate the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of borage and sweet basil in competition with weeds by cover crops treatments, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari in 2013. Treatments were cover crops mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. in the rows between the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L.. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cover crops to control weeds, pure stand of sweet basil and borage in terms of weeding and no weed controls per replicates were used. Each plot was included 5 rows of medicinal plants. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Estimation of leaf area and dry matter of each plant in different canopy layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 80.100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm were done after 75 planting days, with 1 m × 1 m quadrate per plot. For this purpose a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants (crops, cover crops and weeds into 20-cm strata increments (Mosier & Oliver, 1995. All samples were transferred to the

  12. Palliation of patients with esophagogastric neoplasms by insertion of a covered expandable modified Gianturco-Z endoprosthesis: experiences in 153 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelsman, J. F.; Bruno, M. J.; Jensema, A. J.; Haringsma, J.; Reeders, J. W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    2000-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of treatment by insertion of a covered expandable modified Gianturco-Z endoprosthesis (Song stent) in patients with esophagogastric malignancies. Consecutive patients with esophagogastric malignancies in whom a Song stent was inserted were

  13. Scintigraphic investigation of clavicular bone area in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Kazuo; Amano, Michiko; Sekiya, Sakae; Komatani, Akio

    1984-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was performed in 38 patients with psoriasis, 5 patients with palmoplantar pustulosis, and 56 control subjects. Abnormal uptake was seen primarily in the sternoclavicular junction and the cartilage of the first rib in 24 of the patients with psoriasis (63%) and in 3 of the patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (60%), and in the sternoclavicular junction in 21 of the control subjects (38%). The incidence of uptake in the sternoclavicular junction area in the psoriasis patients clearly exceeded that in the control subjects. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Borders of left gastric lymph node area in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Pudong; Guo Yesong; Li Jianzhong; Wang Yufen; Feng Chunwei; Lv Hong; Fei Wenlong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure and define the distribution of left gastric lymph nodes. Methods: From Jan. 2004 to Apr. 2005, silver clips were set around the root of the left gastric artery in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma, X-ray films at 0 degree and 90 degree simulator gantry in the radio- therapeutic position were taken. Then, the data of the superior, lower, left, right, anterior and posterior bor- der in each patient was recorded. With SAS 8.02 software, data of minimum area which covered the left gastric lymph node in different incidences were obtained. Results: According to the analysis of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smimov, Cramervon Mises and Anderson-Darling tests, each border' was of normal distribution, with equal frequency in the male and female, despite the actual results in different genders. Pearson Correlation Coefficients analysis did not suggest a significant relationship between the border and height, weight and size of vertebrae, which formed the minimum area covering the left gastric area at frequency of 100%, 95%, 90% and 85%, which were drawn out through the calculation. Conclusions: Aiming at completely identifying the normal distribution of the left gastric lymph node, more patients are required to be in the pool. For the time being, location in the left gastric area can be obtained from details of the results in the present study. (authors)

  15. Pleural Covering Application for Recurrent Pneumothorax in a Patient with Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebana, Hiroki; Otsuji, Mizuto; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2016-06-20

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is a rare hereditary disease that presents with multiple lung cysts and recurrent pneumothorax. These cysts occupy predominantly the lower-medial zone of the lung field adjacent to the interlobar fissure, and some of them abut peripheral pulmonary vessels. For the surgical management of pneumothorax with BHDS, the conventional approach of resecting all subpleural cysts and bullae is not feasible. Thus, after handling several bullae by using a stapler or performing ligation as a standardized treatment, we applied to a pleural covering technique to thicken the affected visceral pleura and then to prevent recurrence of pneumothorax. We herein report the successful application of a pleural covering technique via thoracoscopic surgery to treat the recurrent pneumothorax of a 30-year-old man with BHDS. This technique is promising for the management of intractable pneumothorax secondary to BHDS.

  16. In situ testing to determination field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of UMTRA Project disposal cell covers, liners, and foundation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This special study was conducted to prepare a guidance document for selecting in situ hydraulic conductivity (K) tests, comparing in situ testing methods, and evaluating the results of such tests. This report may be used as a practical decision-making tool by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project staff to determine which testing method will most efficiently achieve the field-saturated K results needed for long-term planning. A detailed section on near-surface test methods discusses each method which may be applicable to characterization of UMTRA disposal cell covers, liners and foundation materials. These potentially applicable test methods include the sealed double-ring infiltrometer (SDRI), the air-entry permeameter (AEP), the guelph permeameter, the two-stage borehole technique (TSB), the pressure infiltrometer, and the disk permeameter. Analytical solutions for these methods are provided, and limitations of these solutions are discussed, and a description of testing equipment design and installation are provided

  17. Evaluation of postoperative patient satisfaction after covering the nasal dorsum with upper lateral cartilage: "upper lateral closing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağıcı, Can Alper

    2017-11-16

    Following nasal hump removal during septorhinoplasty, the middle vault should be reconstructed to avoid functional and esthetic problems. Middle vault reconstruction, however, may result in widening of the middle vault and may need a camouflage graft to cover dorsal irregularities. To present the results of reconstructing the middle vault with a technique that covers the nasal dorsum with upper lateral cartilage, from the viewpoint of patient satisfaction. Retrospective study of patients who underwent septorhinoplasty that included nasal dorsum closure with upper lateral cartilage from December 1, 2014 to January 31, 2016. Those with postoperative follow-up of less than 3 months were excluded. The final study group included 39 patients. The same surgeon performed all septorhinoplasties. The dorsum was closed using an "upper lateral closing" technique that approximated upper lateral cartilages to each other over the septum. Postoperative patient satisfaction was determined using a visual analog scale and the rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation questionnaire. The questionnaire evaluates patient esthetic and functional satisfaction with the operated nose. High scores indicate improved esthetic results. No dorsal irregularities were seen at postoperative follow-up evaluation of the patients. For esthetic nasal appearance, the median visual analogue scale scores was 86%, and the mean for the questionnaire was 77.03%. The natural dome-shaped anatomy of the nasal dorsum was achieved by approximating the upper lateral cartilages to each other. Closing the dorsum with this technique also covers any dorsal irregularities and results in a smooth dorsum. Patients expressed satisfaction with the esthetic and functional aspects of the smooth, attractive nasal dorsum. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Land Use-Cover Changes and Successional Stages of Vegetation in the Natural Protected Area Altas Cumbres, Northeastern Mexico, Using Landsat Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Jeshua Sánchez-Reyes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Loss of vegetation cover is a major factor that endangers biodiversity. Therefore, the use of geographic information systems and the analysis of satellite images are important for monitoring these changes in Natural Protected Areas (NPAs. In northeastern Mexico, the Natural Protected Area Altas Cumbres (NPAAC represents a relevant floristic and faunistic patch on which the impact of loss of vegetation cover has not been assessed. This work aimed to analyze changes of land use and coverage (LULCC over the last 42 years on the interior and around the exterior of the area, and also to propose the time of succession for the most important types of vegetation. For the analysis, LANDSAT satellite images from 1973, 1986, 2000, 2005 and 2015 were used, they were classified in seven categories through a segmentation and maximum likelihood analysis. A cross-tabulation analysis was performed to determine the succession gradient. Towards the interior of the area, a significant reduction of tropical vegetation and, to a lesser extent, temperate forests was found, as well as an increase in scrub cover from 1973 to 2015. In addition, urban and vegetation-free areas, as well as modified vegetation, increased to the exterior. Towards the interior of the NPA, the processes of perturbation and recovery were mostly not linear, while in the exterior adjacent area, the presence of secondary vegetation with distinct definite time of succession was evident. The analysis carried out is the first contribution that evaluates LULCC in this important NPA of northeastern Mexico. Results suggest the need to evaluate the effects of these modifications on species.

  19. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  20. Improvement of distributed snowmelt energy balance modeling with MODIS-based NDSI-derived fractional snow-covered area data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel W. Homan; Charles H. Luce; James P. McNamara; Nancy F. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Describing the spatial variability of heterogeneous snowpacks at a watershed or mountain-front scale is important for improvements in large-scale snowmelt modelling. Snowmelt depletion curves, which relate fractional decreases in snowcovered area (SCA) against normalized decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE), are a common approach to scale-up snowmelt models....

  1. Estimating Unbiased Land Cover Change Areas In The Colombian Amazon Using Landsat Time Series And Statistical Inference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, P. A.; Olofsson, P.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Unbiased estimation of the areas of conversion between land categories ("activity data") and their uncertainty is crucial for providing more robust calculations of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, as well as their removals. This is particularly important for the REDD+ mechanism of UNFCCC where an economic compensation is tied to the magnitude and direction of such fluxes. Dense time series of Landsat data and statistical protocols are becoming an integral part of forest monitoring efforts, but there are relatively few studies in the tropics focused on using these methods to advance operational MRV systems (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification). We present the results of a prototype methodology for continuous monitoring and unbiased estimation of activity data that is compliant with the IPCC Approach 3 for representation of land. We used a break detection algorithm (Continuous Change Detection and Classification, CCDC) to fit pixel-level temporal segments to time series of Landsat data in the Colombian Amazon. The segments were classified using a Random Forest classifier to obtain annual maps of land categories between 2001 and 2016. Using these maps, a biannual stratified sampling approach was implemented and unbiased stratified estimators constructed to calculate area estimates with confidence intervals for each of the stable and change classes. Our results provide evidence of a decrease in primary forest as a result of conversion to pastures, as well as increase in secondary forest as pastures are abandoned and the forest allowed to regenerate. Estimating areas of other land transitions proved challenging because of their very small mapped areas compared to stable classes like forest, which corresponds to almost 90% of the study area. Implications on remote sensing data processing, sample allocation and uncertainty reduction are also discussed.

  2. Tracking Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Cloud Prone Areas Using Moderate Resolution Satellite Data: A Case Study in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Basnet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.

  3. Mixed Effectiveness of Africa's Tropical Protected Areas for Maintaining Forest Cover: Insights from a Global Forest Change Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A.; Bowker, J.; Ament, J.; Cumming, G.

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forest habitats. Tropical forests house a significant portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are being heavily impacted by anthropogenic activity. We used Hansen et al.'s (2013) global forest change dataset to analyse park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control samples. We found that, although significant geographical variation exists between parks, the majority of African parks experienced significantly lower deforestation within their boundaries. Accessibility was a significant driver of deforestation, with less accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in ineffective parks and more accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in effective parks. Smaller parks were less effective at preventing forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks, and older parks were less effective than younger parks. Our analysis, which is the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrates the complexity of factors influencing the ability of a park to curb deforestation within its boundaries and highlights the potential of web-based remote sensing technology in monitoring protected area effectiveness.

  4. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  5. The potential of remote sensing for monitoring land cover changes and effects on physical geography in the area of Kayisdagi Mountain and its surroundings (Istanbul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    The effect of land cover change, from natural to anthropogenic, on physical geography conditions has been studied in Kayisdagi Mountain. Land degradation is the most important environmental issue involved in this study. Most forms of land degradation are natural processes accelerated by human activity. Land degradation is a human induced or natural process that negatively affects the ability of land to function effectively within an ecosystem. Environmental degradation from human pressure and land use has become a major problem in the study area because of high population growth, urbanization rate, and the associated rapid depletion of natural resources. When studying the cost of land degradation, it is not possible to ignore the role of urbanization. In particular, a major cause of deforestation is conversion to urban land. The paper reviews the principles of current remote sensing techniques considered particularly suitable for monitoring Kayisdagi Mountain and its surrounding land cover changes and their effects on physical geography conditions. In addition, this paper addresses the problem of how spatially explicit information about degradation processes in the study area rangelands can be derived from different time series of satellite data. The monitoring approach comprises the time period between 1990 and 2005. Satellite remote sensing techniques have proven to be cost effective in widespread land cover changes. Physical geography and particularly natural geomorphologic processes like erosion, mass movement, physical weathering, and chemical weathering features etc. have faced significant unnatural variation.

  6. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  7. Quality of Life in the Elderly People Covered by Health Centers in the Urban Areas of Markazi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Agha nouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve quality of life in the elderly through proper plans and active involvement of elderly in their family and community, we should get a lot of information about health-related quality of life because the composition of our population has changed. Infact, the aged population is increasingly growing, that this will, in turn, have an effect on economic progression and well-being in the country. Thus, this study assessed quality of life and its determinants in the people aged 60 years and over living in the urban areas of Central Province. Methods & Materials: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly peoples in the urban areas of Markazi Province. Data was obtained via a general and a quality of life (using SF-36 questionnaire. The results were analyzed by Chi-Square, Fisher, independent T-test, ANOVA, Regression, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of the subjects was 70.7 years (men 44.8% and women 55.2%. The mean of total SF-36, physical and mental components' scores were 55.66±22, 51.32±21 and 57.30±25 respectively. Additionally, the mean scores of eight health-related dimensions were as follows: physical functions 56.26±45, role limitations due to physical problems 50.60±27, body pain 51.26±38, general health 45.26±53, vitality 53.24±09, social functioning 67.85±27, role limitations due to mental problems 57.14±45 and mental health 62.88±25. Also, the quality of life scores were significantly associated with sex, previous employment, leisure activities, income, current exercising, present disease and drug consumption (P<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that the elderly's quality of life in the urban areas in Markazi province is in the middle level and the individuals have better mental health compared to physical health. Moreover, various factors are associated with the elderly’s quality of life, which require comprehensive planning for

  8. Leakage localization with an acoustic array that covers a wide area for pipeline leakage monitoring in a closed space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Su [Center for Safety Measurements, Division of Metrology for Quality of Life, Korea Research institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jong Hoon [Hyundai Heavy Industry Co.,Ltd., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomiv Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is of great importance to localize leakages in complex pipelines for assuring their safety. A sensor array that can detect where leakages occur enables us to monitor a wide area with a relatively low cost. Beam forming is a fast and efficient algorithm to estimate where sources are, but it is generally made use of in free field condition. In practice, however, many pipelines are placed in a closed space for the purpose of safety and maintenance. This leads us to take reflected waves into account to the beam forming for interior leakage localization. Beam power distribution of reflected waves in a closed space is formulated, and spatial average is introduced to suppress the effect of reflected waves. Computer simulations and experiments ensure how the proposed method is effective to localize leakage in a closed space for structural health monitoring.

  9. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kobal

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM, which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  10. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  11. Dissociated Crossed Speech Areas in a Tumour Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Mauler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca’s area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere. The outcome of the Wada test and the intraoperative cortico-subcortical stimulation mapping were congruent with this finding. After tumour removal, language area function was fully preserved. Upon the occurrence of brain tumours with a risk of impaired speech function, the rare dissociate crossed speech areas disposition may gain a clinically relevant meaning by allowing for more extended tumour removal. Hence, for its identification, diagnostics which take into account both brain hemispheres, such as fMRI, are recommended.

  12. Exploring patient satisfaction levels, self-rated oral health status and associated variables among citizens covered for dental insurance through a National Social Security Scheme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2017-06-01

    To assess patient satisfaction, self-rated oral health and associated factors, including periodontal status and dental caries, among patients covered for dental insurance through a National Social Security Scheme in New Delhi, India. A total of 1,498 patients participated in the study. Satisfaction levels and self-rated oral-health scores were measured using a questionnaire comprising 12 closed-ended questions. Clinical data were collected using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with dental caries, periodontal status and self-rated oral health. Areas of concern included poor cleanliness within the hospital, extensive delays for appointments, waiting time in hospital and inadequate interpersonal and communication skills among health-care professionals. Approximately 51% of the respondents rated their oral health as fair to poor. Younger age, no tobacco usage, good periodontal status and absence of dental caries were significantly associated with higher oral health satisfaction, with odds ratios of 3.94, 2.38, 2.58 and 2.09, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). The study indicates poor satisfaction levels with the current dental care system and a poor self-rated oral health status among the study population. Some specific areas of concern have been identified. These findings may facilitate restructuring of the existing dental services under the National Social Security Scheme towards creating a better patient care system. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Temporal disease trajectories condensed from population-wide registry data covering 6.2 million patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Boeck; Moseley, Pope; Oprea, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    . We use the entire spectrum of diseases and convert 14.9 years of registry data on 6.2 million patients into 1,171 significant trajectories. We group these into patterns centred on a small number of key diagnoses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and gout, which are central...

  14. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  15. Identification of land cover changes in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district, South India during the year 2004–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jayanth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates land cover (LC changes in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district in the state of Karnataka, South India, during the years 2004–2008 as a case study. IRS P-6, Linear Imaging Self Scanning sensor (LISS-IV satellite images were used in the present work. Classification was carried out using artificial bee colony algorithm and support vector machine (SVM which gave a better result compared to other traditional classification techniques. The best overall classification accuracy for the study area was achieved with an ABC classifier with an OCA of 80.35% for 2004 year data and OCA of 80.40% for 2008 year data, whereas the OCA in SVM, for the same training set is 71.42% for 2004 data and 71.38% for 2008 data on study area 1 and the results were optimised with respect to multispectral data. In study area 2, ABC algorithm achieved an OCA of 78.17% and MLC of 62.63% which was used to check the universality of the classifier. The classification results with post-classification technique for study area 1 indicate that urbanisation in the study area has almost increased twice. During the same time there is an increase in the forest plantation, agricultural plantation and a decrease in crop land and land without scrubs, indicates rapid changes in the coastal environment.

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Biliary Covered Stent Placement in Patients with Malignant Biliary Hilar Obstruction; Correlation with Liver Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Hyeran; Choi, Sun Young, E-mail: medmath@hanmail.net [School of Medicine Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology and Medical Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Ah [St. Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Soo Bin [College of Arts and Science Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biology (United States)

    2016-09-15

    PurposeTo estimate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous ePTFE-covered biliary stent placement and the relationship between underlying liver function and stent patency in patients with malignant hilar obstruction.Materials and MethodsFrom March 2012 to June 2015, 41 patients [22 females, 19 males; mean age 69.8 (range 34–94) years] with malignant biliary obstruction underwent percutaneous biliary stent placement (31 patients with unilateral, 10 patients with bilateral side-by-side). Cumulative patient survival and stent patency rate curves were derived using the Kaplan–Meier method. A Cox model was used to explore the relationship between liver function and patient survival, and also biliary stent patency. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between patient survival and stent patency.ResultsTechnical success rate was 100 % and clinical success rate was 95 %. During follow-up, four complications occurred (two bilomas and two cases of acute cholecystitis) and were treated successfully with percutaneous drainage. No other complication occurred. Mean serum bilirubin level was 11.34 ± 7.35 mg/dL before drainage and 5.00 ± 4.83 mg/dL 2 weeks after stent placement. The median patent survival duration was 147 days (95 % CI, 69.6–224.4 days). The median stent patency duration was 101 days (95 % CI, 70.0–132.0 days). The cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 97, 57.6, 30.3, and 17.0 %, respectively. Child–Pugh score was correlated significantly with patient survival (P = 0.011) and stent patency (P = 0.007). MELD score was correlated significantly with stent patency (P = 0.044). There was a correlation between patient survival and stent patency (r = 0.778, P < 0.001).ConclusionPercutaneous placement of ePTFE-covered biliary stent was a safe and an effective method for malignant biliary obstruction. Underlying liver function seemed to be one of the important factors affecting

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Biliary Covered Stent Placement in Patients with Malignant Biliary Hilar Obstruction; Correlation with Liver Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Hyeran; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Ah; Ko, Soo Bin

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo estimate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous ePTFE-covered biliary stent placement and the relationship between underlying liver function and stent patency in patients with malignant hilar obstruction.Materials and MethodsFrom March 2012 to June 2015, 41 patients [22 females, 19 males; mean age 69.8 (range 34–94) years] with malignant biliary obstruction underwent percutaneous biliary stent placement (31 patients with unilateral, 10 patients with bilateral side-by-side). Cumulative patient survival and stent patency rate curves were derived using the Kaplan–Meier method. A Cox model was used to explore the relationship between liver function and patient survival, and also biliary stent patency. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between patient survival and stent patency.ResultsTechnical success rate was 100 % and clinical success rate was 95 %. During follow-up, four complications occurred (two bilomas and two cases of acute cholecystitis) and were treated successfully with percutaneous drainage. No other complication occurred. Mean serum bilirubin level was 11.34 ± 7.35 mg/dL before drainage and 5.00 ± 4.83 mg/dL 2 weeks after stent placement. The median patent survival duration was 147 days (95 % CI, 69.6–224.4 days). The median stent patency duration was 101 days (95 % CI, 70.0–132.0 days). The cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 97, 57.6, 30.3, and 17.0 %, respectively. Child–Pugh score was correlated significantly with patient survival (P = 0.011) and stent patency (P = 0.007). MELD score was correlated significantly with stent patency (P = 0.044). There was a correlation between patient survival and stent patency (r = 0.778, P < 0.001).ConclusionPercutaneous placement of ePTFE-covered biliary stent was a safe and an effective method for malignant biliary obstruction. Underlying liver function seemed to be one of the important factors affecting

  18. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  19. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander; Müller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    of Northern Kazakhstan. Further, we assessed the potential of currently idle cropland for re-cultivation. We reconstructed the cropland extent before and after the Virgin Lands Campaign using archival maps, and we mapped the agricultural land cover in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period using multi...... until 1990, as well as cropland contraction after 1990, occurred mainly in areas that were less favorable for agriculture. Cropland re-cultivation after 2000 was occurring on lands with relatively favorable agro-environmental conditions in comparison to remaining idle croplands, albeit with much lower...... agro-environmental endowment compared to stable croplands from 1990 to 2010. In sum, we found that cropland production potentials of the currently uncultivated areas are much lower than commonly believed, and further cropland expansion is only possible at the expense of marginal lands. Our results...

  20. Forecasting summertime surface temperature and precipitation in the Mexico City metropolitan area: sensitivity of the WRF model to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bravo, Clemente; Caetano, Ernesto; Magaña, Víctor

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the frequency and intensity of severe hydrometeorological events in recent decades in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area have motivated the development of weather warning systems. The weather forecasting system for this region was evaluated in sensitivity studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for July 2014, a summer time month. It was found that changes in the extent of the urban area and associated changes in thermodynamic and dynamic variables have induced local circulations that affect the diurnal cycles of temperature, precipitation, and wind fields. A newly implemented configuration (land cover update and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA)) of the WRF model has improved the adjustment of the precipitation field to the orography. However, errors related to the depiction of convection due to parameterizations and microphysics remains a source of uncertainty in weather forecasting in this region.

  1. Depositional characteristics of cretaceous cover in Xiangyangshan area of Heilongjiang province and analysis on prospect for sandstone hosted interlayer oxidation zone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Shengxiang; Dong Wenming

    2003-01-01

    The depositional systems and characteristics of Cretaceous Cover depositional facies are discussed. In combination with logging curves in Xiangyangshan area, two depositional systems (namely, alluvial fan depositional system and alluvial plain depositional system) and five types of depositional facies are distinguished. Results of detailed research are given for each depositional facies in aspects of lithology, depositional structure, logging curve and grain size distribution pattern. Temporal and spatial distribution features of the depositional facies and the development features of interlayer oxidation zones of the second member of Quantou Formation are analyzed. Finally, conclusions on prospects for sandstone-hosted interlayer oxidation zone type uranium deposits in the study area are given in the aspect of depositional facies. (authors)

  2. A Study of the Role of Clouds in the Relationship Between Land Use/Land Cover and the Climate and Air Quality of the Atlanta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The goal of Project ATLANTA is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization affect climate and air quality. In this project the role that clouds play in this relationship was studied. Through GOES satellite observations and RAMS modeling of the Atlanta area, we found that in Atlanta (1) clouds are more frequent than in the surrounding rural areas; (2) clouds cool the surface by shading and thus tend to counteract the warming effect of urbanization; (3) clouds reflect sunlight, which might other wise be used to produce ozone; and (4) clouds decrease biogenic emission of ozone precursors, and they probably decrease ozone concentration. We also found that mesoscale modeling of clouds, especially of small, summertime clouds, needs to be improved and that coupled mesoscale and air quality models are needed to completely understand the mediating role that clouds play in the relationship between land use/land cover change and the climate and air quality of Atlanta. It is strongly recommended that more cities be studied to strengthen and extend these results.

  3. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  4. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  5. Changes in Vegetation Cover in Reforested Areas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil and the Implication for Landslide Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia dos Santos Alvalá

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, plantations of exotic species such as Eucalyptus have expanded substantially in recent years, due in large part to the great demand for cellulose and wood. The combination of the steep slopes in some of these regions, such as the municipalities located close to the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, and the soil exposure that occurs in some stages in the Eucalyptus cultivation cycle, can cause landslides. The use of a geographic information system (GIS assists with the identification of areas that are susceptible to landslides, and one of the GIS tools used is the spatial inference technique. In this work, the landslide susceptibility of areas occupied by Eucalyptus plantations in different stages of development in municipalities in the state of São Paulo was examined. Eight thematic maps were used, and, the fuzzy gamma technique was used for data integration and the generation of susceptibility maps, in which scenarios were created with different gamma values for the dry and rainy seasons. The results for areas planted with Eucalyptus were compared with those obtained for other land uses and covers. In the moderate and high susceptibility classes, the pasture is the land use type that presented the greatest susceptibility, followed by new Eucalyptus plantations and urban areas.

  6. Creating high-resolution time series land-cover classifications in rapidly changing forested areas with BULC-U in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, J. A.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    With the opening of the Landsat archive, there is a dramatically increased potential for creating high-quality time series of land use/land-cover (LULC) classifications derived from remote sensing. Although LULC time series are appealing, their creation is typically challenging in two fundamental ways. First, there is a need to create maximally correct LULC maps for consideration at each time step; and second, there is a need to have the elements of the time series be consistent with each other, without pixels that flip improbably between covers due only to unavoidable, stray classification errors. We have developed the Bayesian Updating of Land Cover - Unsupervised (BULC-U) algorithm to address these challenges simultaneously, and introduce and apply it here for two related but distinct purposes. First, with minimal human intervention, we produced an internally consistent, high-accuracy LULC time series in rapidly changing Mato Grosso, Brazil for a time interval (1986-2000) in which cropland area more than doubled. The spatial and temporal resolution of the 59 LULC snapshots allows users to witness the establishment of towns and farms at the expense of forest. The new time series could be used by policy-makers and analysts to unravel important considerations for conservation and management, including the timing and location of past development, the rate and nature of changes in forest connectivity, the connection with road infrastructure, and more. The second application of BULC-U is to sharpen the well-known GlobCover 2009 classification from 300m to 30m, while improving accuracy measures for every class. The greatly improved resolution and accuracy permits a better representation of the true LULC proportions, the use of this map in models, and quantification of the potential impacts of changes. Given that there may easily be thousands and potentially millions of images available to harvest for an LULC time series, it is imperative to build useful algorithms

  7. Estimation of biogenic emissions with satellite-derived land use and land cover data for air quality modeling of Houston-Galveston ozone nonattainment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Daewon W; Kim, Soontae; Czader, Beata; Nowak, David; Stetson, Stephen; Estes, Mark

    2005-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston Area (HGA) is one of the most severe ozone non-attainment regions in the US. To study the effectiveness of controlling anthropogenic emissions to mitigate regional ozone nonattainment problems, it is necessary to utilize adequate datasets describing the environmental conditions that influence the photochemical reactivity of the ambient atmosphere. Compared to the anthropogenic emissions from point and mobile sources, there are large uncertainties in the locations and amounts of biogenic emissions. For regional air quality modeling applications, biogenic emissions are not directly measured but are usually estimated with meteorological data such as photo-synthetically active solar radiation, surface temperature, land type, and vegetation database. In this paper, we characterize these meteorological input parameters and two different land use land cover datasets available for HGA: the conventional biogenic vegetation/land use data and satellite-derived high-resolution land cover data. We describe the procedures used for the estimation of biogenic emissions with the satellite derived land cover data and leaf mass density information. Air quality model simulations were performed using both the original and the new biogenic emissions estimates. The results showed that there were considerable uncertainties in biogenic emissions inputs. Subsequently, ozone predictions were affected up to 10 ppb, but the magnitudes and locations of peak ozone varied each day depending on the upwind or downwind positions of the biogenic emission sources relative to the anthropogenic NOx and VOC sources. Although the assessment had limitations such as heterogeneity in the spatial resolutions, the study highlighted the significance of biogenic emissions uncertainty on air quality predictions. However, the study did not allow extrapolation of the directional changes in air quality corresponding to the changes in LULC because the two datasets were based on vastly different

  8. High spatial resolution mapping of the Cerrado's land cover and land use types in the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Antunes Daldegan, G.; Nackoney, J.; Hess, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, Cerrado, is the second largest biome over South America and the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. This biome is considered a conservation hotspot in respect to its biodiversity importance and rapid transformation of its landscape. The Cerrado's natural vegetation has been severely transformed by agriculture and pasture activities. Currently it is the main agricultural frontier in Brazil and one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes. This scenario results in environmental impacts such as ecosystems fragmentation as well as losses in connectivity, biodiversity and gene flow, changes in the microclimate and energy, carbon and nutrients cycles, among others. The Priority Areas for Conservation is a governmental program from Brazil that identifies areas with high conservation priority. One of this program's recommendation is a natural vegetation map including their major ecosystem classes. This study aims to generate more precise information for the Cerrado's vegetation. The main objective of this study is to identify which ecosystems are being prioritized and/or threatened by land use, refining information for further protection. In order to test methods, the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem was selected as the study site. This area is ranked as "extremely high priority" by the government and is located in the Federal District and Goias State, Brazil. Satellites with finer spatial resolution may improve the classification of the Cerrado's vegetation. Remote sensing methods and two criteria were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) collected in 2014 in order to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types of this area, as well as its land use. One criterion considers the Cerrado's major terrestrial ecosystems, which are divided into forest, savanna and grassland. The other involves scaling it down to the major physiognomic groups of each ecosystem. Other sources of environmental dataset such

  9. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang [The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole MA USA; Zhou, Yuyu [Departments of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA USA; Liu, Yaling [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park MD USA; Le Page, Yannick [Department Tapada da Ajuda, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon Portugal

    2017-08-08

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700–2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001–2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs.

  10. [Effects of land cover change on soil organic carbon and light fraction organic carbon at river banks of Fuzhou urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-Da; Du, Zi-Xian; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Chun; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2010-03-01

    By using Vario EL III element analyzer, the vertical distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction organic carbon (LFOC) in the lawn, patch plantation, and reed wetland at river banks of Fuzhou urban area were studied in July 2007. For all the three land cover types, the SOC and LFOC contents were the highest in surface soil layer, and declined gradually with soil depth. Compared with reed wetland, the lawn and patch plantation had higher SOC and LFOC contents in each layer of the soil profile (0-60 cm), and the lawn had significantly higher contents of SOC and LFOC in 0-20 cm soil layer, compared with the patch plantation. After the reed wetland was converted into lawn and patch plantation, the SOC stock in the soil profile was increased by 94.8% and 72.0%, and the LFOC stock was increased by 225% and 93%, respectively. Due to the changes of plant species, plant density, and management measure, the conversion from natural wetland into human-manipulated green spaces increased the SOC and LFOC stocks in the soil profile, and improved the soil quality. Compared with the SOC, soil LFOC was more sensitive to land use/cover change, especially for those in 0-20 cm soil layer.

  11. Late Migration of Two Covered Biliary Stents Through a Spontaneous Bilioenteric Fistula in a Patient with Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokidis, Miltiadis E.; Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Manousaki, Eirini G.; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of simultaneous late migration of two ePTFE-FEP covered biliary endoprostheses (Viabil, W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) that were percutaneously implanted for the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. The first Viabil covered stent was placed successfully without any evidence of dislocation or other complication during follow-up. Occlusion of the stent occurred 4 months later and was treated with the placement of a second stent of the same type. Thirteen months later the patient became symptomatic. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed the presence of a choledocho-duodenal fistula and the disappearance of the two endoprostheses previously implanted. A third metallic stent was then percutaneously positioned through the bilioenteric fistula. The computed tomography scan that followed for the detection of the metallic bodies did not reveal the dislocated metallic stents. Stent migration is a well-known complication of uncovered metallic stents, though Viabil stent migration is assumed to be most unlikely to happen due to the stent's anchoring barbs. Furthermore, the stent had already been tightly fixed by tumor over- and ingrowth, as recognized in previous imaging. This is a very unusual case, describing the disappearance of two metallic foreign bodies encapsulated by tumor

  12. Full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics based on a new prototype non-contact profiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Zhao-Zhong; Sun, Ze-Qing; Ju, Bing-Feng; Xu, Shaoning; Sun, Anyu

    2017-06-01

    A new prototype non-contact profiler based on surface tracking has been specially developed. Surface tracking is carried out by a specially designed dual stage probe system with the aid of a four-Degree Of Freedom high-precision motion platform. The dual stage probe system keeps a short-range optical probe constantly tracking the surface by a self-developed voice coil motor servo, by which a wide measuring range of up to 10 mm is realized. The system performance evaluation including resolution, repeatability, and scanning speed proved the good capability of the new prototype non-contact profiler. To realize a full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics within one scanning procedure, a signal intensity monitor integrated in the surface tracking controller is specially developed. In the experiment, a snip-single-corner-rectangular-shaped freeform surface was successfully measured over full area by the new non-contact profiler. This work provides an effective solution for 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optical surfaces over full reflecting area. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measuring system is of great significance in quality evaluation of optical surfaces.

  13. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, J.; Gao, M.; Zhu, L.

    2014-02-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online.

  14. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Song, J; Gao, M; Zhu, L

    2014-01-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online

  15. Dose-area product measurement for patients in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhawad, Safaa Ibrahim Awad Elkarim

    2001-09-01

    There is a wide spread of the utilization of medical diagnostic x-ray in Sudan upon the last years, in private clinics as well as in public hospitals. The aim of this study was to measure the doses to patients from x-ray in radiography departments in Khartoum State. Use was made of ionization chamber that measures the product of dose times the exposed area of the patient in units of Gy cm 2 . The work was performed in 7 hospitals over 250 patients. 71.2% of the patients were males and 28.8% females. From this work, it appears that the chest radiography represent 42% of the total exposure of human body organs to radiography, there was also a clear variation in doses resulting from this exposure for different x-ray machines. The results of this study were compared with similar from Germany, Finland, New Zealand and Norway; which are recently available studies. The comparison showed those investigation of abdomen, spine and pelvis result in higher radiation doses. No data for limb exposure were obtained from these countries, in Sudan exposure of the limb carry radiation doses compared to the rest of the human body.(Author)

  16. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  17. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  18. STUDY ON THE DEW POINT TEMPERATURE IN AREAS COVERED BY COLLUVIAL MESOVOID SHALLOW SUBSTRATUM (CRYSTALLINE SCHISTS SCREE IN THE LEAOTA MOUNTAINS, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalin Leonard Dorobăţ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present and discussed the results of the monitoring of the dew point values, recorded in October and November 2014, in an ecological station in the Leaota Mountains. In this station, two polls were located in areas covered by colluvial mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS formed by epi- and mesometamorphic crystalline schists. In the ecological stations we located in the Leaota Mountains, almost always we found condensation on the walls of the polls tubes placed at different depths. Most often in spring or autumn or in other cold days, the dew point is more revealing regarding the recording actual amount of moisture in the air, than the relative humidity indicator. This work is part of a larger project that seeks correlations between ecological factors (humidity, temperature and dew point registered in various types of screes (limestone and crystalline schists and some zoocenotic components (invertebrates. This research aim to know the importance of mesovoid shallow substratum for invertebrates or small vertebrates fauna and represents a premiere for Leaota Mountains, not only regarding the continuous monitoring of some ecologic factors of these types of ecosystems (MSS, rarely researched even at global level, and also regarding the inventory of the invertebrate fauna in scree for these mountains.

  19. Recent land-use and land-cover changes and its driving factors in a fire-prone area of southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Olga; Moreno, José M; Güngöroglu, Cumhur; Cosgun, Ufuk; Kavgacı, Ali

    2017-07-15

    During the last decades, contrasted trends in forest fires among countries around the Mediterranean basin have been observed. In the northern/western countries, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) changes led to more hazardous landscapes, with consequent increases in fires. This contrasted with fire trends in southern/eastern countries. The recent incidence of large fires in some of the latter prompted the question of whether they are now following the path of their neighbors decades earlier. In this study, we investigated recent LULC changes in southwestern Turkey, focusing on those that could affect fire, and the factors driving them. To this end, LULC maps at different time steps (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were obtained from Landsat images, together with relevant socioeconomic data. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were applied to assess the effects of socioeconomic and geophysical factors on the dominant LULC changes over time. Over the whole period studied, the most important LULC changes were deforestation followed by afforestation. Deforestation was positively related to high livestock density and proximity to villages and increased forest interfaces with other LULC types. We found no evidence that LULC changes were making the landscape more hazardous as there was a net decrease in fuels biomass and the landscape became more fragmented over time. However, despite the area being heavily used and relatively fragmented, large fires can occur driven by severe weather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple assessment of the soil cover in the area of natural monuments Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau monadnocks under conditions of technogenic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Khabirov, I. K.; Komissarov, M. A.; Garipov, T. T.; Sidorova, L. V.; Nazyrova, F. I.

    2014-02-01

    The soil cover of Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau shikhans (monadnocks) has been examined. Leached and typical medium-deep chernozems are developed on colluvial fans on the footslopes and on the lower parts of slopes, whereas typical calcareous thin slightly and moderately gravelly chernozems are developed on the upper and medium parts of slopes. The leached and typical chernozems of the footslopes correspond to zonal soils of the adjacent plain areas, though they have some specific features related to the local topographic conditions. These soils are somewhat thinner than plain chernozems and are characterized by the perfect granular water-stable structure, the high content of humus of the humate type, the high content of exchangeable cations, strong acid-base buffering, and high enzymatic activity. These features predetermine their high tolerance towards technogenic impacts. The concentrations of highly hazardous substances of the first toxicity class (mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and of moderately hazardous substances of the second toxicity class (copper, zinc, and nickel), as well as the concentrations of low-hazardous elements (manganese and iron) in these soils do not exceed provisional maximum permissible concentrations of these substances in soils irrespectively of the slope aspect. No changes in the physicochemical and biological properties of the soils under the impact of technogenic loads from Sterlitamak industrial center have been identified.

  1. Diabetes-related emotional distress in Dutch and U.S. diabetic patients: cross-cultural validity of the problem areas in diabetes scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, F. J.; Pouwer, F.; Welch, G. W.; Polonsky, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    To examine the cross-cultural validity of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) in Dutch and U.S. diabetic patients. A total of 1,472 Dutch people with diabetes completed the PAID along with other self-report measures of affect. Statistics covered Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis

  2. Temporary placement of covered retrievable expandable nitinol stents with barbs in high-risk surgical patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choung-Soo; Song, Ho-Young; Jeong, In Gab; Yeo, Hyun Jin; Kim, Eun-Young; Park, Jung-Hoon; Yoon, Chang Jin; Paick, Sung Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Bae, Jae-Ik; Won, Je Hwan

    2011-10-01

    To report the use of a newly constructed, covered, retrievable, expandable nitinol stent with barbs to overcome the problem of stent migration associated with conventional covered prostatic expandable stents and to evaluate prospectively the technical feasibility and clinical effectiveness of the stents in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A covered retrievable expandable nitinol stent with four barbs was placed with use of an 18-F stent delivery system in seven consecutive patients with symptomatic BPH who had high operative risks. Age range of patients was 62-83 years (mean 74 years). In cases in which the stent migrated, it was replaced with a stent with eight barbs. The stents were routinely removed 4 months after placement using a 21-F stent removal set. Stent placement was technically successful and well tolerated in six of the seven patients. The remaining patient needed a second stent placement after removal of the first stent. The stent with four barbs migrated into the urinary bladder in four patients (57%); three of these patients received a second stent with eight barbs with good results, and the fourth patient did not need further treatment because his symptoms improved. Routine removal of the stent 4 months after placement was performed in three of the seven patients with good results. Retrievable stents with eight barbs seem to overcome the problem of stent migration associated with conventional prostatic expandable stents. Preliminary results suggest that stents with barbs are both feasible and effective in patients with BPH. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  4. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein Maung Wint

    1993-01-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  5. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wint, Sein Maung

    1993-10-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  6. Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Myat Thwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.

  7. Detecting the hydrological impacts of forest cover change in tropical mountain areas: need for detrending time series of rainfall and streamflow data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A.; Vanacker, V.; Brisson, E.; Balthazar, V.

    2012-04-01

    Interactions between human activities and the physical environment have increasingly transformed the hydrological functioning of Andean ecosystems. In these human-modified landscapes, land use/-cover change may have a profound effect on riverine water and sediment fluxes. The hydrological impacts of land use/-cover change are diverse, as changes in vegetation affect the various components of the hydrological cycle including evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff. Quantitative data for tropical mountain regions are scarce, as few long time series on rainfall, water discharge and land use are available. Furthermore, time series of rainfall and streamflow data in tropical mountains are often highly influenced by large inter- and intra-annual variability. In this paper, we analyse the hydrological response to complex forest cover change for a catchment of 280 km2 located in the Ecuadorian Andes. Forest cover change in the Pangor catchment was reconstructed based on airphotos (1963, 1977), LANDSAT TM (1991) and ETM+ data (2001, 2009). From 1963, natural vegetation was converted to agricultural land and pine plantations: forests decreased by a factor 2, and paramo decreased by 20 km2 between 1963 and 2009. For this catchment, there exists an exceptionally long record of rainfall and streamflow data that dates back from the '70s till now, but large variability in hydrometeorological data exists that is partly related to ENSO events. Given the nonstationary and nonlinear character of the ENSO-related changes in rainfall, we used the Hilbert-Huang transformation to detrend the time series of the river flow data from inter- and intra-annual fluctuations in rainfall. After applying adaptive data analysis based on empirical model decomposition techniques, it becomes apparent that the long-term trend in streamflow is different from the long-term trend in rainfall data. While the streamflow data show a long-term decrease in monthly flow, the rainfall data have a

  8. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  9. Echocardiography underestimates stroke volume and aortic valve area: implications for patients with small-area low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Calvin W L; Khaw, Hwan J; Luo, Elton; Tan, Shuwei; White, Audrey C; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2014-09-01

    Discordance between small aortic valve area (AVA; area (LVOTarea) and stroke volume alongside inconsistencies in recommended thresholds. One hundred thirty-three patients with mild to severe AS and 33 control individuals underwent comprehensive echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Stroke volume and LVOTarea were calculated using echocardiography and MRI, and the effects on AVA estimation were assessed. The relationship between AVA and MPG measurements was then modelled with nonlinear regression and consistent thresholds for these parameters calculated. Finally the effect of these modified AVA measurements and novel thresholds on the number of patients with small-area low-gradient AS was investigated. Compared with MRI, echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea (n = 40; -0.7 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6 to 1.3), stroke volumes (-6.5 mL/m(2); 95% CI, -28.9 to 16.0) and consequently, AVA (-0.23 cm(2); 95% CI, -1.01 to 0.59). Moreover, an AVA of 1.0 cm(2) corresponded to MPG of 24 mm Hg based on echocardiographic measurements and 37 mm Hg after correction with MRI-derived stroke volumes. Based on conventional measures, 56 patients had discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Using MRI-derived stroke volumes and the revised thresholds, a 48% reduction in discordance was observed (n = 29). Echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea, stroke volume, and therefore AVA, compared with MRI. The thresholds based on current guidelines were also inconsistent. In combination, these factors explain > 40% of patients with discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The response of lake area and vegetation cover variations to climate change over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the past 30years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengxin; Chang, Juan; Xu, Chong-Yu; Zhou, Yang; Wu, Yanhong; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Shanshan; Duan, Zheng

    2018-09-01

    Lakes and vegetation are important factors of the Earth's hydrological cycle and can be called an "indicator" of climate change. In this study, long-term changes of lakes' area and vegetation coverage in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and their relations to the climate change were analyzed by using Mann-Kendall method during the past 30years. Results showed that: 1) the lakes' area of the QTP increased significantly during the past 30years as a whole, and the increasing rates have been dramatically sped up since the year of 2000. Among them, the area of Ayakekumu Lake has the fastest growing rate of 51.35%, which increased from 618km 2 in the 1980s to 983km 2 in the 2010s; 2) overall, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) increased in the QTP during the past 30years. Above 79% of the area in the QTP showed increasing trend of NDVI before the year of 2000; 3) the air temperature increased significantly, the precipitation increased slightly, and the pan evaporation decreased significantly during the past 30years. The lake area and vegetation coverage changes might be related to the climate change. The shifts in the temporal climate trend occurred around the year 2000 had led the lake area and vegetation coverage increasing. This study is of importance in further understanding the environmental changes under global warming over the QTP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts in Patients with Cirrhosis with Refractory Ascites: Comparison of Clinical Outcomes by Using 8- and 10-mm PTFE-covered Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Tuzzolino, Fabio; Petridis, Ioannis; D'Amico, Mario; Luca, Angelo

    2017-07-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy and complications of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation performed by using a 10-mm or an 8-mm-diameter polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent in a consecutive series of patients with cirrhosis with refractory ascites (RA). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and informed consent was waived. One hundred seventy-one patients with RA (mean age, 58.7 years ± 10.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.2 years, 60.3 years) had undergone TIPS placement by using 10-mm (60 patients) or 8-mm (111 patients) covered stent between January 2004 and December 2012. Median follow-up time was 16.8 months (range, 3.4-84.8 months). Hemodynamic changes, incidence of hepatic encephalopathy, and long-term (>3 months) need for paracentesis after TIPS placement were evaluated and calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by using the log-rank test. Results Pre-TIPS demographics and clinical characteristics of the two groups were comparable. The portosystemic gradient before TIPS was 17.0 mm Hg ± 4.2 (95% CI: 15.9 mm Hg, 18.1 mm Hg) in the 10-mm group versus 16.1 mm Hg ± 3.7 (95% CI: 15.4 mm Hg, 16.8 mm Hg) in the 8-mm group (P = .164). After TIPS, the portosystemic gradient was 6.5 mm Hg ± 3.4 (95% CI: 5.7 mm Hg, 7.4 mm Hg) in the 10-mm group versus 7.5 mm Hg ± 2.6 (95% CI: 6.9 mm Hg, 7.9 mm Hg) in the 8-mm group (P = .039). The long-term need for paracentesis was greater in the 8-mm group (64 of 111 patients [58%] vs 18 of 60 patients [31%], P = .003). Overall, hepatic encephalopathy was similar in both groups (45 of 111 patients [41%] vs 26 of 60 patients [44%], P = .728). Conclusion A10-mm PTFE-covered stent leads to better control of RA secondary to portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis, compared with an 8-mm stent, without increasing the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy. © RSNA, 2017.

  12. Paravertebral and Brachial plexus block for Abdominal flap to cover the upper limb wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report where thoracic paravertebral block and brachial plexus block were used in a sick elderly patient with poor cardiopulmonary reserve, to cover a post traumatic raw area of the upper limb by raising flap from lateral abdominal wall. The residual raw area of abdomen was then covered with the split skin graft taken from thigh.

  13. Study of determinants of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among HIV Patients covered by Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Moradi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is essential for achieving durable clinical outcomes in patients with HIV. In addition, suboptimal adherence can accelerate development of drug-resistant HIV and mitigate HAART’s role in reducing HIV incidence and transmission. The present research has been conducted to study treatment adherence and determine its effective factors on HIV/AIDS patients with the support of Ahvaz JundiShapur University of Medical Sciences in 2015. This is a cross-sectional study in which 158 HIV/AIDS patients who had been registered in the counseling centers of behavioral diseases of Ahvaz and were receiving antiretroviral treatment. They had been selected by census method. Data were collected using the AACTG (Adult Aids Clinical Trials Group questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistical tests, χ2 and step by step regression by spss-16 software. The mean age of patients was 32.8±10.36. Among them 20.8% were female, 47.5% were single and 35.6% had a job. Also 33.7% of the respondents had CD4+ cell count less than 350 cells/μL. and average treatment duration was 9 months at study entry. According to the findings of this study, the degree of adherence was reported as % 63.9.The main reasons for non-adherence were forgetfulness (26% and side effects (19%. There were no significant differences between highly adherent and less adherent patients with regard to age, gender, education Employment status, Treatment duration, time of diagnosis. Adherence to HAART is a key factor in disease course in persons with HIV/AIDS. Low-level adherence in subjects of the study indicated that educational and intervention is quite necessary for patients in order to improve their medication self-management.

  14. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feinan; Wang, Weizhen; Wang, Jiemin; Xu, Ziwei; Qi, Yuan; Wu, Yueru

    2017-08-01

    The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC) sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs), were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this work will be

  15. Urban Flooding Analysis Using Radar Rainfall Data and 2-D Hydrodynamic Model: A Pilot Study of Back Cover Area, Portland, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Eugene [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pierce, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahat, Vinod [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jared, Alissa [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Collis, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project is a part of the Regional Resiliency Assessment Program, led by the Department of Homeland Security, to address flooding hazards of regional significance for Portland, Maine. The pilot study was performed by Argonne National Laboratory to identify differences in spatial rainfall distributions between the radar-derived and rain-gauge rainfall datasets and to evaluate their impacts on urban flooding. The flooding impact analysis utilized a high-resolution 2-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic model (15 ft by 15 ft) incorporating the buildings, streets, stream channels, hydraulic structures, an existing city storm drain system, and assuming a storm surge along the coast coincident with a heavy rainfall event. Two historical storm events from April 16, 2007, and September 29, 2015, were selected for evaluation. The radar-derived rainfall data at a 200-m resolution provide spatially-varied rainfall patterns with a wide range of intensities for each event. The resultant maximum flood depth using data from a single rain gauge within the study area could be off (either under- or over-estimated) by more than 10% in the 2007 storm and more than 60% in the 2015 storm compared to the radar-derived rainfall data. The model results also suggest that the inundation area with a flow depth at or greater than 0.5 ft could reach 11% (2007 storm) and 17% (2015 storm) of the total study area, respectively. The lowland areas within the neighborhoods of North Deering, East Deering, East and West Baysides and northeastern Parkside, appear to be more vulnerable to the flood hazard in both storm events. The high-resolution 2-D hydrodynamic model with high-resolution radar-derived rainfall data provides an excellent tool for detailed urban flood analysis and vulnerability assessment. The model developed in this study could be potentially used to evaluate any proposed mitigation measures and optimize their effects in the future for Portland, ME.

  16. Study of air pollution with cement dust and its effect on plants cover in the surrounding area of Tartous cement factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslmani, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    2000-06-01

    Cement dust fall, concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate less than 10 micron (PM10), were measured in different sites in the surrounding area of Tartus cement factory. The effects of cement dust emission on the growth of olive trees have been investigated. The results show that the dust fall, TSP and PM10 concentration were higher than The World Health Organization (WHO) standard at the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 3 to 4 km in the diameter.The study shows that, the cement dust fall decreases the growth of olive trees by 34.5, 33 and 21% regarding the I, II, III sites respectively in comparison with the reference site. The branch length, branch weight, amount of chlorophyll and leaves quantity were decreased significantly. The mean weight of dust fall were 34.5, 26.4 and 10.9 g/m 2 on the leaves area at the site I, II, III respectively while the reference site has a value of 1.9 g/m 2 .(Author)

  17. Study of air pollution with cement dust and its effect on plants cover in the surrounding area of Tartous cement factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslmani, Y; Al-Oudat, M; Al-Kharfan, K [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Protection and Safety

    2000-06-01

    Cement dust fall, concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate less than 10 micron (PM10), were measured in different sites in the surrounding area of Tartus cement factory. The effects of cement dust emission on the growth of olive trees have been investigated. The results show that the dust fall, TSP and PM10 concentration were higher than The World Health Organization (WHO) standard at the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 3 to 4 km in the diameter.The study shows that, the cement dust fall decreases the growth of olive trees by 34.5, 33 and 21% regarding the I, II, III sites respectively in comparison with the reference site. The branch length, branch weight, amount of chlorophyll and leaves quantity were decreased significantly. The mean weight of dust fall were 34.5, 26.4 and 10.9 g/m{sup 2} on the leaves area at the site I, II, III respectively while the reference site has a value of 1.9 g/m{sup 2}.(Author)

  18. What are the cultural effects on consumers' perceptions? A case study covering coalho cheese in the Brazilian northeast and southeast area using word association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eveline K B; Esmerino, Erick A; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius S; da Silva, Maria Aparecida A P; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of regional diversity aspects related to consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese, with Brazilian Northeast and Southeast consumers (n=400, divided equally in each area) using Word Association (WA) task. Different perceptions were detected for both Northeast and Southeast consumers, and among 17 categories elicited for describing coalho cheese, only 7 categories (positive feeling, social aspects, sensory characteristic, dairy product technology, negative feeling, and lack of quality standard) presented significant differences in the frequency of mention according to chi-square per cell approach. The application of the discriminant technique Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the categories "Social", "Accompaniment", "Manufacturing method" were the main responsible for differentiating consumers' perceptions of both areas. Overall, the main dimensions involved in the consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese from different Brazilian regions were identified, thus obtaining comprehensive insights that can be used as a guideline for coalho cheese producers to develop marketing strategies considering the intra-cultural differences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Reduced isotope uptake restricted to the motor area in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Yorifuji, S.; Nishikawa, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To study degeneration in the central nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied four patients using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI demonstrated high intensity along the pyramidal tract on T2-weighted images in two. SPECT demonstrated reduced isotope uptake restricted to the motor area. While the cause of degeneration of the cortical neurons in the motor area is unknown, SPECT is useful for detecting the degeneration in patients with ALS. (orig.)

  20. A phantom based method for deriving typical patient doses from measurements of dose-area product on populations of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapple, C.-L.; Broadhead, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the chief sources of uncertainty in the comparison of patient dosimetry data is the influence of patient size on dose. Dose has been shown to relate closely to the equivalent diameter of the patient. This concept has been used to derive a prospective, phantom based method for determining size correction factors for measurements of dose-area product. The derivation of the size correction factor has been demonstrated mathematically, and the appropriate factor determined for a number of different X-ray sets. The use of phantom measurements enables the effect of patient size to be isolated from other factors influencing patient dose. The derived factors agree well with those determined retrospectively from patient dose survey data. Size correction factors have been applied to the results of a large scale patient dose survey, and this approach has been compared with the method of selecting patients according to their weight. For large samples of data, mean dose-area product values are independent of the analysis method used. The chief advantage of using size correction factors is that it allows all patient data to be included in a survey, whereas patient selection has been shown to exclude approximately half of all patients. (author)

  1. Are You Covered? Associations Between Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Knowledge and Preventive Reproductive Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ashlee N; Kwitowski, Melissa A; Benotsch, Eric G

    2018-05-01

    Sexual and reproductive health conditions (eg, infections, cancers) represent public health concerns for American women. The present study examined how knowledge of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) relates to receipt of preventive reproductive health services among women. Cross-sectional online survey. Online questionnaires were completed via Amazon Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing website where individuals complete web-based tasks for compensation. Cisgendered women aged 18 to 44 years (N = 1083) from across the United States. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, insurance status, preventive service use, and knowledge of PPACA provisions. Chi-squares showed that receipt of well-woman, pelvic, and breast examinations, as well as pap smears, was related to insurance coverage, with those not having coverage at all during the previous year having significantly lower rates of use. Hierarchical logistic regressions determined the independent relationship between PPACA knowledge and use of health services after controlling for demographic factors and insurance status. Knowledge of PPACA provisions was associated with receiving well-woman, pelvic, and breast examinations, human papillomavirus vaccination, and sexually transmitted infections testing, after controlling for these factors. Results indicate that expanding knowledge about health-care legislation may be beneficial in increasing preventive reproductive health service use among women. Current findings provide support for increasing resources for outreach and education of the general population about the provisions and benefits of health-care legislation, as well as personal health coverage plans.

  2. One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network Land-Cover Classification of Multi-Seasonal Hyperspectral Imagery in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guidici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN architecture was developed, trained and utilized to classify single (summer and three seasons (spring, summer, fall of hyperspectral imagery over the San Francisco Bay Area, California for the year 2015. For comparison, the Random Forests (RF and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were trained and tested with the same data. In order to support space-based hyperspectral applications, all analyses were performed with simulated Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI imagery. Three-season data improved classifier overall accuracy by 2.0% (SVM, 1.9% (CNN to 3.5% (RF over single-season data. The three-season CNN provided an overall classification accuracy of 89.9%, which was comparable to overall accuracy of 89.5% for SVM. Both three-season CNN and SVM outperformed RF by over 7% overall accuracy. Analysis and visualization of the inner products for the CNN provided insight to distinctive features within the spectral-temporal domain. A method for CNN kernel tuning was presented to assess the importance of learned features. We concluded that CNN is a promising candidate for hyperspectral remote sensing applications because of the high classification accuracy and interpretability of its inner products.

  3. Peculiarities of phenotype and genetic statuses of diabetes mellitus patients living on contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nov, S.B.; Morozik, V.M.; Mokhort, T.V.

    2006-01-01

    Some peculiarities of cytogenetic status of the Diabetes Mellitus patients from areas with different level of ecology pressure were investigated. We found pronounced increase practically all types of aberrations. Comparative anthropology investigations showed real differences in status of children from mail group (citizens of radiation contaminated areas). (authors)

  4. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  5. Predictors of outcomes in patients undergoing covered and uncovered self-expandable metal stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Ban, Tesshin; Natsume, Makoto; Okumura, Fumihiro; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Takada, Hiroki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Jinno, Naruomi; Togawa, Shozo; Ando, Tomoaki; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Uncovered self-expandable metal stents (U-SEMSs) and covered self-expandable metal stents (C-SEMSs) are available for palliative therapy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). However, clinical differences and indications between the 2 types of SEMSs have not been elucidated. We retrospectively compared 126 patients with U-SEMS and 126 patients with C-SEMSs with regard to clinical outcome and factors predictive of clinical improvement after SEMSs placement. No significant difference was observed between the U-SEMS and C-SEMS groups with respect to technical success, clinical success, GOO score, or time to stent dysfunction. Stent migration was significantly more frequent in patients with C-SEMSs (U-SEMSs, .79%; C-SEMSs, 8.73%; P = .005). Karnofsky performance status, chemotherapy, peritoneal dissemination, and stent expansion ≤ 30% were associated significantly with poor GOO score improvement in multivariable analyses, but stent type was not (P = .213). In subgroup analyses, insufficient (≤30%) stent expansion was an independent factor in patients with U-SEMSs (P = .041) but not C-SEMSs. In the insufficient stent expansion subgroup, C-SEMSs was associated significantly with superior clinical improvement compared with U-SEMSs (P = .01). Insufficient stent expansion was observed more frequently in patients with GI obstruction because of anastomotic sites or metastatic cancer (44.8% [13/29], P = .001). No clinical difference, apart from stent migration, was observed between patients with U-SEMSs and C-SEMSs. GI obstruction because of an anastomotic site or metastatic cancer may be an indication for C-SEMS use to improve oral intake after SEMSs placement. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs, were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this

  7. Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Peter J M; Looijaard, Wilhelmus G P M; Dekker, Ingeborg M; Stapel, Sandra N; Girbes, Armand R; Oudemans-van Straaten, H M; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2014-01-13

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. However, it is yet unclear which body component is responsible for this relationship. This retrospective analysis in 240 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients included adult patients in whom a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was made on clinical indication between 1 day before and 4 days after admission to the intensive care unit. CT scans were analyzed at the L3 level for skeletal muscle area, expressed as square centimeters. Cutoff values were defined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis: 110 cm2 for females and 170 cm2 for males. Backward stepwise regression analysis was used to evaluate low-muscle area in relation to hospital mortality, with low-muscle area, sex, BMI, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and diagnosis category as independent variables. This study included 240 patients, 94 female and 146 male patients. Mean age was 57 years; mean BMI, 25.6 kg/m2. Muscle area for females was significantly lower than that for males (102 ± 23 cm2 versus 158 ± 33 cm2; P muscle area was observed in 63% of patients for both females and males. Mortality was 29%, significantly higher in females than in males (37% versus 23%; P = 0.028). Low-muscle area was associated with higher mortality compared with normal-muscle area in females (47.5% versus 20%; P = 0.008) and in males (32.3% versus 7.5%; P muscle area, sex, and APACHE II score, whereas BMI and admission diagnosis were not. Odds ratio for low-muscle area was 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 9.0, P muscle mass appeared as primary predictor, not sex. Low skeletal muscle area, as assessed by CT scan during the early stage of critical illness, is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, independent of sex and APACHE II score. Further analysis suggests muscle mass as primary predictor, not

  8. Spontaneous pneumothorax in paracoccidioidomycosis patients from an endemic area in Midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Lucas G G; Santos, Aline F; Andrade, Ursulla V; Guedes, Carlos Ivan A; Oliveira, Sandra M V L; Chang, Marilene R; Mendes, Rinaldo P; Paniago, Anamaria M M

    2017-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. About 80% of PCM patients are present with its chronic form. The lungs are affected in most patients with the chronic form; however, pleural involvement has rarely been reported. We describe nine cases of PCM that presented with lung involvement and spontaneous pneumothorax. All patients, except one whose condition was not investigated, were smokers. PCM was diagnosed during the pneumothorax episode in three patients, and from 3 to 16 years before the pneumothorax episode in six patients. A total of six patients underwent chest drainage and one died as a direct result of the pneumothorax. We suggest that pneumothorax, although rare, should be considered in PCM patients who present with suddenly worsening dyspnoea. PCM should also be investigated in cases of pneumothorax in adult men from mycosis-endemic areas. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Patients with MAC Lung Disease Have a Low Visceral Fat Area and Low Nutrient Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Wakamatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to examine the nutritional status and nutrient intake of patients with MAC lung disease with a focus on visceral fat area. Patients and Methods. Among 116 patients of our hospital with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis who were registered between May 2010 and August 2011, 103 patients with MAC lung disease were included in this study. In all patients, nutritional status and nutrient intake were prospectively examined. Results. Patients were 23 men and 80 women (mean age, 72.3±10.9 years. BMI (kg/m2 at the time of registration was 20.4±2.7 in men and 19.2±2.9 in women. Visceral fat area (cm2 was significantly lower in women (35.7±26.6 than in men (57.5±47.4 (p=0.0111. The comparison with general healthy adults according to age revealed a markedly reduced visceral fat area among patients with MAC lung disease. With respect to nutrient intake, energy adequacy (86.1±15.7%, protein adequacy (82.4±18.2%, lipid adequacy (78.1±21.8%, and carbohydrate adequacy (89.6±19.2% ratios were all low at the time of registration. BMI was significantly correlated with protein adequacy (p=0.0397 and lipid adequacy (p=0.0214 ratios, while no association was found between visceral fat area and nutrient intake. Conclusion. Patients with MAC lung disease had a low visceral fat area and low nutrient intake.

  10. 40 CFR 80.70 - Covered areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following Illinois counties: (i) Cook; (ii) Du Page; (iii) Kane; (iv) Lake; (v) McHenry; (vi) Will; (2... counties: (i) Calvert; (ii) Charles; (iii) Frederick; (iv) Montgomery; (v) Prince Georges; (vi) Queen Anne...) Manassas; (viii) Manassas Park; (ix) Prince William County; (x) Stafford County; (xi) Charles City County...

  11. Radiation monitoring. Quarterly report for the Greater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority and the Manchester Area Pollution Advisory Council. Manchester Area Gamma Radiation Air Monitoring System (MANAGRAMS), report covering period of 3 months 1 January to 31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Gamma radiation monitoring data from nine outstations in the Manchester area for the period 01/01/96 to 31/03/96 are presented. For each station there is a summary table, a background radiation graph showing 6 hour mean levels and a windrose graph showing the direction of the wind as a percentage of the total. A line graph comparison between stations is provided for the background 6 hour mean levels and a bar chart comparison of total dose. Graphs of temperature and barometric pressure taken from extra sensors at the Trafford station are presented. (UK)

  12. Autofluorescence Lifetimes in Patients With Choroideremia Identify Photoreceptors in Areas With Retinal Pigment Epithelium Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Wolf, Sebastian; Tran, Hoai Viet; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fundus autofluorescence lifetimes in patients with choroideremia and to identify tissue-specific lifetime characteristics and potential prognostic markers. Autofluorescence lifetimes of the retina were measured in two spectral channels (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm) in patients with choroideremia and age-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, autofluorescence intensities and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) data were acquired and compared to fundus autofluorescence lifetime data. Sixteen eyes from 8 patients with advanced choroideremia (mean ± SD age, 55 ± 13 years) were included in this study and compared with 10 age-matched healthy participants. Whereas fundus autofluorescence intensity measurement identified areas of remaining retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), autofluorescence lifetime maps identified areas with remaining photoreceptor layers in OCT but RPE atrophy. In these areas, mean (±SEM) lifetimes were 567 ± 59 ps in the short and 603 ± 49 ps in the long spectral channels (+98% and +88% compared to controls). In areas of combined RPE atrophy and loss of photoreceptors, autofluorescence lifetimes were significantly prolonged by 1116 ± 63 ps (+364%) in the short and by 915 ± 52 ps (+270%) in the long spectral channels compared with controls. Because autofluorescence lifetimes identify areas of remaining photoreceptors in the absence of RPE, this imaging modality may be useful to monitor disease progression in the natural course of disease and in context of potential future therapeutic interventions.

  13. [Identification of Leishmania species in patients and phlebotomines in transmission areas in a region of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Ofelia; Vargas, Franklin; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo; Gómez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    To identify the species of Leishmania present in the skin lesions of patients and Lutzomyias living in endemic areas of La Libertad, Peru. Molecular methods based on PCR and RFLP were used, which allowed to have efficient data with small amounts of samples (small specimens), due to their high sensitivity and ease of application in the field work. The results of PCR of clinical samples of patients and insect vectors showed the presence of Leishmania (V.) peruviana as a major causative agent of andean leishmaniasis transmitted by Lutzomyia peruensis. The presence of Leishmania (V.) guyanensis in Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, was found as well. The presence of L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) guyanensis in the Andean areas under study was found. These findings remark the need of a wider research about the geographical distribution of L. (V.) guyanensis and clinical features related to the infection in endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. Cortical thickness and surface area correlates with cognitive dysfunction among first-episode psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, L; Müürsepp, A; Mõttus, R; Ilves, P; Koch, K; Uppin, K; Tarnovskaja, J; Maron, E; Zharkovsky, A; Vasar, E; Vasar, V

    2016-07-01

    In studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some have reported specific brain structure-function relationships among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but findings are inconsistent. We aimed to localize the brain regions where cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (cortical area; CA) relate to neurocognition, by performing an MRI on participants and measuring their neurocognitive performance using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in order to investigate any significant differences between FEP patients and control subjects (CS). Exploration of potential correlations between specific cognitive functions and brain structure was performed using CANTAB computer-based neurocognitive testing and a vertex-by-vertex whole-brain MRI analysis of 63 FEP patients and 30 CS. Significant correlations were found between cortical parameters in the frontal, temporal, cingular and occipital brain regions and performance in set-shifting, working memory manipulation, strategy usage and sustained attention tests. These correlations were significantly dissimilar between FEP patients and CS. Significant correlations between CTh and CA with neurocognitive performance were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The results also suggested a disrupted structure-function relationship in FEP patients compared with CS.

  15. Land cover changes in central Sonora Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Alejandro Castellanos-Villegas; Stuart Marsh

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been demonstrated to be very effective tools to help detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover changes in natural areas of the world. Changes in land cover can generally be attributed to either natural or anthropogenic forces. Multitemporal satellite imagery and airborne videography were used to detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover...

  16. Using Monte Carlo/Gaussian Based Small Area Estimates to Predict Where Medicaid Patients Reside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jess J; Wen, Xuejin; Goel, Satyender; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Lina; Kho, Abel N

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHR) are rapidly becoming accepted as tools for planning and population health 1,2 . With the national dialogue around Medicaid expansion 12 , the role of EHR data has become even more important. For their potential to be fully realized and contribute to these discussions, techniques for creating accurate small area estimates is vital. As such, we examined the efficacy of developing small area estimates for Medicaid patients in two locations, Albuquerque and Chicago, by using a Monte Carlo/Gaussian technique that has worked in accurately locating registered voters in North Carolina 11 . The Albuquerque data, which includes patient address, will first be used to assess the accuracy of the methodology. Subsequently, it will be combined with the EHR data from Chicago to develop a regression that predicts Medicaid patients by US Block Group. We seek to create a tool that is effective in translating EHR data's potential for population health studies.

  17. Areas of normal pulmonary parenchyma on HRCT exhibit increased FDG PET signal in IPF patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Thida [Lister Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Thomas, Benjamin A.; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Afaq, Asim; Ell, Peter J.; Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital, Radiology Department, Papworth Everard (United Kingdom); Porter, Joanna C. [University College London, Centre for Respiratory Diseases, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Maher, Toby M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Lukey, Pauline [GSK, Fibrosis DPU, Research and Development, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show increased PET signal at sites of morphological abnormality on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the PET signal at sites of normal-appearing lung on HRCT in IPF. Consecutive IPF patients (22 men, 3 women) were prospectively recruited. The patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/HRCT. The pulmonary imaging findings in the IPF patients were compared to the findings in a control population. Pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG (mean SUV) was quantified at sites of morphologically normal parenchyma on HRCT. SUVs were also corrected for tissue fraction (TF). The mean SUV in IPF patients was compared with that in 25 controls (patients with lymphoma in remission or suspected paraneoplastic syndrome with normal PET/CT appearances). The pulmonary SUV (mean ± SD) uncorrected for TF in the controls was 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.78 ± 0.24 taken from normal lung regions in IPF patients (p < 0.001). The TF-corrected mean SUV in the controls was 2.24 ± 0.29 and 3.24 ± 0.84 in IPF patients (p < 0.001). IPF patients have increased pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG on PET in areas of lung with a normal morphological appearance on HRCT. This may have implications for determining disease mechanisms and treatment monitoring. (orig.)

  18. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416

  19. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C; Alfredson, H

    2017-06-01

    Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.

  20. The appearance of ADCs in the non-affected areas of the patients with MELAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhenghua; Liu, Xiwei; Hui, Lihong; Xie, Sheng; Xiao, Jiangxi; Jiang, Xuexiang; Zhao, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    The exact mechanism of the mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) remain unclear. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique for studying the pathophysiologic change of the MELAS. The purpose of the study is to see whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of MELAS in the non-affected areas is different from the ADC of the normal subjects and to speculate the pathophysiological mechanisms of the MELAS. Sixteen cases of MELAS were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty healthy subjects were chosen to constitute the control group. All of them were performed on the 3.0T whole-body MR scanner with axial view T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (flair), T2-weighted imaging, T1flair, and DWI. An ADC map was reconstructed in the workstation. Two to five regions of interest were put in the non-affected frontal lobe and basal ganglia. All data took statistical analysis. There were significant differences between the ADC of the patients with MELAS and the controls in the non-affected areas, including the superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, corpus striatum, thalamus, and white matter of the semi-oval centrum. ADCs in the non-affected areas of the patients with MELAS are higher than those of the normal subjects. Pathological changes take place in the non-affected areas of the patients with MELAS. (orig.)

  1. The appearance of ADCs in the non-affected areas of the patients with MELAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenghua; Liu, Xiwei; Hui, Lihong; Xie, Sheng; Xiao, Jiangxi; Jiang, Xuexiang [Peking University First Hospital, Center for Functional Imaging, Peking University, The Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Danhua [Peking University First Hospital, The Department of Neurology, Beijing (China); Wang, Xiaoying [Peking University First Hospital, Center for Functional Imaging, Peking University, The Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Peking University First Hospital, The Department of Radiology, 8, Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing (China)

    2011-04-15

    The exact mechanism of the mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) remain unclear. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique for studying the pathophysiologic change of the MELAS. The purpose of the study is to see whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of MELAS in the non-affected areas is different from the ADC of the normal subjects and to speculate the pathophysiological mechanisms of the MELAS. Sixteen cases of MELAS were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty healthy subjects were chosen to constitute the control group. All of them were performed on the 3.0T whole-body MR scanner with axial view T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (flair), T2-weighted imaging, T1flair, and DWI. An ADC map was reconstructed in the workstation. Two to five regions of interest were put in the non-affected frontal lobe and basal ganglia. All data took statistical analysis. There were significant differences between the ADC of the patients with MELAS and the controls in the non-affected areas, including the superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, corpus striatum, thalamus, and white matter of the semi-oval centrum. ADCs in the non-affected areas of the patients with MELAS are higher than those of the normal subjects. Pathological changes take place in the non-affected areas of the patients with MELAS. (orig.)

  2. Self-reported pain perception of patients after mucosal graft harvesting in the palatal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Rino; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Lang, Niklaus P

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the patient-reported pain perception after palatal graft harvesting during a 4 weeks healing period Ninety patients, scheduled for different periodontal and peri-implant plastic surgeries requiring palatal mucosal graft harvesting, were consecutively recruited. Mucosal thickness was measured at the donor sites with an ultrasonic device prior to the surgeries. Graft thickness, length, and width were assessed after harvesting, and the wound areas were calculated. Based on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the patients were asked to report their perceived pain after the intervention and 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days thereafter. Pain was most pronounced on the first postoperative day and decreased within the course of time. Graft thickness directly correlated with the amount of pain perceived while increased palatal mucosal thickness before and after graft harvesting decreased pain levels. The denuded wound surface area, however, did not influence the perceived pain level. The wound depth at the donor site (graft thickness) was positively correlated with the patient's perception for pain. The wound surface area, however, did not influence the perceived pain level. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Longitudinal analysis of tibiofemoral cartilage contact area and position in ACL reconstructed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ellison; Amano, Keiko; Pedoia, Valentina; Souza, Richard B; Ma, C Benjamin; Li, Xiaojuan

    2018-04-18

    Patients who have suffered ACL injury are more likely to develop early onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis despite reconstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in the tibiofemoral cartilage contact area size and location after ACL injury and reconstruction. Thirty-one patients with isolated unilateral ACL injury were followed with T 2 weighted Fast Spin Echo, T 1ρ and T 2 MRI at baseline prior to reconstruction, and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Areas were delineated in FSE images with an in-house Matlab program using a spline-based semi-automated segmentation algorithm. Tibiofemoral contact area and centroid position along the anterior-posterior axis were calculated along with T 1ρ and T 2 relaxation times on both the injured and non-injured knees. At baseline, the injured knees had significantly smaller and more posteriorly positioned contact areas on the medial tibial surface compared to corresponding healthy knees. These differences persisted 6 months after reconstruction. Moreover, subjects with more anterior medial centroid positions at 6 months had elevated T 1ρ and T 2 measures in the posterior medial tibial plateau at 1 year. Changes in contact area and centroid position after ACL injury and reconstruction may characterize some of the mechanical factors contributing to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, The Tax Parcel shows the area and boundary of each property in a seamless layer covering the whole county along with the ability to connect to other matching tables., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2011. The Tax Parcel shows the area and boundary of each property in a seamless layer covering the whole county...

  5. Etomidate accurately localizes the epileptic area in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Jesús; Wix, Rybel; Meilán, María Luisa; Martínez-Chacón, José Luís; de Dios, Eva; Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Herrera-Peco, Iván; Sola, Rafael G

    2010-04-01

    A variety of drugs have been used to activate and identify the epileptogenic area in patients during presurgical evaluation. We have evaluated the safety and usefulness of etomidate in identifying the epileptic zone by measuring bioelectrical brain activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We studied 13 men and 9 women under presurgical evaluation for temporal lobe epilepsy. We applied etomidate (0.1 mg/kg) while patients were monitored by video-electroencephalography (VEEG) with foramen ovale electrodes. In a subset of 15 patients, we also measured CBF with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). (1) Etomidate induced seizures in 2 of 22 patients. (2) The main side-effects observed were myoclonus (14 of 20) and moderate pain (3 of 20). (3) No changes in capillary oxygen saturation, respiration, or heart rate were observed. (4) Irritative activity specifically increased in the temporal mesial and lateral areas. No spikes were observed in other areas, aside from those observed under baseline conditions. (5) Irritative activity induced by etomidate correctly lateralized the ictal onset zone in 19 of 20 patients. In addition, the two etomidate-induced seizures appeared in the same regions as spontaneous ones. (6) The kinetics of pharmacologically induced activity was higher in the region of the ictal-onset zone. (7) Etomidate increased the CBF in the basal ganglia and especially in the posterior hippocampus of the temporal mesial region contralateral to the ictal-onset zone. Etomidate activation is a safe, specific, and quick test that can be used to identify the epileptic region in patients evaluated as candidates for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

  6. Nominal group technique: a brainstorming tool for identifying areas to improve pain management in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Adolfo; Estrada, Carlos A; Soniat, Debbie; Taylor, Benjamin; Burton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pain management in hospitalized patients remains a priority area for improvement; effective strategies for consensus development are needed to prioritize interventions. To identify challenges, barriers, and perspectives of healthcare providers in managing pain among hospitalized patients. Qualitative and quantitative group consensus using a brainstorming technique for quality improvement-the nominal group technique (NGT). One medical, 1 medical-surgical, and 1 surgical hospital unit at a large academic medical center. Nurses, resident physicians, patient care technicians, and unit clerks. Responses and ranking to the NGT question: "What causes uncontrolled pain in your unit?" Twenty-seven health workers generated a total of 94 ideas. The ideas perceived contributing to a suboptimal pain control were grouped as system factors (timeliness, n = 18 ideas; communication, n = 11; pain assessment, n = 8), human factors (knowledge and experience, n = 16; provider bias, n = 8; patient factors, n = 19), and interface of system and human factors (standardization, n = 14). Knowledge, timeliness, provider bias, and patient factors were the top ranked themes. Knowledge and timeliness are considered main priorities to improve pain control. NGT is an efficient tool for identifying general and context-specific priority areas for quality improvement; teams of healthcare providers should consider using NGT to address their own challenges and barriers. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006...

  8. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  9. Intermittent balneotherapy at the Dead Sea area for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Gilad; Zeller, Lior; Avriel, Avital; Friger, Michael; Harari, Marco; Sukenik, Shaul

    2009-02-01

    Balneotherapy, traditionally administered during a continuous stay at the Dead Sea area, has been shown to be effective for patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intermittent regimen of balneotherapy at the Dead Sea for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Forty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis were included in a prospective randomized single-blind controlled study. The patients were divided into two groups: a treatment group (n=24), which were treated twice weekly for 6 consecutive weeks in a sulfur pool heated to 35-36 degrees C, and a control group (n=20) treated in a Jacuzzi filled with tap water heated to 35-36 degrees C. Participants were assessed by the Lequesne index of osteoarthritis severity, the WOMAC index, the SF-36 quality of health questionnaire, VAS scales for pain (completed by patients and physicians), and physical examination. A statistically significant improvement, lasting up to 6 months, was observed in the treatment group for most of the clinical parameters. In the control group the only improvements were in the SF-36 bodily pain scale at 6 months, the Lequesne index at 1 month and the WOMAC pain score at the end of the treatment period. Although the patients in the control group had milder disease, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Intermittent balneotherapy appears to be effective for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  10. Patients' Experiences with Specialist Care via Video Consultation in Primary Healthcare in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annette M.; Lindberg, Inger; Söderberg, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Video consultation (VC) can improve access to specialist care, especially for individuals who live in rural areas that are long distances from specialist clinics. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences with specialist care via VC encounters. Method. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients who had participated in a VC encounter. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Result. The analysis resulted in two themes. The theme “confident with the technology” was constructed from the categories “possibilities and obstacles in using VC encounters” and “advantages and disadvantages of the technology.” The theme “personal satisfaction with the VC encounters” was constructed from the categories “support from the healthcare personnel,” “perceived security,” and “satisfaction with the specialist consultation.” Conclusion. The patients who did not think that the VC was the best care still considered that the visit was adequate because they did not have to travel. An important finding was that the patients' perceived even short distances to specialty care as expensive journeys because many patients had low incomes. Among the patients who had more than one VC, the second encounter was perceived as safer. Additionally, good communication was essential for the patient's perception of security during the VC encounter. PMID:25243009

  11. Areas of normal pulmonary parenchyma on HRCT exhibit increased FDG PET signal in IPF patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, Thida; Thomas, Benjamin A.; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Afaq, Asim; Ell, Peter J.; Groves, Ashley M.; Screaton, Nicholas J.; Porter, Joanna C.; Maher, Toby M.; Lukey, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show increased PET signal at sites of morphological abnormality on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the PET signal at sites of normal-appearing lung on HRCT in IPF. Consecutive IPF patients (22 men, 3 women) were prospectively recruited. The patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET/HRCT. The pulmonary imaging findings in the IPF patients were compared to the findings in a control population. Pulmonary uptake of 18 F-FDG (mean SUV) was quantified at sites of morphologically normal parenchyma on HRCT. SUVs were also corrected for tissue fraction (TF). The mean SUV in IPF patients was compared with that in 25 controls (patients with lymphoma in remission or suspected paraneoplastic syndrome with normal PET/CT appearances). The pulmonary SUV (mean ± SD) uncorrected for TF in the controls was 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.78 ± 0.24 taken from normal lung regions in IPF patients (p 18 F-FDG on PET in areas of lung with a normal morphological appearance on HRCT. This may have implications for determining disease mechanisms and treatment monitoring. (orig.)

  12. Patients' Experiences with Specialist Care via Video Consultation in Primary Healthcare in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annette M; Lindberg, Inger; Söderberg, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Video consultation (VC) can improve access to specialist care, especially for individuals who live in rural areas that are long distances from specialist clinics. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences with specialist care via VC encounters. Method. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients who had participated in a VC encounter. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Result. The analysis resulted in two themes. The theme "confident with the technology" was constructed from the categories "possibilities and obstacles in using VC encounters" and "advantages and disadvantages of the technology." The theme "personal satisfaction with the VC encounters" was constructed from the categories "support from the healthcare personnel," "perceived security," and "satisfaction with the specialist consultation." Conclusion. The patients who did not think that the VC was the best care still considered that the visit was adequate because they did not have to travel. An important finding was that the patients' perceived even short distances to specialty care as expensive journeys because many patients had low incomes. Among the patients who had more than one VC, the second encounter was perceived as safer. Additionally, good communication was essential for the patient's perception of security during the VC encounter.

  13. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Balad?n Higuera, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, Jos? Miguel; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. Methods A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatients ...

  14. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar, Ignacio; Baladón, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, José Miguel; Salvador Carulla, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. Methods: A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatient...

  15. Decreased pyramidal neuron size in Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Descombes, Sarah; Uppal, Neha; Wicinski, Bridget; Santos, Micaela; Schmeidler, James; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Heinsen, Helmut; Heinsein, Helmut; Schmitz, Christoph; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-07-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and social communication, as well as by the presence of repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal cortex, which are involved in language processing, imitation function, and sociality processing networks, have been implicated in this complex disorder. Using a stereologic approach, this study aims to explore the presence of neuropathological differences in areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism compared to age- and hemisphere-matched controls. Based on previous evidence in the fusiform gyrus, we expected to find a decrease in the number and size of pyramidal neurons as well as an increase in volume of layers III, V, and VI in patients with autism. We observed significantly smaller pyramidal neurons in patients with autism compared to controls, although there was no difference in pyramidal neuron numbers or layer volumes. The reduced pyramidal neuron size suggests that a certain degree of dysfunction of areas 44 and 45 plays a role in the pathology of autism. Our results also support previous studies that have shown specific cellular neuropathology in autism with regionally specific reduction in neuron size, and provide further evidence for the possible involvement of the mirror neuron system, as well as impairment of neuronal networks relevant to communication and social behaviors, in this disorder.

  16. A study of low-density areas, clinical findings, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Iwao; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Oikawa, Tadato; Koide, Kohji; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1978-01-01

    55 out of 62 patients with cerebral infarction were investigated in terms of CT scan findings, angiographic findings, and clinical symptoms. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The low-density areas of the CT scan findings were classified into the following four types: large hemispheric or lobular --Type I; wedge-shaped --Type II; small --Type III; and lacunar low-density area. --Type IV. 2) Almost all patients with angiographically occlusive findings showed low-density areas of Type I; however, one patient with ICA occlusion revealed only a lacunar low-density area. 3) The patients with lacunar low-density areas showed an angiographically delayed filling of the angular artery and posterior parietal artery of the middle cerebral artery. 4) The relationship between the types of low-density areas and the clinical conscious disorders was not clear. On the other hand, the patients with Type I low-density areas almost all had motor disturbances, while patients with other types of low-density areas showed only 60 - 70% motor disturbances. 5) In patients with speech disorders, total aphasia cases were found in patients with large hemispheric low-density areas on the left side. Although, motor aphasia cases were seen in patients with various low-density areas on the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri, dysarthria cases were found in the patients with several low-density areas on both sides. 6) The localization of lacunar low-density areas seemed to be near the caudate nucleus on the right side and in the putaminal regions on the left side. The mean and the standard deviation of CT numbers in the lacunar low-density areas showed higher values on the right side than on the left side. (author)

  17. Delay in DOTS for new pulmonary tuberculosis patient from rural area of Wardha District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Bawankule

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of active tuberculosis patients seeks treatment, do so promptly, still many patients spend a great deal of time and money “shopping for health” and too often they do not receive either accurate diagnosis or effective treatment, despite spending considerable resources. Objective: To find out the time taken to, for diagnosis of tuberculosis and to put patient on DOTS from the onset of symptoms and pattern of health seeking behavior of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A cross-sectional rapid assessment using qualitative (FGD and quantitative (Interview methods conducted at DOTS center of tertiary care hospital from rural Wardha. Participants: 53 pulmonary tuberculosis patients already on DOTS, in intensive phase. Main outcome measure: Delay in initiation of DOTS & health seeking behavior Results: Median total delay for starting DOTS was 111 days, (range: 10 to 321 days. Patient delay was more than provider delay. Patients delay was more in patients above 60 years, illiterate, per-capita income below 650 Rupees and HIV TB co-infection. Pattern of health seeking behavior was complex. Family physician was the preferred health care provider. Patient visited on an average four providers and spent around 1450 rupees (only direct cost before DOTS begin. Time taken from the onset of symptoms and start of DOT is a cause of concern for the tuberculosis control program. Early case detection is important rather than mere achieving target of 70% new case detection. Program manager needs to implement locally relevant & focused strategies for early case detection to improve the treatment success, especially in rural area of India.

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  19. In psychopathic patients emotion attribution modulates activity in outcome-related brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Monika; Sodian, Beate; Döhnel, Katrin; Schwerdtner, Johannes; Meinhardt, Jörg; Hajak, Göran

    2010-05-30

    The understanding that other people's emotional states depend on the fulfilment of their intention is fundamentally important for responding adequately to others. Psychopathic patients show severe deficits in responding adequately to other people's emotion. The present study explored whether these impairments are associated with deficits in the ability to infer others' emotional states. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identical cartoon stories, depicting a subject whose intention was fulfilled or not fulfilled, were presented to 14 psychopathic patients and 14 non-psychopathic patients. The participants should indicate the protagonist's emotional state. Additionally, a non-mentalizing control condition was presented. The two groups showed no behavioural differences. But in non-psychopathic patients emotion attribution was associated with increased activity of the mirror neuron system, the bilateral supramarginal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus. In contrast psychopathic patients showed increased activation of regions associated with outcome monitoring and attention, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal areas. The results emphasize that although psychopathic patients show no deficits in reasoning about other people's emotion if an explicit evaluation is demanded, they use divergent neural processing strategies that are related to more rational, outcome-oriented processes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consultations of health service providers amongst patients of pulmonary tuberculosis from an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta S. Pardeshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To describe the number, types and reasons of consultations amongst patients of pulmonary tuberculosis from an urban area. Settings and Design Cross sectional study was conducted amongst new patients of pulmonary tuberculosis initiated on DOTS at District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC, Yavatmal from January to June 2006. Material and Methods: The data regarding consultations were collected along a time line. The reasons for consultations were studied by in-depth interviews. Statistical analysis: Logistic regression analysis and transcripts of interviews. Results and Conclusions A total of 55 patients were studied in whom median duration between first consultation to treatment initiation was 15 days. A majority of cases (87.27% had first consulted a private practitioner. A total of 32 patients reported more than two consultations and 19 had consulted more than two private health service providers. Amongst the movements between consultations, a majority were from private to government. Only four patients had come to DTC without any prior consultation. Many patients came to government health service provider on their own when the symptomatic treatment prescribed by the private practitioners did not relieve their symptoms.

  1. Covering and Reimbursing Telehealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers who are striving to achieve better health care, improved health outcomes and lower costs are considering new strategies and technologies. Telehealth is a tool that uses technology to provide health services remotely, and state leaders are looking to it now more than ever as a way to address workforce gaps and reach underserved patients. Among the challenges facing state lawmakers who are working to introduce or expand telehealth is how to handle covering patients and reimbursing providers.

  2. Visceral fat area predicts survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Jean-Charles; Pigneur, Frédéric; Nelson, Anaïs Charles; Costentin, Charlotte; Tselikas, Lambros; Katsahian, Sandrine; Diao, Guoqing; Laurent, Alexis; Mallat, Ariane; Duvoux, Christophe; Luciani, Alain; Decaens, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Anthropometric measurements have been linked to resistance to anti-angiogenic treatment and survival. Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib or brivanib in 2008-2011 were included in this retrospective study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed using computed tomography and were correlated with drug toxicity, radiological response, and overall survival. 52 patients were included, Barcelona Clinic Liver Classification B (38%) and C (62%), with a mean value of α-fetoprotein of 29,554±85,654 ng/mL, with a median overall survival of 10.5 months. Sarcopenia was associated with a greater rate of hand-foot syndrome (P=0.049). Modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (mRECIST) and Choi criteria were significantly associated with survival, but RECIST criteria were not. An absence of hand-foot syndrome and high-visceral fat area were associated with progressive disease as assessed by RECIST and mRECIST criteria. In multivariate analyses, high visceral fat area (HR=3.6; P=0.002), low lean body mass (HR=2.4; P=0.015), and presence of hand-foot syndrome (HR=1.8; P=0.004) were significantly associated with overall survival. In time-dependent multivariate analyses; only high visceral fat area was associated with survival. Visceral fat area is associated with survival and seems to be a predictive marker for primary resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  4. Esprit HR mattress cover in pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoulowa, J

    Modern mattresses provide soft dense foam, which permits the redistribution of pressure on the patient over a wider area - away from bony prominences where pressure ulcers usually occur. The material used in producing multistretch covers for the new mattresses had a tendency to delaminate as a result of a combination of heat, moisture and inappropriate cleansing techniques causing the water barriers to fall. In partnership with York Health NHS Trust and the material manufacturer, STM Healthcare produced a mattress cover (Esprit HR) which was able to withstand higher pressure from heat and moisture and greatly extended the life expectancy of the Esprit HR mattress.

  5. Placement of a covered self-expandable nitinol stent for bile duct stricture that caused by ischemic injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kweon; Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Huh, Sik; Byun, Kwan Soo [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The authors report here on a case of focal stricture in the common hepatic duct that was caused by ischemic bile duct injury after repeat TACE procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the patient was successfully treated with a covered self-expandable nitinol stent.

  6. Regional glucose metabolism within cortical Brodmann areas in healthy individuals and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hsieh, Pauline; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Platholi, Jimcy; LiCalzi, Elizabeth M; Cartwright, Charles; Hollander, Eric

    2004-01-01

    A new Brodmann area (BA) delineation approach was applied to FDG-PET scans of autistic patients and healthy volunteers (n = 17 in each group) to examine relative glucose metabolism (rGMR) during performance of a verbal memory task. In the frontal lobe, patients had lower rGMR in medial/cingulate regions (BA 32, 24, 25) but not in lateral regions (BA 8-10) compared with healthy controls. Patients had higher rGMR in occipital (BA 19) and parietal regions (BA 39) compared with controls, but there were no group differences in temporal lobe regions. Among controls, better recall and use of the semantic-clustering strategy was associated with greater lateral and medial frontal rGMR, while decreased rGMR in medial-frontal regions was associated with greater perseverative/intrusion errors. Patients failed to show these patterns. Autism patients have dysfunction in some but not all of the key brain regions subserving verbal memory performance, and other regions may be recruited for task performance. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease among type-2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Suwita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most neglected complications of diabetes mellitus (DM is gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD which arises from autonomic neuropathy and diabetic gastropathy related to the extent of DM. This study was done to find prevalence of GERD in DM patients with GERD-questionnaire (GERDQ, dietary factor proportion, and their association with other GERD risk factor in rural area. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Puskesmas Pelaihari from August to September 2013. Subjects with DM aged ≥ 18 were selected consecutively from both newly and previously diagnosed patients with exclusion criteria: pregnancy, in proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and had other metabolic disease(s. DM was diagnosed with ADA criteria, while GERD was diagnosed in patients with score of ≥ 8 of Indonesian GERDQ. Results: There were 30 subjects (29.7% with GERD among 101 patients with DM and dietary factors found in GERD patients were spicy diet (90%, high-fat food (90%, irritative beverages (87%, and irritative diet (23%. Only female gender was associated with GERD vs non-GERD in DM patients (87% vs 68%, p = 0.048. Meanwhile, duration of DM (2 [0-13] vs 2 [0-19], p = 0.976, obesity (37% vs 38%, p = 0.897, age (53.2±10.5 vs 54.7 ± 9.3, p = 0.481, and uncontrolled diabetes (90% vs 94%, p = 0.421 were not associated with the GERD among DM patients.Conclusion: Prevalence of GERD in DM is somewhat high in this study. Female group with DM needs to be screened for GERD as early as possible.

  8. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  9. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  10. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  11. Optimation of patient positioning and irradiation field documentation when irradiating in oto-rhino-laryngological area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proske, H.

    1992-01-01

    The large mobility of head and neck requires, when irradiating in this area, positioning and fastening aids, which go beyond simple head bolsters or head moulds. This paper presented describes a positioning system developed by us for irradiating the neck-nose-throat area, which, due to its construction, consists of a non-slipping positioning ground plate and an individually adjustable masking system, which is physiological safe, can be proceeded quickly and exactly, is relatively inexpensive, and is accepted by patients without objections, furthermore since skin markings by drawing field limits onto the face mask are no longer necessary. Various technical aids allow the placement of satellites to spare those body parts which are not irradiated and to installed compensators for the direction of radiation. An integrated cartridge mount enables in a simple way easy production of field control documentation photos. (orig.) [de

  12. Vimentin may reflect areas of pathologic involvement in biopsies from patients with autoimmune skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autoimmune bullous skin diseases (ABDs represent a group of disorders of the skin and mucosa commonly associated with deposits of immunoglobulins, complement and fibrinogen, and usually directed against distinct adhesion molecules. After studing these diseases for many years, we noted alterations not only between the cells junctions of the epidermis and/or the dermal/epidermal junction, but also in dermal skin appendageal structures and in mesenchymal tissue around the blisters. Based on our findings, we wanted to determine if the observed patterns of autoimmunity correlated with cutaneous vimentin expression. Materials and Methods: Archival biopsies previously diagnosed with ABDs by clinical, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and direct and/or immunofluorescence data were stained with antibodies directed against vimentin via immunohistochemistry (IHC. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 3 with Senear-Usher syndrome. Results: The H&E, DIF and vimentin patterns of positivity in the different ABDs confirmed that vimentin was compartmentalized around areas of dermal inflammation, around skin appendages and in epidermal, dermal and mesenchymal cell junction areas. Conclusion: Vimentin may be a useful tool for highlighting patterns of microenvironmental tissue alteration in multiple ABDs. The vimentin staining pattern observed was analogous to that we have previously described for proteases and protease inhibitors in patients affected by ABDs, expanding the concept that the autoimmune process extends beyond cell junctions.

  13. Stalking by patients: doctors' experiences in a Canadian urban area (Part II)--physician responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Karen M; Robinson, Gail Erlick

    2013-07-01

    Stalking involves recurrent unwanted communication, harassment, and intrusive behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine physicians' experiences of being stalked by their patients, with particular attention to the emotional impact on the physicians and their actions taken. A questionnaire designed to study the nature and the impact of stalking experiences among physicians was sent to 3159 randomly chosen physicians in the Greater Toronto Area. Approximately 15% (14.9%) of the 1190 physicians who responded reported having been stalked. The physicians reported feeling angry, frustrated, anxious, frightened, lacking control, and helpless. The physicians coped in a number of ways including terminating the physician-patient relationship, but many just ignored the problem. Most had no previous knowledge about stalking. Physicians experience a range of emotions as a result of being a victim of stalking. In view of the prevalence and the impact, physicians may benefit from education to help prepare them for the possibility of being stalked.

  14. Left atrial low-voltage areas predict atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Tsujimura, Takuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Okuno, Shota; Ohashi, Takuya; Tsuji, Aki; Mano, Toshiaki

    2018-04-15

    Association between the presence of left atrial low-voltage areas and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has been shown mainly in persistent AF patients. We sought to compare the AF recurrence rate in paroxysmal AF patients with and without left atrial low-voltage areas. This prospective observational study included 147 consecutive patients undergoing initial ablation for paroxysmal AF. Voltage mapping was performed after PVI during sinus rhythm, and low-voltage areas were defined as regions where bipolar peak-to-peak voltage was low-voltage areas after PVI were observed in 22 (15%) patients. Patients with low-voltage areas were significantly older (72±6 vs. 66±10, plow-voltage areas than without (36% vs. 6%, pLow-voltage areas were independently associated with AF recurrence even after adjustment for the other related factors (Hazard ratio, 5.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.16 to 16.0, p=0.001). The presence of left atrial low-voltage areas after PVI predicts AF recurrence in patients with paroxysmal AF as well as in patients with persistent AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lethal Area 50 in Patients with Burn Injuries in North West, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of their considerably high rates of mortality and morbidity, burns are still viewed as one of the most important health-threatening environmental hazards imposing a significant burden on the health care system in low and middle-income countries. This study seeks to determine the lethal area fifty percent (LA50 in all burn patients admitted over a period of five years and the factors influencing mortality in burn injuries. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional carried out from 2010 to 2014 in Sina Hospital of Tabriz, 1226 participant including 319 women, 346 men, 272 girls, and 289 boys were selected through stratified sampling. The demographic and clinical data of patients ( their age, gender, burn type, TBSA, the season and consequences of burning were all extracted and then analyzed, using descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and variability and inferential statistics(chi-square and linear regressionat a significance level of 0.05. The LA50 was calculated through determining the relationship between the total body surface area and mortality rate (The extent of the body burns measured and recorded based on Lando Chart in hospitals. Results: The highest (47.6% and the lowest (3.8% rates of burns were observed among those aged below 16 and above 65, respectively. The majority of the participants were residents of cities (55.4%, married (34.6%, illiterate (56.6%, and housewives (14.8%. Most burns were caused by accidents (98.4% at home (90.6%. Most patients had suffered first- and second-degree burns (68.4%, with no inhalation damages (99.5%. Hot liquids were the main culprit in most of the burns (58.7% and the upper extremities were the most frequently affected areas (34.8%. There was .99 rise in mortality for every percent increase in TBSA, and there seemed to be a significant relationship between the age level and the eventual outcome- the higher the age, the more likely for the incident to end in death

  16. Dose area product measurement for diagnostic reference levels and analysis of patient dose in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Lee, B.; Shin, G.; Choi, J.; Kim, J.; Park, C.; Park, H.; Lee, K.; Kim, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were suggested and patient doses were analysed through the dose-area product value in dental radiography. In intraoral radiography, at three sites, i.e. molar, premolar and incisor on the maxilla and acquired third quartile values: 55.5, 46 and 36.5 mGy cm 2 , respectively, were measured. In panoramic, cephalo-metric and cone beam computed tomography, the values were 120.3, 146 and 3203 mGy cm 2 (16 x 18 cm), respectively. It has been shown that, in intraoral radiography, the patient dose changes proportionally to the value of mA s, but the change in extra-oral radiography in response to mA s could not be confirmed. The authors could confirm, however, the difference in dose according to the manufacturer in all dental radiography examinations, except for panoramic radiography. Depending on the size of hospital, there were some differences in patient dose in intraoral radiography, but no difference in patient dose in extra-oral radiography. (authors)

  17. Diagnosis by computer-aided tomography in patients with carcinomas in the rectum-sigma area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnann, H.; Huebener, K.H.; Ahlemann, L.M.; Harms, S.

    1984-01-01

    In a retrospective study on the patients at Tuebingen between 1977 and 1980, the diagnostic value of computer-aided tomography was investigated in 232 cases of carcinomas in the rectum-sigma area. 192 examinations were post-operative. Whether computer-aided tomography will catch on as a staging measure in the pre-operative phase must for now remain unanswered until prospective studies on a large number of patients have been carried through. However, it is useful as a decision-taking aid as regards the choice of the operation method and to clarify whether the carcinoma is operable. Far more important in view of the known high rate of recurvency and metastatic spread seems to be the role of computer-aided tomography in the aftercare especially of those patients who had their rectum removed: the diagnosis of the recidivation permits direct therapeutic action (a second operation, radiation therapy) at an early date. The search for clinically not previously known recidivations revealed that computer-aided tomography had in 124 patients with operated rectal carcinoma a high sensitivity of 98 per cent, a specificity of 87 per cent and an accuracy of 91.9 percent. How long after the operation CAT checks should be carried through is quite as uncertain at present as the role of CAT in the staging of those tumors. The authors recommend intervals of 2-3 months within the first two post-operative years. (orig.) [de

  18. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  19. Intensive short-term vasodilation effect in the pain area of sciatica patients--case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-09-09

    Varied and complicated etiology of low back pain radiating distally to the extremities is still causing disagreement and controversy around the issue of its diagnosis and treatment. Most clinicians believe that the source of that pain is generally radicular. While some of them postulate the clinical significance of the sacroiliac joint syndrome, others demonstrate that almost one in five people with back pain experience symptoms indicative of the neuropathic pain component. To date, neuropathic involvement has not been completely understood, and different mechanisms are thought to play an important role. It has been established that muscle pain (myofascial pain) e.g. active trigger points from the gluteus minimus, can mimic pain similar to sciatica, especially in the chronic stage. This paper describes patients presenting with radicular sciatica (case one and two) and sciatica-like symptoms (case three). For the first time, intensive short-term vasodilation in the pain area following needle infiltration of the gluteus minimus trigger point was recorded. Three Caucasian, European women suffering from radicular sciatica (case one and two) and sciatica-like symptoms (case three) at the age of 57, 49 and 47 respectively underwent infrared camera observation during needle infiltration of the gluteus minimus trigger point. The patients were diagnosed by a neurologist; they underwent magnetic resonance imaging, electromyography, neurography and blood test analysis. Apart from that, the patients were diagnosed by a clinician specializing in myofascial pain diagnosis. In the examined cases, trigger points-related short-term vasodilation was recorded. Confirmation of these findings in a controlled, blinded study would indicate the existence of a link between the pain of sciatica patients (radicular or sciatica-like pain) and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Further studies on a bigger group of patients are still needed.

  20. Motor areas of the frontal cortex in patients with motor eloquent brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of its huge clinical potential, the importance of premotor areas for motor function itself and plastic reshaping due to tumors or ischemic brain lesions has received increased attention. Thus, in this study the authors used navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate whether tumorous brain lesions induce a change in motor cortex localization in the human brain. METHODS Between 2010 and 2013, nTMS motor mapping was performed in a prospective cohort of 100 patients with brain tumors in or adjacent to the rolandic cortex. Spatial data analysis was performed by normalization of the individual motor maps and creation of overlays according to tumor location. Analysis of motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies was performed regarding mean overall latencies and potentially polysynaptic latencies, defined as latencies longer than 1 SD above the mean value. Hemispheric dominance, lesion location, and motor-function deficits were also considered. RESULTS Graphical analysis showed that motor areas were not restricted to the precentral gyrus. Instead, they spread widely in the anterior-posterior direction. An analysis of MEP latency showed that mean MEP latencies were shortest in the precentral gyrus and longest in the superior and middle frontal gyri. The percentage of latencies longer than 1 SD differed widely across gyri. The dominant hemisphere showed a greater number of longer latencies than the nondominant hemisphere (p < 0.0001). Moreover, tumor location-dependent changes in distribution of polysynaptic latencies were observed (p = 0.0002). Motor-function deficit did not show any statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS The distribution of primary and polysynaptic motor areas changes in patients with brain tumors and highly depends on tumor location. Thus, these data should be considered for resection planning.

  1. Quantitative gammagraphie and sialometry of the parotid in patients irradiated in the cervico-facial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaztelu, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Fernandez Garcia, M.C.; Cobo Plana, J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in parotid function in patients presenting with tumors of the cervico-facial area, in whom the whole of the parotid gland was within the irradiation field were assesse by means of saliva secretion determinations and quantitative gammagrams of the parotid. The following aims were pursued: a) To evaluate and to compare the sensitivity of both methods. b) To compare the radiotracer agent uptake in normal parotid glands, as well as the variations that occur in relation to the number of received, and with the time duration of irradiation. The conclusions were as follows: -Both methods are sensitive, but the gammagraphic method has the advantages of being non-invasive, easily performed and not causing discomfort to the patient. -The quantification of the parotied uptake in a control group of patients, as compared with the variations occuring in relation to the number of rads racived, show that at the end of the treatment with 5.000 rads, uptake reaches 15% of that of the control group. One year later, function is very little restored, not reaching 20% of that of the control group. -Decrease of both parotid secretion and uptake is directly proportional to the dose received. (Author)

  2. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  3. Alcohol and tobacco use among methadone maintenance patients in Vietnamese rural mountainside areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not, nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C. EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors. Results: The majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7% and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%. People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR=0.45; 95%CI=0.22–0.92 and had problems in usual activities (OR=0.20; 95%CI=0.06–0.70 were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef.=0.03; 95%CI=0.02–0.05 and having problems in mobility (Coef.=0.72; 95%CI=0.03–1.42 was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR=2.86; 95%CI=1.20–6.82. Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR=1.07; 95%CI=1.01–1.13. Conclusions: This study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role

  4. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  5. Factors influencing quality of patient interaction at community pharmacy drive-through and walk-in counselling areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A; Pu, Jia

    2014-08-01

    To examine factors influencing the amount of time and information pharmacy personnel provide to patients at drive-through and walk-in counselling areas. On-site observational data collection in 22 community pharmacies by pharmacy students. Information included observable patient characteristics such as gender, age range, English proficiency and mobility impairment; encounter characteristics included type of prescription and whether the patient was acknowledged; and counselling characteristics included types of counselling information conveyed and length of time for each encounter. Patient-pharmacist encounters were documented at the drive-through and walk-in counselling areas 961 and 1098 times respectively. Pharmacists spent less time, and technicians more time, with patients at the drive-through counselling area. The amount of information provided to patients was significantly affected by whether the patient was receiving new versus refill prescriptions. Patients with a new prescription were twice as likely to receive more information from pharmacy personnel. There was a significant difference between the amount of counselling provided to patients at the drive-through and walk-in counselling area (rate ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.00). Patients at the drive-through received a lower amount of information relative to patients using the walk-in. Amount of information provided to patients was affected by the level of pharmacy busyness (RR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). Providing patient care at the drive-through counselling area may negatively influence quality of patient care. To improve quality of pharmacy drive-through services, standardization of drive-through services in pharmacies may be needed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. In-patient costs of agitation and containment in a mental health catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Rubio-Valera, Maria; Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Baladón Higuera, Luisa; Gibert, Karina; Gracia Canales, Alfredo; Kaskens, Lisette; Ortiz, José Miguel; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-06-06

    There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatients with mental disorders in an area of 640,572 adult inhabitants in South Barcelona (Spain). To calculate costs, a seven-step methodology with novel definition of agitation was used along with a staff survey, a database of containment events, and data on aggressive incidents. A micro-costing analysis of specific containment interventions was used to estimate both prevalence and direct costs from the healthcare provider perspective, by means of a mixed approach with a probabilistic model evaluated on real data. Due to the complex interaction of the multivariate covariances, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to have empirical bounds of variability. During 2013, 918 patients were admitted to the Acute Inpatient Unit. Of these, 52.8% were men, with a mean age of 44.6 years (SD = 15.5), 74.4% were compulsory admissions, 40.1% were diagnosed with schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis, with a mean length of stay of 24.6 days (SD = 16.9). The annual estimate of total agitation events was 508. The cost of containment interventions ranges from 282€ at the lowest level of agitation to 822€ when verbal containment plus seclusion and restraint have to be used. The annual total cost of agitation was 280,535€, representing 6.87% of the total costs of acute hospitalisation in the local area. Agitation events are frequent and costly. Strategies to reduce their number and severity should be implemented to reduce costs to the Health System and alleviate patient suffering.

  7. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  8. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  9. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  10. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  11. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  12. Profiling of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer's disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico. Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer's disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico. Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer's disease. The differential profile of Alzheimer's disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and healthy living practices as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Identification of quality improvement areas in pediatric MRI from analysis of patient safety reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Camilo; Murcia, Diana J.; Miguel, Karen; DeFuria, Cathryn; Sagar, Pallavi; Gee, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of safety reports has been utilized to guide practice improvement efforts in adult magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data specific to pediatric MRI could help target areas of improvement in this population. To estimate the incidence of safety reports in pediatric MRI and to determine associated risk factors. In a retrospective HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, a single-institution Radiology Information System was queried to identify MRI studies performed in pediatric patients (0-18 years old) from 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2015. The safety report database was queried for events matching the same demographic and dates. Data on patient age, gender, location (inpatient, outpatient, emergency room [ER]), and the use of sedation/general anesthesia were recorded. Safety reports were grouped into categories based on the cause and their severity. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize continuous variables. Chi-square analyses were performed for univariate determination of statistical significance of variables associated with safety report rates. A multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding effects. A total of 16,749 pediatric MRI studies and 88 safety reports were analyzed, yielding a rate of 0.52%. There were significant differences in the rate of safety reports between patients younger than 6 years (0.89%) and those older (0.41%) (P<0.01), sedated (0.8%) and awake children (0.45%) (P<0.01), and inpatients (1.1%) and outpatients (0.4%) (P<0.01). The use of sedation/general anesthesia is an independent risk factor for a safety report (P=0.02). The most common causes for safety reports were service coordination (34%), drug reactions (19%), and diagnostic test and ordering errors (11%). The overall rate of safety reports in pediatric MRI is 0.52%. Interventions should focus on vulnerable populations, such as younger patients, those requiring sedation, and those in need of acute medical attention. (orig.)

  14. Identification of quality improvement areas in pediatric MRI from analysis of patient safety reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Camilo [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Murcia, Diana J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miguel, Karen; DeFuria, Cathryn [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Quality and Safety Office, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sagar, Pallavi; Gee, Michael S. [Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Analysis of safety reports has been utilized to guide practice improvement efforts in adult magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data specific to pediatric MRI could help target areas of improvement in this population. To estimate the incidence of safety reports in pediatric MRI and to determine associated risk factors. In a retrospective HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, a single-institution Radiology Information System was queried to identify MRI studies performed in pediatric patients (0-18 years old) from 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2015. The safety report database was queried for events matching the same demographic and dates. Data on patient age, gender, location (inpatient, outpatient, emergency room [ER]), and the use of sedation/general anesthesia were recorded. Safety reports were grouped into categories based on the cause and their severity. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize continuous variables. Chi-square analyses were performed for univariate determination of statistical significance of variables associated with safety report rates. A multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding effects. A total of 16,749 pediatric MRI studies and 88 safety reports were analyzed, yielding a rate of 0.52%. There were significant differences in the rate of safety reports between patients younger than 6 years (0.89%) and those older (0.41%) (P<0.01), sedated (0.8%) and awake children (0.45%) (P<0.01), and inpatients (1.1%) and outpatients (0.4%) (P<0.01). The use of sedation/general anesthesia is an independent risk factor for a safety report (P=0.02). The most common causes for safety reports were service coordination (34%), drug reactions (19%), and diagnostic test and ordering errors (11%). The overall rate of safety reports in pediatric MRI is 0.52%. Interventions should focus on vulnerable populations, such as younger patients, those requiring sedation, and those in need of acute medical attention. (orig.)

  15. Acromegaly Is More Severe in Patients With AHR or AIP Gene Variants Living in Highly Polluted Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, S; Ragonese, M; Puglisi, S; Romeo, P D; Torre, M L; Alibrandi, A; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G; Ceccato, F; Regazzo, D; De Menis, E; Sartorato, P; Arnaldi, G; Trementino, L; Trimarchi, F; Ferrau, F

    2016-04-01

    An increased prevalence of acromegaly was found some years ago in a highly polluted area in North-Eastern Sicily, where high concentration of nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and cadmium was found. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway has a key role in detoxification of these compounds and in tumorigenesis. We correlated the occurrence of AHR and/or AHR-interacting protein (AIP) gene variants with acromegaly severity according to pollution exposition. This was an observational, perspective study conducted over 7 years in four Italian referral centers for pituitary diseases in which 210 patients with acromegaly were enrolled between 2008 and 2015. Genetic screening of patients for AHR and AIP variants. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological data of patients with and without AIP and/or AHR gene variants, living in polluted (high-risk for health, [HR]) or nonpolluted (NP) areas of five Italian regions were evaluated and compared. Among the 23 patients from HR areas, nine showed AHR or AIP variants. Mean IGF-I levels and pituitary tumor diameter were significantly higher in these nine patients (HR/VAR+) than in the other 14 (HR/VAR−) and in the 187 from NP areas (44 NP/VAR+). Somatostatin analogs significantly decreased mean GH and IGF-I levels in patients from NP areas and in HR/VAR− (GH P acromegaly, increased pituitary tumor size, and somatostatin analog resistance in patients living in HR areas.

  16. Cover times of random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  17. Hepatitis C virus sequences from different patients confirm the existence and transmissibility of subtype 2q, a rare subtype circulating in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martró, Elisa; Valero, Ana; Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Saludes, Verónica; Planas, Ramón; González-Candelas, Fernando; Ausina, Vicente; Bracho, Maria Alma

    2011-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been classified into six genotypes and more than 70 subtypes with distinct geographical and epidemiological distributions. While 18 genotype 2 subtypes have been proposed, only 5 have had their complete sequence determined. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV isolates from three patients from the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for whom commercial genotyping methods provided discordant results. Full-length genome sequencing was carried out for 2 of the 3 patients; for the third patient only partial NS5B sequences could be obtained. The generated sequences were subjected to phylogenetic, recombination, and identity analyses. Sequences covering most of the HCV genome (9398 and 9566  nt in length) were obtained and showed a 90.3% identity to each other at the nucleotide level, while both sequences differed by 17.5-22.6% from the other fully sequenced genotype 2 subtypes. No evidence of recombination was found. The NS5B phylogenetic tree showed that sequences from the three patients cluster together with the only representative sequence of the provisionally designed 2q subtype, which also corresponds to a patient from Barcelona. Phylogenetic analysis of the full coding sequence showed that subtype 2q was more closely related to subtype 2k. The results obtained in this study suggest that subtype 2q now meets the requirements for confirmed designation status according to consensus criteria for HCV classification and nomenclature, and its epidemiological value is ensured as it has spread among several patients in the Barcelona metropolitan area. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Mobile, one stage, bilateral ear surgery for chronic otitis media patients in remote areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Sørensen, H C Florian; Tos, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the results of mobile, one stage, bilateral ear surgery conducted in Greenland, where chronic otitis media with and without suppuration is prevalent. The study aimed to increase the number of operations conducted and to reduce the cost of ear surgery in remote areas....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was longitudinal and prospective, with a two-year follow up. Seventeen East Greenlandic patients with bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media or chronic otitis media were selected. Their median age was 16 years; 53 per cent were female and 47 per cent male. Hearing...... were satisfied. There were no hearing hazards. CONCLUSIONS: The results of mobile, one stage, bilateral ear surgery conducted in Greenland for long-lasting chronic suppurative otitis media and chronic otitis media were acceptable and safe, and more ears underwent surgery at reduced cost compared...

  19. The stability of myocardial area at risk estimated electrocardiographically in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Esben A; Hassell, Mariëlla E C J; van Hellemond, Irene E G

    2014-01-01

    In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the amount of myocardial area at risk (MaR) indicates the maximal potential loss of myocardium if the coronary artery remains occluded. During the time course of infarct evolution ischemic MaR is replaced by necrosis, which results...... in a decrease in ST segment elevation and QRS complex distortion. Recently it has been shown that combining the electrocardiographic (ECG) Aldrich ST and Selvester QRS scores result in a more accurate estimate of MaR than using either method alone. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined Aldrich...... reperfusion (ECG2). The combined Aldrich and Selvester score was considered stable if the difference between ECG1 and ECG2 was ST elevation in 4...

  20. Relationship between extent of brain hypoperfused area and functional outcome in patients with a small subcortical infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Ashida, Keiichi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Iiji, Osamu; Itoi, Yoshihito; Furukawa, Toshiyuki

    1992-01-01

    We performed 123 I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 43 patients who had a small infarction ( 2 =29.3; p 123 I-IMP SPECT in patients with a small infarction may discriminate lacunar infarction from embolic or hemodynamic infarction, which was caused by vascular lesions of major cerebral arteries, in subcortical area. Our study suggests that functional outcome is better in lacunar infarction than embolic or hemodynamic infarction in subcortical area. (author)

  1. Modeling percent tree canopy cover: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen G. Moisen; Barry T. Wilson; Mark V. Finco; Warren B. Cohen; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2012-01-01

    Tree canopy cover is a fundamental component of the landscape, and the amount of cover influences fire behavior, air pollution mitigation, and carbon storage. As such, efforts to empirically model percent tree canopy cover across the United States are a critical area of research. The 2001 national-scale canopy cover modeling and mapping effort was completed in 2006,...

  2. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... GENERAL Radiation Protection Recommendations § 1000.50 Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad...

  3. Correlation Between Dermatology Life Quality Index and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index in Patients with Psoriasis Treated with Ustekinumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Egeberg, Alexander; Loft, Nikolai Dyrberg

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of biological treatment efficacy for psoriasis is based on clinical evaluation and patient's quality of life. However, long-term correlation between Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in real life has not been studied in patients treated...

  4. Evaluation of prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with pemphigus disease area index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Lajevardi, MD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In our study, 22% of patients had hyperprolactinemia, which was greater among females. The highest PRL level was detected in mucocutaneous group. Although serum PRL levels were higher in patients with a greater Pemphigus Disease Area Index, it did not reach statistical significance.

  5. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  6. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  7. Effects of legume cover crop and sub-soiling on soil properties and Maize (Zea mays L) growth in semi arid area of Machakos district, Kenya = Efecto del cultivo de cobertua y el subsolado sobre las propiedades del suelo y crecimiento de maiz (Zea mays L.) en la region semi arida de Machakos, Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuma, A.; Gachene, C.K.K.; Gicheru, P.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Mwangi, H.W.; Clavel, D.; Verhagen, A.; Kaufmann, Von R.; Francis, J.; Ekaya, W.

    2011-01-01

    Low crop yields in the semi arid areas of Kenya have been attributed to, among other factors, low soil fertility, low farm inputs, labour constraints and inappropriate tillage practices that lead to pulverized soils. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of legume cover crops (LCC) on

  8. Aberrant connectivity of areas for decoding degraded speech in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, Mareike; Diederen, Kelly M J; Meijering, Anne Lotte; Sommer, Iris E; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychotic experience. Various mechanisms including misattribution of inner speech and imbalance between bottom-up and top-down factors in auditory perception potentially due to aberrant connectivity between frontal and temporo-parietal areas have been suggested to underlie AVH. Experimental evidence for disturbed connectivity of networks sustaining auditory-verbal processing is, however, sparse. We compared functional resting-state connectivity in 49 psychotic patients with frequent AVH and 49 matched controls. The analysis was seeded from the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), thalamus, angular gyrus (AG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as these regions are implicated in extracting meaning from impoverished speech-like sounds. Aberrant connectivity was found for all seeds. Decreased connectivity was observed between the left MTG and its right homotope, between the left AG and the surrounding inferior parietal cortex (IPC) and the left inferior temporal gyrus, between the left thalamus and the right cerebellum, as well as between the left IFG and left IPC, and dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC). Increased connectivity was observed between the left IFG and the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the left insula and between the left thalamus and the left fusiform gyrus/hippocampus. The predisposition to experience AVH might result from decoupling between the speech production system (IFG, insula and SMA) and the self-monitoring system (DLPFC, VLPFC, IPC) leading to misattribution of inner speech. Furthermore, decreased connectivity between nodes involved in speech processing (AG, MTG) and other regions implicated in auditory processing might reflect aberrant top-down influences in AVH.

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  10. [Distance covered in walking test after heart surgery in patients over 70 years of age: outcome indicator for the assessment of quality of care in intensive rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Stefania; Mazza, Antonio; Camera, Federica; Maestri, Antonella; Opasich, Cristina; Tramarin, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    For quality-of-care assessment of rehabilitation programs after cardiac surgery, measures of functional recovery have been proposed as outcome indicators. Aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, the safety and the informative content of the 6-min walking test (6 WT) performed in elderly patients soon after admission in an intensive rehabilitation program after cardiac surgery. Population consists of 115 consecutive over-70 patients admitted to an in-hospital rehabilitation program after cardiac surgery. Within 7 days of admission, in 107 patients (93%) clinical conditions allowed the execution of a 6 WT, on ECG telemetry monitoring. Resting and exertional heart rate, score of fatigue (Borg Scale 1 divided by 20), symptoms, ECG alterations and arrhythmias were recorded. Other considered variables were: comorbidity (Charlson index), length of stay and complications occurring during the whole surgical and rehabilitation in-hospitalisation stay, disability (nursing needs: Maslow and nursing chart), functional status at discharge, left ventricular ejection fraction, number of exercise treatment sessions, self-perceived health-status at admission and at discharge (EuroQoL questionnaire). The mean walked distance was 194 +/- 93 m. No complication neither ECG alteration occurred during the 6 WT; only isolated premature ventricular beats were recorded in 26 pts. Heart rate increased from 86 +/- 13 at rest to 95 +/- 17 bpm at the end of the 6 WT (p needs, self-perceived health-status and functional capacity at discharge differed between patients who performed the 6 WT within 4 days compared with those who did it later, and between patients who walked < or = 120 m (lower quartile) compared with those who walked more. In elderly patients after cardiac surgery the 6 WT performed within the first week of admission in rehabilitation unit is feasible and safe. Simple cut-offs like timing of the 6 WT and walking performance identify more severe patients with lower

  11. Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marangoni Sérgio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing. Methods We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area – BA22p identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease. Results Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex. Conclusion Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

  12. External Validation of Contact Surface Area as a Predictor of Postoperative Renal Function in Patients Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifler, Miki; Ristau, Benjamin T; Higgins, Andrew M; Smaldone, Marc C; Kutikov, Alexander; Zisman, Amnon; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-09-20

    We sought to externally validate a mathematical formula for tumor contact surface area as a predictor of postoperative renal function in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. We queried a prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2014 and 2016. Contact surface area was calculated using data obtained from preoperative cross-sectional imaging. The correlation between contact surface area and perioperative variables was examined. The correlation between postoperative renal functional outcomes, contact surface area and the R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines and tumor touches main renal artery or vein) nephrometry score was also assessed. A total of 257 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy had sufficient data to enter the study. Median contact surface area was 14.5 cm 2 (IQR 6.2-36) and the median nephrometry score was 9 (IQR 7-10). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area correlated with estimated blood loss (r s = 0.42, p contact surface area and nephrometry score were independent predictors of the absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (each p contact surface area was a better predictor of a greater than 20% postoperative decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the nephrometry score (AUC 0.94 vs 0.80). Contact surface area correlated with the change in postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy. It can be used in conjunction with the nephrometry score to counsel patients about the risk of renal functional decline after partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  14. Primary aldosteronism among newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in a Swedish primary care area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Isaksson, Anders; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in primary care using the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR), and to assess clinical and biochemical characteristics in patients with high and normal ARR. Patient survey study. A total of 200 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension from six primary health care centres in Sweden were included. ARR was calculated from serum aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations. The cut-off level for ARR was 65. Patients with an increased ARR were considered for confirmatory testing with the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), followed by adrenal computed tomographic radiology (CT) and adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Of 200 patients, 36 patients had an ARR > 65. Of these 36 patients, 11 patients had an incomplete aldosterone inhibition during FST. Three patients were diagnosed with an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and eight with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BHA). Except for moderately lower level of P-K in patients with an ARR > 65 and in patients with PA, there were no biochemical or clinical differences found among hypertensive patients with PA compared with patients without PA. Eleven of 200 evaluated patients (5.5%) were considered to have PA. The diagnosis of PA should therefore be considered in newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and screening for the diagnosis is warranted.

  15. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  16. Ischemic Left Ventricular Perforation Covered by a Thrombus in a Patient Presenting with Cerebral Ischemia: Importance of Time-Sensitive Performance and Adequate Interpretation of Bedside Transthoracic Echography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A J; Lebiedz, P; Wiaderek, M; Lichtenberg, M; Böse, D; Martens, S; Breuckmann, F

    2016-01-01

    If myocardial infarction remains silent, only clinical signs of complications may unveil its presence. Life-threatening complications include myocardial rupture, thrombus formation, or arterial embolization. In the presented case, a 76-year-old patient was admitted with left-sided hemiparesis. In duplex sonography, a critical stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was identified and initially but retrospectively incorrectly judged as the potential cause for ischemia. During operative thromboendarterectomy, arterial embolism of the right leg occurred coincidentally, more likely pointing towards a cardioembolic origin. Percutaneous interventions remained unsuccessful and local fibrinolysis was applied. Delayed bedside echocardiography by an experienced cardiologist demonstrated a discontinuity of the normal myocardial texture of the left ventricular apex together with an echodense, partly floating structure merely attached by a thin bridge not completely sealing the myocardial defect, accompanied by pericardial effusion. The patient was immediately transferred to emergency cardiac surgery with extirpation of the thrombus, aortocoronary bypass graft placement, and aneurysmectomy. This didactic case reveals decisive structural shortcomings in patient's admission and triage processes and underlines, if performed timely and correctly, the value of transthoracic echocardiography as a noninvasive and cost-effective tool allowing immediate decision-making, which, in this case, led to the correct but almost fatally delayed diagnosis.

  17. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the Sheriff RMS and E-911 map rolls. Cover is painstakingly maintained interactively by GIS staff. All atom boundaries are snapped to the road centerline cover, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset current as of 2008. Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the...

  18. Silicone covered vs. Non- covered endotracheal self expandable metallic stent: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Young Soo; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Soo Ah; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil; Cho, Kyung Ja; Cho, Dae Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate pathologic changes of the trachea and the lung after insertion of silicone covered and non covered Gianturco stent in the trachea of dog. Silicone covered(covered) and non covered(bare) Gianturco stent, six in each, were inserted into the tracheal lumen of six consecutive dogs. After 1-10 weeks observation, the dogs were sacrificed and their tracheas and lungs were examined grossly and histopathologically. Serial chest radiographs were performed to evaluate pneumonia and stent migration every 3-5 days. Pneumonia was observed in one of bare stent group and five of covered stent group. Stent migration was noted in three of covered stent group. In bare stent group, the epithelium of the trachea was markedly thickened by hyperplasia and stent was covered by granulation tissue from 6 weeks after stent insertion. Inflammation was focal at contact site between the stent and the trachea. In covered stent group, the epithelium was denuded at multiple areas and there were multifocal squamous metaplasia of the mucosa. Inflammatory reaction of the trachea was diffuse. Inflammatory reaction was more severe and stent migration was more frequent in covered stent group. The use of covered stent in the trachea should be studied further.

  19. Is serum TSH a biomarker of thyroid carcinoma in patients residing in a mildly iodine-deficient area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swan, Kristine Zøylner; Nielsen, Viveque Egsgaard; Godballe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between the pre-operative serum TSH (s-TSH) level and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in a mildly iodine-deficient area. Methods: Patients undergoing surgery for thyroid nodular disease (TND) were included from three tertiary surgical departments. Da......-TSH between patients with benign and malignant TND, s-TSH is not suitable as a biomarker of DTC in a clinical setting....

  20. Scenarios of land cover in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tian Xiang; Fan, Ze Meng; Liu, Ji Yuan

    2007-02-01

    A method for surface modeling of land cover change (SMLC) is developed on the basis of establishing transition probability matrixes between land cover types and HLZ types. SMLC is used to simulate land cover scenarios of China for the years 2039, 2069 and 2099, for which HLZ scenarios are first simulated in terms of HadCM3 climatic scenarios that are downscaled in zonal model of spatial climate change in China. This paper also analyzes spatial distribution of land cover types, area change and mean center shift of each land cover type, ecotope diversity, and patch connectivity under the land cover scenarios. The results show that cultivated land would decrease and woodland would expand greatly with climatic change, which coincides with consequences expected by implementation of Grain-for-Green policy. Nival area would shrink, and desertification area would expand at a comparatively slow rate in future 100 years. Climate change would generally cause less ecotope diversity and more patch connectivity. Ecosystems in China would have a pattern of beneficial cycle after efficient ecological conservation and restoration. However, if human activities would exceed regulation capacity of ecosystems themselves, the ecosystems in China might deteriorate more seriously.

  1. Optimal shortening of uniform covering arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Torres-Jimenez

    Full Text Available Software test suites based on the concept of interaction testing are very useful for testing software components in an economical way. Test suites of this kind may be created using mathematical objects called covering arrays. A covering array, denoted by CA(N; t, k, v, is an N × k array over [Formula: see text] with the property that every N × t sub-array covers all t-tuples of [Formula: see text] at least once. Covering arrays can be used to test systems in which failures occur as a result of interactions among components or subsystems. They are often used in areas such as hardware Trojan detection, software testing, and network design. Because system testing is expensive, it is critical to reduce the amount of testing required. This paper addresses the Optimal Shortening of Covering ARrays (OSCAR problem, an optimization problem whose objective is to construct, from an existing covering array matrix of uniform level, an array with dimensions of (N - δ × (k - Δ such that the number of missing t-tuples is minimized. Two applications of the OSCAR problem are (a to produce smaller covering arrays from larger ones and (b to obtain quasi-covering arrays (covering arrays in which the number of missing t-tuples is small to be used as input to a meta-heuristic algorithm that produces covering arrays. In addition, it is proven that the OSCAR problem is NP-complete, and twelve different algorithms are proposed to solve it. An experiment was performed on 62 problem instances, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of solving the OSCAR problem to facilitate the construction of new covering arrays.

  2. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  3. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  4. Ischemic Left Ventricular Perforation Covered by a Thrombus in a Patient Presenting with Cerebral Ischemia: Importance of Time-Sensitive Performance and Adequate Interpretation of Bedside Transthoracic Echography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Fischer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If myocardial infarction remains silent, only clinical signs of complications may unveil its presence. Life-threatening complications include myocardial rupture, thrombus formation, or arterial embolization. In the presented case, a 76-year-old patient was admitted with left-sided hemiparesis. In duplex sonography, a critical stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was identified and initially but retrospectively incorrectly judged as the potential cause for ischemia. During operative thromboendarterectomy, arterial embolism of the right leg occurred coincidentally, more likely pointing towards a cardioembolic origin. Percutaneous interventions remained unsuccessful and local fibrinolysis was applied. Delayed bedside echocardiography by an experienced cardiologist demonstrated a discontinuity of the normal myocardial texture of the left ventricular apex together with an echodense, partly floating structure merely attached by a thin bridge not completely sealing the myocardial defect, accompanied by pericardial effusion. The patient was immediately transferred to emergency cardiac surgery with extirpation of the thrombus, aortocoronary bypass graft placement, and aneurysmectomy. This didactic case reveals decisive structural shortcomings in patient’s admission and triage processes and underlines, if performed timely and correctly, the value of transthoracic echocardiography as a noninvasive and cost-effective tool allowing immediate decision-making, which, in this case, led to the correct but almost fatally delayed diagnosis.

  5. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Philipp T.; Sturz, Laszlo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Setani, Keyvan S.; Buell, Udalrich; Spetzger, Uwe; Meyer, Georg F.; Sabri, Osama

    2003-01-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  6. Physical rehabilitation in complex therapy of the ureter stones patients in the Truskavets health resort area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shologon R.P.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of rehabilitation measures is considered in complex therapy with the use of differentiated methods of medical physical education for patients with stones of ureter. Under a supervision there was 143 patients. 93 patients were made basic group, 50 patients - control. From them 51 (56 % are men and 42 (54% are women. Age of patients made from 20 to 60 years. A sanatorium-resort rehabilitation is recommended with the use of the differentiated methods of medical gymnastics. Application of method improved the indexes of the functional state of buds and overhead urinary ways. Frequency of advancement and output of concrements is also megascopic.

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since...

  8. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer patients in Osijek health area center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Barbara; Brumnić, Vesna; Rendić-Miocević, Zrinka; Gmajnić, Rudika; Pribić, Sanda; Juretić, Antonio; Ebling, Zdravko; Muha, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to perform the nutritional screening and clinical assessment of malnutrition and of cachexia as well as the need for enteral nutritional support. We used an international questionnaire for nutrition screening and clinical assessment of malnutrition. 103 cancer patients participated in the research. The results indicate that 80patients (78%) have recently unintentionally lost weight in the last six months. Of those 80 patients 12 (15%) have lost more than 15 kilograms. Three patients (3%) suffer from hunger because of their inability to eat. Presence of multiple (3 or more) symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or anorexia) was reported by 11 patients (11%). Severe work dysfunction was found in 28 patients (27%). 14 patients (14%) experience significant loss of musculature (musculus quadriceps femoris, musculus deltoideus). The obtained results indicate that 15patients (14%) are severely, and 39 patients (38%) are moderately undernourished. This survey confirmed the significance of nutritional screening in cancer patients, as it detected 30 patients (29%) who required introduction of enteral nutrition.

  9. Functional rearrangement of language areas in patients with tumors of the central nervous system using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kośla, Katarzyna; Pfajfer, Lucjan; Bryszewski, Bartosz; Jaskólski, Dariusz; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reorganization of the language areas in patients with tumors located near speech centers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed prior to the surgical treatment of 11 right-handed patients with tumors located close to the Broca’s or Wernicke’s areas of the left hemisphere. The analysis included a record of the activity in four regions of interest (ROIs): Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, and their anatomic homologues in the right hemisphere. For each patient a regional lateralization index was calculated separately for Broca’s area versus its right-hemisphere homolog and Wernicke’s area versus its right-hemisphere homolog. The results were correlated with the histopathological type of the tumor and its size. Our fMRI examinations showed activation of the Broca’s area in the right hemisphere in 3/4 cases of low grade gliomas (LGG) localized in the left frontal lobe. In one case of the high grade glioma (HGG) only the left hemisphere Broca’s area was activated (LI=1). Activation in Wernicke’s area in both hemispheres was obtained irrespective of the size and histological type of the tumor. All tumors localized in the left temporal lobe were HGG. We obtained activation only in the right hemisphere Wernicke’s area in 4/5 of the cases. In 4/5 of the cases activation in Broca’s area was present- in 2 cases in the left hemisphere, in 1 case in the right hemisphere and in 1 case bilateral. The presence of a neoplastic lesion in close topographic relationship to language areas induces their functional reorganization. fMRI is an useful method for determination of language areas localization in pre-operative planning. HGG tumors localized near Wernicke’s area lead to transfer its function to the healthy hemisphere and/or to decreased activity in the affected hemisphere

  10. [The usage of protective gloves for routine disinfection of patient contact areas : An anonymous survey of work doctors and hygienists (infection control nurses, link nurses and physicians)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Kathleen; Morch-Röder, Alexandra; Kramer, Axel; Kagel, Verena; Hübner, Nils-Olaf

    2017-10-01

    Disinfection, routinely carried out in healthcare facilities and known as "ongoing disinfection" or "untargeted disinfection", covers areas that are suspected of being contaminated with pathogen-containing material without being recognizable or visible in individual cases. The use of chemical resistant protective gloves is indispensable for surface disinfection. However, it is unclear if healthcare facilities set specific requirements regarding the selection and application of gloves. The usage of protective gloves for routine disinfection of patient contact areas was assessed in an anonymous cross-sectional study. Work doctors and hygienists (infection control nurses, link nurses and physicians) were queried by questionnaire. Disposable gloves were predominantly used, in most cases largely in accordance with EN 374. The most common glove material was nitrile. Glove change was mostly reported between rooms. Reprocessing of reusable gloves is inconsistent. Several professions are responsible for selecting protective gloves. Procedures for glove selection and application for disinfection of contact surfaces vary between the surveyed institutions. Therefore, more attention has to be paid to these three aspects in the future and these must be included in the hygiene plans.

  11. The Risk of Depressive Disorder Among Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in a TB-endemic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sheng-Wei; Yen, Yung-Feng; Feng, Jia-Yih; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Kou, Yu Ru; Su, Wei-Juin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) disease may be transmitted to close contacts of index cases, causing physical illness. No studies have investigated the risk of developing depressive disorder among TB contacts in a TB-endemic area. Adult participants with a new diagnosis of TB contact (ICD-9-CM codes V01.1 plus chest radiographic order) since January 1, 2008, were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A control cohort matched for age (±5 y), sex, enrolled years, and income level was selected. These 2 cohorts were followed until December 31, 2012, and observed for the development of depressive disorder. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to examine the difference in cumulative incidences of depressive disorder between groups. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for depressive disorder. The TB contact cohort consisted of 9046 patients and matched controls of 36,184 ones. The mean age of TB contacts was 44.7 years, and 56.0% of them were women. During a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, 127 (1.40%) TB contacts and 521 (1.44%) matched controls developed depressive disorder. TB exposure was found to be an independent risk factor of depressive disorder in women (aHR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.68), but not in men (aHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.06) after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and income levels. The risk of depression was significantly higher for female TB contacts than for matched controls in the first and second years (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03–2.14; and aHR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23, respectively), but not thereafter. Of note, 67 (0.74%) TB contacts and 88 (0.24%) matched controls developed active TB, but none of them had subsequent depressive disorder during follow-up periods. Female TB contacts had an increased risk of depression within the first 2 years after exposure. Clinicians should consider conducting depression evaluations in addition to

  12. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006 and burned area (BA perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe are combined to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by wild fires using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.Main results: The spatial and temporal distribution of BA perimeters, vegetation and burnt vegetation by wild fires was performed and different statistics were obtained for Mediterranean and entire Europe, confirming the usefulness of the proposed land cover system. A fire proneness index is proposed to assess the fire selectivity of land cover classes. The index allowed to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire.Research highlights: The usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index. The differences between northern Europe and southern Europe and among the Mediterranean region in what concerns to vegetation cover, fire incidence, area burnt in land cover classes and fire proneness between classes for the different countries.Keywords: Fire proneness; Mixed forests; Land cover/land use; Fire regime; Europe; GIS; Corine land cover

  13. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the peduncolopontine area on working memory tasks in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Mazzone, Paolo; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Peppe, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at investigating the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation (25 Hz) of the peduncolopontine (PPN) area on working memory (WM) functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Five PD patients who underwent simultaneous PPN area- and subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation participated in the study. PD patients were evaluated in the morning at least 12 h after antiparkinsonian therapy withdrawal in two conditions: i) after continuous PPN area stimulation (Off Therapy/On PPN: "On" condition); ii) at least 120 min after PPN area had been switched "Off" (Off Ther/Off PPN: "Off" condition). The experimental WM task consisted of an n-back paradigm with verbal and visual-object stimuli. PD patients showed a consistent response time decrease on both the verbal and the visual-object tasks passing from the "Off" to the "On" condition (p processing of information in the content of WM, possibly through the modulation of the attentional resources.

  14. Hospital's redesigned Web site patient-friendly, comprehensive. Site one-of-a-kind in Twin Cities market area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2001-01-01

    North Memorial Medical Center, Robbinsdale, Minn., has opened a brightly redesigned Web site. It is patient-friendly and features a different approach to provide healthcare information called "care areas," which are organized by condition, such as heart care, cancer care and childbirth. This approach led to the the site being named North Memorial Online Care Center.

  15. CT analysis of 40 patients with chronic type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia from an air-polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Shiro; Ohshima, Kazunori; Fukushima, Kazuo; Kawabata, Yoshinori.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed CT scans of 40 patients with chronic type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) who had admitted to our hospital in Kawasaki. All patients were diagnosed because of the presence of honeycombing. The characteristic findings were centrilobular emphysema and bulla. In addition to such common features of IIP multiple centrilobular nodular shadows were seen in about 60% of the patients. Considering that all patients had lived for more than 30 years in Kawasaki when air-pollution had been badly high in this area and that the majority of the patients (36 of 50) had been smokers we suspected that multiple nodules on CT might be due to long-term exposure to particular dusts including asbestos and that centrilobular emphysema might be due to smoking. (author)

  16. Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Weijs, Peter JM; Looijaard, Wilhelmus GPM; Dekker, Ingeborg M; Stapel, Sandra N; Girbes, Armand R; Straaten, Heleen M Oudemans-van; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. However, it is yet unclear which body component is responsible for this relationship. Methods This retrospective analysis in 240 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients included adult patients in whom a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was made on clinical indication between 1 day before and 4 days after admission to the intensive care unit. CT s...

  17. Disruption to radiation therapy sessions due to anxiety among patients receiving radiation therapy to the head and neck area can be predicted using patient self-report measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Kerrie; Oultram, Sharon; Adams, Catherine; Cross, Laraine; Findlay, Naomi; Ponman, Leah

    2011-12-01

    This analysis sought to determine whether patient self-report measures were associated with disruption to radiation therapy sessions due to anxiety among cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region. A cohort of patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region at a major regional radiation oncology treatment centre (ROTC) in Australia completed self-report measures of anxiety, history of panic and fears relevant to use of an immobilising mask. The treating Radiation Therapist (RT) rated the level of session disruption due to patient anxiety during the Computerised Tomography/Simulation (CT/Sim) (baseline) session and first treatment session. Complete data were obtained for 90 patients. RTs rated 11 and 24% of patients as having some level of session disruption session due to anxiety at baseline and Treatment 1, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with session disruption at baseline in bivariate analyses: currently taking psycho-active medication (p=0.008); fear of enclosed spaces (p=0.006); fear of face being covered up (p=0.006); fear of movement restriction (p=0.041) and ever had an anxiety attack (p=0.034). Sensitivity ranged from 0.57 to 0.75 and specificity ranged from 0.68 to 0.90. Only session disruption at baseline predicted disruption at Treatment 1 (pdisruption and patient self-report measures which might be used to flag patients for prophylactic treatment. Further development and replication in a larger sample is warranted before introduction of these measures into routine practice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Compensatory Shift of Subcallosal Area and Paraterminal Gyrus White Matter Parameters on DTI in Patients with Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchtova, Barbora; Wurst, Zdenek; Mrzilkova, Jana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Tintera, Jaroslav; Bartos, Ales; Musil, Vladimir; Kieslich, Karel; Zach, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is traditionally conceptualized as a disease of brain gray matter, however, studies with diffusion tensor imaging have demonstrated that Alzheimer disease also involves alterations in white matter integrity. We measured number of tracts, tracts length, tract volume, quantitative anisotropy and general fractional anisotropy of neuronal tracts in subcallosal area, paraterminal gyrus and fornix in patients with Alzheimer disease and healthy age-matched controls. Our hypothesis was that patients with Alzheimer disease should exhibit decrease in the integrity of these white matter structures that are crucial for semantic memory function. For our study were selected 24 patients with confirmed Alzheimer disease diagnosis and 24 healthy controls (AD center, Department of Neurology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic). Statistically significant differences between the patients with Alzheimer disease and the control group were found both on the left and right fornices but only concerning the tract numbers and tract length. The subcallosal area and paraterminal gyrus showed statistically significant differences between the patients with Alzheimer disease and the control group, but only on the left side and only associated with the tract volume and quantitative anisotropy. Our explanation for these findings lies in the severe hippocampal atrophy (and subsequent loss of function) with compensatory hypertrophy of the subcallosal area and paraterminal gyrus neuronal fibers that occurs in Alzheimer's disease, as an adaptation to the loss of projection from the hippocampal formation via fornix. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Thyroid Dysfunction in Non-Interferon Treated Hepatitis C Patients Residing in Hepatitis Endemic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Batool

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Association of thyroid dysfunction (TD with interferon treatment of HCV is well known to clinicians. However, a few studies have highlighted the role of hepatitis C virus per se in the development of TD. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of TD in non-interferon treated HCV infected patients referred for thyroid function testing. Patients and Methods. Among 557 ELISA-positive HCV patients 446 (341 females, 105 males were selected for this study. Serums FT4, FT3, and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay method. Results. TD was detected in 15.2% of patients: 9.0% hypothyroidism and 6.3% hyperthyroidism. In increasing order subclinical hypothyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, overt hyperthyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism were found in 4.7%, 4.3%, 3.6%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Overall TD was more common in female than in male HCV patients but the difference was not significant (16.1% versus 12.4%; p=0.648. Hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism were slightly more common in female and overall hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism in male patients but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The incidence of TD was relatively high in patients above 36 years (median age but the difference was not statistically significant either collectively or in gender base groups (p>0.05. Conclusion. Prior to interferon treatment, HCV infection itself causes biochemical thyroid dysfunction in 15.2% of local HCV patients.

  20. Diagnostic work up for language testing in patients undergoing awake craniotomy for brain lesions in language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Titi, Luca; Lalli, Diana; Delfini, Roberto; Santoro, Antonio; Rosa, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Awake craniotomy is the technique of choice in patients with brain tumours adjacent to primary and accessory language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas). Language testing should be aimed to detect preoperative deficits, to promptly identify the occurrence of new intraoperative impairments and to establish the course of postoperative language status. Aim of this case series is to describe our experience with a dedicated language testing work up to evaluate patients with or at risk for language disturbances undergoing awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection. Pre- and intra operative testing was accomplished with 8 tests. Intraoperative evaluation was accomplished when patients were fully cooperative (Ramsey awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection with preoperative language disturbances or at risk for postoperative language deficits. This approach allows a systematic evaluation and recording of language function status and can be accomplished even when a neuropsychologist or speech therapist are not involved in the operation crew.

  1. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    are carried out on the land usually effect changes in its cover. ... The FAO document on land cover classification systems, (2000) partly answers this ... over the surface land, including water, vegetation, bare soils and or artificial structures. ... diseases may occur more readily in areas exposed by Land Use and Land Cover ...

  2. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Kleijn, Wim; de Jong, Joop

    2013-09-01

    As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the DSM-5, PTD is subsumed under dissociative identity disorder (DID) and DTD under dissociative disorders not elsewhere classified. Evaluation of these criteria is currently urgently required. This study explores the match between local symptoms of spirit possession in Uganda and experimental research criteria for PTD in the DSM-IV and proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. A mixed-method approach was used combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local symptoms were explored of 119 spirit possessed patients, using illness narratives and a cultural dissociative symptoms' checklist. Possible meaningful clusters of symptoms were inventoried through multiple correspondence analysis. Finally, local symptoms were compared with experimental criteria for PTD in the DSM-IV and proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. Illness narratives revealed different phases of spirit possession, with passive-influence experiences preceding the actual possession states. Multiple correspondence analysis of symptoms revealed two dimensions: 'passive' and 'active' symptoms. Local symptoms, such as changes in consciousness, shaking movements, and talking in a voice attributed to spirits, match with DSM-IV-PTD and DSM-5-DID criteria. Passive-influence experiences, such as feeling influenced or held by powers from outside, strange dreams, and hearing voices, deserve to be more explicitly described in the proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. The suggested incorporation of PTD in DID in the DSM-5 and the envisioned separation of DTD and PTD in two distinctive categories have disputable aspects.

  3. Clinical and immunophenotypic features of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in patients from Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platkov, E.; Bulvik, S.; Khalemskaya, S.

    2003-01-01

    CLL in patients, immigrants from the former USSR, exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident, has some clinic-laboratory and immunophenotypic differences of CLL in Israeli origin patients. These distinctive characteristics may be used as markers in process of diagnostic, monitoring and also planing of CLL treatment tactic

  4. Electroconvulsive therapy for treating schizophrenia: a chart review of patients from two catchment areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Bauer, Jeanett; Pedersen, Ida Hageman

    2011-01-01

    To examine disease and treatment characteristics of patients with schizophrenia treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined charts from 79 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 55), persistent delusional disorders (n = 7), and schizoaffective disorders (n = 17) between 2003...

  5. Assessment of Mitral Valve Stenosis by Simplifying Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area in Iraqi Patients by Transthoracic Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi F. Haji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mitral Stenosis refers to narrowing of the mitral valve orifice, resulting in impairment of filling of the left ventricle in diastole. Proximal isovelocity surface area measurement, also known as the flow convergence method, can be used in transthoracic echocardiography to estimate the area of an orifice through which blood flows. Objectives: To compare simple PISA equation, created by combined fixing the angle to 1000 and the Val to 33 cm/s, with mitral valve area measured by pressure half time and planimetry which was taken as reference method. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional prospective study was conducted in multi teaching centers. Total 104 patients were enrolled in this study from which 41 were excluded from the study. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination was used to analyze parameters selected by M-mode, 2D, and pulse doppler. Results: The patients enrolled in this study were with a mean age of 45.4 ± 7.1 years and 23.8% of them within the age group 30-39 years and the remaining 76.2% were >40 years. Female patients were the dominant represented 73.0% while males were 7.0% of the studied group (female: male ratio was 3:1; 61.9% were in sinus rhythm and 38.1% in atrial fibrillation. About 58.7% of the patients had Wilkin’s score less than 8, the mean mitral valve area according to planimetry method was 1.14 ± 0.32 cm2 and it was 1.12 ± 0.28 cm2 by PISA while the mean mitral valve area by pressure half time method was 1.19 ± 0.30 cm2 . The agreement between PISA and planimetry revealed that PISA had good agreement with planimetry in diagnosis of mitral stenosis, (kappa=0.835, P<0.001. On the other hand, there was a fair significant agreement between pressure half time and planimetry. Conclusion: PISA method can effectively predict mitral valve area and severity of mitral stenosis by the equation: mitral valve area = 115 × r2 /Vmax, provided that aliasing velocity is fixed at 33 cm/s, with the advantage of

  6. Climatological determinants of woody cover in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P; Caylor, Kelly K

    2011-03-22

    Determining the factors that influence the distribution of woody vegetation cover and resolving the sensitivity of woody vegetation cover to shifts in environmental forcing are critical steps necessary to predict continental-scale responses of dryland ecosystems to climate change. We use a 6-year satellite data record of fractional woody vegetation cover and an 11-year daily precipitation record to investigate the climatological controls on woody vegetation cover across the African continent. We find that-as opposed to a relationship with only mean annual rainfall-the upper limit of fractional woody vegetation cover is strongly influenced by both the quantity and intensity of rainfall events. Using a set of statistics derived from the seasonal distribution of rainfall, we show that areas with similar seasonal rainfall totals have higher fractional woody cover if the local rainfall climatology consists of frequent, less intense precipitation events. Based on these observations, we develop a generalized response surface between rainfall climatology and maximum woody vegetation cover across the African continent. The normalized local gradient of this response surface is used as an estimator of ecosystem vegetation sensitivity to climatological variation. A comparison between predicted climate sensitivity patterns and observed shifts in both rainfall and vegetation during 2009 reveals both the importance of rainfall climatology in governing how ecosystems respond to interannual fluctuations in climate and the utility of our framework as a means to forecast continental-scale patterns of vegetation shifts in response to future climate change.

  7. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yukiko; Kawata, Naoko; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Yoriko; Sato, Misuzu; Iesato, Ken; Terada, Jiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tada, Yuji; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Yoichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm 2 as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers

  8. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  9. [Effects of application of pulse contour cardiac output monitoring technology in early treatment of patients with large area burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Y; Xie, W G; Xi, M M; Li, Z; Wang, B

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To analyze the changes and relationship of early hemodynamic indexes of patients with large area burns monitored by pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technology, so as to assess the guiding value of this technology in the treatment of patients with large area burns during shock period. Methods: Eighteen patients with large area burns, confirming to the study criteria, were admitted to our unit from May 2016 to May 2017. Pulse contour cardiac output index (PCCI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) of patients were monitored by PiCCO instrument from admission to post injury day (PID) 7, and they were calibrated and recorded once every four hours. The fluid infusion coefficients of patients at the first and second 24 hours post injury were calculated. The blood lactic acid values of patients from PID 1 to 7 were also recorded. The correlations among PCCI, SVRI, and GEDVI as well as the correlation between SVRI and blood lactic acid of these 18 patients were analyzed. Prognosis of patients were recorded. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, single sample t test and Bonferroni correction, Pearson correlation analysis, and Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: (1) There was statistically significant difference in PCCI value of patients from post injury hour (PIH) 4 to 168 ( F =7.428, P 0.05). (2) There was statistically significant difference in SVRI value of patients from PIH 4 to 168 ( F =7.863, P 0.05). (3) There was no statistically significant difference in the GEDVI values of patients from PIH 4 to 168 ( F =0.704, P >0.05). The GEDVI values of patients at PIH 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 were significantly lower than normal value ( t =-3.112, -3.554, -2.969, -2.450, -2.476, P 0.05). (4) There was statistically significant difference in EVLWI value of patients from PIH 4 to 168 ( F =1.859, P 0.05). (5) The fluid infusion

  10. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  11. A patient dose survey for femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    A patient dose survey was carried out for femoral arteriogram procedures at the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. A dose-area product meter was used to determine the dose-area product delivered to patients. Radiographic and patient details were logged with dose-area product for each part of each procedure. Mean energy imparted, mean effective dose and effective dose equivalent are calculated for the examinations. Calculated effective doses are shown to produce results consistent with those of other authors. We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure including multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. The effective dose varies considerably from examination to examination due to the large range in the number of radiographs taken in any one procedure. A useful index can be obtained by logging the number of radiographs in each region, and fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. These measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which previously included the simple examinations: lumbar spine, abdoment and pelvis. (author)

  12. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Histology, Neurology and Embryology, Psychiatry

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm{sup 3} , 3515 mm{sup 3} , and 4517 mm{sup 3} , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm{sup 2} in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm{sup 2} in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency.

  13. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brainstem Volumes, Plaques, and Surface Area in the Occipital Regions of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, F.; Kantarci, M.; Altunkaynak, E.; Varoglu, A. O.; Karaman, A.; Oral, E.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine brainstem volumes, number of plaques, and surface areas in the occipital lobes of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and to investigate whether there is any correlation between brainstem volume and the number/surface areas of plaque in the occipital lobes. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained on 14 relapsing-remitting (RR) and 13 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients and 26 female control subjects. The Cavalieri method was used by modern design stereology to measure brainstem volume. The point-counting grid was used to evaluate sclerotic plaque surface areas in the occipital lobe. The number of plaques in the imaging section was calculated. Results: Brainstem volumes for RR and SP with multiple sclerosis and control subjects were 3647 mm 3 , 3515 mm 3 , and 4517 mm 3 , respectively. Mean number of plaques in the right-left occipital lobe was found to be 2.7-3.4 in RR-MS and 5.2-2.8 in SP-MS. Mean plaque surface area in the right-left occipital lobe was determined to be 58.52-88.24 mm 2 in RR MS and 124.3-64.82 mm 2 in SP MS. Brainstem volumes were significantly reduced in both groups of patients with MS compared to controls ( P <0.01). Conclusion: Magnetic-resonance-estimated volume and surface area values in multiple sclerosis may facilitate our understanding of the clinical situation of patients and provide a simple index for evaluating therapeutic efficiency

  14. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. The information needs of cancer patients in the Pretoria and Witwatersrand area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. McLoughlin

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 48 500 South Africans annually are confronted with the diagnosis of cancer. (Sitas, 1994 Judging from the literature it would seem that the acquisition of information about the various aspects of their disease is a very important coping mechanism for the cancer patient. Various studies concerning the information needs of cancer patients have been published in the USA, the UK and Australia, Similar studies have not yet been published in South Africa.

  16. J2ME and smart phones as platform for a Bluetooth body area network for patient-telemonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, M J; Luque, J R; Botella, A A; Cuberos, E J; Casilari, E; Díaz-Estrella, A

    2007-01-01

    A prototype of a system based on a Bluetooth Body Area Network (BAN) for continuous and wireless telemonitoring of patients' biosignals is presented. Smart phones and Java (J2ME) have been selected as platform to build a central node in patients' BAN. A midlet running in the smart phone compiles information about patient's location and health status. The midlet encrypts and retransmits it to the server through 802.11 or GPRS/UMTS. Besides when an alerting condition is detected, the midlet generates a MMS and a SMS to be sent to patients' relatives and to physician, respectively. Additionally, the system provides to physicians the possibility of configuring BAN's parameters remotely, from a PC or even a smart phone.

  17. HISTOPLASMIN SURVEY IN HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS: RESULTS FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricia Salvador Bezerra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Background. Disseminated histoplasmosis is common in AIDS patients with advanced immunosuppression in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Histoplasma infection in patients with HIV/AIDS living in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará. Methods. Intradermal tests with histoplasmin (mycelial phase were performed in 161 HIV patients with CD4 ≥ 350 cells/mm 3 . Evidence of recent illness was evaluated with immunodiffusion (ID tests in 76 of these individuals. Results. A total of 11.8% of patients reacted to histoplasmin and 2.63% had ID test positive to Histoplasma. The presence of mango trees (Mangifera indica in the patient neighborhood (OR = 2.870; 95% CI = 1.081-7.617; p = 0.040 and past activity involving soil (OR = 2.834; 95% CI = 1.045-7.687; p = 0.045 or visits to a farm (OR = 3.869; 95% CI = 1.189-12.591; p = 0.033 were significantly associated with Histoplasma infection. Conclusions. Patients with HIV living in Fortaleza have an expressive prevalence of infection with Histoplasma.

  18. A non-randomized study in consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks who were managed endoscopically with the use of multiple plastic stents or fully covered self-expandable metal stents (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canena, Jorge; Liberato, Manuel; Meireles, Liliane; Marques, Inês; Romão, Carlos; Coutinho, António Pereira; Neves, Beatriz Costa; Veiga, Pedro Mota

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic management of postcholecystectomy biliary leaks is widely accepted as the treatment of choice. However, refractory biliary leaks after a combination of biliary sphincterotomy and the placement of a large-bore (10F) plastic stent can occur, and the optimal rescue endotherapy for this situation is unclear. To compare the clinical effectiveness of the use of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) with the placement of multiple plastic stents (MPS) for the treatment of postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks. Prospective study. Two tertiary-care referral academic centers and one general district hospital. Forty consecutive patients with refractory biliary leaks who underwent endoscopic management. Temporary placement of MPS (n = 20) or FCSEMSs (n = 20). Clinical outcomes of endotherapy as well as the technical success, adverse events, need for reinterventions, and prognostic factors for clinical success. Endotherapy was possible in all patients. After endotherapy, closure of the leak was accomplished in 13 patients (65%) who received MPS and in 20 patients (100%) who received FCSEMSs (P = .004). The Kaplan-Meier (log-rank) leak-free survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the 2 patient populations (χ(2) [1] = 8.30; P stents (P = .024), a plastic stent diameter <20F (P = .006), and a high-grade biliary leak (P = .015) were shown to be significant predictors of treatment failure with MPS. The 7 patients in whom placement of MPS failed were retreated with FCSEMSs, resulting in closure of the leaks in all cases. Non-randomized design. In our series, the results of the temporary placement of FCSEMSs for postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks were superior to those from the use of MPS. A randomized study is needed to confirm our results before further recommendations. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Eng-Yen; Liang, Ji-An; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations

  20. ST-T isointegral analysis of exercise stress body surface mapping for identifying ischemic areas in patients with angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kawakubo, K.; Toda, I.; Mashima, S.; Ohtake, T.; Iio, M.; Sugimoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    ST-T isointegral analysis of body surface mapping was used in an attempt to localize ischemic areas on exercise tests. In 28 patients with angina pectoris and 10 healthy subjects, body surface potential was recorded with 87 leads, and ST isopotential and ST-T isointegral maps were constructed. In all 10 healthy subjects, the basic pattern of the ST-T isointegral map showed no significant change after exercise. In 23 of 28 patients with angina pectoris (82%), alterations in the ST-T isointegral map after exercise were observed. They were divided into four types (anterior, inferoposterior, lateral, and global) according to the distribution of negative values, which were well correlated with the extent of ischemic area determined by thallium myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography. The postexercise ST-T isointegral map was normalized after administration of nitroglycerin in four of five patients. In five patients (18%) who did not show abnormalities on the postexercise ST-T isointegral map, the magnitude of maximal ST depression was significantly smaller than that observed in the other 23 patients with angina pectoris (0.14 vs 0.23 mV on the average, p less than 0.05). It was concluded that the exercise test with ST-T isointegral mapping is a new method for noninvasive detection of location and severity of ischemic regions

  1. Cover page.docx

    OpenAIRE

    Gilchrist, Susan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most widely discussed aspects within the topic of sustainability seems to be that of sustainable food consumption (SFC), resulting in interest from the public, governments and the food industry (Vermeir and Verbeke, 2006; Owen, et. al., 2007; OECD, 2008; Salaue, 2010; BIO Intelligence Service, 2012 and Krystallis et. al., 2012). Former research into the areas of environmental and social aspects of sustainable consumption reach the unified conclusion that food c...

  2. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soon

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Ventilation area measured with eit in order to optimize peep settings in mechanically ventilated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankman, P; Groot Jebbink, E; Preis, C; Bikker, I.; Gommers, D.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which can be used to visualize ventilation. Ventilation will be measured by impedance changes due to ventilation. OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to optimize PEEP settings based on the ventilation area of

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Biosimilar, Reference Product and Other Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs Still Covered by Patent in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer Patients: An Italian Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylenia Ingrasciotta

    Full Text Available Since 2007 biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs are available on the Italian market. Very limited post-marketing data exist on the comparative effectiveness of biosimilar and originator ESAs.This population-based study was aimed to compare the effects of biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs still covered by patent on hemoglobinemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD and cancer patients in a Local Health Unit (LHU from Northern Italy.A retrospective cohort study was conducted during the years 2009-2014 using data from Treviso LHU administrative database. Incident ESA users (no ESA dispensing within 6 months prior to treatment start, i.e. index date (ID with at least one hemoglobin measurement within one month prior to ID (baseline Hb value and another measurement between 2nd and 3rd month after ID (follow-up Hb value were identified. The strength of the consumption (as total number of defined daily dose (DDD dispensed during the follow-up divided by days of follow-up and the difference between follow-up and baseline Hb values [delta Hb (ΔHb] were evaluated. Based on Hb changes, ESA users were classified as non-responders (ΔHb≤0 g/dl, responders (02 g/dl. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model to identify predictors for responsiveness to treatment was performed. All analyses were stratified by indication for use and type of dispensed ESA at ID.Overall, 1,003 incident ESA users (reference product: 252, 25.1%; other ESAs covered by patent: 303, 30.2%; biosimilars: 448, 44.7% with CKD or cancer were eligible for the study. No statistically significant difference in the amount of dose dispensed during the follow-up among biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs covered by patent was found in both CKD and cancer. After three months from treatment start, all ESAs increased Hb values on average by 2g/dl. No differences in ΔHb as well as in frequency of non-responders, responders and highly responders among

  6. The Brain Activity in Brodmann Area 17: A Potential Bio-Marker to Predict Patient Responses to Antiepileptic Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yida Hu

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to predict newly diagnosed patient responses to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging tools to explore changes in spontaneous brain activity. We recruited 21 newly diagnosed epileptic patients, 8 drug-resistant (DR patients, 11 well-healed (WH patients, and 13 healthy controls. After a 12-month follow-up, 11 newly diagnosed epileptic patients who showed a poor response to AEDs were placed into the seizures uncontrolled (SUC group, while 10 patients were enrolled in the seizure-controlled (SC group. By calculating the amplitude of fractional low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF of blood oxygen level-dependent signals to measure brain activity during rest, we found that the SUC patients showed increased activity in the bilateral occipital lobe, particularly in the cuneus and lingual gyrus compared with the SC group and healthy controls. Interestingly, DR patients also showed increased activity in the identical cuneus and lingual gyrus regions, which comprise Brodmann's area 17 (BA17, compared with the SUC patients; however, these abnormalities were not observed in SC and WH patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves indicated that the fALFF value of BA17 could differentiate SUC patients from SC patients and healthy controls with sufficient sensitivity and specificity prior to the administration of medication. Functional connectivity analysis was subsequently performed to evaluate the difference in connectivity between BA17 and other brain regions in the SUC, SC and control groups. Regions nearby the cuneus and lingual gyrus were found positive connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity changes with BA17 in the SUC patients, while remarkably negative connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity decreased changes were found in the SC patients. Additionally, default mode network (DMN regions showed negative connectivity increased changes or

  7. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  8. Estimation and Evaluation of Future Demand and Supply of Healthcare Services Based on a Patient Access Area Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Doi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to healthcare service providers, the quantity, and the quality of them are important for national health. In this study, we focused on geographic accessibility to estimate and evaluate future demand and supply of healthcare services. We constructed a simulation model called the patient access area model (PAAM, which simulates patients’ access time to healthcare service institutions using a geographic information system (GIS. Using this model, to evaluate the balance of future healthcare services demand and supply in small areas, we estimated the number of inpatients every five years in each area and compared it with the number of hospital beds within a one-hour drive from each area. In an experiment with the Tokyo metropolitan area as a target area, when we assumed hospital bed availability to be 80%, it was predicted that over 78,000 inpatients would not receive inpatient care in 2030. However, this number would decrease if we lowered the rate of inpatient care by 10% and the average length of the hospital stay. Using this model, recommendations can be made regarding what action should be undertaken and by when to prevent a dramatic increase in healthcare demand. This method can help plan the geographical resource allocation in healthcare services for healthcare policy.

  9. Relationship between the visceral fat area and adipocytokine in hemodialysis patients. Usefulness of high molecular weight adiponectin-leptin ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Megumi; Terayama, Yuriko; Tsutaya, Chikako; Momose, Akishi; Funyu, Tomihisa; Ohyama, Chikara; Hada, Ryukichi

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin, adipose-specific secretory proteins, are associated with obesity. It has been reported that the plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations were both higher in women than in men, and were markedly increased among hemodialysis patients in comparison with healthy controls. This study was conduced in 104 hemodialysis patients and 35 healthy controls. To obtain a novel indicator for the visceral fat area in hemodialysis patients, we measured total adiponectin (t-Adipo), high molecular weight adiponectin (h-Adipo) and leptin (Lep) in serum and evaluated visceral and subcutaneous fat areas using computed tomography. In addition, we calculated the percentage of the high molecular weight form per total adiponectin (h-Adipo/t-Adipo) and the ratio of adiponectin to leptin (Adipo/Lep ratio). Hemodialysis patients were divided into four groups based on their visceral fat area level (under 40 cm 2 ; group I, 40-70 cm 2 ; group II, 70-100 cm 2 ; group III, 100 cm 2 or more; group IV). T-Adipo, h-Adipo, leptin and h-Adipo/t-Adipo were significantly higher in women than in men. T-Adipo, h-Adipo and h-Adipo/t-Adipo were lower in group IV than in group I. Leptin were higher in group III and IV than in group I. The T-Adipo/Lep ratio and h-Adipo/Lep ratio were lower in group III and IV than in group I. Especially, the h-Adipo/Lep ratio in group IV was significantly decreased compared with that in group III. By simple regression analysis of the correlation between visceral fat area and each parameter of adipocytokine, the highest correlation coefficients were seen with the log transformed h-Adipo/Lep ratio. Log transformed h-Adipo/Lep ratio were inversely related to visceral fat area for men (y=-36.16 x +75.8, r=-0.558, p<0.001) and for women (y=-36.07 x +68.2, r=-0.725, p<0.001). The two regression lines between-gender difference were equivalent in slope. We conclude that h-Adipo/Lep ratio may be a marker for evaluating visceral fat area in hemodialysis

  10. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  11. Reorganization of Language Areas in Patient with a Frontal Lobe Low Grade Glioma – fMRI Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kośla, Katarzyna; Bryszewski, Bartosz; Jaskólski, Dariusz; Błasiak-Kołacińska, Nina; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies results in case of an adult patient with low grade glioma (LGG) in dominant hemisphere suggest brain plasticity process with acquisition of language functions by the non-dominant hemisphere speech regions. A 36-years old right-handed woman was admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery for surgical treatment of brain tumor. An MRI examination revealed a pathological mass in the left frontal lobe, in close topographical relationship to the Broca’s area. A left fronto-parietal craniotomy was performed, with an intraoperative awake language mapping procedure. A total resection of the pathological mass was achieved. The tumor was examined histologically as LGG. In the follow-up MRI exam 32 months after the operation a tumor recurrence was suggested. The fMRI exams performed preoperative and 3, 32 and 41 months after the operation showed changes in language regions activation patterns, with a progressive right-sided activation of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Pre- and postoperative cognitive evaluation by a neuropsychologist did not detect any language impairment. We present a running process of reorganization of language areas in a patient after brain tumor resection, from strong left-sided to symmetrical lateralization. 1. FMRI results in comparison with the psychological status of the patient proved contribution of functional reorganization to the preservation of language performance. 2. A slow growing LGG as well as the recurrence of the tumor near the left Broca’s area might be the factors leading to reorganization of language-related areas by recruiting the right hemisphe

  12. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Right Wernicke's Area Improves Comprehension in Subacute Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dae Sang; Kim, Dae-Yul; Chun, Min Ho; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Sung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the appearance of right-sided language-related brain activity in right-handed patients after a stroke. Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been shown to modulate excitability in the brain. Moreover, rTMS and…

  13. The outpatient care of psychiatric patients in a rural area: Mhala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accessibility, acceptability, adequacy of patient education and follow-up of defaulters. Fifthly, relapses and ..... work with creativity and dedication in adverse conditions. Managerial staff were supportive but constrained by a lack .... Climent CE, et al. Childhood mental disorders in primary health care: Results of observations ...

  14. Patient Views on Three Key Service Areas within Hospital COPD Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. Michael; Seiger, Anil; Ingham, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The views of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) about three key services (non-invasive ventilation [NIV], early discharge schemes and rehabilitation) were sought in order to inform recommendations for the delivery of optimum care within a national programme of hospital COPD service development. Design: Four focus…

  15. The outpatient care of psychiatric patients in a rural area: Mhala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lisorders (4%) and no anxiety disorders. A number of drug ... 1e rate of mental disorder among patients in primary health. :entre for Health ... and is inhabited by about 200000 people who have ... Several indicators were developed to evaluate the service. Firstly, the ..... with less socially problematic psychiatric symptoms.

  16. Early diffusion of gene expression profiling in breast cancer patients associated with areas of high income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ninez A; Ko, Michelle; Liang, Su-Ying; Armstrong, Joanne; Toscano, Michele; Chanfreau-Coffinier, Catherine; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-04-01

    With the Affordable Care Act reducing coverage disparities, social factors could prominently determine where and for whom innovations first diffuse in health care markets. Gene expression profiling is a potentially cost-effective innovation that guides chemotherapy decisions in early-stage breast cancer, but adoption has been uneven across the United States. Using a sample of commercially insured women, we evaluated whether income inequality in metropolitan areas was associated with receipt of gene expression profiling during its initial diffusion in 2006-07. In areas with high income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was higher than elsewhere, but it was associated with a 10.6-percentage-point gap between high- and low-income women. In areas with low rates of income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was lower, with no significant differences by income. Even among insured women, income inequality may indirectly shape diffusion of gene expression profiling, with benefits accruing to the highest-income patients in the most unequal places. Policies reducing gene expression profiling disparities should address low-inequality areas and, in unequal places, practice settings serving low-income patients. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Analysis of 25(OHD serum concentrations of hospitalized elderly patients in the Shanghai area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Mao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To find an association between basic characteristics, seasons as well as disease types and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations in Chinese patients. METHODS: We randomly selected 5470 Chinese patients with various diseases, who were hospitalized between May 2012 and August 2013 in Shanghai and analyzed their serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 (25 (OHD2 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentrations with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS as well as their parathyroid hormone (PTH and serum creatinine blood levels. The resulting data were analyzed by linear regression and variance analyses or multivariate analysis with covariance. RESULTS: The 25(OHD serum concentrations were lowest in December. Among the subjects with a median age of 83.0 ± 16.0, the median 25(OHD2, 25(OHD3 and total 25(OHD serum concentrations were 1.00 ± 1.80 ng/ml, 12.20 ± 8.50 ng/ml and 14.80 ± 9.80 respectively, indicating a prevalent 25(OHD deficiency. According to our multivariate analysis of covariance, the factors affecting 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD3 serum concentrations included age, creatinine, PTH, season and type of disease, whereas gender correlated only with 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD2 and D3 values correlated negatively with each other. Our results further revealed that 25(OHD3 levels were low while 25(OHD2 levels were high among patients with lung diseases, dyskinesia and coronary heart diseases. In addition, participants with diabetes and cerebral infarction had higher 25(OHD3 serum concentrations compared with lung disease patients. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D intake particularly during winter and summer seasons is important especially for elderly lung disease, dyskinesia and coronary heart disease patients to improve their quality of life.

  18. Hemispheric Dominance for Stereognosis in a Patient With an Infarct of the Left Postcentral Sensory Hand Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jorge; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    The concept of left hemispheric dominance for praxis, speech, and language has been one of the pillars of neurology since the mid-19th century. In 1906, Hermann Oppenheim reported a patient with bilateral stereoagnosia (astereognosis) caused by a left parietal lobe tumor and proposed that the left hemisphere was also dominant for stereognosis. Surprisingly, few cases of bilateral stereoagnosia caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion have been documented in the literature since then. Here we report a 75-year-old right-handed man who developed bilateral stereoagnosia after suffering a small infarct in the crown of the left postcentral gyrus. He could not recognize objects with either hand, but retained the ability to localize stimuli applied to the palm of his left (ipsilesional) hand. He was severely disabled in ordinary activities requiring the use of his hands. The lesion corresponded to Brodmann area 1, where probabilistic anatomic, functional, and electrophysiologic studies have located one of the multiple somatosensory representations of the hand. The lesion was in a strategic position to interrupt both the processing of afferent tactile information issuing from the primary somatosensory cortex (areas 3a and 3b) and the forward higher-order processing in area 2, the secondary sensory cortex, and the contralateral area 1. The lesion also deprived the motor hand area of its afferent regulation from the sensory hand area (grasping), while leaving intact the visuomotor projections from the occipital cortex (reaching). Our patient supports Oppenheim's proposal that the left postcentral gyrus of some individuals is dominant for stereognosis.

  19. Peculiarities of the Perioperative Care of Elderly Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Removal of Tumors in the Chiasmatic-Sellar Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey B. Kurnosov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the age of rapid introduction of digital and fiber-optic technologies in neurosurgery, a technique for removal of tumors in the chiasmatic-sellar area via an endoscopic transsphenoidal endonasal approach is actively developed; this technique is considered less invasive and is well tolerated by patients, thus permitting to operate patients with somatic complications, as well as the elderly. Taking into account these facts, as well as world statistic data indicating a continuous trend of population aging in developed countries, including Russia, optimization of the perioperative care of elderly patients with a tumor of the chiasmatic-sellar area becomes the problem of highest priority. In order to solve it, this review discusses the basic peculiarities of the perioperative management of elderly patients (characteristics of their somatic status and possible variants of the pre-operational state with a pathology in the chiasmatic-sellar region; it also presents the modern and most acceptable alternative solutions of this difficult problem (introduction of modern methods of anesthesia, management of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction, postoperative pain syndrome, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. 

  20. Two-dimensional mapping of underdosed areas using radiochromic film for patients undergoing total skin electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Lisa M.; Farrell, Thomas J.; Jones, Glenn W.; Hayward, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the viability of radiochromic film as an in vivo, two-dimensional dosimeter for the measurement of underdosed areas in patients undergoing total skin electron beam (TSEB) radiotherapy. The results were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements. Methods and Materials: Dosimetry results are reported for an inframammary fold of 2 patients treated using a modified version of the Stanford six-position (i.e., six-field and dual-beam) TSEB technique. The results are presented as contour plots of film optical density and percentage of dose. A linear dose profile measured from film was compared with the thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements. Results: The results showed that the percentage doses as measured by film are in good agreement with those measured by the thermoluminescent dosimeters. The isodose contour plots provided by film can be used as a two-dimensional dose map for a patient when determining the size of the supplemental patch fields. Conclusion: Radiochromic film is a viable dosimetry tool that the radiation oncologist can use to understand the surface dose heterogeneity better across complex concave regions of skin to help establish more appropriate margins to patch underdosed areas. Film could be used for patients undergoing TSEB for disorders such as mycosis fungoides or undergoing TSEB or regional skin electron beam for widespread skin metastases from breast cancer and other malignancies

  1. Clinical evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity cancer in a betel quid chewing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Wallace, Christopher G; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2014-08-01

    We sought to investigate whether there is evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) enrolled in a betel quid chewing area. We also assessed whether betel quid chewing is an independent risk factor for field cancerization in OSCC patients. We retrospectively examined the records of 1570 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2011. A total of 1243 study participants (79%) had a positive history of betel quid chewing before surgery. Of the 767 patients treated with surgery alone, 599 (78%) were preoperative chewers, whereas a history of preoperative betel quid chewing was identified in 644 (80%) of the 803 patients who received adjuvant therapy. The 5-year control, survival, and second primary tumors (SPTs) rates served as the main outcome measures. Regardless of the treatment modality, more than 70% of the SPTs were located in the oral cavity or soft palate. Despite a similar risk profile in terms of tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, and pathological margin status, preoperative chewers showed a significantly higher incidence of 5-year SPTs and local recurrences compared with non-chewers. Moreover, multivariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative betel quid chewing was an independent prognostic factor for 5-year local control and SPTs occurrence rates. Our results demonstrate that preoperative betel quid chewers had a higher incidence of local recurrence and SPTs than non-chewers, suggesting that field cancerization may occur in OSCC patients with a history of betel quid chewing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased variability of watershed areas in patients with high-grade carotid stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarz, Stephan; Griese, Vanessa; Preibisch, Christine

    2018-01-01

    . Despite of high relevance for both clinical diagnostics and research, individual in vivo WSA definition is fairly limited to date. Thus, this study proposes a standardized segmentation approach to delineate individual WSAs by use of time-to-peak (TTP) maps and investigates spatial variability...... of individual WSAs. Methods: We defined individual watershed masks based on relative TTP increases in 30 healthy elderly persons and 28 patients with unilateral, high-grade carotid stenosis, being at risk for watershed-related hemodynamic impairment. Determined WSA location was confirmed by an arterial transit...... time atlas and individual super-selective arterial spin labeling. We compared spatial variability of WSA probability maps between groups and assessed TTP differences between hemispheres in individual and group-average watershed locations. Results: Patients showed significantly higher spatial...

  3. European origin of patients with Paget's disease of bone in the Buenos Aires area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Acotto, C.; Mautalen, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Paget's bone disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Europe, United States, Argentina and Australia. The aim of the present work was to determine the ethnic origin of the disease in Buenos Aires using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a sampling according to grandparents' nationality. Ninety five percent of Paget patients were of European descent and 5% were non-European, while in the control group the proportion of European descendants is lower: 83% (OR: 3.7; p < 0.007; IC 95%: 1.4-9.7). Within the group of patients with Paget's disease the proportion of Italian and Russian descendants was higher than expected according to the 1914 Argentinean census. The prevalence of Paget's disease among European migrants was higher than in the control group of citizens. Regardless of environmental factors, it is likely that the migrants carried a higher risk of developing the disease

  4. [Overload in the informal caregivers of patients with multiple comorbidities in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Tello, Margarita; Casado-Mejía, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Ruiz-Arias, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was, to determine the profile of the family caregiver of patients with multiple pathologies, identify factors associated with overload, and construct predictive models using items from the Caregiver Strain Index (CSI). A cross-sectional study of caregivers of patients with multiple comorbidities who attended an urban health centre. Data were collected from health records and questionnaires (Barthel index, Pfeiffer index, and CSI). Statistical analysis was performed using measures of central tendency and dispersion, and by building multivariate models with binary logistic regression with the CSI items as predictors (program R version 2.14.0). The sample included 67 caregivers, with a mean age of 64.69 years (standard deviation=12.71, median 62 years), of whom 74.6% were women, 35.8% were wives, and 32.8% were daughters. The level of dependence of the patients cared for was total/severe in 77.6%, and moderate in 12% (Barthel), and 47.8% had some level of cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer). A CSI equal or greater than 7 was seen in 47.8% of caregivers, identifying life problems in more than 40% of them such as, restriction of social life, physical exertion, discomfort with change, bad behaviour, personal and family emotional changes, and sleep disturbances. Item 4 of the CSI, analysing the social restriction, was the one that showed a greater significance in the predictive multivariate model. Item 12 (economic burden) was the most significant with age in patients with cognitive impairment. Women tend to take the role of caregiver at an earlier age than men in the urban environment studied, and items from CSI showed that items 4 (social restrictions) and 12 (economic burden) have more significance in the predictive models constructed with Binary Logistic Regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Two patients with ciguatera toxicity: a seafood poisoning in travellers to (sub) tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobbe, L; van Genderen, P J J; Wismans, P J

    2008-10-01

    Ciguatera toxicity is a type of seafood poisoning caused by the consumption of ciguatoxic reef fish. We describe two patients with characteristic gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, both of whom had eaten local seafood. Although mortality is low, morbidity can be considerable due to debilitating symptoms. Most cases originate in the (sub)tropics but due to expanding tourism and fish exportation, it may be encountered in more temperate regions. Treatment is supportive, but some benefit from intravenous mannitol has been reported.

  6. Implementation of 'early alert system' area detector at patient from entrance in afterloading brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla Valdebenito, R.

    2001-01-01

    A system of area monitors to detect the involuntary exit of the radiation sources used in low dose rate deferred brachytherapy treatment is being implemented in all facilities in Chile. The first implementation of this system, named 'Early Alert', was 5 years ago as a complement to the administrative procedures and verification measures by the medical physics carried out through visual verifications and by means of portable radiation detectors. This detector of the system should be located preferentially at the exit of the treatment room at a height not smaller than two meters. This has resulted in an increase of facilities safety in this practice. (author) [es

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of Double-Layered Polytetrafluoroethylene Membrane-Covered Self-Expandable Segmental Metallic Stents (Uventa) in Patients with Chronic Ureteral Obstructions: Is It Really Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong; Hong, Bumsik; Park, Hyung Keun

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy and safety of double-layered polytetrafluoroethylene membrane-covered self-expandable segmental metallic stents (Uventa) in patients with chronic ureteral obstruction. In a retrospective study, a total of 50 ureter units (44 patients) with chronic obstructions were included from July 2010 to May 2015. Indications for Uventa placement were primary stenting for malignant ureteral obstruction, failed conventional polymeric Double-J stent (PS), or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) technique, with comorbidities or fears limiting PS/PCN changes, or with irritation or pain due to PS/PCN. Patients underwent Uventa stent placement using the antegrade or retrograde approach. There were no immediate procedure-related complications, and all stents were placed in the proper sites. During the median follow-up of 30.9 (interquartile range [IQR], 8.1-49.0) months, the primary (no obstruction and no additional intervention) and overall success (no obstruction and no additional intervention except supplementary Uventa) was 30.0% and 34.0%, respectively. Moreover, 14 of 50 ureter units (28.0%) experienced major complications (≥Clavien-Dindo class IIIb), such as ureteroarterial fistula (three cases, 6.0%), ureteroenteric fistula (three, 6.0%), ureterovaginal fistula (one, 2.0%), ureter perforation (one, 2.0%), uncontrollable bleeding (one, 2.0%), and complete obstruction (five, 10.0%). On univariate analysis, major complications were associated with female (odds ratio [OR] = 6.000), cervical cancer (OR = 4.667), ureteral stricture length (≥6.0 cm, OR = 4.583), and placement duration (≥24.0 months, OR = 20.429; all p stent demonstrated poor treatment outcomes with frequent major complications in patients with chronic ureteral obstructions.

  8. Preliminary clinical application in the cranial internal carotid artery of covered stents specially designed for intracranial vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minghua; Luo Qiyi; Fang Chun; Xie Zhiyong; Cheng Yingsheng; Gao Bulang; Li Yu; Zhang Beilei; Xie Jian; Wang Yongli

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the flexibility of both the covered stents specially designed for use in intracranial vasculature and the delivering system in passing through the bone tube and the physiological curves of the cranial internal carotid artery (CICA) to reach the targeted area, the performance (adherence) of the covered stents in occluding vascular wall diseases and the impact on the vascular branches of the covered segment. Methods: The covered stents specially designed for use in intracranial vasculature were used to treat 13 patients with CICA diseases using endovascular techniques. There were 4 huge pseudoaneurysms, 4 giant aneurysms, 3 small wide-necked aneurysms, 1 giant pseudoaneurysm with concurrent internal carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), and 1 CCF. Prior to the detachment of the covered stents, balloon occlusion test (BOT) of the internal carotid artery on the diseased side and whole-brain digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in all the patients. Three to 16 months following procedure, DSA and clinical follow-ups were performed. Results: Thirteen patients all tolerated the BOT well with the DSA demonstrating well-opened anterior and posterior communicating arteries. The covered stents and the delivering systems all successfully passed CICA to reach the targeted diseased area, with the diseased segments of the internal carotid artery including C3-C4 in 4 cases, C4-C5 in 4 and C6-C7 in 5. Immediately following the detachment of the covered stents, DSA demonstrated that 7 aneurysms were completely occluded, 4 aneurysms had slight endoleak, and 1 CCF had markedly-decreased blood flow through the fistula. In the patient with concurrent pseudoaneurysm and CCF, the pseudoaneurysm disappeared and the blood flow through the fistula was markedly-reduced immediately following the stenting procedure. Apart from one patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who died due to extensive vascular spasm on the 9th day following the stenting

  9. The epidiemiologic profile of HCV infected Hispanic patients from the southern area of Puerto Rico since 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ruiz, David; Rosado Carrión, Bárbara; Bredy, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies in adults done in San Juan and Puerto Rico have showed 6.3% and 2.2% of the population respectively, are positive for antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV). It is been suggested that Hispanics have a lower sustained virological response to current therapy. The epidemiologic profile, the response to treatment and the risk factors to the poor response to treatment of HCV patients have not been studied in the southern area of Puerto Rico. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 46 medical records from January 2005 to March 2011. We search for sociodemographic variables, comorbidities, the HCV genotype, the human immunodeficiency virus profile, history of alcoholism and the patients who were treated with peginterferon alpha 2b and ribavirin, and their response to treatment. Our HCV infected population is male predominant (63%), and the most common route of transmission were intravenous drug abuse (37%) and blood transfusions (33%). Only 37% reported alcoholism. The most common comorbidities found in our population were hypertension (35%), diabetes mellitus (20%), hypothyroidism (7%) and dyslipidemia (7%). Most common genotype found in our population was type 1 (61%). From the 46 patients, 10 patients were treated, being genotype 1 the most common. Overall, our population showed an epidemiological profile similar to other Hispanic groups in the literature, which should motivate us to continue exploring these associations, in an effort to improve the management of these patients.

  10. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  11. ESTIMATION OF THE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FROM DOSE-AREA PRODUCT TO EFFECTIVE DOSE FOR BARIUM MEAL EXAMINATIONS FOR ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vodovatov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroscopic examinations of the upper gastro-intestinal tract and, especially, barium meal examinations, are commonly performed in a majority of hospitals. These examinations are associated both with substantial individual patient doses and contribution to the collective dose from medical exposure. Effective dose estimation for this type of examinations is complicated due to: 1 the necessity to simulate the moving X-ray irradiation field; 2 differences in study structure for the individual patients; 3 subjectivity of the operators; and 4 differences in the X-ray equipment. The aim of the current study was to estimate conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose for barium meal examinations for the over couch and under couch exposure conditions. The study was based on data collected in the X-ray unit of the surgical department of the St-Petersburg Mariinsky hospital. A model of patient exposure during barium meal examination was developed based on the collected data on fluoroscopy protocols and adult patient irradiation geometry. Conversion coefficients were calculated using PCXMC 2.0 software. Complete examinations were converted into a set of typical fluoroscopy phases and X-ray images, specified by the examined anatomical region and the projection of patient exposure. Conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose were calculated for each phase of the examination and for the complete examination. The resulting values of the conversion coefficients are comparable with published data. Variations in the absolute values of the conversion coefficients can be explained by differences in clinical protocols, models for the estimation of the effective dose and parameters of barium meal examinations. The proposed approach for estimation of effective dose considers such important features of fluoroscopic examinations as: 1 non-uniform structure of examination, 2 significant movement of the X-ray tube within a single

  12. Identification, prevalence, and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in patients from a rural area in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruitt III J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jimmy Pruitt III,1 Carolina Moracho-Vilrriales,1,2 Tiffaney Threatt,3 Sarah Wagner,3 Jun Wu,1 E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval1 1Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, SC, USA; 2Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, SC, USA Abstract: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN represents significant burdens to many patients and the public health-care system. Patients with diabetes in rural areas have higher risk of developing complications and having less access to proper treatment. We studied a rural population of patients with diabetes who attended a pharmacist-led free clinic for a diabetic education program. Our objectives were to 1 determine the prevalence of DPN and painful diabetic neuropathy (p-DN in patients with type 2 diabetes; 2 assess the proportion of patients with DPN and p-DN left undocumented upon physician referral to a pharmacist-led free clinic; and 3 determine the appropriateness of pain medication regimen. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients from the Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy (PCSP Wellness Center located in Clinton, SC. Diagnoses of DPN and/or p-DN were obtained from referral notes in the clinical records and compared with results from foot examinations performed in the free clinic and clinical features. Medication regimens were also obtained and compared using American Academy of Neurology (AAN treatment guidelines. Within our study population (n=111, the prevalence of DPN was 62.2% (national average of 28%–45% and that of p-DN was 23.4% (national average of 11%–24%. In p-DN patients (n=26, 53.8% (n=14 had a documented diagnosis of p-DN by the referring physician, and 46.2% (n=12 were identified by the pharmacists. A total of 95% (19 of 20 of the patients treated for p

  13. Off-label use analysis of novel antiepileptic drugs in Sichuan area: a multicenter survey in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qian-yun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate current status and safety about off-label use of levetiracetam, topiramate, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine among pediatric patients in Sichuan area, so as to provide baseline data for formulating guidelines of off-label drug use. Methods Medical records of pediatric epileptic patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs from July 2010 to November 2011 were collected at the following hospitals: West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital. The numbers of patients receiving AEDs and novel AEDs were calculated. Off-label drug use and the category of off-label drug use were judged according to the indications listed in drug instructions. The incidence of off-label drug use was calculated. The patients receiving novel AEDs were devided into on-label and off-label use groups; the clinical characteristics of these two groups were summarized and adverse reactions of two groups were compared by using χ2 test. Results During the study period, there were totally 854 patients receiving AEDs including 670 patients receiving novel AEDs. Among 670 patients 406 patients off-label use group received off-label use of novel AEDs, accounting for 47.54% (406/854 of the total patients receiving AEDs and 60.60% (406/670 of patients receiving novel AEDs. When compared with on-label use group, off-label use group had more younger patients, more patients with single-drug use and more patients with generalized epilepsy or epileptic syndrome. The rates of off-label using drug were levetiracetam 78.50% (157/200, topiramate 79.81% (253/317, oxcarbazepine 21.32% (42/197 and lamotrigine 33.33% (21/63. The off-label use of levetiracetam and topiramate occured in all three aspects: age, single-drug use and seizure type. The adverse reaction rates of off-label use were oxcarbazepine 16.67% (7/42, topiramate 14.81% (36/243, levetiracetam 10.60% (16

  14. An estimate of the maximal doses incurred by persons accompanying patients in the waiting area of a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzik-Jurasz, A.S.K.; Farwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to make an estimate of the maximal doses that might be incurred by persons accompanying active patients in a nuclear medicine department waiting area. This was in order to determine whether the dose to such individuals approached current legislative or recently recommended limits. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were taped to the walls of the waiting area at waist level to the sitting individual, such that their record would reflect as closely as possible the dose incurred by an individual sitting next to an active patient. Dividing the recorded dose with the total occupancy time of that seat derived an average dose rate. Maximal doses were estimated by the product of the latter and maximal occupancy times. It was assumed that an accompanying individual would have been sitting next to the active patient for their whole duration of stay. The maximum estimates were 278 μSv and 103.2 μSv. These values are likely to be overestimates by the virtue of the TLD integrating the whole dose of its surrounds, especially adjacent active individuals. By current legislation and recent recommendations the values are reassuringly low, but idiosyncrasies in local practice might need to be considered in individual departments. (author)

  15. Effects of a dedicated regional psychiatric emergency service on boarding of psychiatric patients in area emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Scott; Calma, Nicole; Stone, Ashley

    2014-02-01

    Mental health patients boarding for long hours, even days, in United States emergency departments (EDs) awaiting transfer for psychiatric services has become a considerable and widespread problem. Past studies have shown average boarding times ranging from 6.8 hours to 34 hours. Most proposed solutions to this issue have focused solely on increasing available inpatient psychiatric hospital beds, rather than considering alternative emergency care designs that could provide prompt access to treatment and might reduce the need for many hospitalizations. One suggested option has been the "regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility," which serves to evaluate and treat all mental health patients for a given area, and can accept direct transfers from other EDs. This study sought to assess the effects of a regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility design known at the "Alameda Model" on boarding times and hospitalization rates for psychiatric patients in area EDs. Over a 30-day period beginning in January 2013, 5 community hospitals in Alameda County, California, tracked all ED patients on involuntary mental health holds to determine boarding time, defined as the difference between when they were deemed stable for psychiatric disposition and the time they were discharged from the ED for transfer to the regional psychiatric emergency service. Patients were also followed to determine the percentage admitted to inpatient psychiatric units after evaluation and treatment in the psychiatric emergency service. In a total sample of 144 patients, the average boarding time was approximately 1 hour and 48 minutes. Only 24.8% were admitted for inpatient psychiatric hospitalization from the psychiatric emergency service. The results of this study indicate that the Alameda Model of transferring patients from general hospital EDs to a regional psychiatric emergency service reduced the length of boarding times for patients awaiting psychiatric care by over 80% versus

  16. A Remote Collaborative Care Program for Patients with Depression Living in Rural Areas: Open-Label Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Guajardo, Viviana; Martínez, Pablo; Castro, Ariel; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Moessner, Markus; Bauer, Stephanie

    2018-04-30

    In the treatment of depression, primary care teams have an essential role, but they are most effective when inserted into a collaborative care model for disease management. In rural areas, the shortage of specialized mental health resources may hamper management of depressed patients. The aim was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a remote collaborative care program for patients with depression living in rural areas. In a nonrandomized, open-label (blinded outcome assessor), two-arm clinical trial, physicians from 15 rural community hospitals recruited 250 patients aged 18 to 70 years with a major depressive episode (DSM-IV criteria). Patients were assigned to the remote collaborative care program (n=111) or to usual care (n=139). The remote collaborative care program used Web-based shared clinical records between rural primary care teams and a specialized/centralized mental health team, telephone monitoring of patients, and remote supervision by psychiatrists through the Web-based shared clinical records and/or telephone. Depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, service use, and patient satisfaction were measured 3 and 6 months after baseline assessment. Six-month follow-up assessments were completed by 84.4% (221/250) of patients. The remote collaborative care program achieved higher user satisfaction (odds ratio [OR] 1.94, 95% CI 1.25-3.00) and better treatment adherence rates (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.02-3.19) at 6 months compared to usual care. There were no statically significant differences in depressive symptoms between the remote collaborative care program and usual care. Significant differences between groups in favor of remote collaborative care program were observed at 3 months for mental health-related quality of life (beta 3.11, 95% CI 0.19-6.02). Higher rates of treatment adherence in the remote collaborative care program suggest that technology-assisted interventions may help rural primary care teams in the management

  17. Towards Seamless Validation of Land Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprikova, Ekaterina; Liebel, Lukas; Meng, Liqiu

    2018-05-01

    This article demonstrates the ability of the Bayesian Network analysis for the recognition of uncertainty patterns associated with the fusion of various land cover data sets including GlobeLand30, CORINE (CLC2006, Germany) and land cover data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) such as Open Street Map (OSM). The results of recognition are expressed as probability and uncertainty maps which can be regarded as a by-product of the GlobeLand30 data. The uncertainty information may guide the quality improvement of GlobeLand30 by involving the ground truth data, information with superior quality, the know-how of experts and the crowd intelligence. Such an endeavor aims to pave a way towards a seamless validation of global land cover data on the one hand and a targeted knowledge discovery in areas with higher uncertainty values on the other hand.

  18. [Gallbladder Stone Types in Patients with Cholelithiasis and Clonorchis sinensis Infection in the Endemic Area of Clonorchiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-hong; Qiao, Tie; Luo, Zhen-liang; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Yang, Liu-qing

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between Clonorchis sinensis infection and the gallbladder stone type in patients with cholelithiasis in the endemic area of clonorchiasis. Gallbladder stones were collected from 598 patients with cholelithiasis through minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy in the Sixth People's Hospital of Nansha District from May 2009 to October 2012. The stone samples were analyzed for composition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify their types. The Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in the stones by microscopic examination, and the detection rates of eggs were calculated for different stone types. Then the clinical characteristics and biochemical indicators were compared among patients with different types of stones, as well as between Clonorchis sinensis egg-positive and -negative patients with the calcium-carbonate type of stones. Some calcium-carbonate stones positive for Clonorchis sinensis eggs were randomly selected for further scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. Of the stones from 598 patients, 234 (39.1%) were cholesterol type, 133 (22.2%) bile pigment type, 112(18.7%) calcium-carbonate type, 86 (14.4%) mixed types and 33(5.5%) were others. The detection rate of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in these types was 6% (15/234), 44% (59/133), 60% (67/112), 36% (31/ 86) and 30% (10/33), respectively, being highest in calcium-carbonate stones while lowest in cholesterol stones. The Co2-combining power of the plasma was higher in patients with calcium-carbonate and mixed stones than in those with cholesterol stones (P Clonorchis sinensis eggs to calcium-carbonate crystals. The infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis is higher in patients with calcium-carbonate gallbladder stones than in those with other types of stones.

  19. Appointment keeping for medical review among patients with selected chronic diseases in an urban area of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyango, Joan Nakayaga; Hall, Maurice; Karamagi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Proper management of chronic diseases is important for prevention of disease complications and yet some patients miss appointments for medical review thereby missing the opportunity for proper monitoring of their disease conditions. There is limited information on missed appointments among chronic disease patients in resource limited settings. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of missed appointments for medical review and associated factors among chronic disease patients in an urban area of Uganda. Patients or caregivers of children with chronic diseases were identified as they bought medicines from a community pharmacy. They were visited at home to access their medical documents and those whose chronic disease status was ascertained were enrolled. The data was collected using: questionnaires, review of medical documents, and in-depth interviews with chronic disease patients. The prevalence of missed appointments was 42% (95%CI = 35-49%). The factors associated with missed appointments were: monthly income ≤30US Dollars (OR = 2.56, CI = 1.25-5.26), affording less than half of prescribed drugs (OR = 3.92, CI = 1.64-9.40), not experiencing adverse events (OR = 2.66, CI = 1.26-5.61), not sure if treatment helps (OR = 2.84, CI = 1.047.77), not having a medicines administration schedule (OR = 6.77, CI = 2.11-21.68), and increasing number of drugs (OR = 0.72, CI = 0.53-0.98). Patients missed appointments mainly due to: financial and health system barriers, conflicting commitments with appointments, and perceptions of the disease condition. Patients should be supported with accessible and affordable health services.

  20. Evaluation of prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with pemphigus disease area index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardi, Vahideh; Hallaji, Zahra; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Ghandi, Narges; Shekari, Peyman; Khani, Sepideh

    2016-06-01

    Prolactin is a hormone; in addition to it known roles, it has immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes maturation and immunoglobulins production. Hyperprolactinemia has been demonstrated in various autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes mellitus, and Graves' disease. In view of the prolactin immunomodulatory roles, studying prolactin levels in pemphigus as an autoimmune blistering disease may introduce new ways of understanding disease etiology and developing treatment strategies. Our purpose was to determine the prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and study its correlation with pemphigus disease area index. Our study was limited by the lack of a control group. In this cross-sectional study, prolactin and anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 autoantibodies levels were measured in 50 patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris in Razi Dermatology Hospital. Pemphigus severity and extent was estimated using the Pemphigus Disease Area Index. Of the 50 patients, 18 were male and 32 were female with a mean age of 41.56 ± 13.66 years. Mean prolactin (PRL) level was 15.60 ± 11.72 ng/ml (10.68 in males and 18.37 in females). Mean anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 autoantibodies were 135.8 ± 119.8 and 245.8 ± 157.4 U/ml, respectively. Eleven out of 50 patients had a higher than normal prolactin range. No relation was found between prolactin level and disease activity ( p = .982). Also, correlation studies show no relation between prolactin and anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 autoantibodies levels (respectively, p = .771 and .738). In comparing the extent of the disease between the two groups with normal and high prolactin, paired t-test showed no significance ( p = .204). In our study, 22% of patients had hyperprolactinemia, which was greater among females. The highest PRL level was detected in mucocutaneous group. Although serum PRL levels were higher in patients with a greater Pemphigus Disease Area Index

  1. Myxoedema in a patient with achondroplasia in rural area of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Michel; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-03-09

    A 43-year-old indigenous Guatemalan woman with achondroplasia presented to our clinic with chronic fatigue and generalised oedema. She had limited contact with the formal healthcare system. However, 1 year prior, she had sought medical evaluation from a private physician. Her symptoms had been attributed to a combination of heart failure and physical disability due to the musculoskeletal complications of her achondroplasia. She was lost to follow-up due to inability to pay for further testing or treatment. On initial laboratory evaluation in our clinic, she was found to have a thyrotropin level greater than assay. With initiation of oral levothyroxine supplementation, her dyspnoea and oedema completely resolved. The case illustrates how indigenous patients in rural Guatemala experience many barriers to accessing high-quality medical care. As a result, presentations of common illnesses are often very advanced and definitive diagnoses and treatments are frequently delayed. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  3. GLCF: Landsat GeoCover

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite imagery provided in a standardized, orthorectified format, covering the entire land surface of the * Orthorectification * Distribution Status * Hard Media Orders * Letters Delivered Quick Links * Create True Color

  4. Association Between Changes in CMS Reimbursement Policy and Drug Labels for Erythrocyte-Stimulating Agents With Outcomes for Older Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Covered by Fee-for-Service Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunlin; Kane, Robert; Levenson, Mark; Kelman, Jeffrey; Wernecke, Michael; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kozlowski, Steven; Dekmezian, Carmen; Zhang, Zhiwei; Thompson, Aliza; Smith, Kimberly; Wu, Yu-Te; Wei, Yuqin; Chillarige, Yoganand; Ryan, Qin; Worrall, Chris; MaCurdy, Thomas E; Graham, David J

    2016-12-01

    % CI, 0.64-0.93; P = .01); the use of ESAs also decreased, and the rate of blood transfusions increased (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.07-1.12; P < .001). In the post-postpolicy period, black patients had a significant reduction in risk of MACE (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.92; P < .001) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93; P = .002). After the bundling policy and ESA labeling changes in 2011, the risks of MACE and death for patients 66 years or older and covered by fee-for-service Medicare who had undergone incident hemodialysis did not change; the risk of stroke was reduced, and the rate of blood transfusions modestly increased. Black patients had substantial reductions in the risks of MACE and death.

  5. Patient specific anatomy: the new area of anatomy based on computer science illustrated on liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick; Marescaux, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, medical imaging has brought a new revolution: internal anatomy of a patient could be seen without any invasive technique. This revolution has highlighted the two main limits of current anatomy: the anatomical description is physician dependent, and the average anatomy is more and more frequently insufficient to describe anatomical variations. These drawbacks can sometimes be so important that they create mistakes but they can be overcome through the use of 3D patient-specific surgical anatomy. In this article, we propose to illustrate such improvement of standard anatomy on liver. We first propose a general scheme allowing to easily compare the four main liver anatomical descriptions by Takasaki, Goldsmith and Woodburne, Bismuth and Couinaud. From this general scheme we propose four rules to apply in order to correct these initial anatomical definitions. Application of these rules allows to correct usual vascular topological mistakes of standard anatomy. We finally validate such correction on a database of 20 clinical cases compared to the 111 clinical cases of a Couinaud article. Out of the 20 images of the database, we note a revealing difference in 14 cases (70%) on at least one important branch of the portal network. Only six cases (30%) do not present a revealing difference between both labellings. We also show that the right portal fissure location on our 20 cases defined between segment V and VI of our anatomical definition is well correlated with the real position described by Couinaud on 111 cases, knowing that the theoretical position was only found in 46 cases out of 111, i.e., 41.44% of cases with the non-corrected Couinaud definition. We have proposed a new anatomical segmentation of the liver based on four main rules to apply in order to correct topological errors of the four main standard segmentations. Our validation clearly illustrates that this new definition corrects the large amount of mistakes created by the current

  6. Evaluation of trace elements in human milk from patients of the Chile metropolitan area by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luco Mujica, H.

    1983-01-01

    Human milk samples from 23 patients of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, were collected and analysed for the determination of their trace element content. Samples were collected from each patient at the third, fifth and thirtieth day post-partum. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, for the determination of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se and Rb, and radiochemically for the analysis of Cu and As. It was observed than those elements classified as essential for the normal growth of child, presented concentration levels in agreement with the values recommended by International Health Organizations. Arsenic was not detected in the samples analyzed. It was found not significant difference between the three types of milk analyzed (calostrum, transition and madure), with the exception of Rb and Zn. (Author)

  7. [Physical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with dorsopathies following decompression surgery in the lumbosacral spinal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichinava, N V; Stiazhkina, E M; Gurkina, M V; Iashina, I V; Nuvakhova, M B

    2013-01-01

    The present study included 80 patients at the age varying from 24 to 59 years examined at different time (from 3 months to 3 years) after the surgical treatment of herniated intervertebral disks, mostly with clinical signs of L(v)-, S1-root radiculopathy. Coordination gymnastics included a complex of specific isotonico-isometric, isometric, and isotonic exercises designed to affect the deep stabilization system. The exercises were performed in five starting positions in a continuous mode with a small or medium amplitude of the movements synchronized with breathing. It was shown that coordination gymnastics in combination with magnetic therapy and iodine-bromine baths results in the statistically significant relief of pain syndrome (p<0.001) and formation of the muscular corset. Moreover, it increases stability of the vertebral column, improves its adaptation to physical activity, eliminates regional postural imbalance, and promotes formation of the proper movement patterns. Taken together, these effects constitute secondary prophylaxis of vertebrogenic pain syndrome and progressive degenerative changes.

  8. Additive-manufactured patient-specific titanium templates for thoracic pedicle screw placement: novel design with reduced contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Ota, Eigo; Otsuki, Bungo; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Futami, Tohru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Neo, Masashi; Matsuda, Shuich

    2016-06-01

    Image-based navigational patient-specific templates (PSTs) for pedicle screw (PS) placement have been described. With recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided designs and additive manufacturing technology, various PST designs have been reported, although the template designs were not optimized. We have developed a novel PST design that reduces the contact area without sacrificing stability. It avoids susceptibility to intervening soft tissue, template geometric inaccuracy, and difficulty during template fitting. Fourteen candidate locations on the posterior aspect of the vertebra were evaluated. Among them, locations that had high reproducibility on computed tomography (CT) images and facilitated accurate PS placement were selected for the final PST design. An additive manufacturing machine (EOSINT M270) fabricated the PSTs using commercially pure titanium powder. For the clinical study, 36 scoliosis patients and 4 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) were treated with thoracic PSs using our newly developed PSTs. We intraoperatively and postoperatively evaluated the accuracy of the PS hole created by the PST. Based on the segmentation reproducibility and stability analyses, we selected seven small, round contact points for our PST: bilateral superior and inferior points on the transverse process base, bilateral inferior points on the laminar, and a superior point on the spinous process. Clinically, the success rates of PS placement using this PST design were 98.6 % (414/420) for scoliosis patients and 100 % (46/46) for OPLL patients. This study provides a useful design concept for the development and introduction of patient-specific navigational templates for placing PSs.

  9. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  10. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  11. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  12. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Jensen, Frank; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2018-01-01

    The Faustmann forest rotation model is a celebrated contribution in economics. The model provides a forest value expression and allows a solution to the optimal rotation problem valid for perpetual rotations of even-aged forest stands. However, continuous forest cover forest management systems......, but rigorous mathematical model of the continuous cover forest, which strictly focuses on the area use dynamics that such an uneven-aged forest must have in equilibrium. This implies explicitly accounting for area reallocation and for weighting the productivity of each age class by the area occupied. We...... present results for unrestricted as well as area-restricted versions of the models. We find that land values are unambiguously higher in the continuous cover forest models compared with the even-aged models. Under area restrictions, the optimal rotation age in a continuous cover forest model...

  13. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  14. Can teledermatology be a useful diagnostic tool in dermatology practice in remote areas? An Egyptian experience with 600 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Nadia; Abdel Hay, Rania; Hegazy, Rehab; Hussein, Marwa; Gomaa, Dalia

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The paucity of studies evaluating teledermatology (TD) in developing countries was the impetus behind conducting this work. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of TD in remote areas where medical facilities and consultant dermatologists are not available, through measurement of diagnostic concordance rates between face-to-face diagnosis and store-and-forward (SAF) TD diagnosis. Methods A total of 600 patients with dermatological ailments who attended Abshway Hospital were recruited into the study, examined by an on-site dermatology resident, and offered a diagnosis. The clinical images and patients' history were collected and transferred (through the Dropbox application) to two remote consultant dermatologists. The reliability of the three physicians' agreement rates was assessed. Results Diagnostic agreement rates between the face-to-face dermatologist and the two teledermatologists were 86.7% and 87% respectively. Of the cases, 97% had complete or partial agreement and 81.3% of cases showed complete agreement between the three physicians. The reliability of the three physicians' agreement rates was assessed statistically using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) and this showed a range of 0.46-0.52. Conclusion This study might aid in enhancing the utilization of this tool in our country, especially in remote areas with a lack of a proper dermatological service. The simplicity and low cost of the adopted technique might facilitate its use over large sectors. It opens the door for gaining the benefit of this technology in other aspects such as teaching and monitoring health care providers.

  15. Box Isolation of Fibrotic Areas (BIFA): A Patient-Tailored Substrate Modification Approach for Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottkamp, Hans; Berg, Jan; Bender, Roderich; Rieger, Andreas; Schreiber, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Catheter ablation strategies beyond pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) are less well defined. Increasing clinical data indicate that atrial fibrosis is a critical common left atrial (LA) substrate in AF patients (pts). We applied a new substrate modification concept according to the individual fibrotic substrate as estimated from electroanatomic voltage mapping (EAVM) in 41 pts undergoing catheter ablation of AF. First, EAVM during sinus rhythm was done in redo cases of 10 pts with paroxysmal AF despite durable PVI. Confluent low-voltage areas (LVA) were found in all pts and were targeted with circumferential isolation, so-called box isolation of fibrotic areas (BIFA). This strategy led to stable sinus rhythm in 9/10 pts and was transferred prospectively to first procedures of 31 pts with nonparoxysmal AF. In 13 pts (42%), no LVA (atrial tachycardia was achieved in 72.2% of pts and in 83.3% of pts with 1.17 procedures/patient. In approximately 40% of pts with nonparoxysmal AF, no substantial LVA were identified, and PVI alone showed high success rate. In pts with paroxysmal AF despite durable PVI and in approximately 60% of pts with nonparoxysmal AF, individually localized LVA were identified and could be targeted successfully with the BIFA strategy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. FP 6 EU - COVERS. Coordination action - VVER safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasa, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this work research program of the European Union FP 6 - COVERS coordinated by the NRI Rez is presented. COVERS is designed to improve professional and communication environment in the specific area covering all aspects of safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants with VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. Project Consortium is composed of 26 research and development, engineering and technical support organisations of European VVER-operating and other EU and non-EU countries.

  17. Tree and impervious cover change in U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Paired aerial photographs were interpreted to assess recent changes in tree, impervious and other cover types in 20 U.S. cities as well as urban land within the conterminous United States. National results indicate that tree cover in urban areas of the United States is on the decline at a rate of about 7900 ha/yr or 4.0 million trees per year. Tree cover in 17 of the...

  18. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-04: Setup Uncertainties in the Mediastinum Area for IMRT Treatment of Lymphoma Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristophanous, M; Court, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Despite daily image guidance setup uncertainties can be high when treating large areas of the body. The aim of this study was to measure local uncertainties inside the PTV for patients receiving IMRT to the mediastinum region. Methods: Eleven lymphoma patients that received radiotherapy (breath-hold) to the mediastinum were included in this study. The treated region could range all the way from the neck to the diaphragm. Each patient had a CT scan with a CT-on-rails system prior to every treatment. The entire PTV region was matched to the planning CT using automatic rigid registration. The PTV was then split into 5 regions: neck, supraclavicular, superior mediastinum, upper heart, lower heart. Additional auto-registrations for each of the 5 local PTV regions were performed. The residual local setup errors were calculated as the difference between the final global PTV position and the individual final local PTV positions for the AP, SI and RL directions. For each patient 4 CT scans were analyzed (1 per week of treatment). Results: The residual mean group error (M) and standard deviation of the inter-patient (or systematic) error (Σ) were lowest in the RL direction of the superior mediastinum (0.0mm and 0.5mm) and highest in the RL direction of the lower heart (3.5mm and 2.9mm). The standard deviation of the inter-fraction (or random) error (σ) was lowest in the RL direction of the superior mediastinum (0.5mm) and highest in the SI direction of the lower heart (3.9mm) The directionality of local uncertainties is important; a superior residual error in the lower heart for example keeps it in the global PTV. Conclusion: There is a complex relationship between breath-holding and positioning uncertainties that needs further investigation. Residual setup uncertainties can be significant even under daily CT image guidance when treating large regions of the body.

  19. Causes of referral to the first endocrine visit of patients with thyroid carcinoma in a mildly iodine-deficient area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Michela; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Ceresini, Graziano

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the causes of the first referral to an endocrine visit of patients with thyroid cancer in a mildly iodine-deficient area and to correlate them with prognostic features. We studied 298 consecutive patients (64 M and 234 F) with thyroid cancer. Of these, 281 had differentiated thyroid cancer. The causes of referral were categorized as follows: (Group A) clinical evidence of a neck lump; (Group B) incidental imaging in subjects without known thyroid diseases; (Group C) incidental imaging during a workup of thyroid disorders. Also, in differentiated thyroid cancer cases, clinical, histomorphologic, and prognostic parameters were compared among the three different groups of referral causes. In both total thyroid cancer and differentiated thyroid cancer cohorts, Group A, B, and C accounted for about 25, 35, and 40 % of causes, respectively. Considering the differentiated thyroid cancer, in Group B, ultrasound accounted for 94 % of cases, with 73 % resulting from screening or serendipitous study. Within a median follow-up of 5.6 [IQR: 2.7-9.5] years, disease-free survival was significantly lower in patients of Group A (Log-Rank test p = 0.030 vs. the other groups of causes). However, at the Cox multivariate analysis only male sex (p = 0.002) and stage (p = 0.005), but not referral cause, resulted independent predictors of events. In patients without known thyroid disease, unjustified thyroid ultrasound represents the main cause of referral of thyroid cancer patients to the first endocrine visit. The fact that this is not related to the disease-free survival strengthens the concept of the uselessness of thyroid cancer screening.

  20. The effectiveness of group dietary counselling among non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients in resettlement scheme areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, R; Ali, O; Arshad, F; Kadir, K A

    1997-06-01

    A study was undertaken in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) resettlement scheme areas in Pahang, Malaysia, to determine the effectiveness of group dietary counselling in motivating diabetic patients to achieve good dietary habits, and weight and diabetes control. Sixty-one non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group received six sessions of group dietary counselling over 5 months and the control group received mass media diabetes-educational program during the same period. The one hour group dietary counselling sessions discussed general knowledge of diabetes, food groups for meal planning, the importance of dietary fibre-rich foods, types of fat in food, exercise and weight control. The experimental group met monthly with a dietitian as a counsellor. Effectiveness was assessed by improvement in food choice, and decline in percentage glycated haemoglobin (total HbA1) or body mass index (BMI). Measurements were made at a baseline visit, every two months during the six month program, and six months afterwards. Patients in the experimental group improved their food choices, resulting in a healthier diet high in unrefined carbohydrates and dietary fibre rich foods, and low in fat. There were significant reductions of their percentage total HbA1 levels and BMI following the counselling sessions, which decreased further six months after the program compared with patients in the control group. Thus group dietary counselling is effective in motivating NIDDM patients to achieve better food choice, and related weight and glycaemic control in a Malaysian setting.

  1. Comparison Between Bandage Contact Lenses and Pressure Patching on the Erosion Area and Pain Scale in Patients With Corneal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triharpini, Ni Nyoman; Gede Jayanegara, I Wayan; Handayani, Ariesanti Tri; Widiana, I Gde Raka

    2015-01-01

    Corneal erosion is common in eye emergency cases. Extensive corneal erosions result in severe pain and prolonged healing time. This study aimed to compare bandage contact lenses with pressure patching in terms of reducing the size of the erosion area, pain scale in patients with corneal erosion and its complications. A randomized open-label clinical trial was conducted. Subjects with mechanical corneal erosion were selected to use either bandage contact lenses or pressure patching. All subjects received antibiotic eye drops and 0.5% tropicamide eye drops. Evaluations were done 24 and 72 hours after treatment. The size of the corneal erosion area, pain scale, and complications were assessed. A total of 32 eyes (16 eyes in each group) were studied. The change in the size of the corneal erosion area was greater in the bandage contact lens group than in the pressure patching group, although there was no significant difference. In the bandage contact lens group, 56.25% of the eyes were healed at 24 hours and 43.75% were healed at 72 hours. In the pressure patching group, 62.50% were healed at 24 hours and 12.50% were healed at 72 hours. The change in pain scale was significantly greater in the bandage contact lens group than in the pressure patching group. No complications were found in both groups. Bandage contact lenses are an effective alternative to treating mechanical corneal erosion because of their effect in reducing pain without causing any complications.

  2. Evaluation of two-dimensional Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim area for glaucoma diagnostics in a large patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Philip; Adler, Werner; Kiessling, David; Weber, Vincent; Schaub, Friederike; Hermann, Manuel M; Dietlein, Thomas; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2018-03-24

    To characterize the two-dimensional parameter Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim area (BMO-MRA) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the optic nerve head (ONH) compared to minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in a large patient cohort. Case-control, cross-sectional study of 705 eyes of 445 participants. A total of 449 eyes with glaucoma, 67 eyes with ocular hypertension and 189 healthy controls, underwent SD-OCT and confocal laser scanning tomography (CSLT), visual field testing and clinical examination. Morphometric ONH parameters, visual field function and diagnostic power were compared. Main outcome measures were SD-OCT-derived BMO-MRA, BMO-MRW, RNFL thickness and CSLT-derived rim area (DM-RA). Mean ONH area was 2.11 ± 0.57 mm 2 ; mean BMO area was 1.89 ± 0.45 mm 2 . Correlation of mean deviation in visual field to morphometric parameters was ρ = 0.70, (p  0.05), while DM-RA correlated significantly worse (ρ = 0.55; p area under the curve (AUC) and sensitivity at 90% specificity to differentiate glaucoma were 0.87% and 70.1% for BMO-MRA, 0.86% and 68.1% for RNFL thickness, 0.84% and 66.0% for BMO-MRW, 0.82% and 51.3% for DM-RA. In a heterogenous clinical cohort of glaucoma patients, all analysed SD-OCT parameters excel DM-RA of CSLT. The two-dimensional parameter BMO-MRA shows comparable levels of diagnostic power to detect glaucoma compared to established parameters BMO-MRW and RNFL thickness. Given higher comparability between ONH sizes, BMO-MRA might become an additional standard tool in SD-OCT imaging for glaucoma. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Updating the 2001 National Land Cover Database land cover classification to 2006 by using Landsat imagery change detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George; Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001, which represents the nation's land cover status based on a nominal date of 2001, is widely used as a baseline for national land cover conditions. To enable the updating of this land cover information in a consistent and continuous manner, a prototype method was developed to update land cover by an individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season in 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, land cover classifications at the full NLCD resolution for 2006 areas of change were completed by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain several metropolitan areas including Seattle, Washington; San Diego, California; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Jackson, Mississippi; and Manchester, New Hampshire. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of land cover change was captured and updated with overall land cover classification accuracies of 78.32%, 87.5%, 88.57%, 78.36%, and 83.33% for these areas. The method optimizes mapping efficiency and has the potential to provide users a flexible method to generate updated land cover at national and regional scales by using NLCD 2001 as the baseline.

  4. Wavefront coherence area for predicting visual acuity of post-PRK and post-PARK refractive surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daniel D.; van de Pol, Corina; Barsky, Brian A.; Klein, Stanley A.

    1999-06-01

    Many current corneal topography instruments (called videokeratographs) provide an `acuity index' based on corneal smoothness to analyze expected visual acuity. However, post-refractive surgery patients often exhibit better acuity than is predicted by such indices. One reason for this is that visual acuity may not necessarily be determined by overall corneal smoothness but rather by having some part of the cornea able to focus light coherently onto the fovea. We present a new method of representing visual acuity by measuring the wavefront aberration, using principles from both ray and wave optics. For each point P on the cornea, we measure the size of the associated coherence area whose optical path length (OPL), from a reference plane to P's focus, is within a certain tolerance of the OPL for P. We measured the topographies and vision of 62 eyes of patients who had undergone the corneal refractive surgery procedures of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and photorefractive astigmatic keratectomy (PARK). In addition to high contrast visual acuity, our vision tests included low contrast and low luminance to test the contribution of the PRK transition zone. We found our metric for visual acuity to be better than all other metrics at predicting the acuity of low contrast and low luminance. However, high contrast visual acuity was poorly predicted by all of the indices we studied, including our own. The indices provided by current videokeratographs sometimes fail for corneas whose shape differs from simple ellipsoidal models. This is the case with post-PRK and post-PARK refractive surgery patients. Our alternative representation that displays the coherence area of the wavefront has considerable advantages, and promises to be a better predictor of low contrast and low luminance visual acuity than current shape measures.

  5. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Cardinale, Daniele A; Norrbom, Jessica; Chapman, Mark; Ivarsson, Niklas; Wengström, Yvonne; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Rundqvist, Helene

    2018-05-11

    Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic training combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance training combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC). Resting skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained pre- and postintervention from 23 randomly selected women from the OptiTrain breast cancer trial who underwent RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC for 16 wk. Over the intervention, citrate synthase activity, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillaries per fiber, and myosin heavy chain isoform type I were reduced in UC, whereas RT-HIIT and AT-HIIT were able to counteract these declines. AT-HIIT promoted up-regulation of the electron transport chain protein levels vs. UC. RT-HIIT favored satellite cell count vs. UC and AT-HIIT. There was a significant association between change in citrate synthase activity and self-reported fatigue. AT-HIIT and RT-HIIT maintained or improved markers of skeletal muscle function compared with the declines found in the UC group, indicating a sustained trainability in addition to the preservation of skeletal muscle structural and metabolic characteristics during chemotherapy. These findings highlight the importance of supervised exercise programs for patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy.-Mijwel, S., Cardinale, D. A., Norrbom, J., Chapman, M., Ivarsson, N., Wengström, Y., Sundberg, C. J., Rundqvist, H. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

  6. Quality of life of head and neck cancer patients in urban and regional areas: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey A; Cockburn, Nicole L; Batstone, Martin D; Ford, Pauline J

    2018-06-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment affects quality of life. There are differences in quality of life outcomes and perceived supportive care needs between cancer patients living in metropolitan and regional-remote areas. This study investigated quality of life over the first 6 months following head and neck cancer diagnosis and observed differences in quality of life by geographical location. Prospective observational study. Tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Newly diagnosed patients who were referred for the diagnosis, and/or treatment of head and neck cancer. Quality of life was measured by the University of Washington Quality of Life Survey, version 4 (UW-QoL). Participants completed the UW-QoL questionnaire prior to starting treatment, 1 month and 6 months post treatment. Metropolitan and regional or remote status was classified according to the Australian Standard Geographic Classification-Remoteness Area system. Ninety-five participants were included at baseline; 49 and 41 participants completed the 1-month and 6-month follow-ups, respectively. Scores in most UW-QoL domains decreased between baseline and 1 month post treatment and increased towards pre-treatment scores at the 6-month follow-up (except for anxiety and saliva). Pain at baseline was significantly worse in the regional-remote participants compared with metropolitan participants. No other statistically significant differences in UW-QoL score by geographical location were observed. The findings generally did not support significant differences in quality of life outcome between metropolitan and regional-remote head and neck cancer patients. The difference in pain experience between metropolitan and regional-remote groups requires further investigation. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  7. Impact of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch estimated by echocardiographic-determined effective orifice area on long-term outcome after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florath, Ines; Albert, Alexander; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Ennker, Ina Carolin; Ennker, Jrgen

    2008-06-01

    The impact of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch on long-term outcome after aortic valve replacement estimated by various variables such as projected indexed effective orifice area and internal geometric orifice area obtained from in vivo or in vitro published data is still controversial. The effective orifice area was measured by echocardiography in 533 patients. The mean age of the patients was 71 +/- 9 years; mean follow-up time was 4.7 +/- 2.2 years. The impact of severe (indexed effective orifice area regression. Severe mismatch (hazard ratio: 1.9 [1.08-3.21]) was a significant predictor of survival time after adjustment for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, New York Heart Association class, serum creatinine, and hemoglobin level. The 5- and 7-year survival rates were 71% +/- 4% and 54% +/- 8% for patients with severe mismatch and 83% +/- 4% and 80% +/- 8% for patients with mild mismatch, respectively. The correlation between projected and measured indexed effective orifice area was of medium strength (r = 0.49), and the frequency of observed mismatch depended linearly on the projected indexed effective orifice area. Although projected indexed effective orifice area and indexed internal geometric orifice area were significant predictors of severe mismatch, the sensitivity and specificity for severe prosthesis-patient mismatch were only 75% and 52%, using an optimal threshold of projected indexed effective orifice area defined by the Youden index. Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch estimated by effective orifice area measured within 10 days was an independent risk factor of survival time. Projected indexed effective orifice area determined at surgery does not sufficiently predict mismatch.

  8. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an urban area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcio Roberto; Rocha, Adalgiza da Silva; da Costa, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Alencar, Andrea Padilha; de Oliveira, Vania Maria; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Sales, Mariana Lázaro; Issa, Marina de Azevedo; Filho, Paulo Martins Soares; Pereira, Omara Tereza Vianello; dos Santos, Eduardo Calazans; Mendes, Rejane Silva; Ferreira, Angela Maria de Jesus; Mota, Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho; Suffys, Philip Noel; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2013-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB) patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis). Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Stonebrink (SB)-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks). One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6%) of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.

  9. EFFECTS OF STABILIZATION EXERCISE USING A BALL ON MUTIFIDUS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SinHo Chung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises using balls to the effects of general lumbar stabilization exercises with respect to changes in the cross section of the multifidus (MF, weight bearing, pain, and functional disorders in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. Twelve patients participated in either a 8 week (3 days per week stabilization exercise program using balls and control group (n = 12. The computer tomography (CT was used to analyze MF cross-sectional areas (CSA and Tetrax balancing scale was used to analyze left and right weight bearing differences. Both groups had significant changes in the CSA of the MF by segment after training (p < 0.05 and the experimental group showed greater increases at the L4 (F = 9.854, p = 0.005 and L5 (F = 39. 266, p = 0.000. Both groups showed significant decreases in weight bearing, from 9.25% to 5.83% in the experimental group and from 9.33% to 4.25% in the control group (p < 0.05, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggests that stabilization exercises using ball can increases in the CSA of the MF segments, improvement in weight bearing, pain relief, and recovery from functional disorders, and the increases in the CSA of the MF of the L4 and L5 segments for patients with low back pain

  10. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an urban area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis. Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ and Stonebrink (SB-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks. One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6% of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.

  11. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  12. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  13. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed activation in right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 7 and 19), the right temporal lobe (Brodmann area 39), the right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 23) and bilateral occipital lobes (Brodmann area 18). Furthermore, inhibition of bilateral frontal lobes (Brodmann area 4, 6, and 45), right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 1 and 5) and left temporal lobe (Brodmann area 21) were observed in the true point group. Activation in the precuneus of right parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7) and inhibition of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) was observed in the sham group. Compared with sham acupuncture, acupuncture at Waiguan in stroke patients inhibited Brodmann area 5 on the healthy side. Results indicated that the altered specificity of sensation-associated cortex (Brodmann area 5) is possibly associated with a central mechanism of acupuncture at Waiguan for stroke patients.

  14. Profiling of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Camacho-Mercado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer’s disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico. Methods: Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer’s disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region and high (Northwest-Central Region mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico. Results: Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions: The differential profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of

  15. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  16. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  17. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree .... deration new emerging ideas on REDD+, this study .... representing areas of change and zero values representing no ..... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

  18. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  20. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  1. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  2. Applicability of a Single Time Point Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Concentration Curve of Linezolid in Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Syed, Muzeeb

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Linezolid, a oxazolidinone, was the first in class to be approved for the treatment of bacterial infections arising from both susceptible and resistant strains of Gram-positive bacteria. Since overt exposure of linezolid may precipitate serious toxicity issues......, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be required in certain situations, especially in patients who are prescribed other co-medications. Methods: Using appropriate oral pharmacokinetic data (single dose and steady state) for linezolid, both maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) versus area under the plasma...... concentration–time curve (AUC) and minimum plasma drug concentration (Cmin) versus AUC relationship was established by linear regression models. The predictions of the AUC values were performed using published mean/median Cmax or Cmin data and appropriate regression lines. The quotient of observed and predicted...

  3. Forest cover of Champaign County, Illinois in 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus Danilo Chinea; Louis R. Iverson

    1997-01-01

    The forest cover of Champaign County, in east-central Illinois, was mapped from 1993 aerial photography and entered in a geographical information system database. One hundred and six forest patches cover 3,380 ha. These patches have a mean area of 32 ha, a mean perimeter of 4,851 m, a mean perimeter to area ratio of 237, a fractal dimension of 1.59, and a mean nearest...

  4. Histology of peri-implant bone in a failed implant retrieved from an area of osteonecrosis of the jaw in a patient suffering from multiple myeloma and treated with intravenous bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Degidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ has been reported in the past few years in patients undergoing treatment with bisphosphonates (BP. Few published histological studies of ONJ can be found in the literature and no study has been reported on the peri-implant bone around a dental implant retrieved from an area of ONJ. The aim of the present case was to report the histology of the peri-implant bone around an implant retrieved from an area of ONJ. Materials and methods: Multiple myeloma was diagnosed to a 72-year-old male. The patient underwent treatment with intravenous pamidronate for 2 years and with intravenous zoledronate for additional 3 years. Five years after the diagnosis, 7 immediately loaded dental implants were inserted in the mandible. A preoperative panoramic radiography did show no pre-existing bone lesions. No healing of the post-extraction sockets of the right third molar and of the left second molar was observed. Three years after the implant insertion a breakdown of the oral mucosa covering the implants was observed. The most distal implant was retrieved with a trephine bur, due to mobility. Discussion: The histological findings showed some areas with osseointegration in patients undergoing BP treatment for malignant disease. Conclusion: There is certainly a temporal association between BP use and development of ONJ, but a correlation does not necessarily mean causation. Moreover, generalisations about this complex relationship cannot be made on the basis of a single case report. In patients undergoing intravenous treatment, clinicians must be aware of the increased risk of implant failure and, probably, implant insertion should be avoided at all, until more conclusive data are available.

  5. Correlation of Visceral Fat Area with Metabolic Risk Factors in Romanian Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hâncu Anca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA, estimated by bioimpedance, and cardiovascular risk factors independent of BMI and waist circumference in a cohort of Romanian patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which were collected data from 751 patients ≥18 years of age from Cluj-Napoca. Anthropometric, biochemistry, body composition and medical history parameters were recorded from patients’ files. Results: Compared with the participants with VFA <100 cm2, those with VFA ≥100 cm2 had significantly worse levels of the laboratory parameters describing the glycemic metabolism, lipid metabolism and liver functions (p <0.05 for all. A higher percentage of participants with VFA ≥100 cm2 had diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (p <0.05 for all. VFA was correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, ALT, previous diagnosis of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia independent of BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions: Among this cohort of Romanian adults, an increasing level of visceral adiposity was correlated with worse lipid and glucose metabolism parameters as well as with increased levels of ALT, which probably reflects liver fat deposition.

  6. Hyperbaric area index calculated from ABPM elucidates the condition of CKD patients: the CKD-JAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Satoshi; Imai, Enyu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Akizawa, Tadao; Matsuo, Seiichi; Makino, Hirofumi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Hishida, Akira

    2015-02-01

    High prevalence of masked hypertension as well as persistent hypertension was observed in the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) study. We proposed a novel indicator of blood pressure (BP) load, hyperbaric area index (HBI), calculated from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) data. The characteristic of this index and its relationship with kidney function were also evaluated. The CKD-JAC study, enrolled 2,977 patients, is a prospective observational study started in September 2007. ABPM was conducted in a sub-group from September 2007 to April 2010 and baseline ABPM data of 1,075 subjects (63.4 % male, 60.7 years old) were analyzed. Mean systolic HBI of male and female patients were 242.3 and 176.5 mmHg×h, respectively. HBI sensitively reflected sex (54.7 mmHg×h higher in males than in females), seasonal effects (51.6 mmHg×h higher in winter than in summer), and advancing CKD stage [(16.5 mmHg×h higher) per -10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in eGFR]. The HBI was a significant factor to associate with reduced kidney function, after adjusting with nocturnal BP change (NBPC), sex, and other variables (p value <0.001). Our findings suggested that HBI might be a novel sensitive indicator for the reduction of kidney function, independent of patterns of NBPC.

  7. At convenience and systematic random sampling: effects on the prognostic value of nuclear area assessments in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, I; Bennen, J N; Blaauw, J; van Diest, P J; Baak, J P

    1995-01-01

    This study compares the influence of two different nuclear sampling methods on the prognostic value of assessments of mean and standard deviation of nuclear area (MNA, SDNA) in 191 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with long term follow up. The first sampling method used was 'at convenience' sampling (ACS); the second, systematic random sampling (SRS). Both sampling methods were tested with a sample size of 50 nuclei (ACS-50 and SRS-50). To determine whether, besides the sampling methods, sample size had impact on prognostic value as well, the SRS method was also tested using a sample size of 100 nuclei (SRS-100). SDNA values were systematically lower for ACS, obviously due to (unconsciously) not including small and large nuclei. Testing prognostic value of a series of cut off points, MNA and SDNA values assessed by the SRS method were prognostically significantly stronger than the values obtained by the ACS method. This was confirmed in Cox regression analysis. For the MNA, the Mantel-Cox p-values from SRS-50 and SRS-100 measurements were not significantly different. However, for the SDNA, SRS-100 yielded significantly lower p-values than SRS-50. In conclusion, compared with the 'at convenience' nuclear sampling method, systematic random sampling of nuclei is not only superior with respect to reproducibility of results, but also provides a better prognostic value in patients with invasive breast cancer.

  8. [Esthetic reconstruction of the anterior teeth area following a combined periodontic-orthodontic treatment in adult periodontal patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihong, Zhu; Sa, Li; Fei, He; Yong, Wu; Yan, Zhou; Nianhong, Qin; Yi, Ding

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined periodontic-orthodontic treatment in the esthetic reconstruc- tion of the anterior teeth area following periodontitis. Thirteen adult patients with anterior teeth displacements were treated. The probing pocket depth (PD; 102 teeth, 612 sites), bleeding on probing (102 teeth, 204 sites), papilla index (PI; 128 papillae), and papillary height (PH; 128 papillae) of each patient were assessed at baseline, 3 months after the initial therapy, and the end of the orthodontic treatment. Non-parametric and paired-sample t tests were carried out for the statistical analysis of the data. Three months after initial therapy, the sites with PD ≤ 3 mm accounted for 79.58% (487/612) of the observed teeth, and 88.73% (181/204) of the buccal and lingual sites of the teeth showed negative bleeding on probing. These findings were better than those at baseline [26.31% (161/612) and 22.06% (45/204), respectively] (P 0.05). Prior to orthodontic treatment, the levels of the PI of 8 and 21 papillae were III and II, respectively, among the 128 observed papillae. After the orthodontic treatment, 51 papillae were at level III and 68 papillae were at level II. The PH of the 102 papillae was 2.84 mm ± 0.62 mm after ortho- dontic treatment. This result indicated significant difference compared with that of pre-orthodontic treatment (1.69 mm ± 0.57 mm) (P periodontal defects.

  9. Holistic self-care for rehabilitation experienced by thai buddhist trauma patients in areas of political and social unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songwathana, Praneed; Watanasiriwanich, Wachiraya; Kitrungrote, Luppana

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the meaning and practice of holistic self-care for rehabilitation among Thai Buddhist trauma patients living in areas of political unrest where acts of terrorism occur. Eleven Thai Buddhist trauma patients were selected as specified. The data were collected by in-depth interviews between November 2011 and April 2012, and analyzed using the Van Manen method.Those interviewed described "holistic self-care for rehabilitation" as learning (1) to acquire a new life and (2) to bear the increased demands of care as a chronic disease. Health care responses fell into 3 categories: (1) improving physical self-sufficiency and rehabilitation by increasing muscle strength, pain management, and pressure sores; (2) improving psychological well-being by applying positive thinking, making an effort to live independently, and following a set of religious practices; and (3) finding harmony in life through caution and a willingness to adjust one's lifestyle. Although the participants seemed to adapt well to their new lifestyles, extensive support from health care professionals was necessary. This study promotes better understanding of the holistic health care experiences the survivors of trauma have as a result of an unstable political situation that includes aspects of social unrest and terrorism.

  10. Retrospective estimation of patient dose-area product in thoracic spine tomosynthesis performed using VolumeRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, Magnus; Svalkvist, Angelica; Soederman, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a recently developed method of retrospectively estimating the patient dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination, performed using VolumeRAD, in thoracic spine tomosynthesis and to determine the necessary field-size correction factor. Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data for the projection radiographs acquired during a thoracic spine tomosynthesis examination were retrieved directly from the modality for 17 patients. Using the previously developed method, an estimated DAP for the tomosynthesis examination was determined from DICOM data in the scout image. By comparing the estimated DAP with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs, a field-size correction factor was determined. The field-size correction factor for thoracic spine tomosynthesis was determined to 0.92. Applying this factor to the DAP estimated retrospectively, the maximum difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was <3 %. In conclusion, the previously developed method of retrospectively estimating the DAP in chest tomosynthesis can be applied to thoracic spine tomosynthesis. (authors)

  11. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of cardiac rhythm on the mitral valve area and gradient in patients with mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arı, Hasan; Arı, Selma; Karakuş, Alper; Camcı, Sencer; Doğanay, Kübra; Tütüncü, Ahmet; Melek, Mehmet; Bozat, Tahsin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cardiac rhythm on the echocardiographic mitral valve area (MVA) and transmitral gradient calculation in relation to net atrioventricular compliance (Cn). Patients (n=22) with mild or moderate pure rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) (MVA 1 cm2) and atrial fibrillation (AF) were evaluated. All patients underwent transthoracic electrical DC cardioversion under amiodarone treatment. Nineteen of the 22 patients were successfully converted to sinus rhythm (SR). The patients were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography before and two to three days after DC cardioversion. In order to deal with variable R-R intervals, the measurements were averaged on five to eight consecutive beats in AF. Cn was calculated with a previously validated equation [Cn (mL/mm Hg)=1.270 x MVA/E-wave downslope]. The Cn difference between AF and SR was calculated as follows: [(AF Cn-SR Cn)/AF Cn] x 100. The percentage gradient (mean or maximal) difference between AF and SR was calculated as follows: [AF gradient (mean or maximal) - SR gradient (mean or maximal)]/[AF gradient (mean or maximal)] x 100. The MVA was lower (MVA planimetric; 1.62±0.29 vs. 1.54±0.27; p=.003, MVA PHT; 1.66±0.30 vs. 1.59±0.26; p=0.01) but transmitral gradient (mean gradient; 6.49±2.51 vs. 8.89±3.52; p=0.001, maximal gradient: 16.94±5.11 vs. 18.57±4.54; p=0.01) and Cn values (5.37±0.77 vs. 6.26±0.64; pgradient difference (mean and maximal) (Cn difference-mean gradient difference; r=0.46; p=0.05; Cn difference-maximal gradient difference; r=0.72; p=0.001). Cardiac rhythm has a significant impact on echocardiographic evaluation of MVA, transmitral gradient, and Cn in patients with MS.

  13. Performance and treatment outcome of tuberculosis among patients on Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Urban and Tribal areas of a district in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshakti Dattatray Pawar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP was introduced in the country as a pilot project since 1993 in a phased manner and expanded throughout the country by the year 2005. Although studies have shown the success of RNTCP, data pertaining to the indicators of programme performance in urban and tribal set up are rare. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the RNTCP in urban and tribal areas of Maharashtra through the indicators of performance and outcome of the patients. Patients and Methods: A retrospective comparative record-based study was conducted in selected urban and tribal areas' tuberculosis (TB units. Records of patients enrolled newly for TB treatment and those already undergoing treatment under RNTCP from April 2015 to September 2015 (6 months were considered for analysis. Chi-square test and Z-test (test of significance are applied where required by using Epi Info 7 and Microsoft Excel 2010.Results: Sputum smear collection was significantly higher in urban areas (P = 0.001. In urban areas, new TB case detection was 35%, while in tribal areas, it was 42% as per the RNTCP norms. Sputum positivity was marginally more in tribal (5.87% than urban (3.28% areas. Cure rate was more in urban areas than tribal (P = 0.001 areas. There were statistically significantly high default cases in tribal areas. Conclusions: Sputum collection and sputum positivity rate were low in urban and tribal areas, but TB screening, especially in tribal areas, was significantly low. Sputum positivity was significantly higher in tribal areas. Significantly low cure rate and high default rate in tribal area warrant the need for strengthening of RNTCP activities in tribal areas.

  14. Identification of the target areas to be resected in patients with non-bullous emphysema by using gas and perfusion SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Kazuro; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nawata, Kouichi; Kaneda, Yoshikazu; Nawata, Sumihiko; Esato, Kensuke

    1997-01-01

    Significant improvement of pulmonary function after the volume reduction surgery has been reported in patients with bullous emphysema. However, there has been no successful report in patients with non-bullous emphysema. The reason of failure in patients with non-bullous emphysema should lie mainly on the difficulty to identify the target areas to be resected. We describe how to identify the target areas in the patients with non-bullous emphysema by using gas and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Twelve patients with non-bullous emphysema were studied by 133 Xe gas and 99m Tc MAA SPECT, which revealed that abnormal retention and low perfusion areas were located in the apex of the upper lobe and the basal segment of the lower lobe. The resections were performed thoracoscopically focused on the target areas by hockey-stick shape resection in the upper lobe and spiral shape resection in the lower lobe without deformity formation of the residual lung. Slight but significant improvement in the pulmonary functions was observed after the surgery in patients with non-bullous emphysema. The Xe gas and Tc MAA SPECT were useful procedures to identify the target areas to be resected in patients with non-bullous emphysema. (author)

  15. Comparison of ADC map with trace map in the normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyung; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeong, Eun Kee; Oh, Young Taick; Kim, Dong Ik

    1999-01-01

    To compare ADC mapping with trace mapping in normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients. Eighteen patients diagnosed on the basis of clinical and brain MRI examinations as suffering from brain infarction were included in this study (hyperacute-1, acute-4, subacute-12, chronic-1). Diffusion weighted images of three orthogonal directions of a patient's brain were obtained by means of a single shot EPI pulse sequence, using a diffusion gradient with four serial b-factors. Three ADC maps were then reconstructed by post-image processing and were summed pixel by pixel to yield a trace map. ROIs were selected in the normal areas of white matter, gray matter and CSF of one hemisphere, and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and right/left ratios of ADC and trace values were calculated. Using these values, we then compared the ADC map with the trace map, and compared the degree of anisotropic diffusion between white matter, gray matter and CSF. Except for three, whose infarct lesions were small and lay over white and gray matter, patients were divided into two groups. Those with infarct in the white matter (n=10) were assigned to one group, and those with infarct in the gray matter (n=5) to the other. ROIs were selected in the infarct area and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and infarct/contralateral ratios were calculated. We then compared ADC ratio with trace ratio in white matter and gray matter infarct. In normal white matter, the Dxx ratio was 0.980±0.098, the Dyy ratio 1.019±0.086, the Dzz ratio 0.999±0.111, and the trace ratio 0.995±0.031. In normal gray matter, the Dxx ratio was 1.001±0.058, the Dyy ratio 0.996±0.063, Dzz ratio 1.005±0.070, and the trace ratio 1.001±0.028. In CSF, the Dxx ratio was 1.002±0.064, the Dyy ratio 1.023±0.055, the Dzz ratio 0.999

  16. Indexed effective orifice area is a significant predictor of higher mid- and long-term mortality rates following aortic valve replacement in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Yiyun; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhinong

    2014-02-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is defined as a too-small effective orifice area (EOA) of an inserted prosthetic relative to body size, resulting in an abnormally high postoperative gradient. It is unclear, however, whether residual stenosis after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has a negative impact on mid- and long-term survivals. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane controlled trials register, through October 2012, to identify published full-text English studies on the association between PPM and mortality rates. A significant PPM was defined as an indexed EOA (iEOA)<0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM as an iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fourteen observational studies, involving 14 874 patients, met our final inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that PPM significantly increased mid-term (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.69) and long-term (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.84) all-cause mortalities. Subgroup analysis showed that PPM was associated with higher mid- and long-term mortality rates only in younger and predominantly female populations. Risk-adjusted sensitivity analysis showed that severe PPM was associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.80), whereas moderate PPM was not (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07). Regardless of severity, however, PPM had a negative effect on survival in patients with impaired ejection fraction (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47). PPM (iEOA<0.85 cm2/m2) after AVR tended to be associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in younger patients, females and patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. Severe PPM (iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2) was a significant predictor of reduced long-term survival in all populations undergoing AVR.

  17. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  18. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  19. On the impact of snow cover on daytime pollution dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.; Hildebrand, P.; Rogers, F. A.; Cramer, J.; Schanot, A.

    A preliminary evaluation of the impact of snow cover on daytime pollutant dispersion conditions is made by using conceptual, scaling, and observational analyses. For uniform snow cover and synoptically unperturbed sunny conditions, observations indicate a considerate suppression of the surface sensible heat flux, the turbulence, and the development of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) when compared to snow-free conditions. However, under conditions of non-uniform snow cover, as in urban areas, or associated with vegetated areas or bare ground patches, a milder effect on pollutant dispersion conditions would be expected. Observed concentrations of atmospheric particles within the ABL, and surface pollutant concentrations in urban areas, reflect the impact of snow cover on the modification of ABL characteristics.

  20. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differentiation between vasogenic-edema versus tumor-infiltrative area in patients with glioblastoma during bevacizumab therapy: A longitudinal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran, E-mail: artzimy@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bokstein, Felix, E-mail: felixb@tlvmc.gov.il [Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T., E-mail: deborahblumenthal@gmail.com [Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aizenstein, Orna, E-mail: Ornaaizenstein@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad, E-mail: giladliberman@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Corn, Benjamin W., E-mail: bencorn@tlvmc.gov.il [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna, E-mail: dafnab@tlvmc.gov.il [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Treatment with bevacizumab is associated with substantial radiologic response in patients with glioblastoma (GB). However, following this initial response, changes in T{sub 2}-weighted MRI signal may develop, suggesting an infiltrative pattern of tumor progression. The aim of this study was to differentiate between vasogenic-edema versus tumor-infiltrative area in GB patients. Methods and materials: Fourteen patients with GB were longitudinally scanned, before and during intravenous bevacizumab therapy (5/10 mg/kg every 2-weeks). A total of 40 MR scans including conventional, diffusion, dynamic susceptibility contrast, dynamic contrast enhancement imaging, and MR-spectroscopy (MRS) were analyzed. Classification of non-enhancing fluid-attenuation-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) area was performed based on mean diffusivity, cerebral blood volume and flow maps, and further characterized using multiple MRI parameters. Results: The non-enhancing FLAIR lesion area was classified into: vasogenic-edema, characterized by reduced perfusion and increased FLAIR values; or tumor-infiltrative area, characterized by increased perfusion. Tumor-infiltrative area demonstrated a higher malignant pattern on MRS compared to areas of vasogenic-edema. Substantial reductions of the enhanced T{sub 1}-weighted (58 ± 10%) and hyperintense FLAIR (53 ± 9%) lesion volumes were detected mainly during the first weeks of therapy, with a shift to an infiltrative pattern of tumor progression thereafter, as detected by an increase in tumor-infiltrative area in the majority of patients, which correlated with progression-free survival (week 8: r = −0.86, p = 0.003, week 16: r = −0.99, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Characterization of non-enhancing hyperintense FLAIR lesion area in GB patients can provide an MR-based biomarker, indicating a shift to an infiltrative progression pattern, and may improve therapy response assessment in patients following bevacizumab therapy.

  2. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.A.; Tratch, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs

  3. Assessment of the Cross-Sectional Areas of the Psoas Major and Multifidus Muscles in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Tomohiro; Yamato, Yu; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Kobayashi, Sho; Togawa, Daisuke; Oe, Shin; Mihara, Yuki; Kurosu, Kenta; Yamamoto, Naoto; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-08-01

    This is a case-control study. The present study aimed to compare the cross-sectional areas of the psoas major and multifidus muscles between elderly patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) and age-matched and body weight-matched controls, and to evaluate the associations between the cross-sectional areas of these muscles and the severity of spinal deformity. The study included 49 female kyphosis patients with mild scoliosis (Cobb angle muscles were calculated using preoperative L4/L5 axial computed tomography images. In group D, the following spinopelvic parameters were assessed: sagittal vertical axis, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, lumbar lordosis, and thoracic kyphosis. The relationships between the muscle cross-sectional areas and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was lower in group D than in group C. However, the cross-sectional area of the psoas major muscle was not different between the 2 groups. In multiple regression analysis, the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was significantly associated with all spinopelvic parameters. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle might be lower in elderly patients with ASD than in controls. In the elderly population, the severity of sagittal spinal deformity might be correlated with the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle. Therefore, muscle imbalances between the flexors and extensors of the spine could participate in the pathology of ASD.

  4. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båth, Magnus; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  5. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Båth, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.bath@vgregion.se; Svalkvist, Angelica [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden); Söderman, Christina [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  6. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Udine, Department of Radiology, Udine (Italy); Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Traumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Fischer, Michael A.; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-31

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm{sup 2} (range, 35.6-93.4 cm{sup 2}), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 42.5-108.9 cm{sup 2}) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 40.9-115.9 cm{sup 2}) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm{sup 3}). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  7. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Båth, Magnus; Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis

  8. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  9. Cover Crops in Hillside Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our study focuses on the wet tropical hillsides of northern Honduras (Figure 1). ..... The eastern extreme of the region (Jutiapa) is a dry spot, with less rainfall (2 000 mm a-1) as a result ...... Paper presented at the International Workshop on Green Manure–Cover Crops for Smallholders in ..... Lamaster, J.P.; Jones, I.R. 1923.

  10. Validating Domains of Patient Contextual Factors Essential to Preventing Contextual Errors: A Qualitative Study Conducted at Chicago Area Veterans Health Administration Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns-Calvey, Amy E; Malhiot, Alex; Kostovich, Carol T; LaVela, Sherri L; Stroupe, Kevin; Gerber, Ben S; Burkhart, Lisa; Weiner, Saul J; Weaver, Frances M

    2017-09-01

    "Patient context" indicates patient circumstances and characteristics or states that are essential to address when planning patient care. Specific patient "contextual factors," if overlooked, result in an inappropriate plan of care, a medical error termed a "contextual error." The myriad contextual factors that constitute patient context have been grouped into broad domains to create a taxonomy of challenges to consider when planning care. This study sought to validate a previously identified list of contextual domains. This qualitative study used directed content analysis. In 2014, 19 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers (84% female) and 49 patients (86% male) from two VA medical centers and four outpatient clinics in the Chicago area participated in semistructured interviews and focus groups. Topics included patient-specific, community, and resource-related factors that affect patients' abilities to manage their care. Transcripts were analyzed with a previously identified list of contextual domains as a framework. Analysis of responses revealed that patients and providers identified the same 10 domains previously published, plus 3 additional ones. Based on comments made by patients and providers, the authors created a revised list of 12 domains from themes that emerged. Six pertain to patient circumstances such as access to care and financial situation, and 6 to patient characteristics/states including skills, abilities, and knowledge. Contextual factors in patients' lives may be essential to address for effective care planning. The rubric developed can serve as a "contextual differential" for clinicians to consider when addressing challenges patients face when planning their care.

  11. Radiation monitoring: Quarterly report for the Greater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority and the Manchester Area Pollution Advisory Council. Manchester Area Gamma Radiation Air Monitoring System (MANAGRAMS): report covering period of 3 months 01/07/1996 to 30/09/1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Gamma radiation monitoring data from ten outstations in the Manchester area for the period 01/07/1996 to 30/09/1996 are presented. For each station there is a summary table, a background radiation graph showing 6 hour mean levels and a wind rose graph showing the direction of the wind as a percentage of the total. A line graph comparison between stations is provided for the background 6 hour mean levels and a bar chart comparison of total dose during the reporting period. Graphs of barometric pressure and temperature taken from extra sensors at the Trafford station are also presented. (UK)

  12. Radiation monitoring. Quarterly report for the Greater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority and the Manchester Area Pollution Advisory Council. Manchester Area Gamma Radiation Air Monitoring System (MANAGRAMS), report covering period of 3 months 01/04/1997 to 30/06/1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Gamma radiation monitoring data from ten outstations in the Manchester area are presented. For each station there is a summary table, a background radiation graph showing 6 hour mean levels and a windrose graph showing the direction of the wind as a percentage of the total. A line graph comparison between stations is provided for the background 6 hour mean levels and a bar chart comparison of total dose. Graphs of temperature and barometric pressure taken from extra sensors at the Trafford station are presented. (Author)

  13. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  14. NLCD - MODIS land cover- albedo dataset for the continental United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The NLCD-MODIS land cover-albedo database integrates high-quality MODIS albedo observations with areas of homogeneous land cover from NLCD. The spatial resolution...

  15. Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO 2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. [Rd7 genotyping of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with lung tuberculosis in different areas of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkin, V V; Korneva, I N; Riazanova, Iu A; Muminov, T A; Beĭsembaeva, Sh A; Zhakipbaeva, B T; Shopaeva, G A; Dauletbakova, A M

    2008-01-01

    A three-primer PCR assay was designed for detection of possible deletions in the RD7 region of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex chromosome. The assay produced amplicons of different size depending on the presence or absence of the deletions. The PCR assay was applied to 176 isolates from patients with lung tuberculosis collected in different areas of Kazakhstan in summer 2004. The isolates were initially characterized by culture and biochemical tests. The RD7 genotyping results demonstrated no polymorphism and the absence of deletions in the RD7 genome region. Some strains were additionally characterized using PCR-RFLP analysis of gyrB and hsp64 genes. The RFLP-patterns obtained corresponded to the M. tuberculosis genotypes. The results of this work are consistent with certain previous studies, indicating population stability of the RD7 region in M. tuberculosis strains. Species characterization of the isolates shows that M. tuberculosis sensu stricto is the principal causative agent of human lung tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

  17. A patient dose survey or femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure (which involves multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy) in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. A useful index of harm can be obtained by recording the number of radiographs in each region, and the fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. A patient dose survey was carried out using a PTW diamentor for femoral arteriogram procedures in a large teaching hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. The measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which have previously included the simple examinations of lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (Author)

  18. Area at risk and collateral circulation in a first acute myocardial infarction with occluded culprit artery. STEMI vs non-STEMI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Jaume; Otaegui, Imanol; Marti, Gerard; Domingo, Enric; Bañeras, Jordi; Barrabés, José A; Del Blanco, Bruno Garcia; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2018-05-15

    It is unclear why among patients with first acute myocardial infarction and an occluded culprit artery only some present ST segment elevation. In fact, there is no study that compares the angiographic area at risk and the collateral circulation in first NSTEMI vs STEMI patients. 205 patients admitted for myocardial infarction with occluded culprit artery were included, 132 STEMI and 73 NSTEMI. Demographic data, the area at risk determined by the BARI score and collateral supply by the Rentrop score from the 2 groups were compared. NSTEMI patients showed lower peak Tn I than STEMI in the overall group but also in the 3 subsets with different culprit arteries (p collaterals (Rentrop score ≥ 2, 1.82 vs 0.41, p collateral blood supply than STEMI patients in each of the 3 main culprit arteries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Land Cover Change Monitoring of Typical Functional Communities of Sichuan Province Based on ZY-3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. M.; Li, S.; Ying, G. W.; Wu, X. P.

    2018-04-01

    According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  20. Impact of target area selection in 125 Iodine seed brachytherapy on locoregional recurrence in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Liang; Lv, Jin-Shuang; Guan, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Li-Yang; Yang, Jing-Kui; Liang, Ji-Xiang

    2017-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous implantation of 125 Iodine radioactive seeds requires the precise arrangement of seeds by tumor shape. We tested whether selecting target areas, including subclinical areas around tumors, can influence locoregional recurrence in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We divided 82 patients with NSCLC into two groups. Target areas in group 1 (n = 40) were defined along tumor margins based on lung-window CT. Target areas in group 2 (n = 42) were extended by 0.5 cm in all dimensions outside tumor margins. Preoperative plans for both groups were based on a treatment plan system, which guided 125 I seed implantation. Six months later, patients underwent chest CT to evaluate treatment efficacy (per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1). We compared locoregional recurrences between the groups after a year of follow-up. We then used the treatment plan system to extend target areas for group 1 patients by 0.5 cm (defined as group 3 data) and compared these hypothetical group 3 planned seeds with the actual seed numbers used in group 1 patients. All patients successfully underwent implantation; none died during the follow-up period. Recurrence was significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 ( P  area for 125 I seeds can decrease recurrence risk by eradicating cancerous lymph-duct blockades within the extended areas. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. The genesis of breast cancer is a two-step phenomenon. II. Dissociation of two biomarkers in cancer patients from a low risk area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Kobayashi, S; Akita, T; Nakamura, Y

    1992-01-01

    The association of dual steroidal disorders with breast cancer, as proposed on the basis of a case-control study in a high risk area of Japan, was tested for its validity in breast cancer patients from a low risk area of Japan. A state of glucocorticoid excess, the first hormonal trait of a breast cancer patient, was assessed using a urinary steroid parameter (a reduction of the androsterone to tetrahydrocortisol ratio by definition), and/or using a physical parameter (an elevation of the waist to hip circumference ratio by definition). Inclination to ovulation failure, the second hormonal trait, was tested using another urinary steroid parameter (a specified disorder of progestin metabolism by definition), and/or a demographic parameter (a reduction in the number of live births by definition). Results obtained are as follows: 1) premenopausal breast cancer patients from a low risk area were found to have the second trait but not the first trait, as tested using 2 parameters for each trait. 2) Postmenopausal cancer patients from a low risk area as well as pre- and post-menopausal cancer patients from a high risk area had both the 2 hormonal traits. 3) There was no discrepancy of results between any 2 test systems with the identification of 2 hormonal traits in 4 cancer patient groups. The significance of the dissociation of 2 hormonal traits, as observed in premenopausal cancer patients from a low risk area, is discussed in favor of the two-step carcinogenesis theory. Possible interaction of heredity and environment in the genesis of breast cancer is also taken into consideration.

  2. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Succulent Karoe, pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was significantly higher than in unoccupied areas (8 natural and 12 artificial/25 hal. The high proportion of cover formed by natural perches (trees and shrubs; 36%) and the low proportion of open ground ...

  3. Esophagorespiratory fistula: treatment with self-expanding covered stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Jian; Dou Yongchong; Wang Zheng; Kong Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate self-expanding covered stent in the management of esophagorespiratory fistula. Methods: A self-expanding esophageal covered stent was implanted under fluoroscopic guidance in 13 patients with esophagorespiratory fistula. In this series patients aged 31-73 years (60.2 years in average). All patients had a pre-procedure fast of 6-41 days (17.3 days in average), in which 12 patients had pulmonary infection. Results: All fistulas were excluded and swallowing function was restored. No stend-related complication was observed. Pulmonary infection was managed in 10 patients out of 13. The mean survived time was 33.3 wks (1-178 wks) in follow-up. Conclusion: Covered self-expanding stent implantation is a safe and effective treatment of ERF

  4. Study Of Orthopaedic Problems In A Rural Area In Relation To Their Effect On Economy Of the Patients & Availability Of the Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sandu Hardas Singh; Sudesh Arora; Manmohar Singh; Varinder Mohan

    1988-01-01

    A door-to-door survey of 10,000 populations was carried out in a rural area. Four hundred sixty one (46.1/1000) persons had orthopedic problems. Three hundred sixty three (78.74%) patients continued the same job in spite of the orthopedic problem. Eight (1.73%) patients modified the job and 2 (0.43%) had to change the job. It affected the earning capacity of 19(4.12%) patients. Seventy-five (16.26%)patients sought treatment from Hospital/qualified doctors. ...

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Comparison of the sagittal sinus cross-sectional area between patients with multiple sclerosis, hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension and spontaneous intracranial hypotension: a surrogate marker of venous transmural pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Grant A; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Copping, Ross; Moeskops, Christopher; Yap, Swee Leong

    2017-07-06

    There is evidence that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and hydrocephalus share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Alterations in CSF pressure are known to affect cerebral venous sinus geometry. To further explore these mechanisms, we measured the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) cross-sectional area 3 cm above the torcular using T2 images in 20 MS, 10 spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), 21 hydrocephalus and 20 idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients and compared with 20 matched controls. The SSS area was reduced by 25% in hydrocephalus (p = 0.0008), increased by 22% (p = 0.037) in SIH and unchanged in IIH compared to matched controls. In MS there was a 16% increase in SSS area (p = 0.01).The findings suggest that changes in SSS cross-sectional are common between MS and SIH patients, while in hydrocephalus and IIH these are different.

  7. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, C K; Abdullah, K; MatJafri, M Z; Lim, H S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach

  8. Covered stent placement for the treatment of malignant superior vena cava syndrome: Is unilateral covered stenting and effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hoon; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi Young; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of unilateral covered stent placement in patients with malignant superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. Between October 2008 and November 2012, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent placement for malignant SVC syndrome was performed in 40 consecutive patients (35 men and five women; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 35-81 years). All covered stents were unilaterally placed within the SVC or across the venous confluence when needed to relieve venous obstruction and prevent tumor overgrowth, regardless of patency of contralateral brachiocephalic veins. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients. There were no major complications. Of the 37 patients symptomatic prior to stent placement, 34 (92%) experienced complete symptomatic relief 1-8 days after stent placement. Of the 29 patients who underwent covered stent placement across the venous confluence, nine patients had patent contralateral brachiocephalic veins prior to stent placement. However, no sign of SVC obstruction or contralateral upper extremity venous thrombosis was observed during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed median patient survival of 163 days. Stent occlusion occurred in four (10%) of 40 patents. Cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 95%, 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. Unilateral covered stent placement appears to be a safe and effective method for treating malignant SVC syndrome, despite the location of SVC occlusion.

  9. Cov