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Sample records for patient cells high-level

  1. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Futagbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma (eBL. This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. Methods: T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Results: CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 3 expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL patients (n = 4. In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower (p = 0.004 while IL-10 was significantly higher (p = 0.038, in eBL patients (n = 21 compared to controls (n = 16. Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria (n = 26 and eBL (n = 14 patients compared to healthy controls (n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively. Conclusion: The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells.

  2. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagbi, Godfred; Gyan, Ben; Nunoo, Harriet; Tetteh, John K.A.; Welbeck, Jennifer E.; Renner, Lorna Awo; Ofori, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Edoh, Dominic A.; Akanmori, Bartholomew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma (eBL). This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. Methods: T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Results: CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 3) expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL) patients (n = 4). In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower (p = 0.004) while IL-10 was significantly higher (p = 0.038), in eBL patients (n = 21) compared to controls (n = 16). Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria (n = 26) and eBL (n = 14) patients compared to healthy controls (n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively). Conclusion: The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells. PMID:28536409

  3. High Levels of IL-10 and CD4+CD25hi+ Treg Cells in Endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagbi, Godfred; Gyan, Ben; Nunoo, Harriet; Tetteh, John K A; Welbeck, Jennifer E; Renner, Lorna Awo; Ofori, Michael; Dodoo, Daniel; Edoh, Dominic A; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2015-08-04

    The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus infection, malaria, and endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma is not well understood. Reports show diminished EBV-specific Th1 responses in children living in malaria endemic areas and deficiency of EBNA1-specific IFN-γ T cell responses in children with endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma (eBL). This study, therefore, examined some factors involved in the loss of EBNA-1-specific T cell responses in eBL. T-cell subset frequencies, activation, and IFN-γ- or IL-4-specific responses were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. CD4+ and CD8+ cells in age- and sex-matched healthy controls ( n = 3) expressed more IFN-γ in response to all immunostimulants than in pediatric endemic BL (eBL) patients ( n = 4). In healthy controls, IFN-γ expression was higher than IL-4 expression, whereas in eBL patients the expression of IL-4 by CD4+ cells to EBNA-1 was slightly higher than IFN-γ. Moreover, the blood levels of TNF-α was significantly lower ( p = 0.004) while IL-10 was significantly higher ( p = 0.038), in eBL patients ( n = 21) compared to controls ( n = 16). Additionally, the frequency of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells was higher in both age-matched acute uncomplicated malaria ( n = 26) and eBL ( n = 14) patients compared to healthy controls ( n = 19; p = 0.000 and p = 0.027, respectively). The data suggest that reduced Th1 response in eBL might be due to increased levels of IL-10 and T reg cells.

  4. High levels of circulating VEGFR2+ Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells correlate with metastatic disease in patients with pediatric solid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa; Rössler, Jochen; Geoerger, Birgit; Laplanche, Agnès; Hartmann, Olivier; Vassal, Gilles; Farace, Françoise

    2009-07-15

    Pediatric solid malignancies display important angiogenic potential, and blocking tumor angiogenesis represents a new therapeutic approach for these patients. Recent studies have evidenced rare circulating cells with endothelial features contributing to tumor neovascularization and have shown the pivotal role of bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells in metastatic disease progression. We measured these cells in patients with pediatric solid malignancies as a prerequisite to clinical trials with antiangiogenic therapy. Peripheral blood was drawn from 45 patients with localized (n = 23) or metastatic (n = 22) disease, and 20 healthy subjects. Subsets of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)2+-BMD progenitor cells, defined as CD45-CD34+VEGFR2(KDR)+7AAD- and CD45(dim)CD34+VEGFR2+7AAD- events, were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by flow cytometry. Mature circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured in whole blood as CD31+CD146+CD45-7AAD- viable events. Data were correlated with VEGF and sVEGFR2 plasma levels. The CD45-CD34+VEGFR2(KDR)+7AAD- subset represented <0.003% of circulating BMD progenitor cells (< or =0.05 cells/mL). However, the median level (range) of the CD45(dim)CD34+VEGFR2+7AAD- subset was higher in patients compared with healthy subjects, 1.5% (0%-10.3%) versus 0.3% (0%-1.6%) of circulating BMD progenitors (P < 0.0001), and differed significantly between patients with localized and metastatic disease, 0.7% (0%-8.6%) versus 2.9% (0.6%-10.3%) of circulating BMD progenitors (P < 0.001). Median CEC value was 7 cells/mL (0-152 cells/mL) and similar in all groups. Unlike VEGFR2+-BMD progenitors, neither CECs, VEGF, or sVEGFR2 plasma levels correlated with disease status. High levels of circulating VEGFR2+-BMD progenitor cells correlated with metastatic disease. Our study provides novel insights for angiogenesis mechanisms in pediatric solid malignancies for which antiangiogenic targeting of VEGFR2+-BMD progenitors

  5. High Levels of CXCL10 Are Produced by Intestinal Epithelial Cells in AIDS Patients with Active Cryptosporidiosis but Not after Reconstitution of Immunity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heuy-Ching; Dann, Sara M.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Chappell, Cynthia L.; Adler, Douglas G.; White, A. Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines play key roles in attracting immune cells to sites of infections. However, few data on chemokine expression in the gut during human infections are available. We examined expression of chemokines in intestinal tissues of AIDS patients during active Cryptosporidium infection and during resolution of such an infection. The chemokines and cytokines in cell lysates from jejunal biopsy tissues were assayed by a 22-multiplex bead immunoassay. CXCL10 (IP-10) and its receptor, CXCR3, in sections were studied by immunohistochemistry. In biopsies from AIDS patients with active cryptosporidiosis, four chemokines (CXCL10, CCL11 [eotaxin], CCL5 [RANTES], and CCL2 [monocyte chemoattractant protein 1]) and three cytokines (interleukin-1α [IL-1α], IL-10, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) were detected. The level of CXCL10 was significantly increased in AIDS patients with cryptosporidiosis compared to the level in AIDS patients without cryptosporidiosis or in normal volunteers (median in AIDS patients with cryptosporidiosis, 508 pg/mg protein, compared to 111 pg/mg and 72 pg/mg protein in AIDS patients without cryptosporidiosis and in normal volunteers, respectively [P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively, as determined by a Mann-Whitney test]). The level of CXCL10 correlated with the parasite burden (as measured by the number of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the stools) and also with the IL-1α concentration (Pearson correlation values, 0.961 [P < 0.01] and 0.737 [P < 0.05]). As determined by immunohistochemistry, CXCL10 localized to epithelial cells at the site of infection. Following effective antiparasite and antiretroviral therapy, Cryptosporidium infections resolved, and the levels of CXCL10 decreased to normal levels. We hypothesized that CXCL10 plays an important role in the resolution of cryptosporidiosis by attracting immune effector cells to the site of infection. By contrast, in AIDS patients lacking effector cells, CXCL10 may contribute to the

  6. Patients subject to high levels of coercion: staff's understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Wright, Steve; Stewart, Duncan

    2014-05-01

    Measures to keep staff and patients safe (containment) frequently involve coercion. A small proportion of patients is subject to a large proportion of containment use. To reduce the use of containment, we need a better understanding of the circumstances in which it is used and the understandings of patients and staff. Two sweeps were made of all the wards, spread over four hospital sites, in one large London mental health organization to identify patients who had been subject to high levels of containment in the previous two weeks. Data were then extracted from their case notes about their past history, current problem behaviours, and how they were understood by the patients involved and the staff. Nurses and consultant psychiatrists were interviewed to supplement the information from the case records. Twenty-six heterogeneous patients were identified, with many ages, genders, diagnoses, and psychiatric specialities represented. The main problem behaviours giving rise to containment use were violence and self-harm. The roots of the problem behaviours were to be found in severe psychiatric symptoms, cognitive difficulties, personality traits, and the implementation of the internal structure of the ward by staff. Staff's range and depth of understandings was limited and did not include functional analysis, defence mechanisms, specific cognitive assessment, and other potential frameworks. There is a need for more in-depth assessment and understanding of patients' problems, which may lead to additional ways to reduce containment use.

  7. High levels of circulating triiodothyronine induce plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Oliveira, Felipe Leite de; Nobrega, Alberto Félix; Vasconcellos, Rita; Cordeiro, Aline; Paiva, Luciana Souza de; Taub, Dennis D; Borojevic, Radovan; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Mello-Coelho, Valéria de

    2014-03-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism on B-cell physiology are still poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the influence of high-circulating levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) on bone marrow, blood, and spleen B-cell subsets, more specifically on B-cell differentiation into plasma cells, in C57BL/6 mice receiving daily injections of T3 for 14 days. As analyzed by flow cytometry, T3-treated mice exhibited increased frequencies of pre-B and immature B-cells and decreased percentages of mature B-cells in the bone marrow, accompanied by an increased frequency of blood B-cells, splenic newly formed B-cells, and total CD19(+)B-cells. T3 administration also promoted an increase in the size and cellularity of the spleen as well as in the white pulp areas of the organ, as evidenced by histological analyses. In addition, a decreased frequency of splenic B220(+) cells correlating with an increased percentage of CD138(+) plasma cells was observed in the spleen and bone marrow of T3-treated mice. Using enzyme-linked immunospot assay, an increased number of splenic immunoglobulin-secreting B-cells from T3-treated mice was detected ex vivo. Similar results were observed in mice immunized with hen egg lysozyme and aluminum adjuvant alone or together with treatment with T3. In conclusion, we provide evidence that high-circulating levels of T3 stimulate plasma cytogenesis favoring an increase in plasma cells in the bone marrow, a long-lived plasma cell survival niche. These findings indicate that a stimulatory effect on plasma cell differentiation could occur in untreated patients with Graves' disease.

  8. Concept cells through associative learning of high-level representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Leila; Thorpe, Simon J

    2014-10-22

    In this issue of Neuron, Quian Quiroga et al. (2014) show that neurons in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) follow subjects' perceptual states rather than the features of the visual input. Patients with MTL damage however have intact perceptual abilities but suffer instead from extreme forgetfulness. Thus, the reported MTL neurons could create new memories of the current perceptual state.

  9. Insect cell transformation vectors that support high level expression and promoter assessment in insect cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    A somatic transformation vector, pDP9, was constructed that provides a simplified means of producing permanently transformed cultured insect cells that support high levels of protein expression of foreign genes. The pDP9 plasmid vector incorporates DNA sequences from the Junonia coenia densovirus th...

  10. Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... A cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd with high level ... mechanisms to repair UV-induced damages via repairing ... for treatment or prevention of solar radiation. ..... working as both UV-B absorbing compounds and.

  11. Neural Networks Mediating High-Level Mentalizing in Patients With Right Cerebral Hemispheric Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riho Nakajima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentalizing is the ability to understand others’ mental state through external cues. It consists of two networks, namely low-level and high-level metalizing. Although it is an essential function in our daily social life, surgical resection of right cerebral hemisphere disturbs mentalizing processing with high possibility. In the past, little was known about the white matter related to high-level mentalizing, and the conservation of high-level mentalizing during surgery has not been a focus of attention. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine the neural networks underlying high-level mentalizing and then, secondarily, investigate the usefulness of awake surgery in preserving the mentalizing network. A total of 20 patients with glioma localized in the right hemisphere who underwent awake surgery participated in this study. All patients were assigned to two groups: with or without intraoperative assessment of high-level mentalizing. Their high-level mentalizing abilities were assessed before surgery and 1 week and 3 months after surgery. At 3 months after surgery, only patients who received the intraoperative high-level mentalizing test showed the same score as normal healthy volunteers. The tract-based lesion symptom analysis was performed to confirm the severity of damage of associated fibers and high-level mentalizing accuracy. This analysis revealed the superior longitudinal fascicles (SLF III and fronto-striatal tract (FST to be associated with high-level mentalizing processing. Moreover, the voxel-based lesion symptom analysis demonstrated that resection of orbito-frontal cortex (OFC causes persistent mentalizing dysfunction. Our study indicates that damage of the OFC and structural connectivity of the SLF and FST causes the disorder of mentalizing after surgery, and assessing high-level mentalizing during surgery may be useful to preserve these pathways.

  12. Efficient handling of high-level radioactive cell waste in a vitrification facility analytical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.W.; Collins, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Savannah River Site''s (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina, is the world''s largest and the United State''s first high level waste vitrification facility. For the past 1.5 years, DWPF has been vitrifying high level radioactive liquid waste left over from the Cold War. The vitrification process involves the stabilization of high level radioactive liquid waste into borosilicate glass. The glass is contained in stainless steel canisters. DWPF has filled more than 200 canisters 3.05 meters (10 feet) long and 0.61 meters (2 foot) diameter. Since operations began at DWPF in March of 1996, high level radioactive solid waste continues to be generated due to operating the facility''s analytical laboratory. The waste is referred to as cell waste and is routinely removed from the analytical laboratories. Through facility design, engineering controls, and administrative controls, DWPF has established efficient methods of handling the high level waste generated in its laboratory facility. These methods have resulted in the prevention of undue radiation exposure, wasted man-hours, expenses due to waste disposal, and the spread of contamination. This level of efficiency was not reached overnight, but it involved the collaboration of Radiological Control Operations and Laboratory personnel working together to devise methods that best benefited the facility. This paper discusses the methods that have been incorporated at DWPF for the handling of cell waste. The objective of this paper is to provide insight to good radiological and safety practices that were incorporated to handle high level radioactive waste in a laboratory setting

  13. High level of chromosomal instability in circulating tumor cells of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, E; Auger, N; Lindsay, C R; Vielh, P; Islas-Morris-Hernandez, A; Borget, I; Ngo-Camus, M; Planchard, D; Soria, J-C; Besse, B; Farace, F

    2015-07-01

    Genetic aberrations affecting the c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) tyrosine kinase gene have been reported in a small subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated whether ROS1-chromosomal rearrangements could be detected in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and examined tumor heterogeneity of CTCs and tumor biopsies in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients. Using isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) filtration and filter-adapted-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), ROS1 rearrangement was examined in CTCs from four ROS1-rearranged patients treated with the ROS1-inhibitor, crizotinib, and four ROS1-negative patients. ROS1-gene alterations observed in CTCs at baseline from ROS1-rearranged patients were compared with those present in tumor biopsies and in CTCs during crizotinib treatment. Numerical chromosomal instability (CIN) of CTCs was assessed by DNA content quantification and chromosome enumeration. ROS1 rearrangement was detected in the CTCs of all four patients with ROS1 rearrangement previously confirmed by tumor biopsy. In ROS1-rearranged patients, median number of ROS1-rearranged CTCs at baseline was 34.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 24-55). In ROS1-negative patients, median background hybridization of ROS1-rearranged CTCs was 7.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 7-11). Tumor heterogeneity, assessed by ROS1 copy number, was significantly higher in baseline CTCs compared with paired tumor biopsies in the three patients experiencing PR or SD (P < 0.0001). Copy number in ROS1-rearranged CTCs increased significantly in two patients who progressed during crizotinib treatment (P < 0.02). CTCs from ROS1-rearranged patients had a high DNA content and gain of chromosomes, indicating high levels of aneuploidy and numerical CIN. We provide the first proof-of-concept that CTCs can be used for noninvasive and sensitive detection of ROS1 rearrangement in NSCLC patients. CTCs from ROS1-rearranged patients show considerable heterogeneity of ROS1-gene

  14. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the open-quotes REC/HLVclose quotes) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR (open-quotes RCRAclose quotes) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially open-quotes dispersibleclose quotes, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987

  15. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  16. Activated T cells can induce high levels of CTLA-4 expression on B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H. M.; Brouwer, M.; Linsley, P. S.; van Lier, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Engagement of the TCR/CD3 complex together with ligation of CD28 by its counterstructures B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) on APC are required for mitogenic T cell activation. After activation, T cells not only express B7-1 and B7-2 molecules, but a second receptor for the B7 ligands, CTLA-4, can be

  17. Geminivirus vectors for high-level expression of foreign proteins in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Tsafrir S; Moon, Yong-Sun; Palmer, Kenneth E; Mason, Hugh S

    2003-02-20

    Bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) is a monopartite geminivirus that can infect dicotyledonous plants. We have developed a high-level expression system that utilizes elements of the replication machinery of this single-stranded DNA virus. The replication initiator protein (Rep) mediates release and replication of a replicon from a DNA construct ("LSL vector") that contains an expression cassette for a gene of interest flanked by cis-acting elements of the virus. We used tobacco NT1 cells and biolistic delivery of plasmid DNA for evaluation of replication and expression of reporter genes contained within an LSL vector. By codelivery of a GUS reporter-LSL vector and a Rep-supplying vector, we obtained up to 40-fold increase in expression levels compared to delivery of the reporter-LSL vectors alone. High-copy replication of the LSL vector was correlated with enhanced expression of GUS. Rep expression using a whole BeYDV clone, a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter driving either genomic rep or an intron-deleted rep gene, or 35S-rep contained in the LSL vector all achieved efficient replication and enhancement of GUS expression. We anticipate that this system can be adapted for use in transgenic plants or plant cell cultures with appropriately regulated expression of Rep, with the potential to greatly increase yield of recombinant proteins. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 430-437, 2003.

  18. High levels of IGF-1 predict difficult intubation of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiaopeng; Pei, Lijian; Zhang, Zhuhua; Tan, Gang; Xing, Bing

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the characteristics of difficult intubation and identify novel efficient predictors in patients with acromegaly. Patients with either untreated acromegaly or non-functional pituitary adenomas were enrolled. Patients with acromegaly underwent hormone assays, upper airway computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations and preoperative overnight polysomnography. The modified Mallampati classification, mouth opening, neck circumference, and neck extension were assessed, and the Cormack-Lehane grades and the time of tracheal intubation were recorded. Patients with acromegaly had a higher incidence of difficult intubation (62.5%). The time of tracheal intubation was prolonged, the neck circumference was enlarged, and the neck extension was confined. In patients with acromegaly and difficult intubation, the insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and apnea/hypoxia index were significantly higher compared to patients without difficult intubation (1115.40 ± 253.73 vs. 791.67 ± 206.62 ng/ml, P = 0.020; 22.17 ± 23.25 vs. 2.47 ± 2.84, P = 0.026, respectively). The bilateral regression analysis revealed that high levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 were an independent risk factor for developing difficult intubation (p = 0.042, Exp B = 1.006). The modified Mallampati classification was positively correlated with apnea/hypoxia index and could be calculated using the following logarithmic equation: MMC = 0.2982 * ln (AHI) + 2.1836. In patients with acromegaly, neck movement is confined, the time of tracheal intubation is prolonged, and the neck circumference is enlarged, and these patients suffer from an increased incidence of difficult intubation (62.5%) during anesthesia induction. The apnea/hypoxia index and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels are both increased in acromegalic patients with difficult intubation, and elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 levels are an independent risk factor of difficult

  19. Cystatins - Extra- and intracellular cysteine protease inhibitors: High-level secretion and uptake of cystatin C in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Hanna; Bjarnadottir, Maria; Vogel, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    signal peptides) for cellular export following translation. Results indicating existence of systems for significant internalisation of type 2 cystatins from the extracellular to intracellular compartments are reviewed. Data showing that human neuroblastoma cell lines generally secrete high levels...

  20. High-level, but not low-level, motion perception is impaired in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Pedersen, Anya; Wehnes, Jana; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are compromised in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Although research has demonstrated that the motor components of smooth pursuit eye movements are intact, motion perception has been shown to be impaired. In particular, studies have consistently revealed deficits in performance on tasks specific to the high-order motion area V5 (middle temporal area, MT) in patients with schizophrenia. In contrast, data from low-level motion detectors in the primary visual cortex (V1) have been inconsistent. To differentiate between low-level and high-level visual motion processing, we applied a temporal-order judgment task for motion events and a motion-defined figure-ground segregation task using patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Successful judgments in both tasks rely on the same low-level motion detectors in the V1; however, the first task is further processed in the higher-order motion area MT in the magnocellular (dorsal) pathway, whereas the second task requires subsequent computations in the parvocellular (ventral) pathway in visual area V4 and the inferotemporal cortex (IT). These latter structures are supposed to be intact in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia revealed a significantly impaired temporal resolution on the motion-based temporal-order judgment task but only mild impairment in the motion-based segregation task. These results imply that low-level motion detection in V1 is not, or is only slightly, compromised; furthermore, our data restrain the locus of the well-known deficit in motion detection to areas beyond the primary visual cortex.

  1. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; De Milito, Angelo; Lugini, Luana; Borghi, Martina; Calabrò, Luana; Spada, Massimo; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Marino, Maria Lucia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Brambilla, Daria; Venturi, Giulietta; Lozupone, Francesco; Santinami, Mario; Huber, Veronica; Maio, Michele; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest) to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b) and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1). Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90) and healthy donors (n = 58). Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504+/-315) or caveolin-1 (619+/-310) were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223+/-125 and 228+/-102, respectively). While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43%) the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%). Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.

  2. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonia Logozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1. Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90 and healthy donors (n = 58. Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504+/-315 or caveolin-1 (619+/-310 were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223+/-125 and 228+/-102, respectively. While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43% the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%. Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.

  3. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Caterina; Piaggi, Simona; Federico, Giovanni; Scarpato, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H 2 O 2 -induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O 2 − ; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H 2 O 2 -induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX + cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents. This also indicates that

  4. LCR/MEL: A versatile system for high-level expression of heterologous proteins in erythroid cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Needham; C. Gooding; K. Hudson; M. Antoniou (Michael); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M. Hollis

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used the human globin locus control region (LCR) to assemble an expression system capable of high-level, integration position-independent expression of heterologous genes and cDNAs in murine erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. The cDNAs are inserted between the human beta-globin

  5. Dismantling of a hot cell of high level activity. Method and tools used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeantet, E.; Miquel, P.; Baudoin, J.C.; Moutonnet, A.

    1981-05-01

    The aim of this operation is the removal of all the equipment and the material introduced and used in the hot cell 'Attila' and its decontamination to obtain an irradiation level as low as possible to allow direct intervention. The Attila facilitie was build in 1964-1966 to study dry processing of irradiated fuels by halogenide volatility process. Dismantling of the out-cell and of the laboratory associated to the shielded cell, dismantling inside the shielded cell with the remote handling equipment of the cell and tools used for these operations are described in this article [fr

  6. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Caterina [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Piaggi, Simona [Sezione di Patologia Sperimentale, Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina e Chirurgia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Federico, Giovanni [Unità di Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Diabete, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Scarpato, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.scarpato@unipi.it [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O{sub 2}{sup −}; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX{sup +} cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents

  7. Decommissioning of a hot cell with high levels of contamination. Experience during the Undressed of Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Sancho, C.

    1998-01-01

    The object of this work is to show the radiological controls in decommissioning of the inner of the Base Cell of the Nuclear Facility of CIEMAT, IN-04 (Metallurgy Hot Cells) and the experience during the undressed of workers in decommissioning of this cell. The workers were equipped with one cotton overalls and one or two paper overalls of one-use. Also, when the radiation levels are high, the workers were equipped with leaded glasses and aprons. The protection equipment for internal contamination were autonomous and semi-autonomous respiratory equipment. Due to a high superficial contamination levels, two areas were established in order to proceed to the undressed of the workers when these concluded their work. The first area was a confined enclosure by joined to the hot cell, where an expert of the Radiation Protection Service (RPS), trained for it, take off the first paper overall and the first pair of gloves to the worker that come out the hot cells. The second area was at the exist of the Load Zone, where another expert of PRS, take off the second paper overall, the second pair of gloves and dislocated the pipe of air of the semi-autonomous respiratory equipment, to the worker that come out this zone. (Author)

  8. High Levels of Methylarginines Were Associated With Increased Mortality in Patients With Severe Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Karoline Myglegard; Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Haase, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nitric oxide (NO) likely plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Arginine is a substrate for NO, whereas the methylated arginines—asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)—are endogenous by-products of proteolysis that inhibit NO production....... We investigated if high-plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA, and arginine/ADMA ratio were associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods: We included 267 adult patients admitted to intensive care unit with severe sepsis or septic shock. The patients had previously...... been included in the randomized controlled trial “Scandinavian Starch for Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock (6S).” ADMA, SDMA, and arginine/ADMA ratio were measured in plasma. The risk of death within 90 days was estimated in multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for gender, age >=65 years, major...

  9. Pelvic haemophilic pseudotumour: management of a patient with high level of inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, A.; Terrier, F.; Schneider, P.A.; Bianchi, S.; Howarth, N.; De Moerloose, P.

    2002-01-01

    Haemophilic pseudotumour (HP) is a rare but very serious complication of haemophilia. HP affects mainly patients with severe haemophilia and those who have developed antibodies to factor VIII or factor IX. We report on a 45-year-old man with haemophilia A and high titres of inhibitors who developed an extensive HP with progressive destruction of the right ilium over a period of 12 years. The different therapeutic options (conservative management by replacement therapy, surgical approach, radiotherapy, percutaneous evacuation with secondary refilled cavity and transcatheter arterial embolization) are reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Differential gene expression in patients with anal fistula reveals high levels of prolactin recepetor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yi-Huan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are limited data examining variations in the local expression of inflammatory mediators in anal fistulas where it is anticipated that an improved understanding of the inflammatory milieu might lead to the potential therapeutic option of instillation therapy in complicated cases. The aim of the present study was to examine prolactin receptors (PRLR as inflammatory markers and to correlate their expression with both the complexity of anal fistulas and the likelihood of fistula recurrence. Methods. Microarray was used to screen the differentially expressed gene profile of anal fistula using anal mucosa samples with hemorrhoids with ageand sex-matched patients as controls and then a prospective analysis of 65 patients was conducted with anal fistulas. PRLR immunohistochemistry was performed to define expression in simple, complex and recurrent anal fistula cases. The quantitative image comparison was performed combining staining intensity with cellular distribution in order to create high and low score PRLR immunohistochemical groupings. Results. A differential expression profile of 190 genes was found. PRLR expression was 2.91 times lower in anal fistula compared with control. Sixty-five patients were assessed (35 simple, 30 complex cases. Simple fistulas showed significantly higher PRLR expression than complex cases with recurrent fistulae showing overall lower PRLR expression than de novo cases (p = 0.001. These findings were reflected in measurable integrated optical density for complex and recurrent cases (complex cases, 8.31 ± 4.91 x 104 vs simple cases, 12.30 ± 6.91 x 104; p < 0.01; recurrent cases, 7.21 ± 3.51 x 104 vs primarily healing cases, 8.31 ± 4.91 x 104; p < 0.05. In univariate regression analysis, low PRLR expression correlated with fistula complexity; a significant independent effect maintained in multivariate analysis odds ratio [(OR low to high PRLR expression = 9.52; p = 0.001]. Conclusion. PRLR

  11. Association of Porphyromonas gingivalis with high levels of stress-induced hormone cortisol in chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Guzmán, Isabel C

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the occurrence of periodontopathogens with cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients. Seventy-five chronic periodontitis patients were invited to participate in the present study. Cortisol levels in serum were measured using an immunoassay method. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed to target the respective 16S rRNA gene sequences. Severe chronic periodontitis patients showed higher mean levels of cortisol (P chronic periodontitis (P chronic periodontitis patients. These results suggest that high levels of cortisol could increase the occurrence of P. gingivalis in the biofilm. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. SF Treg cells transcribing high levels of Bcl-2 and microRNA-21 demonstrate limited apoptosis in RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Smigielska, Katarzyna; Park, Ji-Ah; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Kim, Hye-Won; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Lee, Eun-Bong; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Treg cells in the SF of RA patients. Methods. Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral blood and SF of RA patients and analysed by flow cytometry for expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and binding of the apoptosis marker

  13. High-level expression of human insulin receptor cDNA in mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, J.; Okamoto, A.K.; Thys, R.; Bell, G.I.; Steiner, D.F.; Hofmann, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to develop a simple, efficient system for the high-level expression of human insulin receptors in eukaryotic cells, a full-length human kidney insulin receptor cDNA was inserted into a bovine papilloma virus vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter. After transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with this construct, seven cell lines expressing insulin receptors were isolated; two cell lines had more than 10 6 receptors per cell. The cell line with the highest 125 I-insulin binding (NIH 3T3 HIR3.5) had 6 x 10 6 receptors with a K/sub d/ of 10 -9 M. This level was not dependent on exposure to metals but could be increased further to 2 x 10 7 receptors per cell by addition of sodium butyrate to the culture medium. The α and β subunits had apparent molecular weights of 147,000 and 105,000, respectively (compared to 135,000 and 95,000 in IM-9 human lymphocytes), values identical to those of the α and β subunits of the insulin receptors of nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. This size difference was due to altered carbohydrate composition, as N-glycanase digestion reduced the apparent receptor subunit size of the transfected cells and IM-9 lymphocytes to identical values. The alteration in N-linked oligosaccharide composition could not be ascribed to differences in the kinetics of posttranslational processing of the insulin receptors, which was comparable to that of other cells studied. The basal rate of glycogen synthesis in the cells overexpressing insulin receptors was increased 4- to 5-fold compared with controls. Low levels of added insulin (0.1 nM) caused a 50% increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis

  14. High-level secretion of tissue factor-rich extracellular vesicles from ovarian cancer cells mediated by filamin-A and protease-activated receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizume, Shiro; Ito, Shin; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Kanayama, Tomohiko; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Roppei; Ochiya, Takahiro; Ruf, Wolfram; Miyagi, Etsuko; Hirahara, Fumiki; Miyagi, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Thromboembolic events occur frequently in ovarian cancer patients. Tissue factor (TF) is often overexpressed in tumours, including ovarian clear-cell carcinoma (CCC), a subtype with a generally poor prognosis. TF-coagulation factor VII (fVII) complexes on the cell surface activate downstream coagulation mechanisms. Moreover, cancer cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), which act as vehicles for TF. We therefore examined the characteristics of EVs produced by ovarian cancer cells of various histological subtypes. CCC cells secreted high levels of TF within EVs, while the high-TF expressing breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 shed fewer TF-positive EVs. We also found that CCC tumours with hypoxic tissue areas synthesised TF and fVII in vivo, rendering the blood of xenograft mice bearing these tumours hypercoagulable compared with mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumours. Incorporation of TF into EVs and secretion of EVs from CCC cells exposed to hypoxia were both dependent on the actin-binding protein, filamin-A (filA). Furthermore, production of these EVs was dependent on different protease-activated receptors (PARs) on the cell surface. These results show that CCC cells could produce large numbers of TF-positive EVs dependent upon filA and PARs. This phenomenon may be the mechanism underlying the increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in ovarian cancer patients.

  15. Lymphoid Progenitor Cells from Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Are Functionally Deficient and Express High Levels of the Transcriptional Repressor Gfi-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Purizaca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Substantial progress on understanding the cell hierarchy within ALL bone marrow (BM has been recorded in the last few years, suggesting that both primitive cell fractions and committed lymphoid blasts with immature stem cell-like properties contain leukemia-initiating cells. Nevertheless, the biology of the early progenitors that initiate the lymphoid program remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of lymphoid progenitors from B-cell precursor ALL BM to proliferate and undergo multilineage differentiation. By phenotype analyses, in vitro proliferation assays, and controlled culture systems, the lymphoid differentiation potentials were evaluated in BM primitive populations from B-cell precursor ALL pediatric patients. When compared to their normal counterparts, functional stem and progenitor cell contents were substantially reduced in ALL BM. Moreover, neither B nor NK or dendritic lymphoid-cell populations developed recurrently from highly purified ALL-lymphoid progenitors, and their proliferation and cell cycle status revealed limited proliferative capacity. Interestingly, a number of quiescence-associated transcription factors were elevated, including the transcriptional repressor Gfi-1, which was highly expressed in primitive CD34+ cells. Together, our findings reveal major functional defects in the primitive hematopoietic component of ALL BM. A possible contribution of high levels of Gfi-1 expression in the regulation of the stem/progenitor cell biology is suggested.

  16. Intragenotypic JFH1 based recombinant hepatitis C virus produces high levels of infectious particles but causes increased cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateu, Guaniri; Donis, Ruben O; Wakita, Takaji

    2008-01-01

    The full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) JFH1 genome (genotype 2a) produces moderate titers of infectious particles in cell culture but the optimal determinants required for virion production are unclear. It has been shown that intragenotypic recombinants encoding core to NS2 from J6CF...... in the context of JFH1 are more robust in the release of viral particles. To understand the contributions of structural and nonstructural genes to HCV replication potential and infectivity, we have characterized intragenotypic recombinant genotype 2a viruses with different portions of the J6 isolate engineered...... into the JFH1 infectious clone. All genomes produced high levels of intracellular HCV RNA and NS3 protein in Huh-7.5 transfected cells. However, JFH1 genomes containing J6 sequences from C to E2 (CE2) or C to p7 (Cp7) secreted up to 100-fold more infectious HCV particles than the parental JFH1 clone...

  17. High levels of telomere dysfunction bestow a selective disadvantage during the progression of human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Katrina E; Ireland, Hazel; Roberts, Meryl; Steeghs, Karen; McCaul, James A; MacDonald, D Gordon; Parkinson, E Kenneth

    2003-01-15

    Human epithelial cells experience multiple barriers to cellular immortality in culture (mortality mechanisms 0, 1, and 2). Mortality mechanism 2 (M2) is termed crisis and involves telomere dysfunction due to lack of telomerase. However, proliferating normal keratinocytes in vivo can express telomerase, so it is unclear whether human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), which usually have high telomerase levels, develop from preexisting telomerase-positive precursors or by the activation of telomerase in telomerase-deficient somatic cells. We show that 6 of 29 oral SCCs show characteristics of M2 crisis in vivo, as indicated by a high anaphase bridge index (ABI), which is a good correlate of telomere dysfunction, and that 25 of 29 tumors possess some anaphase bridges. ABIs in excess of 0.2 in the primary tumor showed a decrease in the corresponding lymph node metastases. This suggests that high levels of telomere dysfunction (>0.2) and, by inference, M2 crisis bestow a selective disadvantage on SCCs during progression stages of the disease. Supporting this, SCCs with high levels of telomere dysfunction grow poorly in culture, and the ectopic expression of telomerase corrects this, together with other features of M2 crisis. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of oral SCCs in vivo ultimately arise from telomerase-deficient keratinocytes rather than putative telomerase-proficient cells in the undifferentiated parts of the epithelium. Furthermore, the presence of significant levels of telomere dysfunction in a high proportion of SCCs at diagnosis but not in the normal epithelium implies that the therapeutic inhibition of telomerase should selectively compromise the growth of such tumors.

  18. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  19. Numerical modelling of the long term mechanical behaviour of a storage cell for high level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, H.B.; Jia, Y.; Duveau, G.; Shao, J.F.; Poutrel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In France, a clay formation, called Callovo-Oxfordian clay, is considered as potential geological barrier for storage of radioactive wastes. An underground research laboratory is constructed in this clay layer in Bure (CMHM). The French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) plans to conduct a series of full scale experiments in the Bure Underground Research Laboratory in order to study the coupled Chemo- Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical processes due to the excavation, ventilation, subsequent backfilling/sealing, corrosion of metal components and heat release from the radioactive wasters. These phenomena will occur in the storage structures and the geologic barrier for a short/very long period of time. Especially for the High-Level Wastes, due to the important increase of temperature released by the waste packages, the behaviour of geological barrier is perhaps perturbed and the design of repository is also influenced in terms of admissible thermal loading. In this paper, a disposal cell for the radioactive High-Level Wastes (HLW) is studied in order to analyser the coupled phenomena evolving in the HLW storage. The carbon steel is adopted as the first choice material for the container of waste because of its relevant geochemical condition. In the underground radioactive wastes storage, due to the arrival of water from the geological formation, the metallic components will be corroded, by step, with a decrease of mechanical resistance and a generated supplementary volume. The space between the metallic container and the host rock will then be closed under the combination of metallic corrosion and the behaviour differs of Callovo-Oxfordian clay. As results, important stress will be created on the interface of Callovo-Oxfordian clay and wastes packages. In addition, local hydration of barrier modifies the water infiltration from the Callovo-Oxfordian clay and the stress distribution in the argillite. According to

  20. Effects of high levels of glucose on the steroidogenesis and the expression of adiponectin receptors in rat ovarian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramé Christelle

    2008-03-01

    amounts of 3beta HSD and p450 aromatase were the same in STZ rat ovary and controls, and the amounts of StAR and p450scc were higher. Streptozotocin treatment did not affect adiponectin receptors in rat ovary but it increased AMPK phosphorylation without affecting MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Conclusion High levels of glucose decrease progesterone and oestradiol production in primary rat granulosa cells and in STZ-treated rats. However, the mechanism that leads to reduced ovarian steroid production seems to be different. Furthermore, adiponectin receptors in ovarian cells are not regulated by glucose.

  1. High level of reactive oxygen species impaired mesenchymal stem cell migration via overpolymerization of F-actin cytoskeleton in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, D; Li, X; Chen, H; Che, N; Zhou, S; Lu, Z; Shi, S; Sun, L

    2014-12-01

    Some lines of evidence have demonstrated abnormalities of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, characterized by defective phenotype of MSCs and slower growth with enhanced apoptosis and senescence. However, whether SLE MSCs demonstrate aberrant migration capacity or abnormalities in cytoskeleton are issues that remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that MSCs from SLE patients did show impairment in migration capacity as well as abnormalities in F-actin cytoskeleton, accompanied by a high level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). When normal MSCs were treated in vitro with H2O2, which increases intracellular ROS level as an oxidant, both reorganization of F-actin cytoskeleton and impairment of migration capability were observed. On the other hand, treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as an exogenous antioxidant, made F-actin more orderly and increased migration ratio in SLE MSCs. In addition, oral administration of NAC markedly reduced serum autoantibody levels and ameliorated lupus nephritis (LN) in MRL/lpr mice, partially reversing the abnormalities of MSCs. These results indicate that overpolymerization of F-actin cytoskeleton, which may be associated with high levels of ROS, causes impairment in the migration capacity of SLE MSCs and that oral administration of NAC may have potential therapeutic effects on MRL/lpr mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secreting Cell Function as well as Production of Inflammatory Reactive Oxygen Species Is Differently Regulated by Glycated Serum and High Levels of Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Puddu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an intestinal hormone contributing to glucose homeostasis, is synthesized by proglucagon and secreted from intestinal neuroendocrine cells in response to nutrients. GLP-1 secretion is impaired in type 2 diabetes patients. Here, we aimed at investigating whether diabetic toxic products (glycated serum (GS or high levels of glucose (HG may affect viability, function, and insulin sensitivity of the GLP-1 secreting cell line GLUTag. Cells were cultured for 5 days in presence or absence of different dilutions of GS or HG. GS and HG (alone or in combination increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and upregulated proglucagon mRNA expression as compared to control medium. Only HG increased total production and release of active GLP-1, while GS alone abrogated secretion of active GLP-1. HG-mediated effects were associated with the increased cell content of the prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, while GS alone downregulated this enzyme. HG upregulated Glucokinase (GK and downregulated SYNTHAXIN-1. GS abrogated SYNTHAXIN-1 and SNAP-25. Finally, high doses of GS alone or in combination with HG reduced insulin-mediated IRS-1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we showed that GS and HG might regulate different pathways of GLP-1 production in diabetes, directly altering the function of neuroendocrine cells secreting this hormone.

  3. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  4. Increased level of miRNA 30b-3p in patients with prostatic hyperplasia and testosterone with high-level of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasnaa Jumaa Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common causing cancer-related in death in men and lack of reliable diagnostic tool. MicroRNAs are small molecules single-stranded RNA that affecting protein expression at the level of translation and dysregulation can dramatically affect cell metabolism. However, the using of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for diagnosis of PCa is still unknown. Methods: Ten patients with prostatic hyperplasia with high-level of PSA and 10 healthy controls were conducted in this study. The reverse transcription of miRNA based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were used for evaluating the dysregulation of miRNA 30b-3p and using of ELISA to evaluate the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and testosterone hormone. Results: Circulating miRNA 30b-3p level was increased in patients with prostatic hyperplasia with higher level of PSA as compared with healthy controls. Also, the testosterone hormone was increased in those patients as compared with normal level of testosterone in healthy individuals. Conclusion: The serum miRNA 30b-3p level increased in patients with hyperplasia in prostate and may be one of potential biomarker for diagnosis of PCa.

  5. High level PHGDH expression in breast is predominantly associated with keratin 5-positive cell lineage independently of malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Honma, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    in TNBC samples. One such protein was D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), a candidate oncogene. We analysed expression of Phgdh in normal and TNBC mammary tissue samples by 2D gel-based proteomics and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and show here that high-level expression of Phgdh in mammary...

  6. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G; Junnila, Riia K; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-01-01

    cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found...

  7. High levels of BRC4 induced by a Tet-On 3G system suppress DNA repair and impair cell proliferation in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takuya; Branzei, Dana

    2014-10-01

    Transient induction or suppression of target genes is useful to study the function of toxic or essential genes in cells. Here we apply a Tet-On 3G system to DT40 lymphoma B cell lines, validating it for three different genes. Using this tool, we then show that overexpression of the chicken BRC4 repeat of the tumor suppressor BRCA2 impairs cell proliferation and induces chromosomal breaks. Mechanistically, high levels of BRC4 suppress double strand break-induced homologous recombination, inhibit the formation of RAD51 recombination repair foci, reduce cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents and induce a G2 damage checkpoint-mediated cell-cycle arrest. The above phenotypes are mediated by BRC4 capability to bind and inhibit RAD51. The toxicity associated with BRC4 overexpression is exacerbated by chemotherapeutic agents and reversed by RAD51 overexpression, but it is neither aggravated nor suppressed by a deficit in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double strand break repair. We further find that the endogenous BRCA2 mediates the cytotoxicity associated with BRC4 induction, thus underscoring the possibility that BRC4 or other domains of BRCA2 cooperate with ectopic BRC4 in regulating repair activities or mitotic cell division. In all, the results demonstrate the utility of the Tet-On 3G system in DT40 research and underpin a model in which BRC4 role on cell proliferation and chromosome repair arises primarily from its suppressive role on RAD51 functions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of variants with high levels of biotin from cultured green Lavandula vera cells irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Yamada, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Cultured green Lavandula vera cells were irradiated with various dosages of gamma rays which increased the variation in the amount of free biotin produced by the cell clones. Variant sublines containing much more free biotin than the original line were obtained by repeated selection. The effectiveness of gamma rays for the induction of the variant sublines is described

  9. Translational up-regulation and high-level protein expression from plasmid vectors by mTOR activation via different pathways in PC3 and 293T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Karyala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though 293T cells are widely used for expression of proteins from transfected plasmid vectors, the molecular basis for the high-level expression is yet to be understood. We recently identified the prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 to be as efficient as 293T in protein expression. This study was undertaken to decipher the molecular basis of high-level expression in these two cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a survey of different cell lines for efficient expression of platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B, β-galactosidase (β-gal and green fluorescent protein (GFP from plasmid vectors, PC3 was found to express at 5-50-fold higher levels compared to the bone metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line PC3BM and many other cell lines. Further, the efficiency of transfection and level of expression of the reporters in PC3 were comparable to that in 293T. Comparative analyses revealed that the high level expression of the reporters in the two cell lines was due to increased translational efficiency. While phosphatidic acid (PA-mediated activation of mTOR, as revealed by drastic reduction in reporter expression by n-butanol, primarily contributed to the high level expression in PC3, multiple pathways involving PA, PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 appear to contribute to the abundant reporter expression in 293T. Thus the extent of translational up-regulation attained through the concerted activation of mTOR by multiple pathways in 293T could be achieved through its activation primarily by the PA pathway in PC3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies reveal that the high-level expression of proteins from plasmid vectors is effected by translational up-regulation through mTOR activation via different signaling pathways in the two cell lines and that PC3 is as efficient as 293T for recombinant protein expression. Further, PC3 offers an advantage in that the level of expression of the protein can be regulated by simple addition of n-butanol to

  10. High level of surface CD4 prevents stable human immunodeficiency virus infection of T-cell transfectants.

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, W L; Diamond, D C; Kowalski, M M; Finberg, R W

    1992-01-01

    CD4 is the principal receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We have isolated and studied CD4-expressing tumor cell clones made by expressing CD4 in the T-cell tumor line HSB. Two clones, one designated HSBCD4, a clone expressing low levels of CD4, and the other, HSB10xCD4, a high-expresser CD4+ clone, were studied for their ability to bind and replicate HIV. In contrast to many other CD4+ cells that down-modulate CD4 following HIV infection, the HSB10xCD4 clones continued to exp...

  11. Risk of high-level viraemia in HIV-infected patients on successful antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, F N; Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Larsen, M V

    2010-01-01

    According to the Swiss Federal Commission for HIV/AIDS, HIV-infected patients on successful antiretroviral treatment have a negligible risk of transmitting HIV sexually. We estimated the risk that patients considered to have an undetectable viral load (VL) are actually viraemic.......According to the Swiss Federal Commission for HIV/AIDS, HIV-infected patients on successful antiretroviral treatment have a negligible risk of transmitting HIV sexually. We estimated the risk that patients considered to have an undetectable viral load (VL) are actually viraemic....

  12. High levels of xanthine oxidoreductase in rat endothelial, epithelial and connective tissue cells. A relation between localization and function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Bosch, K. S.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity was investigated in unfixed cryostat sections of various rat tissues by an enzyme histochemical method which specifically demonstrates both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase. High activity was found in epithelial cells

  13. Identifying and engineering promoters for high level and sustainable therapeutic recombinant protein production in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-08-01

    Promoters are essential on plasmid vectors to initiate transcription of the transgenes when generating therapeutic recombinant proteins expressing mammalian cell lines. High and sustained levels of gene expression are desired during therapeutic protein production while gene expression is useful for cell engineering. As many finely controlled promoters exhibit cell and product specificity, new promoters need to be identified, optimized and carefully evaluated before use. Suitable promoters can be identified using techniques ranging from simple molecular biology methods to modern high-throughput omics screenings. Promoter engineering is often required after identification to either obtain high and sustained expression or to provide a wider range of gene expression. This review discusses some of the available methods to identify and engineer promoters for therapeutic recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

  14. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Junnila, Riia K. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Kopchick, John J., E-mail: kopchick@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on

  15. High level of expression of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in transgenic rice cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Hong, Shin-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ho

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) has been previously produced in tobacco cell suspension cultures. However, the amount of hGM-CSF accumulated in the culture medium dropped quickly from its maximum of 150 microg/L at 5 d after incubation. To overcome...... of recombinant hGM-CSF in transgenic rice cell suspension culture and protease activity of this culture medium was low compared to that of tobacco culture system....

  16. High-level ethanol production from starch by a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying cell-surface glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, A.; Shigechi, H.; Abe, M.; Uyama, K. [Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, T.; Fukuda, H. [Div. of Molecular Science, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Ueda, M.; Tanaka, A. [Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, M. [Dept. of Biotechnology, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    A Strain of host yeast YF207, which is a tryptophan auxotroph and shows strong flocculation ability, was obtained from Saccharomyces diastaticus ATCC60712 and S. cerevisiae W303-1B by tetrad analysis. The plasmid pGA11, which is a multicopy plasmid for cell-surface expression of the Rhyzopus oryzae glucoamylase/{alpha}-agglutinin fusion protein, was then introduced into this flocculent yeast strain (YF207/pGA11). Yeast YF207/pGA11 grew rapidly under aerobic condition (dissolved oxygen 2.0 ppm), using soluble starch. The harvested cells were used for batch fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol under anaerobic condition and showed high ethanol production rates (0.71 g h{sup -1} I{sup -1}) without a time lag, because glucoamylase was immobilized on the yeast cell surface. During repeated utilization of cells for fermentation, YF207/pGA11 maintained high ethanol production rates over 300 h. Moreover, in fed-batch fermentation with YF207/pGA11 for approximately 120 h, the ethanol concentration reached up to 50 g I{sup -1}. In conclusion, flocculent yeast cells displaying cell-surface glucoamylase are considered to be very effective for the direct fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol. (orig.)

  17. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. METHODS: Selected P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 60 were genotyped with PFGE, MLST and MLVA to determine the diversity index (DI and congruence (adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Subsequently, isolates from patients admitted to two different ICUs (n = 205, from CF patients (n = 100 and from non-ICU, non-CF patients (n = 58, of which 19 were community acquired were genotyped with MLVA to determine distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity. RESULTS: Congruence between the typing methods was >79% and DIs were similar and all >0.963. Based on costs, ease, speed and possibilities to compare results between labs an adapted MLVA scheme called MLVA9-Utrecht was selected as the preferred typing method. In 363 clinical isolates 252 different MLVA types (MTs were identified, indicating a highly diverse population (DI  = 0.995; CI  = 0.993-0.997. DI levels were similarly high in the diverse clinical sources (all >0.981 and only eight genotypes were shared. MTs were highly specific (>80% for the different patient populations, even for similar patient groups (ICU patients in two distinct geographic regions, with only three of 142 ICU genotypes detected in both ICUs. The two major CF clones were unique to CF patients. CONCLUSION: The population structure of P. aeruginosa isolates is highly diverse and population specific without evidence for a core lineage in which major CF, hospital or community clones co-cluster. The two genotypes highly prevalent among Dutch CF patients appeared unique to CF patients

  18. High-level expression of human stem cell factor fused with erythropoietin mimetic peptide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin; Chen, Song-Sen; Yang, Ke-Gong; Liu, Chang-Zheng; Zhang, Yan-Li; Liang, Zhi-Quan

    2006-06-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin are essential for normal erythropoiesis and induce proliferation and differentiation synergistically for erythroid progenitor cells. Here, we report our work on construction of SCF/erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP) fusion protein gene, in which human SCF cDNA (1-165aa) and EMP sequence (20aa) were connected using a short (GGGGS) or long (GGGGSGGGGGS) linker sequence. The SCF/EMP gene was cloned into the pBV220 vector and expressed in the Escherichia coli DH5alpha strain. The expression level of the fusion protein was about 30% of total cell protein. The resulting inclusion bodies were solubilized with 8 M urea, followed by dilution refolding. The renatured protein was subsequently purified by Q-Sepharose FF column. The final product was >95% pure by SDS-PAGE and the yield of fusion protein was about 40 mg/L of culture. UT-7 cell proliferation and human cord blood cell colony-forming assays showed that the fusion proteins exhibited more potent activity than recombinant human SCF, suggesting a new strategy to enhance biological activities of growth factors.

  19. Continuous and high-level in vivo delivery of endostatin from recombinant cells encapsulated in TheraCyte immunoisolation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, N V; Rodrigues, D B; Chammas, R; Chura-Chambi, R M; Barbuto, J A M; Balduino, K; Nonogaki, S; Morganti, L

    2010-01-01

    Endostatin (ES) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Continuous ES delivery of ES improves the efficacy and potency of the antitumoral therapy. The TheraCyte system is a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) semipermeable membrane macroencapsulation system for implantation of genetically engineered cells specially designed for the in vivo delivery of therapeutic proteins, such as ES, which circumvents the problem of limited half-life and variation in circulating levels. In order to enable neovascularization at the tissues adjacent to the devices prior to ES secretion by the cells inside them, we designed a scheme in which empty TheraCyte devices were preimplanted SC into immunodeficient mice. Only after healing (17 days later) were Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing ES injected into the preimplanted devices. In another model for device implantation, the cells expressing ES where loaded into the immunoisolation devices prior to implantation into the animals, and the TheraCyte were then immediately implanted SC into the mice. Throughout the 2-month study, constant high ES levels of up to 3.7 microg/ml were detected in the plasma of the mice preimplanted with the devices, while lower but also constant levels of ES (up to 2.1 microg/ml plasma) were detected in the mice that had received devices preloaded with the ES-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry using anti-ES antibody showed reaction within the device and outside it, demonstrating that ES, secreted by the confined recombinant cells, permeated through the membrane and reached the surrounding tissues.

  20. High levels of nuclear MYC protein predict the presence of MYC rearrangement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Tina Marie; Nielsen, Ole; de Stricker, Karin

    2012-01-01

    , and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Overall, 15% of the cases had an MYC break. QRT-PCR analysis of MYC expression showed that 72% of DLBCLs with an MYC break had aberrantly high or low levels of MYC transcript. Excluding the cases with aberrantly low MYC expression, we found...... a significant positive correlation between levels of MYC transcripts and MYC tumor cells; however, QRT-PCR is not readily applicable as a screening tool. Immunohistochemically, all tumors showed a nuclear staining pattern that was simple to evaluate. The percentage of MYC lymphoma cells correlated closely...

  1. High level over-expression of different NCX isoforms in HEK293 cell lines and primary neuronal cultures is protective following oxygen glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jane L; Boulos, Sherif; Shepherd, Kate L; Craig, Amanda J; Lee, Sharon; Bakker, Anthony J; Knuckey, Neville W; Meloni, Bruno P

    2012-07-01

    In this study we have assessed sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) protein over-expression on cell viability in primary rat cortical neuronal and HEK293 cell cultures when subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In cortical neuronal cultures, NCX2 and NCX3 over-expression was achieved using adenoviral vectors, and following OGD increased neuronal survival from ≈20% for control vector treated cultures to ≈80% for both NCX isoforms. In addition, we demonstrated that NCX2 and NCX3 over-expression in cortical neuronal cultures enables neurons to maintain intracellular calcium at significantly lower levels than control vector treated cultures when exposed to high (9mM) extracellular calcium challenge. Further assessment of NCX activity during OGD was performed using HEK293 cell lines generated to over-express NCX1, NCX2 or NCX3 isoforms. While it was shown that NCX isoform expression differed considerably in the different HEK293 cell lines, high levels of NCX over-expression was associated with increased resistance to OGD. Taken together, our findings show that high levels of NCX over-expression increases neuronal and HEK293 cell survival following OGD, improves calcium management in neuronal cultures and provides additional support for NCX as a therapeutic target to reduce ischemic brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Active tuberculosis patients have high levels of IgA anti-alpha-crystallin and isocitrate lyase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera-Paulín, M; García-Morales, L; Ruíz-Sánchez, B P; Caamal-Ley, Á D; Hernández-Solis, A; Ramírez-Casanova, E; Cicero-Sabido, R; Espitia, C; Helguera-Repetto, C; González-Y-Merchand, J A; Flores-Mejía, R; Estrada-Parra, S; Estrada-García, I; Chacón-Salinas, R; Wong-Baeza, I; Serafín-López, J

    2016-12-01

    Mexico City, Mexico. To identify proteins synthetised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hypoxic culture, which resemble more closely a granuloma environment than aerobic culture, and to determine if they are recognised by antibodies from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Soluble extracts from M. tuberculosis H37Rv cultured under aerobic or hypoxic conditions were analysed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and proteins over-expressed under hypoxia were identified by mass spectrometry. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM antibodies against these proteins was determined in the serum of 42 patients with active PTB and 42 healthy controls. We selected three M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins (alpha-crystallin protein [Acr, Rv2031c], universal stress protein Rv2623 and isocitrate lyase [ICL, RV0467]) that were over-expressed under hypoxia. Titres of anti-Acr and anti-ICL IgA antibodies were higher in patients than in healthy controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 for anti-ICL IgA antibodies. ICL could be used in combination with other M. tuberculosis antigens to improve the sensitivity and specificity of current serological TB diagnostic methods.

  3. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  4. Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus replicons for high-level transgene expression in transgenic plants and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuren; Mason, Hugh

    2006-02-05

    A novel stable transgenic plant expression system was developed using elements of the replication machinery of Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus (BeYDV). The system contains two transgenes: 1) The BeYDV replicon vector with an expression cassette flanked by cis-acting DNA elements of BeYDV, and 2) The viral replication initiator protein (Rep) controlled by an alcohol-inducible promoter. When Rep expression was triggered by treatment with ethanol, it induced release of the BeYDV replicon from stably integrated T-DNA and episomal replication to high copy number. Replicon amplification resulted in substantially increased transgene mRNA levels (up to 80-fold) and translation products (up to 10-fold) after induction of Rep expression by ethanol treatment in tobacco NT1 cells and leaves of whole potato plants. Thus, the BeYDV stable transformant replicon system is a powerful tool for plant-based production of recombinant proteins. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Flow cytometric analysis reveals the high levels of platelet activation parameters in circulation of multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Rywaniak, Joanna; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    The epidemiological studies confirm an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in multiple sclerosis, especially prothrombotic events directly associated with abnormal platelet activity. The aim of our study was to investigate the level of blood platelet activation in the circulation of patients with chronic phase of multiple sclerosis (SP MS) and their reactivity in response to typical platelets' physiological agonists. We examined 85 SP MS patients diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group. The platelet activation and reactivity were assessed using flow cytometry analysis of the following: P-selectin expression (CD62P), activation of GP IIb/IIIa complex (PAC-1 binding), and formation of platelet microparticles (PMPs) and platelet aggregates (PA) in agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) and unstimulated whole blood samples. Furthermore, we measured the level of soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in plasma using ELISA method, to evaluate the in vivo level of platelet activation, both in healthy and SP MS subjects. We found a statistically significant increase in P-selectin expression, GP IIb/IIIa activation, and formation of PMPs and PA, as well as in unstimulated and agonist-stimulated (ADP, collagen) platelets in whole blood samples from patients with SP MS in comparison to the control group. We also determined the higher sP-selectin level in plasma of SP MS subjects than in the control group. Based on the obtained results, we might conclude that during the course of SP MS platelets are chronically activated and display hyperreactivity to physiological agonists, such as ADP or collagen.

  6. General Algorithm (High level)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  7. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia...... recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7g-N/L during 30days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80g-N/m2/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5W/m2 was generated at 2.85A/m2. Both current driven NH4+ migration...... and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative...

  8. Submersible microbial desalination cell for simultaneous ammonia recovery and electricity production from anaerobic reactors containing high levels of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-02-01

    High ammonia concentration in anaerobic reactors can seriously inhibit the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) was developed as an innovative method to lower the ammonia level in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) by in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L during 30 days, resulting in an average recovery rate of 80 g-N/m(2)/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5 W/m(2) was generated at 2.85 A/m(2). Both current driven NH4(+) migration and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMDC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A high level of estrogen-stimulated proteins selects breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy with good prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L H Weischenfeldt, Katrine; Kirkegaard, Tove; Rasmussen, Birgitte B

    2017-01-01

    , univariate and multivariate analysis revealed HR (95% CI) and p values for disease-free survival (DFS) of 2.00 (1.20-3.22), 0.008 and 1.70 (1.01-2.84), 0.04 and for the overall survival (OS) of 2.33 (1.19-4.57), 0.01 and 1.90 (0.97-3.79), 0.06, respectively. The high ER activity profile did not disclose......BACKGROUND: Adjuvant endocrine therapy has significantly improved survival of estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer patients, but around 20% relapse within 10 years. High expression of ER-stimulated proteins like progesterone receptor (PR), Bcl-2 and insulin-like growth factor receptor I...... enrolled in BIG 1-98, a randomized phase-III clinical trial comparing adjuvant letrozole, tamoxifen or a sequence of the two drugs. Immunohistochemical staining for ER, HER-2, PR, Bcl-2 and IGF-IR was performed and determined by Allred scoring (ER, PR and Bcl-2) or HercepTest (HER-2 and IGF-IR). RESULTS...

  10. A common signaling pathway is activated in erythroid cells expressing high levels of fetal hemoglobin: a potential role for cAMP-elevating agents in β-globin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuta T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tohru Ikuta,1 Yuichi Kuroyanagi,1 Nadine Odo,1 Siyang Liu21Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USABackground: Although erythroid cells prepared from fetal liver, cord blood, or blood from β-thalassemia patients are known to express fetal hemoglobin at high levels, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously showed that cyclic nucleotides such as cAMP and cGMP induce fetal hemoglobin expression in primary erythroid cells. Here we report that cAMP signaling contributes to high-level fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and β-thalassemia.Methods: The status of the cAMP signaling pathway was investigated using primary erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and the mononuclear cells of patients with β-thalassemia; erythroid cells from adult bone marrow mononuclear cells served as the control.Results: We found that intracellular cAMP levels were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood and β-thalassemia than from adult bone marrow. Protein kinase A activity levels and cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood or β-thalassemia than in adult bone marrow progenitors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play a role in fetal hemoglobin expression, were not consistently activated in cord blood or β-thalassemia erythroid cells. When cAMP signaling was activated in adult erythroid cells, fetal hemoglobin was induced at high levels and associated with reduced expression of BCL11A, a silencer of the β-globin gene.Conclusion: These results suggest that activated cAMP signaling may be a common mechanism among erythroid cells with high fetal hemoglobin levels, in part because of downregulation of BCL11A. Activation of the cAMP signaling pathway with cAMP-elevating agents may prove to be an important signaling mechanism to

  11. Synergistic impact of acute kidney injury and high level of cervical spinal cord injury on the weaning outcome of patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Kuang; Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Ho, Li-Ing; Wang, Jia-Horng; Kou, Yu Ru

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory neuromuscular impairment severity is known to predict weaning outcome among patients with cervical spinal cord injury; however, the impact of non-neuromuscular complications remains unexplored. This study was to evaluate possible neuromuscular and non-neuromuscular factors that may negatively impact weaning outcome. From September 2002 to October 2012, acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury patients who had received mechanical ventilation for >48h were enrolled and divided into successful (n=54) and unsuccessful weaning groups (n=19). Various neuromuscular, non-neuromuscular factors and events during the intensive care unit stay were extracted from medical charts and electronic medical records. Variables presenting with a significant difference (pspinal cord injury (C1-3), lower pulse rates, and lower Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, higher peak blood urea nitrogen, lower trough albumin, and lower trough blood leukocyte counts. Furthermore, unsuccessful weaning patients had a higher incidence of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock and acute kidney injury during the intensive care unit stay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed acute kidney injury and high level of cervical spinal cord injury were independent risk factors for failure of weaning. Importantly, patients with both risk factors showed a large increase in odds ratio for unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation (pinjury during the intensive care unit stay and high level of cervical spinal injury are two independent risk factors that synergistically work together producing a negative impact on weaning outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  13. Clinical course and outcome of patients with high-level microsatellite instability cancers in a real-life setting: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Naama Halpern,1 Yael Goldberg,2 Luna Kadouri,2 Morasha Duvdevani,2 Tamar Hamburger,2 Tamar Peretz,2 Ayala Hubert2 1Institute of Oncology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; 2Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah Medical Center, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel Background: The prognostic and predictive significance of the high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H phenotype in various malignancies is unclear. We describe the characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of patients with MSI-H malignancies treated in a real-life hospital setting.Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of MSI-H cancer patient files was conducted. We analyzed the genetic data, clinical characteristics, and oncological treatments, including chemotherapy and surgical interventions.Results: Clinical data of 73 MSI-H cancer patients were available. Mean age at diagnosis of first malignancy was 52.3 years. Eight patients (11% had more than four malignancies each. Most patients (76% had colorectal cancer (CRC. Seventeen patients (23% had only extracolonic malignancies. Eighteen women (36% had gynecological malignancy. Nine women (18% had breast cancer. Mean follow-up was 8.5 years. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival of all MSI-H cancer patients from first malignancy were 86% and 74.6%, respectively. Five-year overall survival rates of stage 2, 3, and 4 MSI-H CRC patients were 89.5%, 58.4%, and 22.9%, respectively.Conclusion: Although the overall prognosis of MSI-H cancer patients is favorable, this advantage may not be maintained in advanced MSI-H CRC patients. Keywords: microsatellite instability, malignancy, treatment, outcome

  14. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Elevated Levels of Interferon-γ Are Associated with High Levels of Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in Patients with the Intestinal Type of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory response directed against Helicobacter pylori (HP is believed to be one of the main triggers of the appearance of gastric lesions and their progression to gastric cancer (GC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been found responsible for about 10% of all GCs, but the inflammatory response has not been studied in GC patients with evidence of high levels of EBV reactivation. Objective. To determine the relationship between inflammation and antibodies against EBV reactivation antigens, HP, and the bacterium virulence factor CagA in patients with GC. Methods. 127 GC patients, 46 gastritis patients, and 197 healthy subjects were studied. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, MCP-1, and IFN-γ levels were measured in serum or plasma and compared against the antibody titers of VCA-IgG, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Significant ORs and positive trends were found between VCA-IgG and IFN-γ, specifically for patients with GC of intestinal type (OR: 6.4, 95% C.I. 1.2–35.4 (p<0.044. Conclusions. We confirmed a positive association between a marker of EBV reactivation and intestinal gastric cancer and present evidence of a correlation with elevated serum levels of IFN-γ, but not with the other cytokines.

  16. High-level Gpr56 expression is dispensable for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tata Nageswara Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood formation by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs is regulated by a still incompletely defined network of general and HSC-specific regulators. In this study, we analyzed the role of G-protein coupled receptor 56 (Gpr56 as a candidate HSC regulator based on its differential expression in quiescent relative to proliferating HSCs and its common targeting by core HSC regulators. Detailed expression analysis revealed that Gpr56 is abundantly expressed by HSPCs during definitive hematopoiesis in the embryo and in the adult bone marrow, but its levels are reduced substantially as HSPCs differentiate. However, despite enriched expression in HSPCs, Gpr56-deficiency did not impair HSPC maintenance or function during steady-state or myeloablative stress-induced hematopoiesis. Gpr56-deficient HSCs also responded normally to physiological and pharmacological mobilization signals, despite the reported role of this GPCR as a regulator of cell adhesion and migration in neuronal cells. Moreover, Gpr56-deficient bone marrow engrafted with equivalent efficiency as wild-type HSCs in primary recipients; however, their reconstituting ability was reduced when subjected to serial transplantation. These data indicate that although GPR56 is abundantly and selectively expressed by primitive HSPCs, its high level expression is largely dispensable for steady-state and regenerative hematopoiesis.

  17. Abnormally high levels of virus-infected IFN-gamma+ CCR4+ CD4+ CD25+ T cells in a retrovirus-associated neuroinflammatory disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Yamano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with both HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, which is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, and adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is known to be as follows: HTLV-1-infected T cells trigger a hyperimmune response leading to neuroinflammation. However, the HTLV-1-infected T cell subset that plays a major role in the accelerated immune response has not yet been identified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+ T cells are the predominant viral reservoir, and their levels are increased in HAM/TSP patients. While CCR4 is known to be selectively expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg cells in healthy individuals, we demonstrate that IFN-gamma production is extraordinarily increased and IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and Foxp3 expression is decreased in the CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+ T cells of HAM/TSP patients as compared to those in healthy individuals, and the alteration in function is specific to this cell subtype. Notably, the frequency of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+Foxp3(- T cells is dramatically increased in HAM/TSP patients, and this was found to be correlated with disease activity and severity. CONCLUSIONS: We have defined a unique T cell subset--IFN-gamma(+CCR4(+CD4(+CD25(+ T cells--that is abnormally increased and functionally altered in this retrovirus-associated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system.

  18. High level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 DNA vif and pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertine, Mélanie; Charpentier, Charlotte; Visseaux, Benoit; Storto, Alexandre; Collin, Gilles; Larrouy, Lucile; Damond, Florence; Matheron, Sophie; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Descamps, Diane

    2015-04-24

    In HIV-1, hypermutation introduced by APOBEC3F/3G cytidine deaminase activity leads to defective viruses. In-vivo impact of APOBEC3F/3G editing on HIV-2 sequences remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2-infected antiretroviral-naive patients. Direct sequencing of vif and pol regions was performed on HIV-2 proviral DNA from antiretroviral-naive patients included in the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales CO5 HIV-2 cohort. Hypermutated sequences were identified using Hypermut2.0 program. HIV-1 proviral sequences from Genbank were also assessed. Among 82 antiretroviral-naive HIV-2-infected patients assessed, 15 (28.8%) and five (16.7%) displayed Vif proviral defective sequences in HIV-2 groups A and B, respectively. A lower proportion of defective sequences was observed in protease-reverse transcriptase region. A higher median number of G-to-A mutations was observed in HIV-2 group B than in group A, both in Vif and protease-reverse transcriptase regions (P = 0.02 and P = 0.006, respectively). Compared with HIV-1 Vif sequences, a higher number of Vif defective sequences was observed in HIV-2 group A (P = 0.00001) and group B sequences (P = 0.013). We showed for the first time a high level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients. Our study reported a group effect with a significantly higher level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 group B than in group A sequences.

  19. Exome sequencing in schizophrenic patients with high levels of homozygosity identifies novel and extremely rare mutations in the GABA/glutamatergic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Giacopuzzi

    Full Text Available Inbreeding is a known risk factor for recessive Mendelian diseases and previous studies have suggested that it could also play a role in complex disorders, such as psychiatric diseases. Recent inbreeding results in the presence of long runs of homozygosity (ROHs along the genome, which are also defined as autozygosity regions. Genetic variants in these regions have two alleles that are identical by descent, thus increasing the odds of bearing rare recessive deleterious mutations due to a homozygous state. A recent study showed a suggestive enrichment of long ROHs in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that recent inbreeding could play a role in the disease. To better understand the impact of autozygosity on schizophrenia risk, we selected, from a cohort of 180 Italian patients, seven subjects with extremely high numbers of large ROHs that were likely due to recent inbreeding and characterized the mutational landscape within their ROHs using Whole Exome Sequencing and, gene set enrichment analysis. We identified a significant overlap (17%; empirical p-value = 0.0171 between genes inside ROHs affected by low frequency functional homozygous variants (107 genes and the group of most promising candidate genes mutated in schizophrenia. Moreover, in four patients, we identified novel and extremely rare damaging mutations in the genes involved in neurodevelopment (MEGF8 and in GABA/glutamatergic synaptic transmission (GAD1, FMN1, ANO2. These results provide insights into the contribution of rare recessive mutations and inbreeding as risk factors for schizophrenia. ROHs that are likely due to recent inbreeding harbor a combination of predisposing low-frequency variants and extremely rare variants that have a high impact on pivotal biological pathways implicated in the disease. In addition, this study confirms that focusing on patients with high levels of homozygosity could be a useful prioritization strategy for discovering new high-impact mutations in

  20. Exome sequencing in schizophrenic patients with high levels of homozygosity identifies novel and extremely rare mutations in the GABA/glutamatergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Minelli, Alessandra; Gardella, Rita; Valsecchi, Paolo; Traversa, Michele; Bonvicini, Cristian; Vita, Antonio; Sacchetti, Emilio; Magri, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Inbreeding is a known risk factor for recessive Mendelian diseases and previous studies have suggested that it could also play a role in complex disorders, such as psychiatric diseases. Recent inbreeding results in the presence of long runs of homozygosity (ROHs) along the genome, which are also defined as autozygosity regions. Genetic variants in these regions have two alleles that are identical by descent, thus increasing the odds of bearing rare recessive deleterious mutations due to a homozygous state. A recent study showed a suggestive enrichment of long ROHs in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that recent inbreeding could play a role in the disease. To better understand the impact of autozygosity on schizophrenia risk, we selected, from a cohort of 180 Italian patients, seven subjects with extremely high numbers of large ROHs that were likely due to recent inbreeding and characterized the mutational landscape within their ROHs using Whole Exome Sequencing and, gene set enrichment analysis. We identified a significant overlap (17%; empirical p-value = 0.0171) between genes inside ROHs affected by low frequency functional homozygous variants (107 genes) and the group of most promising candidate genes mutated in schizophrenia. Moreover, in four patients, we identified novel and extremely rare damaging mutations in the genes involved in neurodevelopment (MEGF8) and in GABA/glutamatergic synaptic transmission (GAD1, FMN1, ANO2). These results provide insights into the contribution of rare recessive mutations and inbreeding as risk factors for schizophrenia. ROHs that are likely due to recent inbreeding harbor a combination of predisposing low-frequency variants and extremely rare variants that have a high impact on pivotal biological pathways implicated in the disease. In addition, this study confirms that focusing on patients with high levels of homozygosity could be a useful prioritization strategy for discovering new high-impact mutations in genetically

  1. Programmed cell death induced by high levels of cytokinin in Arabidopsis cultured cells is mediated by the cytokinin receptor CRE1/AHK4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vescovi, M.; Riefler, M.; Gessuti, M.; Novák, Ondřej; Schmülling, T.; Lo Schiavo, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 7 (2012), s. 2825-2832 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis cultured cells * cytokinin * histidine kinase cytokinin receptors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.242, year: 2012

  2. Lack of increased DNA double-strand breaks in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vinay [Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Kumar, P.R. Vivek; Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G. [Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Das, Birajalaxmi, E-mail: birajalaxmi@yahoo.co.in [Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Basal level DNA DSBs was measured in individuals from NLNRA and HLNRA of Kerala. • No significant difference in the gamma-H2AX foci between HLNRA and NLNRA individuals. • Marginal reduction of gamma-H2AX foci in HDG of HLNRA compared to LDG and NLNRA. • A possible threshold dose of 5mGy/year for DSBs observed at chronic low dose exposure in vivo. - Abstract: The high level natural radiation area (HLNRA) of Kerala is a 55 km long and 0.5 km wide strip in south west coast of India. The level of background radiation in this area varies from <1.0 mGy/year to 45.0 mGy/year. It offers unique opportunity to study the effect of chronic low dose/low dose-rate radiation directly on human population. Spontaneous level of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 91 random individuals from HLNRA (N = 61, mean age: 36.1 ± 7.43 years) and normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) (N = 30, mean age: 35.5 ± 6.35 years) using gamma-H2AX as a marker. The mean annual dose received by NLNRA and HLNRA individuals was 1.28 ± 0.086 mGy/year and 8.28 ± 4.96 mGy/year, respectively. The spontaneous frequency of DSBs in terms of gamma-H2AX foci among NLNRA and HLNRA individuals were 0.095 ± 0.009 and 0.084 ± 0.004 per cell (P = 0.22). The individuals from HLNRA were further classified as low dose group (LDG, 1.51–5.0 mGy/year, mean dose: 2.63 ± 0.76 mGy/year) and high dose group (HDG, >5.0 mGy/year, mean dose: 11.04 ± 3.57 mGy/year). The spontaneous frequency of gamma-H2AX foci per cell in NLNRA, LDG and HDG was observed to be 0.095 ± 0.009, 0.096 ± 0.008 and 0.078 ± 0.004 respectively. Individuals belonging to HDG of HLNRA showed marginally lower frequency of DSBs as compared to NLNRA and LDG of HLNRA. This could be suggestive of either lower induction or better repair of DSBs in individuals from HDG of HLNRA. The present study indicated that 5.0 mGy/year could be a possible threshold dose for DSB induction

  3. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  4. High levels of the type III inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) can confer faster cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsfelt, Iben Boutrup; Byskov, Kristina; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2014-01-01

    overexpression led to faster cell spreading. The final total numbers of attached cells did, however, not differ between cultures of PiT1 overexpressing cells and control cells of neither cell type. We suggest that the PiT1-mediated fast adhesion potentials allow the cells to go faster out of G0/G1 and thereby......The inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. We recently showed that overexpression of human PiT1 was sufficient to increase proliferation of two strict density-inhibited cell lines, murine fibroblastic NIH3T3 and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells......, and allowed the cultures to grow to higher cell densities. In addition, upon transformation NIH3T3 cells showed increased ability to form colonies in soft agar. The cellular regulation of PiT1 expression supports that cells utilize the PiT1 levels to control proliferation, with non-proliferating cells showing...

  5. High levels of the type III inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) can confer faster cell adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsfelt, Iben Boutrup; Byskov, Kristina; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. We recently showed that overexpression of human PiT1 was sufficient to increase proliferation of two strict density-inhibited cell lines, murine fibroblastic NIH3T3 and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and allowed the cultures to grow to higher cell densities. In addition, upon transformation NIH3T3 cells showed increased ability to form colonies in soft agar. The cellular regulation of PiT1 expre...

  6. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  7. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  8. Recombinant adeno-associated virus mediates a high level of gene transfer but less efficient integration in the K562 human hematopoietic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, P; McQuiston, S A; Yu, X J; Pepper, K A; Krall, W J; Podsakoff, G M; Kurtzman, G J; Kohn, D B

    1997-03-01

    We tested the ability of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector to express and integrate exogenous DNA into human hematopoietic cells in the absence of selection. We developed an rAAV vector, AAV-tNGFR, carrying a truncated rat nerve growth factor receptor (tNGFR) cDNA as a cell surface reporter under the control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) long terminal repeat. An analogous MoMuLV-based retroviral vector (L-tNGFR) was used in parallel, and gene transfer and expression in human hematopoietic cells were assessed by flow cytometry and DNA analyses. Following gene transfer into K562 cells with AAV-tNGFR at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 13 infectious units (IU), 26 to 38% of cells expressed tNGFR on the surface early after transduction, but the proportion of tNGFR expressing cells steadily declined to 3.0 to 3.5% over 1 month of culture. At an MOI of 130 IU, nearly all cells expressed tNGFR immediately posttransduction, but the proportion of cells expressing tNGFR declined to 62% over 2 months of culture. The decline in the proportion of AAV-tNGFR-expressing cells was associated with ongoing losses of vector genomes. In contrast, K562 cells transduced with the retroviral vector L-tNGFR expressed tNGFR in a constant fraction. Integration analyses on clones showed that integration occurred at different sites. Integration frequencies were estimated at about 49% at an MOI of 130 and 2% at an MOI of 1.3. Transduction of primary human CD34+ progenitor cells by AAV-tNGFR was less efficient than with K562 cells and showed a declining percentage of cells expressing tNGFR over 2 weeks of culture. Thus, purified rAAV caused very high gene transfer and expression in human hematopoietic cells early after transduction, which steadily declined during cell passage in the absence of selection. Although the efficiency of integration was low, overall integration was markedly improved at a high MOI. While prolonged episomal persistence may be adequate

  9. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  10. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  11. [Clinical features, care pathways and behaviors of patients with high level of cardiovascular risk: transversal study in south-west region of France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Bernard; Couffinhal, Thierry; Saillour-Glénisson, Florence; Sevin, Floriane; Kret, Marion; Michel, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    To screen and to follow-up the patients with high cardiovascular risk in general practice may amplify the decrease of the cardiovascular morbi-mortality observed since a few years. The objective of this study is to identify the patients with high cardiovascular risk and to describe the management of these patients by general practitioners in Aquitaine. Transversal study of a sample of patients from 18 to 70 years old with high cardiovascular risk (combining at least 3 factors), included by voluntary general practitioners (GP). Forty-seven GP included 102 patients, presenting on average 3.7 risk factors among which 2.6 modifiable. The target values were reached for 59 % of patients with high blood pressure, 56 % of patients with diabetes and 53 % of patients with high cholesterol level. The analysis of care pathways identified the cardiologist as the privileged interlocutor. The doctors thought that seven patients out of 10 could change their risk behaviors. For the patients, the scale of declared importance to change was 6.6 on 10 for tobacco, 6.0 for food habits and 6.2 for physical activity. The confidence in their capacity to change was 3.8 on 10 for the tobacco, 5.2 for the food habits and 4.7 for the physical activity. Although doctors' sample is not representative, these results give an original overview of the management of patients with high cardiovascular risk and their care pathways. Medical treatments were globally in accordance with guidelines. The difficulty to change risk behaviors illustrates the necessity of patient therapeutic education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  13. Beneficial effects of cod protein on inflammatory cell accumulation in rat skeletal muscle after injury are driven by its high levels of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junio Dort

    muscle mass recovery, are driven by its high levels of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine.

  14. Do Ask, Do Tell: High Levels of Acceptability by Patients of Routine Collection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Four Diverse American Community Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Singal, Robbie; Grasso, Chris; King, Dana; Mayer, Kenneth; Baker, Kellan; Makadon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission have recommended asking sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in clinical settings and including such data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is increasingly viewed as a critical step toward systematically documenting and addressing health disparities affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The U.S. government is currently considering whether to include SOGI data collection in the Stage 3 guidelines for the incentive program promoting meaningful use of EHR. However, some have questioned whether acceptable standard measures to collect SOGI data in clinical settings exist. Methods In order to better understand how a diverse group of patients would respond if SOGI questions were asked in primary care settings, 301 randomly selected patients receiving primary care at four health centers across the U.S. were asked SOGI questions and then asked follow-up questions. This sample was mainly heterosexual, racially diverse, and geographically and regionally broad. Results There was a strong consensus among patients surveyed about the importance of asking SOGI questions. Most of the LGBT respondents thought that the questions presented on the survey allowed them to accurately document their SOGI. Most respondents—heterosexual and LGBT—answered the questions, and said that they would answer such questions in the future. While there were some age-related differences, respondents of all ages overwhelmingly expressed support for asking SOGI questions and understood the importance of providers' knowing their patients' SOGI. Conclusions Given current deliberations within national health care regulatory bodies and the government's increased attention to LGBT health disparities, the finding that patients can and will answer SOGI questions has important implications for public policy. This study provides evidence that integrating SOGI data collection into the meaningful

  15. Melanoma cells present high levels of HLA-A2-tyrosinase in association with instability and aberrant intracellular processing of tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Yael; Sinik, Keren; Haus-Cohen, Maya; Reiter, Yoram

    2012-04-01

    Short-lived protein translation products are proposed to be a major source of substrates for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen processing and presentation; however, a direct link between protein stability and the presentation level of MHC class I-peptide complexes has not been made. We have recently discovered that the peptide Tyr((369-377)) , derived from the tyrosinase protein is highly presented by HLA-A2 on the surface of melanoma cells. To examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this presentation, we compared characteristics of tyrosinase in melanoma cells lines that present high or low levels of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) complexes. We found no correlation between mRNA levels and the levels of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) presentation. Co-localization experiments revealed that, in cell lines presenting low levels of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) complexes, tyrosinase co-localizes with LAMP-1, a melanosome marker, whereas in cell lines presenting high HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) levels, tyrosinase localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. We also observed differences in tyrosinase molecular weight and glycosylation composition as well as major differences in protein stability (t(1/2) ). By stabilizing the tyrosinase protein, we observed a dramatic decrease in HLA-A2-tyrosinase presentation. Our findings suggest that aberrant processing and instability of tyrosinase are responsible for the high presentation of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) complexes and thus shed new light on the relationship between intracellular processing, stability of proteins, and MHC-restricted peptide presentation. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Classical Mus musculus Igκ enhancers support transcription but not high level somatic hypermutation from a V-lambda promoter in chicken DT40 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Rama Kothapalli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID in activated B cells. This process is strictly dependent on transcription. Hence, cis-acting transcriptional control elements have been proposed to target SHM to immunoglobulin loci. The Mus musculus Igκ locus is regulated by the intronic enhancer (iE/MAR and the 3' enhancer (3'E, and multiple studies using transgenic and knock-out approaches in mice and cell lines have reported somewhat contradictory results about the function of these enhancers in AID-mediated sequence diversification. Here we show that the M. musculus iE/MAR and 3'E elements are active solely as transcriptional enhancer when placed in the context of the IGL locus in Gallus gallus DT40 cells, but they are very inefficient in targeting AID-mediated mutation events to this locus. This suggests that either key components of the cis-regulatory targeting elements reside outside the murine Igκ transcriptional enhancer sequences, or that the targeting of AID activity to Ig loci occurs by largely species-specific mechanisms.

  17. Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc IgM Antibody Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Papini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99% female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM in RTT patients (n=53 and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD (n=82 and healthy age-matched controls (n=29. To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc, a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc assay (P=0.001 suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology.

  18. High Level of Agreement between Electronic and Paper Mode of Administration of a Thyroid-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome, ThyPRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sofie Larsen; Rejnmark, Lars; Ebbehøj, Eva

    2016-01-01

    to the original must be demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to assess the equivalence between the paper version and the electronic version of the thyroid-related quality-of-life questionnaire ThyPRO. METHODS: Patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism or autoimmune hypothyroidism in a clinically stable...

  19. Human mesenchymal stem cells generate a distinct pericellular zone of MMP activities via binding of MMPs and secretion of high levels of TIMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Thomas P; Jackson, Wesley M; Nesti, Leon J; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive candidates for inclusion in cell-based therapies by virtue of their abilities to home to wound sites. However, in-depth characterization of the specific effects of MSCs on their microenvironments is needed to realize their full therapeutic potentials. Furthermore, since MSCs of varying properties can be isolated from a diverse spectrum of tissues, a strategic and rational approach in MSC sourcing for a particular application has yet to be achieved. For example, MSCs that activate their proteolytic environments may promote tissue remodeling, while those from different tissue sources may inhibit proteases and promote tissue stabilization. This study attempts to address these issues by analyzing MSCs isolated from three adult tissue sources in terms of their effects on their proteolytic microenvironments. Human bone marrow, adipose, and traumatized muscle derived MSCs were compared in their soluble and cellular-associated MMP components and activity. For all types of MSCs, MMP activity associated with the cell surface, but activity levels and MMP profiles differed with tissue source. All MSC types bound exogenous active MMPs at their surfaces. MSCs were also able to activate exogenous proMMP-2 and proMMP-13. This is in marked contrast to the MSC soluble compartment, which strongly inhibited MMPs via endogenous TIMPs. The exact TIMP used to inhibit the exogenous MMP differed with MSC type. Thus, MSCs saturate their environment with both MMPs and TIMPs. Since they bind and activate MMPs at their surfaces, the net result is a very controlled pericellular localization of MMP activities by MSCs. © 2013.

  20. High Level of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived DNA Damage in Oral Cells Is an Independent Predictor of Oral/Head and Neck Cancer Risk in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Carmella, Steven G; Lindgren, Bruce; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared with cancer-free smokers. In this study, we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC. Subjects included cigarette smokers with HNSCC (cases, n = 30) and cancer-free smokers (controls, n = 35). At recruitment, tobacco/alcohol use questionnaires were completed, and urine and oral cell samples were obtained. Analysis of urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and N '-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN; TSNA biomarkers), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a PAH), cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) were performed. Cases and controls differed in mean age, male preponderance, and frequency of alcohol consumption (but not total alcoholic drinks). Univariate analysis revealed similar levels of NNN, 1-HOP, and cotinine between groups but, as reported previously, significantly higher DNA adduct formation in the cases. Multiple regression adjusting for potential confounders showed persistent significant difference in DNA adduct levels between cases and controls [ratio of geometric means, 20.0; 95% CI, 2.7-148.6). Our cohort of smokers with HNSCC demonstrates higher levels of TSNA-derived oral DNA damage in the setting of similar exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Among smokers, DNA adduct formation may act as a predictor of eventual development of HNSCC that is independent of carcinogen exposure indicators. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 507-13. ©2017 AACR See related editorial by Johnson and Bauman, p. 489 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. High-level expression of soluble form of mouse natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1C(B6) in Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbeský, Daniel; Kavan, Daniel; Chmelík, Josef; Novák, Petr; Vaněk, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2011), s. 178-184 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0477; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA ČR GAP207/10/1040; GA AV ČR IAA500200620; GA MŠk LC07017; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Natural killer cell * NKR-P1C receptor * NK1.1 antigen Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2011

  2. High levels of soluble VEGF receptor 1 early after trauma are associated with shock, sympathoadrenal activation, glycocalyx degradation and inflammation in severely injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Windeløv, Nis Agerlin

    2012-01-01

    The level of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sVEGFR1) is increased in sepsis and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. Endothelial activation and damage contribute to both sepsis and trauma pathology. Therefore, this study measured sVEGFR1 levels in trauma...... patients upon hospital admission hypothesizing that sVEGFR1 would increase with higher injury severity and predict a poor outcome....

  3. High levels of microRNA-21 in the stroma of colorectal cancers predict short disease-free survival in stage II colon cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jørgensen, Stine; Fog, Jacob Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all patients with stage II colorectal cancer will experience recurrent disease and subsequently die within 5 years. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in several cancer types and has been associated with survival in colon cancer. In the present study we developed a robust...... in situ hybridization assay using high-affinity Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) probes that specifically detect miR-21 in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. The expression of miR-21 was analyzed by in situ hybridization on 130 stage II colon and 67 stage II rectal cancer specimens. The mi...... relative to the nuclear density (TBR) obtained using a red nuclear stain. High TBR (and TB) estimates of miR-21 expression correlated significantly with shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.004, HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.55) in the stage II colon cancer patient group, whereas no significant correlation...

  4. Assessment of Physician's Systemic Treatment Preferences for Patients with Advanced Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis: Experience-Based Medicine in the Absence of High-Level Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffski, Patrick; Requilé, Annelies; van Cann, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of advanced desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is poorly standardized and primarily based on physician's choice. We assessed systemic treatment preferences for advanced DF among European experts, with the aim to define a control treatment for prospective randomized trials. A structured questionnaire was sent to a group of physicians involved in DF treatment. 54 experts from 14 countries (Europe, Israel) responded. Disease progression and failure of local therapy were typical indications for systemic therapy. Treatment preferences for patients with sporadic DF versus DF associated with Gardner's syndrome were similar. Physicians use at least 5 different classes of drugs (27 agents). The most frequently used compounds were anti-estrogens and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), in combination or as single agents. The second and third most common systemic approach was chemotherapy based on methotrexate or an anthracycline. Trial activity was limited to 1 country/1 multicentric study. There is an unmet medical need for evidence-based treatments and well-designed studies. Clinical trials with systemic agents should ideally select a homogeneous DF population with advanced, progressive, ideally symptomatic disease and/or functional impairment after failure of wait-and-see and/or local treatments, and should be randomized, with placebo, anti-estrogens, NSAIDs, or physician's choice as comparator. © 2018 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  6. High levels of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6 (eIF6) are required for immune system homeostasis and for steering the glycolytic flux of TCR-stimulated CD4+ T cells in both mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Nicola; Ricciardi, Sara; Miluzio, Annarita; Fedeli, Maya; Scagliola, Alessandra; Gallo, Simone; Brina, Daniela; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Biffo, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6 (eIF6) is required for 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis and efficient initiation of translation. Intriguingly, in both mice and humans, endogenous levels of eIF6 are detrimental as they act as tumor and obesity facilitators, raising the question on the evolutionary pressure that maintains high eIF6 levels. Here we show that, in mice and humans, high levels of eIF6 are required for proper immune functions. First, eIF6 heterozygous (het) mice show an increased mortality during viral infection and a reduction of peripheral blood CD4 + Effector Memory T cells. In human CD4 + T cells, eIF6 levels rapidly increase upon T-cell receptor activation and drive the glycolytic switch and the acquisition of effector functions. Importantly, in CD4 + T cells, eIF6 levels control interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion without affecting proliferation. In conclusion, the immune system has a high evolutionary pressure for the maintenance of a dynamic and powerful regulation of the translational machinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removing high-level contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities... then you

  8. High-level inducible Smad4-reexpression in the cervical cancer cell line C4-II is associated with a gene expression profile that predicts a preferential role of Smad4 in extracellular matrix composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein-Scory, Susanne; Zapatka, Marc; Eilert-Micus, Christina; Hoppe, Sabine; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Schmiegel, Wolff; Hahn, Stephan A; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard

    2007-01-01

    Smad4-mediated tumour suppression in cervical cancer cells is not due to restoration of TGF-β growth inhibitory responses. Rather, tumour cell-ECM interactions may be more relevant for Smad4-mediated tumour suppression. C4-II cells with a high level inducible Smad4 expression may serve as a model to indicate further Smad4 targets responsive to diverse environmental stimuli operative in vivo

  9. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  10. Other-than-high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  11. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  12. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  13. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  14. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  15. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  16. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  17. PDGFR-Β expression in small cell lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Eric T.; Gonzalez, Adriana; Massion, Pierre P.; Olson, Sandra J.; Albert, Jeffrey M.; Shyr, Yu; Carbone, David P.; Johnson, David H.; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Lu Bo

    2007-01-01

    Background: Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGFR-β are expressed and have been found to have prognostic value in several human cancers. Data in non-small-cell cancer cell lines have suggested that PDGFR is a therapeutic target for drug development. In the current study PDGFR-β expression and prognostic value in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 53 patients with limited and extensive stage SCLC were obtained for immunohistochemical staining. Tumors from each patient were sampled 3 times and stained with PDGFR-β specific antibody. Patients were divided into low and high staining groups based on intensity. Results: There was high intensity PDGFR-β staining in 20 patients with SCLC. Another 29 expressed low intensity PDGFR-β staining, with only 4 patients showing no PDGFR-β staining. There was no statistically significant difference in 5 year overall survival between patients with low levels of PDGFR-β staining vs. those with high level staining SCLC tumors (p = 0.538). Conclusions: The present study found that the majority of SCLC patients express, at least, a low level of PDGF-β. However, the level of PDGFR-β expression was not a statistically significant predictor of 5 year overall survival in SCLC

  18. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  19. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  20. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  1. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  2. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  3. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  4. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  5. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  6. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  7. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  8. Ao38, a new cell line from eggs of the black witch moth, Ascalapha odorata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is permissive for AcMNPV infection and produces high levels of recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect cell line is a critical component in the production of recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system and new cell lines hold the promise of increasing both quantity and quality of protein production. Results Seventy cell lines were established by single-cell cloning from a primary culture of cells derived from eggs of the black witch moth (Ascalapha odorata; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Among 8 rapidly growing lines, cell line 38 (Ao38 was selected for further analysis, based on susceptibility to AcMNPV infection and production of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP from a baculovirus expression vector. In comparisons with low-passage High Five (BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells, infected Ao38 cells produced β-galactosidase and SEAP at levels higher (153% and 150%, respectively than those measured from High Five cells. Analysis of N-glycans of SEAP produced in Ao38 cells revealed two N-glycosylation sites and glycosylation patterns similar to those reported for High Five and Sf9 cells. Glycopeptide isoforms consisted of pauci- or oligomannose, with and without fucose on N-acetylglucosamine(s linked to asparagine residues. Estimates of Ao38 cell volume suggest that Ao38 cells are approximately 2.5× larger than Sf9 cells but only approximately 74% of the size of High Five cells. Ao38 cells were highly susceptible to AcMNPV infection, similar to infectivity of Sf9 cells. Production of infectious AcMNPV budded virions from Ao38 cells peaked at approximately 4.5 × 107 IU/ml, exceeding that from High Five cells while lower than that from Sf9 cells. Ao38 cells grew rapidly in stationary culture with a population doubling time of 20.2 hr, and Ao38 cells were readily adapted to serum-free medium (Sf-900III and to a suspension culture system. Analysis of Ao38 and a parental Ascalapha odorata cell line indicated that these lines were free of the alphanodavirus that was recently identified as an adventitious agent in High Five cell

  9. Implications of infiltrating immune cells within bone marrow of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Juhyeon; Oh, Eun Ji; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Sun Och

    2017-06-01

    The implications of infiltrating immune cells, especially T cells and macrophages, in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have rarely been studied. We aimed to investigate the significance of infiltrating immune cells in the BM microenvironment as a prognostic factor for DLBCL patients. Using the initial pretreatment BM biopsy obtained from 198 DLBCL patients, we semiquantitatively evaluated CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages that infiltrate into the paratrabecular and interstitial areas of BM by immunohistochemistry and analyzed their clinicopathological and prognostic implications. Levels of infiltrating CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages were significantly higher in BM with DLBCL involvement (BMI-positive group) than in that without DLBCL involvement (BMI-negative group). Infiltration of CD8+ T cells significantly increased in cases with advanced Ann Arbor stage, elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, extranodal site involvement ≥2 sites, higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and higher International Prognostic Index (IPI) risk. High levels of CD3+ T cells were significantly associated with age ≤60, and high levels of CD163+ macrophages were associated with advanced Ann Arbor stage and higher IPI risk. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells was significantly related to inferior overall and recurrence-free survival rate, even in the BMI-negative group. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells within the pretreatment BM was related to poor prognosis, and might be a useful prognostic factor of DLBCL patients. Therefore, evaluation of CD8+ T cells is helpful for predicting prognosis in initial pretreatment BM biopsy of DLBCL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  11. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  12. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  13. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  14. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  15. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  16. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  17. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren Dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda da

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  18. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  19. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  20. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  1. Radiotherapy of patients with germ cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Taisuke; Maeda, Tomoho; Yoshida, Shoji; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Fumio; Imajo, Yoshinari; Gose, Kyuhei; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with germ cell tumor who received radiotherapy were discussed. There were eight patients with germinoma, two patients with malignant teratoma, three patients with pineocytoma (out of category of germ cell tumor today) and eight unverified patients. Irradiated dose was mostly from 50 Gy to 60 Gy and local irradiation was performed after whole brain irradiation in many cases. The effect of radiotherapy was not so good in patients with malignant teratoma. On the contrary, it was relatively good in patients with germinoma and five out of eight patients are alive with no symptoms of recurrence. Six out of eight unverified patients are also alive. Among them, several patients with germinoma are considered to be included. Germinoma occupies many cases of germ cell tumor and has a good response to radiotherapy. Against spinal cord metastasis and late recurrence, additional therapy, such as chemotherapy, seems to be useful to improve cure ratio. (author)

  2. High Level of Tregs Is a Positive Prognostic Marker in Patients with HPV-Positive Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, E.; Bouček, J.; Rotnáglová, E.; Salaková, M.; Koslabová, E.; Grega, M.; Eckschlager, T.; Říhová, Blanka; Procházka, B.; Klozar, J.; Tachezy, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 303929 (2014), 1-4 ISSN 2314-6141 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11542 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV 266513 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : HPV positivity * Tregs * Infection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Insulin secretion in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients is associated with high levels of nonglucose secretagogues and insulin resistance of beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Storgaard, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    lipodystrophy (controls). Thirty minutes before start of the clamp, a bolus of glucose was injected intravenously to stimulate endogenous insulin secretion. Insulin sensitivity index (SiRd) was estimated from glucose tracer analysis. LIPO displayed increased basal ISR (69%), clamp ISR (114%), basal insulin (130......, and glucose (all r > 0.41, P triglyceride, and glucagon (all r > 0.51, P triglyceride (r = 0.45, P ...%), and clamp insulin (32%), all P 0.65, P glucose. In control subjects, ISR(basal) correlated significantly with insulin, glucagon...

  4. CD4-regulatory cells in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, Lucy J C; Starkey, Cerys; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The numbers of airway CD8 and B lymphocytes are increased in COPD patients, suggesting an autoimmune process. CD4-regulatory T cells control autoimmunity but have not been studied in patients with COPD. OBJECTIVE: To compare T-regulatory cell numbers in the BAL from COPD patients......, smokers with normal lung function, and healthy nonsmokers (HNS). METHODS: BAL and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were obtained from 26 COPD patients, 19 smokers, and 8 HNS. Flow cytometry was performed for regulatory phenotypic markers. RESULTS: COPD patients had increased BAL CD8...... numbers compared to smokers and HNS. CD4 numbers were similar between groups. There was increased BAL CD4CD25(bright) expression in smokers (median 28.8%) and COPD patients (median 23.1%) compared to HNS (median 0%). Increased FoxP3 expression was confirmed in BAL CD4CD25(bright) cells. BAL CD4CD25 cells...

  5. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  6. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  7. High level of viral suppression and low switch rate to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adult patients followed over five years: retrospective analysis of the DART trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissy Kityo

    Full Text Available In contrast to resource-rich countries, most HIV-infected patients in resource-limited countries receive treatment without virological monitoring. There are few long-term data, in this setting, on rates of viral suppression or switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy. The DART trial compared clinically driven monitoring (CDM versus routine laboratory (CD4/haematology/biochemistry and clinical monitoring (LCM in HIV-infected adults initiating therapy. There was no virological monitoring in either study group during follow-up, but viral load was measured in Ugandan participants at trial closure. Two thousand three hundred and seventeen (2317 participants from this country initiated antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine/lamivudine plus tenofovir (n = 1717, abacavir (n = 300, or nevirapine (n = 300. Of 1896 (81.8% participants who were alive and in follow-up at trial closure (median 5.1 years after therapy initiation, 1507 (79.5% were on first-line and 389 (20.5% on second-line antiretroviral therapy. The overall switch rate after the first year was 5.6 per 100 person-years; the rate was substantially higher in participants with low baseline CD4 counts (<50 cells/mm3. Among 1207 (80.1% first-line participants with viral load measured, HIV RNA was <400 copies/ml in 963 (79.8%, 400-999 copies/ml in 37 (3.1%, 1,000-9,999 copies/ml in 110 (9.1%, and ≥10,000 copies/ml in 97 (8.0%. The proportion with HIV RNA <400 copies/ml was slightly lower (difference 7.1%, 95% CI 2.5 to 11.5% in CDM (76.3% than in LCM (83.4%. Among 252 (64.8% second-line participants with viral load measured (median 2.3 years after switch, HIV RNA was <400 copies/ml in 226 (89.7%, with no difference between monitoring strategies. Low switch rates and high, sustained levels of viral suppression are achievable without viral load or CD4 count monitoring in the context of high-quality clinical care.ISRCTN13968779.

  8. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  9. CAMAC and high-level-languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, K.H.

    1976-05-01

    A proposal for easy programming of CAMAC systems with high-level-languages (FORTRAN, RTL/2, etc.) and interpreters (BASIC, MUMTI, etc.) using a few subroutines and a LAM driver is presented. The subroutines and the LAM driver are implemented for PDP11/RSX-11M and for the CAMAC controllers DEC CA11A (branch controller), BORER type 1533A (single crate controller) and DEC CA11F (single crate controller). Mixed parallel/serial CAMAC systems employing KINETIC SYSTEMS serial driver mod. 3992 and serial crate controllers mod. 3950 are implemented for all mentioned parallel controllers, too. DMA transfers from or to CAMAC modules using non-processor-request controllers (BORER type 1542, DEC CA11FN) are available. (orig.) [de

  10. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  11. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  12. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  13. Management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  14. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  15. The CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Afaq, A; Bauer, G; Biery, K; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Cheung, H; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Dagenhart, W; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Kowalkowski, J; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) System relies on a purely software driven High Level Trigger (HLT) to reduce the full Level-1 accept rate of 100 kHz to approximately 100 Hz for archiving and later offline analysis. The HLT operates on the full information of events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end systems. The HLT software consists of a sequence of reconstruction and filtering modules executed on a farm of O(1000) CPUs built from commodity hardware. This paper presents the architecture of the CMS HLT, which integrates the CMS reconstruction framework in the online environment. The mechanisms to configure, control, and monitor the Filter Farm and the procedures to validate the filtering code within the DAQ environment are described.

  16. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  17. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  18. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  19. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa.Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme.Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms.A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49.There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  20. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  1. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  2. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  3. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  4. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  5. Vitrification of high level wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1984-02-01

    A brief historical background of the research and development work conducted in France over 25 years is first presented. Then, the papers deals with the vitrification at (1) the UP1 reprocessing plant (Marcoule) and (2) the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants (La Hague). 1) The properties of glass required for high-level radioactive waste vitrification are recalled. The vitrification process and facility of Marcoule are presented. (2) The average characteristics (chemical composition, activity) of LWR fission product solution are given. The glass formulations developed to solidify LWR waste solution must meet the same requirements as those used in the UP1 facility at Marcoule. Three important aspects must be considered with respect to the glass fabrication process: corrosiveness of the molten glass with regard to metals, viscosity of the molten glass, and, volatization during glass fabrication. The glass properties required in view of interim storage and long-term disposal are then largely developed. Two identical vitrification facilities are planned for the site: T7, to process the UP2 throughput, and T7 for the UP3 plant. A prototype unit was built and operated at Marcoule

  6. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  7. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  8. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  9. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  10. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  11. Cell mediated immunity in patients with osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the difficulty of obtaining suitable material, earlier studies on cell mediated immunity in the radium patients failed to include positive controls. Recently we were fortunate in obtaining samples of lymphocytes from two suitable patients who had had amputations for spontaneous osteosarcoma six months previously. Lymphocytes from both of these patients showed cytotoxicity to cultured cells derived from a human osteogenic sarcoma but not to normal fibroblasts. These results help to validate our test for early detection of osteosarcoma in the radium patients using measurements of cytotoxicity

  12. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND HIGH LEVEL OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Olaleye

    African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. ... were more obese (BMI>30) among the females (63.6%) than the males (36.4%). ... hyper-cholesterol and hypertension are known risk factors in cardiovascular ... percentage (or proportion) of patients with ... suggested that 70% of elevated blood pressure ... shown in Table 1.

  13. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  14. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  15. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik

    1999-01-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low

  16. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  17. Phenotypic characterization of autoreactive B cells--checkpoints of B cell tolerance in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett M Jacobi

    Full Text Available DNA-reactive B cells play a central role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; DNA antibodies precede clinical disease and in established disease correlate with renal inflammation and contribute to dendritic cell activation and high levels of type 1 interferon. A number of central and peripheral B cell tolerance mechanisms designed to control the survival, differentiation and activation of autoreactive B cells are thought to be disturbed in patients with SLE. The characterization of DNA-reactive B cells has, however, been limited by their low frequency in peripheral blood. Using a tetrameric configuration of a peptide mimetope of DNA bound by pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies, we can identify B cells producing potentially pathogenic DNA-reactive antibodies. We, therefore, characterized the maturation and differentiation states of peptide, (ds double stranded DNA cross-reactive B cells in the peripheral blood of lupus patients and correlated these with clinical disease activity. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of tetramer-binding B cells in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. We demonstrated the existence of a novel tolerance checkpoint at the transition of antigen-naïve to antigen-experienced. We further demonstrate that patients with moderately active disease have more autoreactive B cells in both the antigen-naïve and antigen-experienced compartments consistent with greater impairment in B cell tolerance in both early and late checkpoints in these patients than in patients with quiescent disease. This methodology enables us to gain insight into the development and fate of DNA-reactive B cells in individual patients with SLE and paves the way ultimately to permit better and more customized therapies.

  18. Merkel cells carcinoma of the aged patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.; Assouline, A.; Mazeron, J.J.; Chargari, C.; Krzisch, C.

    2009-01-01

    The carcinoma at Merkel cells is a rare and aggressive skin cancer, principally of the aged adult. The surgery is the fundamental treatment. The interest of the adjuvant radiotherapy is discussed for the aged patient. In the limits of this retrospective analysis, the postoperative radiotherapy appeared to bring a similar benefit as for younger patients. (N.C.)

  19. A mammalianized synthetic nitroreductase gene for high-level expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, Maik; Paulmann, Nils; Fleischhauer, Sebastian; Vowinckel, Jakob; Priller, Josef; Walther, Diego J

    2009-01-01

    The nitroreductase/5-(azaridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (NTR/CB1954) enzyme/prodrug system is considered as a promising candidate for anti-cancer strategies by gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) and has recently entered clinical trials. It requires the genetic modification of tumor cells to express the E. coli enzyme nitroreductase that bioactivates the prodrug CB1954 to a powerful cytotoxin. This metabolite causes apoptotic cell death by DNA interstrand crosslinking. Enhancing the enzymatic NTR activity for CB1954 should improve the therapeutical potential of this enzyme-prodrug combination in cancer gene therapy. We performed de novo synthesis of the bacterial nitroreductase gene adapting codon usage to mammalian preferences. The synthetic gene was investigated for its expression efficacy and ability to sensitize mammalian cells to CB1954 using western blotting analysis and cytotoxicity assays. In our study, we detected cytoplasmic protein aggregates by expressing GFP-tagged NTR in COS-7 cells, suggesting an impaired translation by divergent codon usage between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, we generated a synthetic variant of the nitroreductase gene, called ntro, adapted for high-level expression in mammalian cells. A total of 144 silent base substitutions were made within the bacterial ntr gene to change its codon usage to mammalian preferences. The codon-optimized ntro either tagged to gfp or c-myc showed higher expression levels in mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, the ntro rendered several cell lines ten times more sensitive to the prodrug CB1954 and also resulted in an improved bystander effect. Our results show that codon optimization overcomes expression limitations of the bacterial ntr gene in mammalian cells, thereby improving the NTR/CB1954 system at translational level for cancer gene therapy in humans

  20. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electropolishing decontamination system for high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Berger, D.N.; Allen, R.P.; Bryan, G.H.; Place, B.G.

    1988-10-01

    As part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) project agreement with the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The Nuclear Waste Treatment Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is preparing 30 radioactive canisters containing borosilicate glass for use in high-level waste repository related tests at the Asse Salt Mine. After filling, the canisters will be welded closed and decontaminated in preparation for shipping to the FRG. Electropolishing was selected as the primary decontamination approach, and an electropolishing system with associated canister inspection equipment has been designed and fabricated for installation in a large hot cell. This remote electropolishing system, which is currently undergoing preliminary testing, is described in this report. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Increased Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 by T Cells, Induced by B7 in Sera, Reduces Adaptive Immunity in Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamri, Wafa; Abeles, Robin D; Hou, Tie Zheng

    2017-01-01

    , hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and biliary epithelial cells from healthy or diseased liver tissues. We also measured levels of soluble B7 serum samples from patients and controls, and mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Peripheral blood...... were found to have increased concentrations of soluble B7 compared to sera from controls. Necrotic human primary hepatocytes exposed to acetaminophen, but not hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and biliary epithelial cells from patients with ALF, secreted high levels of soluble B7. Sera from mice...... with acetaminophen-induced liver injury contained high levels of soluble B7 compared to sera from mice without liver injury. Plasma exchange reduced circulating levels of soluble B7 in patients with ALF and expression of CTLA4 on T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CD4+T cells from patients with ALF have increased...

  4. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  5. Expression of a retinoic acid signature in circulating CD34 cells from coronary artery disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Laan Anja M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating CD34+ progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cells, including endothelial cells. Knowledge is still scarce about the transcriptional programs used by CD34+ cells from peripheral blood, and how these are affected in coronary artery disease (CAD patients. Results We performed a whole genome transcriptome analysis of CD34+ cells, CD4+ T cells, CD14+ monocytes, and macrophages from 12 patients with CAD and 11 matched controls. CD34+ cells, compared to other mononuclear cells from the same individuals, showed high levels of KRAB box transcription factors, known to be involved in gene silencing. This correlated with high expression levels in CD34+ cells for the progenitor markers HOXA5 and HOXA9, which are known to control expression of KRAB factor genes. The comparison of expression profiles of CD34+ cells from CAD patients and controls revealed a less naïve phenotype in patients' CD34+ cells, with increased expression of genes from the Mitogen Activated Kinase network and a lowered expression of a panel of histone genes, reaching levels comparable to that in more differentiated circulating cells. Furthermore, we observed a reduced expression of several genes involved in CXCR4-signaling and migration to SDF1/CXCL12. Conclusions The altered gene expression profile of CD34+ cells in CAD patients was related to activation/differentiation by a retinoic acid-induced differentiation program. These results suggest that circulating CD34+ cells in CAD patients are programmed by retinoic acid, leading to a reduced capacity to migrate to ischemic tissues.

  6. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vonno, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  7. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alloimmunization is a recognized complication of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and causes delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and provides problems sourcing compatible blood for future transfusions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of RBC alloimmunization in SCD patients in ...

  8. Circulating tumor cells in melanoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Clawson

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are of recognized importance for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. With melanoma, most studies do not show any clear relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease. Here, CTCs were enriched (∼400X from blood of melanoma patients using a simple centrifugation device (OncoQuick, and 4 melanocyte target RNAs (TYR, MLANA, MITF, and MIF were quantified using QPCR. Approximately one-third of melanoma patients had elevated MIF and MLANA transcripts (p<0.0001 and p<0.001, respectively compared with healthy controls. In contrast, healthy controls had uniformly higher levels of TYR and MITF than melanoma patients (p<0.0001. There was a marked shift of leukocytes into the CTC-enriched fractions (a 430% increase in RNA recovery, p<0.001, and no relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease was found. CTCs were captured on microfabricated filters and cultured. Captured melanoma CTCs were large cells, and consisted of 2 subpopulations, based on immunoreactivity. One subpopulation (∼50% stained for both pan-cytokeratin (KRT markers and the common leukocyte marker CD-45, whereas the second subpopulation stained for only KRT. Since similar cells are described in many cancers, we also examined blood from colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients. We observed analogous results, with most captured CTCs staining for both CD-45/KRT markers (and for the monocyte differentiation marker CD-14. Our results suggest that immature melanocyte-related cells (expressing TYR and MITF RNA may circulate in healthy controls, although they are not readily detectable without considerable enrichment. Further, as early-stage melanomas develop, immature melanocyte migration into the blood is somehow curtailed, whereas a significant proportion of patients develop elevated CTC levels (based on MIF and MLANA RNAs. The nature of the captured CTCs is consistent with literature describing leukocyte/macrophage-tumor cell fusion hybrids

  9. Pentazocine dependence among sickle cell disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sickle cell disease is a chronic disease. Severe bone pain is commonly the hallmark of clinical features. This commonly necessitates the use of analgesics especially Opioids which unfortunately have a high potential to produce dependence. The complications of dependence in patients on any psychoactive ...

  10. Avascular necrosis in sickle cell (homozygous S) patients: Predictive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... Results: The prevalence of AVN in sickle cell patients was ... Key words: Avascular necrosis, homozygous S, platelet count, sickle cell anemia, white cell count .... frequency of vaso‑occlusive crisis, platelet, and white cell.

  11. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells accumulate and secrete interferon alpha in lymph nodes of HIV-1 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lehmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC decline during HIV-1 infection, but at the same time they express markedly higher levels of interferon alpha (IFNalpha, which is associated with HIV-1 disease progression. Here we show an accumulation of pDC in lymph nodes (LN of treatment-naïve HIV-1 patients. This phenomenon was associated with elevated expression of the LN homing marker, CCR7, on pDC in peripheral blood of HIV-1 patients, which conferred increased migratory capacity in response to CCR7 ligands in ex vivo functional assays. LN-homed pDC of HIV-1 patients presented higher CD40 and lower BDCA2 levels, but unchanged CD83 and CD86 expression. In addition, these cells expressed markedly higher amounts of IFNalpha compared to uninfected individuals, and were undergoing faster rates of cell death. These results demonstrate for the first time that in asymptomatic, untreated HIV-1 patients circulating pDC up-regulate CCR7 expression, accumulate in lymph nodes, and express high amounts of IFNalpha before undergoing cell death. Since IFNalpha inhibits cell proliferation and modulates immune responses, chronically high levels of this cytokine in LN of HIV-1 patients may impair differentiation and immune function of bystander CD4(+ T cells, thus playing into the mechanisms of AIDS immunopathogenesis.

  13. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  15. Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.; Jonker, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating

  16. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  17. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  18. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  19. Porcine proximal tubular cells (LLC-PK1) are able to tolerate high levels of lithium chloride in vitro: assessment of the influence of 1-20 mM LiCl on cell death and alterations in cell biology and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kirsten C; Hart, David A; Becker, Rolf W

    2010-01-25

    Lithium, a prophylactic drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder, is prescribed with caution due to its side effects, including renal damage. In this study porcine LLC-PK1 renal tubular cells were used to establish the direct toxicity of lithium on proximal cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In the presence of LiCl, cell proliferation exhibited insignificant decreases in a concentration-dependent manner, but once confluent, constant cell numbers were observed. Cell cycle studies indicated a small dose-dependent accumulation of cells in the G2/M stage after 24 h, as well as an increase in cells in the G0/G1 phase after treatment with 1-10 mM LiCl, but not at 20 mM LiCl. No evidence of apoptosis was observed based on cell morphology or DNA fragmentation studies, or evidence of protein expression changes for Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 proteins using immunocytochemistry. In addition caspases 3, 8 and 9 activity remained unaltered between control and lithium-treated cultures. To conclude, exposure to high concentrations of lithium did not result in overt toxic effects to LLC-PK1 renal cells, although LiCl did alter some aspects of cell behaviour, which could potentially influence function over time.

  20. Benign prostatic hypertrophy with high levels of gamma-seminoprotein (gamma-Sm), prostate specific antigen: report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    浅川, 正純; 安本, 亮二; 上水流, 雅人; 前川, 正信

    1988-01-01

    gamma-Seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) is recently being noted as a tumor marker of prostatic cancer. However, since gamma-Sm is a specific antigen against the prostatic tissue, high levels are also observed in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In this report, two patients with BPH who had high levels of gamma-Sm were studied.

  1. Protective mechanism against cancer found in progeria patient cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi

  2. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  3. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  4. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Janice E. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Brewer, Jerry D., E-mail: brewer.jerry@mayo.edu [Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients.

  6. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Janice E.; Brewer, Jerry D.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients

  7. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  8. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  9. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  10. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  11. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  12. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  13. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  14. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  15. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  16. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  17. A New Size-based Platform for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bo Young; Kim, Jhingook; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol

    2017-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) might play a significant role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the ability to detect CTCs is limited, especially in cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In this study, we evaluated a new size-based CTC detection platform and its clinical efficacy in colorectal cancer. Blood samples were obtained from 76 patients with colorectal cancer and 20 healthy control subjects for CTC analysis. CTCs were enriched using a high-density microporous chip filter and were detected using a 4-color staining protocol including 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for nucleated cells, CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a leukocyte marker, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) mAb or cytokeratin (CK) mAb as an epithelial cell marker. CTC positivity was defined as DAPI-positive (DAPI + )/CD45 - /EpCAM + or CK + cells and clinical outcomes of patients were analyzed according to CTC counts. CTCs were detected in 50 patients using this size-based filtration platform. CTC + patients were more frequently identified with a high level of carcinoembryonic antigen and advanced stage cancer (P = .038 and P = .017, respectively). CTC counts for patients with stage IV cancer (12.47 ± 24.00) were significantly higher than those for patients with cancers that were stage I to III (2.84 ± 5.29; P = .005) and healthy control subjects (0.25 ± 0.55; P colorectal cancer patients. Our results suggest that this new size-based platform has potential for determining prognosis and therapeutic response in colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A phase I study of dexosome immunotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Nancy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continued need to develop more effective cancer immunotherapy strategies. Exosomes, cell-derived lipid vesicles that express high levels of a narrow spectrum of cell proteins represent a novel platform for delivering high levels of antigen in conjunction with costimulatory molecules. We performed this study to test the safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous dendritic cell (DC-derived exosomes (DEX loaded with the MAGE tumor antigens in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods This Phase I study enrolled HLA A2+ patients with pre-treated Stage IIIb (N = 4 and IV (N = 9 NSCLC with tumor expression of MAGE-A3 or A4. Patients underwent leukapheresis to generate DC from which DEX were produced and loaded with MAGE-A3, -A4, -A10, and MAGE-3DPO4 peptides. Patients received 4 doses of DEX at weekly intervals. Results Thirteen patients were enrolled and 9 completed therapy. Three formulations of DEX were evaluated; all were well tolerated with only grade 1–2 adverse events related to the use of DEX (injection site reactions (N = 8, flu like illness (N = 1, and peripheral arm pain (N = 1. The time from the first dose of DEX until disease progression was 30 to 429+ days. Three patients had disease progression before the first DEX dose. Survival of patients after the first DEX dose was 52–665+ days. DTH reactivity against MAGE peptides was detected in 3/9 patients. Immune responses were detected in patients as follows: MAGE-specific T cell responses in 1/3, increased NK lytic activity in 2/4. Conclusion Production of the DEX vaccine was feasible and DEX therapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced NSCLC. Some patients experienced long term stability of disease and activation of immune effectors

  19. Modular pathway rewiring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables high-level production of L-ornithine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jiufu; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Krivoruchko, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    intermediates can serve as platform cell factories for production of such products. Here we implement a modular pathway rewiring (MPR) strategy and demonstrate its use for pathway optimization resulting in high-level production of L-ornithine, an intermediate of L-arginine biosynthesis and a precursor...

  20. Pancreatic Endoderm-Derived From Diabetic Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generates Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Secreting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Bahareh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Massumi, Mohammad; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-10-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can potentially serve as an invaluable source for cell replacement therapy and allow the creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells without the controversial use of embryos and avoids any immunological incompatibility. The generation of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro provides an unprecedented cell source for personal drug discovery and cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. A new five-step protocol was introduced in this study, effectively induced hiPSCs to differentiate into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, primitive gut-tube endoderm, posterior foregut, pancreatic endoderm, and endocrine precursor. Each stage of differentiation were characterized by stage-specific markers. The produced cells exhibited many properties of functional β-cells, including expression of critical β-cells transcription factors, the potency to secrete C-peptide in response to high levels of glucose and the presence of mature endocrine secretory granules. This high efficient differentiation protocol, established in this study, yielded 79.18% insulin-secreting cells which were responsive to glucose five times higher than the basal level. These hiPSCs-derived glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells might provide a promising approach for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2616-2625, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  2. A Novel Inflammation-Based Stage (I Stage in Patients with Resectable Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation plays a key role in cancer. In the current study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based stage, named I stage, for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in the current study. The I stage was calculated as follows: patients with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP (>10 mg/L, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR (>3.5, and platelet-count-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR (>150 were defined as I3. Patients with two, one, or no abnormal value were defined as I2, I1, or I0, respectively. The prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. There were 112 patients for I0, 97 patients for I1, 66 patients for I2, and 48 patients for I3, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS in patients with I0, I1, I2, and I3 was 50.0%, 30.9%, 18.2%, and 8.3%, respectively (I0 versus I1, P=0.002; I1 versus I2, P=0.012; I2 versus I3, P=0.020. Multivariate analyses revealed that I stage was an independent prognostic factor in patients with resectable ESCC (P<0.001. Conclusion. The inflammation-based stage (I stage is a novel and useful predictive factor for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC.

  3. Unique B cell differentiation profile in tolerant kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, M; Pallier, A; Braza, F; Lacombe, G; Le Gallou, S; Baron, D; Giral, M; Danger, R; Guerif, P; Aubert-Wastiaux, H; Néel, A; Michel, L; Laplaud, D-A; Degauque, N; Soulillou, J-P; Tarte, K; Brouard, S

    2014-01-01

    Operationally tolerant patients (TOL) display a higher number of blood B cells and transcriptional B cell signature. As they rarely develop an allo-immune response, they could display an abnormal B cell differentiation. We used an in vitro culture system to explore T-dependent differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. B cell phenotype, apoptosis, proliferation, cytokine, immunoglobulin production and markers of differentiation were followed in blood of these patients. Tolerant recipients show a higher frequency of CD20(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) transitional and CD20(+) CD38(lo) CD24(lo) naïve B cells compared to patients with stable graft function, correlating with a decreased frequency of CD20(-) CD38(+) CD138(+) differentiated plasma cells, suggestive of abnormal B cell differentiation. B cells from TOL proliferate normally but produce more IL-10. In addition, B cells from tolerant recipients exhibit a defective expression of factors of the end step of differentiation into plasma cells and show a higher propensity for cell death apoptosis compared to patients with stable graft function. This in vitro profile is consistent with down-regulation of B cell differentiation genes and anti-apoptotic B cell genes in these patients in vivo. These data suggest that a balance between B cells producing IL-10 and a deficiency in plasma cells may encourage an environment favorable to the tolerance maintenance. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  5. Design features of a full-scale high-level waste vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Bonner, W.F.

    1976-08-01

    A system has been designed and is currently under construction for vitrification of commercial high-level waste. The process consists of a spray calciner coupled to an in-can melter. Due to the high radiation levels expected, this equipment is designed for totally remote operation and maintenance. The in-cell arrangement of this equipment has been developed cooperatively with a nuclear fuel reprocessor. The system will be demonstrated both full scale with nonradioactive simulated waste and pilot scale with actual high-level waste

  6. Autoantigens targeted in scleroderma patients with vascular disease are enriched in endothelial lineage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Zsuzsanna H.; Cottrell, Tricia R.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Antiochos, Brendan; Zambidis, Elias T.; Park, Tea Soon; Halushka, Marc K.; Gutierrez-Alamillo, Laura; Cimbro, Raffaello; Rosen, Antony; Casciola-Rosen, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Scleroderma patients with autoantibodies to centromere proteins (CENPs) and/or interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) are at increased risk of severe vascular complications. We set out to define whether these autoantigens are enriched in cells of the vasculature. Methods Successive stages of embryoid bodies (EBs) as well as vascular progenitors were used to evaluate the expression of scleroderma autoantigens IFI16 and CENP by immunoblotting. CD31 was included to mark early blood vessels. IFI16 and CD31 expression were defined in skin paraffin sections from scleroderma patients and from healthy controls. IFI16 expression was determined by flow cytometry in circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). Results Expression of CENP-A, IFI16 and CD31 was enriched in EBs at days 10 and 12 of differentiation, and particularly in cultures enriched in vascular progenitors (IFI16, CD31, CENPs A and-B). This pattern was distinct from that of comparator autoantigens. Immunohistochemical staining of skin paraffin sections showed enrichment of IFI16 in CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells in biopsies from scleroderma patients and normal controls. Flow cytometry analysis revealed IFI16 expression in CPCs, but minimal expression in CECs. Conclusion Expression of scleroderma autoantigens IFI16 and CENPs, which are associated with severe vascular disease, is increased in vascular progenitors and mature endothelial cells. High level, lineage-enriched expression of autoantigens may explain the striking association between clinical phenotypes and the immune targeting of specific autoantigens. PMID:27159521

  7. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  8. Techniques for the solidification of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the long-term management of the high-level wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is receiving world-wide attention. While the majority of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of commercial fuels are currently being stored in stainless-steel tanks, increasing effort is being devoted to developing technology for the conversion of these wastes into solids. A number of full-scale solidification facilities are expected to come into operation in the next decade. The object of this report is to survey and compare all the work currently in progress on the techniques available for the solidification of high-level wastes. It will examine the high-level liquid wastes arising from the various processes currently under development or in operation, the advantages and disadvantages of each process for different types and quantities of waste solutions, the stages of development, the scale-up potential and flexibility of the processes

  9. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigerman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The subject of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage, is bibliographically reviewed. The review shows that in the majority of the countries, spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes are planned to be stored for tens of years. Sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have not yet been found. A first final disposal facility is expected to come into operation in the United States of America by the year 2010. Other final disposal facilities are expected to come into operation in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan by the year 2020. Meanwhile , stress is placed upon the 'dry storage' method which is carried out successfully in a number of countries (Britain and France). In the United States of America spent fuels are stored in water pools while the 'dry storage' method is still being investigated. (Author)

  10. The ATLAS High-Level Calorimeter Trigger in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment uses a two-level triggering system to identify and record collision events containing a wide variety of physics signatures. It reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz, whilst maintaining high efficiency for interesting collision events. It is composed of an initial hardware-based level-1 trigger followed by a software-based high-level trigger. A central component of the high-level trigger is the calorimeter trigger. This is responsible for processing data from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in order to identify electrons, photons, taus, jets and missing transverse energy. In this talk I will present the performance of the high-level calorimeter trigger in Run-2, noting the improvements that have been made in response to the challenges of operating at high luminosity.

  11. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  12. Establishment and characterization of 7 novel hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines from patient-derived tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xin

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer with poor prognosis worldwide and the molecular mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to establish a collection of human HCC cell lines from patient-derived xenograft (PDX models. From the 20 surgical HCC sample collections, 7 tumors were successfully developed in immunodeficient mice and further established 7 novel HCC cell lines (LIXC002, LIXC003, LIXC004, LIXC006, LIXC011, LIXC012 and CPL0903 by primary culture. The characterization of cell lines was defined by morphology, growth kinetics, cell cycle, chromosome analysis, short tandem repeat (STR analysis, molecular profile, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, response to clinical chemotherapeutics was validated both in vitro and in vivo. STR analysis indicated that all cell lines were unique cells different from known cell lines and free of contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma. The other findings were quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Chromosome aberration could be found in all cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein was overexpressed only in 3 out of 7 cell lines. 4 cell lines expressed high level of vimentin. Ki67 was strongly stained in all cell lines. mRNA level of retinoic acid induced protein 3 (RAI3 was decreased in all cell lines. The 7 novel cell lines showed variable sensitivity to 8 tested compounds. LIXC011 and CPL0903 possessed multiple drug resistance property. Sorafenib inhibited xenograft tumor growth of LIXC006, but not of LIXC012. Our results indicated that the 7 novel cell lines with low passage maintaining their clinical and pathological characters could be good tools for further exploring the molecular mechanism of HCC and anti-cancer drug screening.

  13. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding

  14. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  15. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  16. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures

  17. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  18. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  19. Treatment technologies for non-high-level wastes (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Clark, D.E.

    1976-06-01

    Non-high-level waste arising from operations at nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, and reprocessing facilities can be treated using one of several technical alternatives prior to storage. Each alternative and the associated experience and status of development are summarized. The technology for treating non-high-level wastes is generally available for industrial use. Improved techniques applicable to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle are being developed and demonstrated to reduce the volume of waste and to immobilize it for storage. 36 figures, 59 references

  20. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  2. Aeon: Synthesizing Scheduling Algorithms from High-Level Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Jean-Noël; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    This paper describes the aeon system whose aim is to synthesize scheduling algorithms from high-level models. A eon, which is entirely written in comet, receives as input a high-level model for a scheduling application which is then analyzed to generate a dedicated scheduling algorithm exploiting the structure of the model. A eon provides a variety of synthesizers for generating complete or heuristic algorithms. Moreover, synthesizers are compositional, making it possible to generate complex hybrid algorithms naturally. Preliminary experimental results indicate that this approach may be competitive with state-of-the-art search algorithms.

  3. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Imaging in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenhofer, E.; Ubl, P.; Czerny, C.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a mortality rate of approximately 25% (Peloschek et al., 2010). Accurate assessment of nodal involvement in patients with MCC predicts significantly overall outcome (Smith et al., 2012 and Ortin-Perez et al., 2007). Due to the rarity of this highly aggressive disease, only a few imaging reports on MCC were published, and subsequently still to date no accepted imaging algorithm for MCC is available. For primary staging of MCC, general recommendations have included ultrasonography, chest X-ray CT, and MRI, but recent articles show that the use of sentinel node and FDG-PET/PET-CT is gaining more and more importance

  5. Anaesthetic Management of Homozygous Sickle Cell Patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell disease is a common comorbidity in patient presenting for surgical care in our hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anaesthetic management of sickle cell disease patients in our hospital. Patients and method: A prospective audit was conducted for a period of 12 months, ...

  6. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  7. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  8. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  9. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  10. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...

  11. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  12. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references

  13. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  14. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Stone, J.A.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Westberry, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150 0 C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables

  15. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  16. An emergency management demonstrator using the high level architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the issues of simulation interoperability within the emergency management training context. A prototype implementation in Java of a subset of the High Level Architecture (HLA) is described. The use of Web Browsers to provide graphical user interfaces to HLA is also investigated. (au)

  17. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." excerpt

  18. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  19. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  20. High level of CA 125 due to large endometrioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phupong, Vorapong; Chen, Orawan; Ultchaswadi, Pornthip

    2004-09-01

    CA 125 is a tumor-associated antigen. Its high levels are usually associated with ovarian malignancies, whereas smaller increases in the levels were associated with benign gynecologic conditions. The authors report a high level of CA 125 in a case of large ovarian endometrioma. A 45-year-old nulliparous Thai woman, presented with an increase of her abdominal girth for 7 months. Transabdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated a large ovarian cyst and multiple small leiomyoma uteri, and serum CA 125 level was 1,006 U/ml. The preoperative diagnosis was ovarian cancer with leiomyoma uteri. Exploratory laparotomy was performed. There were a large right ovarian endometrioma, small left ovarian endometrioma and multiple small leiomyoma. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioma and leiomyoma. The serum CA 125 level declined to non-detectable at the 4th week. She was well at discharge and throughout her 4th week follow-up period Although a very high level of CA 125 is associated with a malignant process, it can also be found in benign conditions such as a large endometrioma. The case emphasizes the association of high levels of CA 125 with benign gynecologic conditions.

  1. The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non- Communicable Diseases: The Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach. ... The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).

  2. An Hepatic Abscess in a Patient With Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolf, Marissa D; Chaudhary, Manu; Kaplan, Sheldon L

    2016-11-01

    We present a case of hepatic abscess in a transfusion-dependent 16-year-old patient with sickle cell disease. There have been 10 such cases in sickle cell disease patients reported, with the last report published greater than a decade ago. The diagnosis of hepatic abscess merits consideration in sickle cell disease patients presenting with fever without a source and/or abdominal pain.

  3. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035

  4. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  5. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare blood cancer that forms when a type of white blood cell called Langerhans cells becomes abnormal and grows in different parts of the body. LCH is most common in young children but can occur at any age. Start here to find information on Langerhans cell histiocytosis treatment.

  6. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  7. Glass-solidification method for high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kometani, Masayuki; Sasage, Ken-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    High level liquid wastes are removed with precipitates mainly comprising Mo and Zr, thereafter, the high level liquid wastes are mixed with a glass raw material comprising a composition having a B 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ratio of not less than 0.41, a ZnO/Li 2 O ratio of not less than 1.00, and an Al 2 O 3 /Li 2 O ratio of not less than 2.58, and they are melted and solidified into glass-solidification products. The liquid waste content in the glass-solidification products can be increased up to about 45% by using the glass raw material having such a predetermined composition. In addition, deposition of a yellow phase does not occur, and a leaching rate identical with that in a conventional case can be maintained. (T.M.)

  8. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack

  9. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  10. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  11. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  12. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification

  13. FPGA based compute nodes for high level triggering in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, W; Gilardi, C; Kirschner, D; Lang, J; Lange, S; Liu, M; Perez, T; Yang, S; Schmitt, L; Jin, D; Li, L; Liu, Z; Lu, Y; Wang, Q; Wei, S; Xu, H; Zhao, D; Korcyl, K; Otwinowski, J T; Salabura, P

    2008-01-01

    PANDA is a new universal detector for antiproton physics at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The PANDA data acquisition system has to handle interaction rates of the order of 10 7 /s and data rates of several 100 Gb/s. FPGA based compute nodes with multi-Gb/s bandwidth capability using the ATCA architecture are designed to handle tasks such as event building, feature extraction and high level trigger processing. Data connectivity is provided via optical links as well as multiple Gb Ethernet ports. The boards will support trigger algorithms such us pattern recognition for RICH detectors, EM shower analysis, fast tracking algorithms and global event characterization. Besides VHDL, high level C-like hardware description languages will be considered to implement the firmware

  14. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  15. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Hwan Young; Kim, In Tae [and others

    1999-02-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs.

  16. QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Tim

    2017-01-01

    QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.

  17. Leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1987-03-01

    The author's work in the study on the leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were summarized. The subjects described are (1) leach rates at high temperatures, (2) effects of cracks on leach rates, (3) effects of flow rate on leach rates, and (4) an in-situ burial test in natural groundwater. In the following section, the leach rates obtained by various experiments were summarized and discussed. (author)

  18. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  19. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  20. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  1. Status of the French nuclear high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1985-09-01

    French research on high level waste processing has led to the development of industrial vitrification facilities. Borosilicate glass is still being investigated for its long-term storage properties, since it is itself a component of the containment system. The other constituents of this system, the engineered barriers, are also being actively investigated. The geological barrier is now being assessed using a methodology applicable to various types of geological formations, and final site qualification should be possible before the end of 1992

  2. Soil-structure interaction effects on high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfeld, E.

    1991-01-01

    High Level Waste Tanks consist of steel tanks located in concrete vaults which are usually completely embedded in the soil. Many of these tanks are old and were designed to seismic standards which are not compatible with current requirements. The objective if this paper is to develop simple methods of modeling SSI effects for such structures and to obtain solutions for a range of parameters that can be used to identify significant aspects of the problem

  3. High-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNCC): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1979-06-01

    This manual describes the portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the assay of plutonium, particularly by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The counter is designed for the measurement of the effective 240 Pu mass in plutonium samples which may have a high plutonium content. The following topics are discussed: principle of operation, description of the system, operating procedures, and applications

  4. Development of cermets for high-level radioactive waste fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method is currently under development for the solidification and fixation of commercial and defense high-level radioactive wastes in the form of ceramic particles encapsulated by metal, i.e., a cermet. The chemical and physical processing techniques which have been developed and the properties of the resulting cermet bodies are described in this paper. These cermets have the advantages of high thermal conductivity and low leach rates

  5. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  6. The tracking of high level waste shipments - TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Thomas, T.M.; Lester, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY 1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  7. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 62-78 ISSN 1942-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.igi-global.com/article/high-level-model-conscious-embodied/46147

  8. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  9. Production and utilization of high level and long duration shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrot, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to verify the behaviour of equipments under extreme environmental conditions (propulsion, falls, impacts...), it is necessary to create 'high level and long duration shocks'. For these shocks, the velocity variation ΔV, which is equal to the area under the accelerogram γ (t), can reach several hundred meters per second. These velocity variations cannot be performed via classical free fall shock machine (ΔV [fr

  10. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Kelley, J.A.; Zeyfang, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY 83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quantity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized. Early demonstration will both expedite and facilitate rational decision making on this aspect of the nuclear program. Delay in providing these facilities will result in significant DOE expenditures at SRP for new tanks just for continued temporary storage of wastes, and would probably result in dissipation of the intellectual and planning momentum that has built up in developing the project

  11. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  12. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  13. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  14. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Berreth, J.R.; Freeby, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle

  15. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  16. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  17. High level radioactive wastes: Considerations on final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, Norberto R.

    2000-01-01

    When at the beginnings of the decade of the 80 the National Commission on Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Argentina decided to study the destination of the high level radioactive wastes, was began many investigations, analysis and multidisciplinary evaluations that be origin to a study of characteristics never before carried out in Argentina. For the first time in the country was faced the study of an environmental eventual problem, several decades before that the problem was presented. The elimination of the high level radioactive wastes in the technological aspects was taken in advance, avoiding to transfer the problems to the future generations. The decision was based, not only in technical evaluations but also in ethical premises, since it was considered that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of the nuclear energy and not should be solve the problem. The CNEA in Argentina in 1980 decided to begin a feasibility study and preliminary engineering project for the construction of the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes

  18. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  19. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  20. The immobilization of High Level Waste Into Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Martono, H.

    1998-01-01

    High level liquid waste is generated from the first step extraction in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The waste is immobilized with boro-silicate glass. A certain composition of glass is needed for a certain type of waste, so that the properties of waste glass would meet the requirement either for further process or for disposal. The effect of waste loading on either density, thermal expansion, softening point and leaching rate has been studied. The composition of the high level liquid waste has been determined by ORIGEN 2 and the result has been used to prepare simulated high level waste. The waste loading in the waste glass has been set to be 19.48; 22.32; 25.27; and 26.59 weight percent. The result shows that increasing the waste loading has resulted in the higher density with no thermal expansion and softening point significant change. The increase in the waste loading increase that leaching rate. The properties of the waste glass in this research have not shown any deviation from the standard waste glass properties

  1. High-level transfer and long-term expression of the human beta-globin gene in a mouse transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, H; Ward, M; Bank, A

    1998-06-30

    Insertion of a normally functioning human beta-globin gene into the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of patients with beta-thalassemia may be an effective approach to the therapy of this disorder. Safe, efficient gene transfer and long-term, high-level expression of the transferred human beta-globin gene in animal models are prerequisites for HSC somatic gene therapy. We have recently shown for the first time that, using a modified beta-globin retroviral vector in a mouse transplant model, long-term, high-level expression of a transferred human beta-globin gene is possible. The human beta-globin gene continues to be detected up to eight months post-transplantation of beta-globin-transduced hematopoietic cells into lethally irradiated mice. The transferred human beta-globin gene is detected in three of five mice surviving long-term (> 4 months) transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with high-titer virus. The unrearranged 5.1 kb human beta-globin gene-containing provirus is seen by Southern blotting in two of these mice. More importantly, long-term expression of the transferred gene is seen in two mice at levels of 5% and 20% that of endogenous murine beta-globin. We document stem cell transduction by showing continued high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in secondarily transplanted recipient mice. These results provide evidence of HSC transduction with a human beta-globin gene in animals and demonstrate that retroviral-mediated unrearranged human beta-globin gene transfer leads to a high level of human beta-globin gene expression in the long term for the first time. A gene therapy strategy may be a feasible therapeutic approach to the beta-thalassemias if consistent human beta-globin gene transfer and expression into HSC can be achieved.

  2. Red blood cell alloimmunization among sickle cell Kuwaiti Arab patients who received red blood cell transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Reem; Al Shemmari, Salem; Al-Bashir, Abdulaziz

    2009-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in the Arabian Gulf region. Most cases require a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, increasing the potential for RBC alloantibody development. The incidence of RBC alloimmunization among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients is not yet known. This study retrospectively assessed the effect of using two different matching protocols on the incidence of alloimmunization among multiply transfused Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients. A total of 233 Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 110) received RBC transfusion through standard ABO- and D-matched nonleukoreduced blood; Group 2 (n = 123) received RBCs matched for ABO, Rh, and K1 poststorage-leukoreduced blood. Multivariate analysis was performed on the factors associated with RBC alloimmunization and antibody specificity. Sixty-five percent of patients in Group 1 developed clinically significant RBC alloantibody with an increased prevalence in females; in patients in Group 2, 23.6% developed RBC alloantibodies (p = 0.01). In Group 1, 72 patients (65.5%) had alloantibodies directed against Rh and Kell systems (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis further confirmed the results, showing that blood transfusion type and sex have significant effects on the rate of alloimmunizations. This study confirms the importance of selecting RBCs matched for Rh and Kell to reduce the risk of alloimmunizations among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients.

  3. Expansion of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in endometriosis patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen; Qin, Shuang; Lei, Aihua; Li, Xing; Gao, Qi; Dong, Jingyin; Xiao, Qing; Zhou, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammation disease and is closely associated with immune dysregulation. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a negative regulator of the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of MDSCs in endometriosis patients. We collected the peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients and controls and analyzed M-MDSCs level using specific monoclonal antibodies recognizing HLA-DR, CD33, CD11b, CD14 markers by flow cytometry. We found that there existed abnormal expansion of monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) (HLA-DR -/low CD33 + CD11b + CD14 + ) in peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. Functional studies revealed that M-MDSCs from endometriosis patients significantly suppressed T-cell responses and produced high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The elevation of M-MDSCs from endometriosis patients may contribute to the disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Patients With Homozygous Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnebe-Agumadu U H, and Abiodun P O. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Patients with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease (HbSS): Need for Intervention. Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002; 1:79-87. This is a prospective study of 213 patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (112 males and 101 females) aged 6 months to 18 years ...

  5. Circulating cell death products predict clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelink, Pim J; Lamers, Cornelis BHW; Hommes, Daan W; Verspaget, Hein W

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cell death generates products that can be measured in the circulation of cancer patients. CK18-Asp396 (M30 antigen) is a caspase-degraded product of cytokeratin 18 (CK18), produced by apoptotic epithelial cells, and is elevated in breast and lung cancer patients. We determined the CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels in plasma of 49 colorectal cancer patients, before and after surgical resection of the tumor, by ELISA. Correlations with patient and tumor characteristics were determined by Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. Disease-free survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier methodology with Log Rank tests, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. Plasma CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels in colorectal cancer patients were related to disease stage and tumor diameter, and were predictive of disease-free survival, independent of disease-stage, with hazard ratios (HR) of patients with high levels (> median) compared to those with low levels (≤ median) of 3.58 (95% CI: 1.17–11.02) and 3.58 (95% CI: 0.97–7.71), respectively. The CK18-Asp396/CK18 ratio, which decreased with tumor progression, was also predictive of disease-free survival, with a low ratio (≤ median) associated with worse disease-free survival: HR 2.78 (95% CI: 1.06–7.19). Remarkably, the plasma CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels after surgical removal of the tumor were also predictive of disease-free survival, with patients with high levels having a HR of 3.78 (95% CI: 0.77–18.50) and 4.12 (95% CI: 0.84–20.34), respectively, indicating that these parameters can be used also to monitor patients after surgery. CK18-Asp396 and total CK18 levels in the circulation of colorectal cancer patients are predictive of tumor progression and prognosis and might be helpful for treatment selection and monitoring of these patients

  6. Generation of Transplantable Beta Cells for Patient-Specific Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation offers a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but it is challenged by insufficient donor tissue and side effects of current immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, alternative sources of insulin-producing cells and isletfriendly immunosuppression are required to increase the efficiency and safety of this procedure. Beta cells can be transdifferentiated from precursors or another heterologous (non-beta-cell source. Recent advances in beta cell regeneration from somatic cells such as fibroblasts could circumvent the usage of immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, generation of patient-specific beta cells provides the potential of an evolutionary treatment for patients with diabetes.

  7. Preorchiectomy Leydig Cell Dysfunction in Patients With Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about preorchiectomy Leydig cell function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC). The aim was to estimate the prevalence of preorchiectomy Leydig cell dysfunction and evaluate factors associated with this condition in a cohort of patients with TGCC. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: We evaluated luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) preorchiectomy in 561 patients with TGCC and compared with 561 healthy controls. We calculated TT/LH and cFT/LH ratios and constructed bivariate charts of TT...

  8. Mucorales-Specific T Cells in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Potenza, L; Vallerini, D; Barozzi, P; Riva, G; Gilioli, A; Forghieri, F; Candoni, A; Cesaro, S; Quadrelli, C; Maertens, J; Rossi, G; Morselli, M; Codeluppi, M; Mussini, C; Colaci, E

    2016-01-01

    Background Invasive mucormycosis (IM) is an emerging life-threatening fungal infection. It is difficult to obtain a definite diagnosis and to initiate timely intervention. Mucorales-specific T cells occur during the course of IM and are involved in the clearance of the infection. We have evaluated the feasibility of detecting Mucorales-specific T cells in hematological patients at risk for IM, and have correlated the detection of such cells with the clinical conditions of the patients. Method...

  9. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  10. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01 or a single chain antibody construct (m9, for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  11. High-level waste management technology program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  12. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  14. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  15. The IAEA's high level radioactive waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saire, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the different activities that are performed under the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) high level radioactive waste management programme. The Agency's programme is composed of five main activities (information exchange, international safety standards, R ampersand D activities, advisory services and special projects) which are described in the paper. Special emphasis is placed on the RADioactive WAste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which was implemented in 1991 to document international consensus that exists on the safe management of radioactive waste. The paper also raises the question about the need for regional repositories to serve certain countries that do not have the resources or infrastructure to construct a national repository

  16. The ATLAS high level trigger region of interest builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Pope, B.; Aboline, M.; High Energy Physics; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design, testing and production of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). This device acts as an interface between the Level 1 trigger and the high level trigger (HLT) farm for the ATLAS LHC detector. It distributes all of the Level 1 data for a subset of events to a small number of (16 or less) individual commodity processors. These processors in turn provide this information to the HLT. This allows the HLT to use the Level 1 information to narrow data requests to areas of the detector where Level 1 has identified interesting objects

  17. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to contribute to the implementation of Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The major conclusion of that review is that NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a waste management system based on disposal in geologic repositories. Substantial new authority for other facilities will not be required unless major unexpected problems with geologic disposal are encountered. OTA also concludes that DOE's Draft Mission Plan published in 1984 falls short of its potential for enhancing the credibility and acceptability of the waste management program

  18. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted

  19. Global tracker for the ALICE high level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vik, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main topics. The first is the implementation and testing of a Kalman filter algorithm in the HLT (High Level Trigger) reconstruction code. This will perform the global tracking in the HLT, that is merging tracklets and hits from the different sub-detectors in the central barrel detector. The second topic is a trigger mode of the HLT which uses the global tracking of particles through the TRD (Transition Radiation Detector), TPC (Time Projection Chamber) and the ITS (Inner Tracking System): The dielectron trigger. Global tracking: The Kalman filter algorithm has been introduced to the HLT tracking scheme. (Author)

  20. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  1. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  2. High level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Bailey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by breakdown of the glass structure because of an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components

  3. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Stevens, W.R. III.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures

  4. A critically educated public explores high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    It is vital to the citizens of Nevada that they and their children are given an opportunity to explore all sides of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The state-wide, national and international implications demand a reasoned and complete approach to this issue, which has become emotionally and irrationally charged and fueled by incomplete perception and information. The purpose of this paper is to provide curriculum suggestions and recommend concomitant policy developments that will lead to the implementation of a Critical Thinking (CT) approach to High Level Radioactive Waste Management

  5. Treatment of High-Level Waste Arising from Pyrochemical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.A.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Osipenko, A.G.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.

    2013-01-01

    JSC “SSC RIAR” has been performing research and development activities in support of closed fuel cycle of fast reactor since the middle of 1960s. Fuel cycle involves fabrication and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) using pyrochemical methods of reprocessing in molten alkali metal chlorides. At present pyrochemical methods of SNF reprocessing in molten chlorides has reached such a level in their development that makes it possible to compare their competitiveness with classic aqueous methods. Their comparative advantage lies in high safety, compactness, high protectability as to nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and reduction of high level waste volume

  6. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  7. High-level waste canister envelope study: structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The structural integrity of waste canisters, fabricated from standard weight Type 304L stainless steel pipe, was analyzed for sizes ranging from 8 to 24 in. diameter and 10 to 16 feet long under normal, abnormal, and improbable life cycle loading conditions. The canisters are assumed to be filled with vitrified high-level nuclear waste, stored temporarily at a fuel reprocessing plant, and then transported for storage in an underground salt bed or other geologic storage. In each of the three impact conditions studies, the resulting impact force is far greater than the elastic limit capacity of the material. Recommendations are made for further study

  8. Cermet high level waste forms: a pregress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-06-01

    The fixation of high level radioactive waste from both commercial and DOE defense sources as cermets is currently under study. This waste form consists of a continuous iron-nickel base metal matrix containing small particles of fission product oxides. Preliminary evaluations of cermets fabricated from a variety of simulated wastes indicate they possess properties providing advantages over other waste forms presently being considered, namely thermal conductivity, waste loading levels, and leach resistance. This report describes the progress of this effort, to date, since its initiation in 1977

  9. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...... types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed-independent...

  10. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included

  11. High level trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, U.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestabo, A.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Schulz, M.; Steinbeck, T.; Wiebalck, A.; Skaali, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of ∼75 MByte/event. The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system. Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques. Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition. One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, and connected by a high bandwidth, low latency network

  12. FPGA Co-processor for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Grastveit, G.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2003-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ALICE experiment requires massive parallel computing. One of the main tasks of the HLT system is two-dimensional cluster finding on raw data of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which is the main data source of ALICE. To reduce the number of computing nodes needed in the HLT farm, FPGAs, which are an intrinsic part of the system, will be utilized for this task. VHDL code implementing the Fast Cluster Finder algorithm, has been written, a testbed for functional verification of the code has been developed, and the code has been synthesized

  13. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, J.M.; Beceiro, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) has been limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kind of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high - level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international cooperation are also included

  14. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, A.; Veganzones, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 as a state-owned limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kinds of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international co-operational are also included

  15. A high-level product representation for automatic design reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, E.; Qamar, Z.; Mohammad, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    A high-level product representation has been developed and implemented, using features for part description and mating conditions between features for the relationships among parts. The underlying ideas are that features are necessary for effective design representation; that spatial and functional relationships among parts of an assembly are best expressed through mating conditions; that assembly features of a part may, at times, be different from its manufacturing features; and that a good representation should be natural, intelligent, comprehensive, and integrated with a visual display. Some new mating conditions have been defined and classified. Several problems concerning the use of features with mating conditions are discussed.

  16. High-level nuclear waste disposal: Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Popular skepticism about, and moral objections to, recent legislation providing for the management and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have derived their credibility from two major sources: government procrastination in enacting waste disposal program, reinforcing public perceptions of their unprecedented danger and the inflated rhetoric and pretensions to professional omnicompetence of influential scientists with nuclear expertise. Ethical considerations not only can but must provide a mediating framework for the resolution of such a polarized political controversy. Implicit in moral objections to proposals for permanent nuclear waste disposal are concerns about three ethical principles: fairness to individuals, equitable protection among diverse social groups, and informed consent through due process and participation

  17. Very-high-level neutral-beam control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elischer, V.; Jacobson, V.; Theil, E.

    1981-10-01

    As increasing numbers of neutral beams are added to fusion machines, their operation can consume a significant fraction of a facility's total resources. LBL has developed a very high level control system that allows a neutral beam injector to be treated as a black box with just 2 controls: one to set the beam power and one to set the pulse duration. This 2 knob view allows simple operation and provides a natural base for implementing even higher level controls such as automatic source conditioning

  18. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options

  19. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  20. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed

  1. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-10-01

    Current strategies in most countries favour the immobilisation of high-level radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses, and their burial in large, centralised, mined repositories. Strong public opposition has been encountered because of concerns over safety and socio-political issues. The author develops a new disposal strategy, based on immobilisation of wastes in an extremely resistant ceramic, SYNROC, combined with burial in an array of widely dispersed, very deep drill holes. It is demonstrated that the difficulties encountered by conventional disposal strategies can be overcome by this new approach.

  2. When does germ cell loss and fibrosis occur in patients with Klinefelter syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saen, D; Vloeberghs, V; Gies, I; Mateizel, I; Sermon, K; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, H; Goossens, E

    2018-06-01

    .0%). Germ cells were detectable in testicular biopsies from 21% of adult men for whom no spermatozoa could be retrieved by TESE and in 31.5% of peripubertal KS boys. Very small numbers of spermatogonia (0.03-0.06 spermatogonia/tubule) were detected in three out of four (75%) prepubertal patients. At a foetal age, the number of germ cells was similar for KS and control samples. Increased signs of fibrosis were not present at foetal and prepubertal ages, but peripubertal and adult KS patients showed high levels of fibrosis. N/A. Only four prepubertal biopsies were included in this study, but they all showed a very low germ cell number. A high variability in the number of spermatogonia per mm2 was observed in the limited (n = 5) number of foetal biopsies. However, testicular biopsies from prepubertal and foetal Klinefelter patients are difficult to obtain. Testicular tissue banking at a prepubertal age has been suggested as a potential method for fertility preservation in early diagnosed KS boys. However, our results show that a reduction in germ cell number has already taken place in childhood. Therefore, offering testicular tissue banking in young KS boys to prevent subsequent sterility might be a questionable strategy. However, this should be confirmed in a larger study population. This project was funded by the scientific Fund Willy Gepts from the UZ Brussel (D.V.S., J.D.S.), grants from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (E.G.) and a Methusalem grant (K.S.). D.V.S is a post-doctoral fellow of the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO; 12M2815N). No conflict of interest is declared.

  3. NATURAL KILLER T CELLS IN HEPATIC LEUCOCYTE INFILTRATES IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT PROCESS AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lebedinskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology, topography, and immunohistochemical features of leukocyte infiltrates were studied in various sites of the liver samples from the patients with metastatic disease, been affected by hepatitis B and C viruses at different degree of activity. Liver of СВА mice with implanted САО-1 tumour was also under study. Histochemical, and functional features, as well as immune phenotype of these cells were investigated. It has been shown that the major fraction of leukocyte infiltrates, mostly associated with implanted tumours in experimental mice, and in the areas adjacent to the tumor in humans, like as on the peak of viral hepatitis activity, is composed of lymphocytes. They are presented by large numvers of activated proliferating and differentiating cells bearing specific antigens, as well as natural killers and T-lymphocytes, possessing high-level killer activity towards NK-sensitive, and autologous lines of cancer cells. Hence, the results of our study, generally, confirm the data from literature reporting on existence of a special lymphocyte subpopulation, NKT cells, in human or murine liver affected by hepatitis virus or malignant tumors. The data concerning functional properties of these cells may be used for development of immunotherapy methods of viral diseases and oncological conditions complicated by liver metastases.

  4. Addiction or pseudoaddiction in sickle cell disease patients: Time to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this report is to highlight the background factors associated with opioid abuse among Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) patients. Patients: Eleven patients aged 13-53 years (mean, 26.1yrs) which included six female and five male were seen in the last six year at a tertiary health facility. The modes of ...

  5. Immunisation of colorectal cancer patients with autologous tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Stenholm, Anna Catharina Olsen; Kronborg, O

    1998-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression...... of immune-response-related surface molecules on the tumour cells in the vaccine correlated with survival. The first and second vaccine comprised of 107 irradiated tumour cells mixed with BCG, the third of irradiated tumour cells only. Thirty-nine patients were considered, but only 6 patients fulfilled...... the criteria for inclusion. No serious side effects were observed. With three years of observation time, two patients are healthy, while the rest have had recurrence, and two of them have died. In all vaccines, all tumour cells expressed HLA class I, some expressed HLA class II and none expressed CD80...

  6. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy elicits tumor specific T cell responses in a breast cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Estévez, David; Sánchez, Ramiro; Tejada, Rafael E.; Parra-López, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical studies in breast cancer suggest that some anti-tumor therapy regimens generate stimulation of the immune system that accounts for tumor clinical responses, however, demonstration of the immunostimulatory power of these therapies on cancer patients continues to be a formidable challenge. Here we present experimental evidence from a breast cancer patient with complete clinical response after 7 years, associated with responsiveness of tumor specific T cells. T cells were obtained before and after anti-tumor therapy from peripheral blood of a 63-years old woman diagnosed with ductal breast cancer (HER2/neu+++, ER-, PR-, HLA-A*02:01) treated with surgery, followed by paclitaxel, trastuzumab (suspended due to cardiac toxicity), and radiotherapy. We obtained a leukapheresis before surgery and after 8 months of treatment. Using in vitro cell cultures stimulated with autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that produce high levels of IL-12, we characterize by flow cytometry the phenotype of tumor associated antigens (TAAs) HER2/neu and NY-ESO 1 specific T cells. The ex vivo analysis of the TCR-Vβ repertoire of TAA specific T cells in blood and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) were performed in order to correlate both repertoires prior and after therapy. We evidence a functional recovery of T cell responsiveness to polyclonal stimuli and expansion of TAAs specific CD8+ T cells using peptide pulsed DCs, with an increase of CTLA-4 and memory effector phenotype after anti-tumor therapy. The ex vivo analysis of the TCR-Vβ repertoire of TAA specific T cells in blood and TILs showed that whereas the TCR-Vβ04-02 clonotype is highly expressed in TILs the HER2/neu specific T cells are expressed mainly in blood after therapy, suggesting that this particular TCR was selectively enriched in blood after anti-tumor therapy. Our results show the benefits of anti-tumor therapy in a breast cancer patient with clinical complete response in

  7. On risk assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major concerns with the continued growth of the nuclear power industry is the production of the high level radioactive wastes. The risks associated with the disposal of these wastes derives from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. In the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected 35 year nuclear power program is determined. An index of relative nuclide hazard appropriate to problems involving the management of high level radioactive wastes is developed. As an illustration of the methodology, risk analyses are made for two proposed methods for waste management: extraterrestrial disposal and interim surface storage. The results of these analyses indicate that, within the assumptions used, the risks of these management schemes are small compared with natural background radiation doses. (Auth.)

  8. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  9. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predicability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed

  10. High level waste forms: glass marbles and thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Oma, K.H.; Slate, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process that converts high-level waste to glass marbles and then coats the marbles has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The process consists of a joule-heated glass melter, a marble-making device based on a patent issued to Corning Glass Works, and a coating system that includes a plasma spray coater and a marble tumbler. The process was developed under the Alternative Waste Forms Program which strived to improve upon monolithic glass for immobilizing high-level wastes. Coated glass marbles were found to be more leach-resistant, and the marbles, before coating were found to be very homogeneous, highly impact resistant, and conductive to encapsulation in a metal matric for improved heat transfer and containment. Marbles are also ideally suited for quality assurance and recycling. However, the marble process is more complex, and marbles require a larger number of canisters for waste containment and have a higher surface area than do glass monoliths

  11. High level waste management in Asia: R and D perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokattey, Sangeeta; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to provide an overview, about the status of R and D and current trends in high level radioactive waste management, particularly in Asian countries. The INIS database (for the period 1976 to 2010) was selected for this purpose, as this is the most authoritative global source of information, in the area of Nuclear Science and Technology. Appropriate query formulations on the database, resulted in the retrieval of 4322 unique bibliographic records. Using the content analysis method (which is both a qualitative as well as a quantitative research method), all the records were analyzed. Part One of the analysis details Scientometric R and D indicators, such as the countries and the institutions involved in R and D, the types of publications, and programmes and projects related to High Level Waste management. Part Two is a subject-based analysis, grouped under the following broad categories: I. Waste Processing 1. Partitioning and transmutation (including ADS) II. Waste Immobilization 1. Glass waste forms and 2. Crystalline ceramics and other waste forms III. Waste Disposal 1. Performance assessment and safety evaluation studies 2. Geohydrological studies a. Site selection and characterization, b. In situ underground experiments, c. Rock mechanical characterization 3. Deep geological repositories a. Sorption, migration and groundwater chemistry b. Engineered barrier systems and IV. Waste Packaging Materials. The results of this analysis are summarized in the study. (author)

  12. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  13. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On February 17,1989, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments and the US Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement authorizing the initiation of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. The transportation project continued to receive funding from DOE through amendments to the original cooperative agreement, with December 31, 1993, marking the end of the initial 5-year period. This progress report reflects the work completed by the Midwestern Office from February 17,1989, through December 31,1993. In accordance with the scopes of work governing the period covered by this report, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments has worked closely with the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee. Project staff have facilitated all eight of the committee's meetings and have represented the committee at meetings of DOE's Transportation Coordination Group (TCG) and Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Staff have also prepared and submitted comments on DOE activities on behalf of the committee. In addition to working with the committee, project staff have prepared and distributed 20 reports, including some revised reports (see Attachment 1). Staff have also developed a library of reference materials for the benefit of committee members, state officials, and other interested parties. To publicize the library, and to make it more accessible to potential users, project staff have prepared and distributed regular notices of resource availability

  14. Immobilisation of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E; Kesson, S E; Ware, N G; Hibberson, W; Major, A [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Inst. of Advanced Studies

    1979-03-15

    It is stated that the elements occurring in high-level nuclear reactor wastes can be safely immobilised by incorporating them within the crystal lattices of the constituent minerals of a synthetic rock (SYNROC). The preferred form of SYNROC can accept up to 20% of high level waste calcine to form dilute solid solutions. The constituent minerals, or close structural analogues, have survived in a wide range of geochemical environments for periods of 20 to 2,000 Myr whilst immobilising the same elements present in nuclear wastes. SYNROC is unaffected by leaching for 24 hours in pure water or 10 wt % NaCl solution at high temperatures and pressure whereas borosilicate glasses completely decompose in a few hours in much less severe hydrothermal conditions. The combination of these leaching results with the geological evidence of long-term stability indicates that SYNROC would be vastly superior to glass in its capacity to safely immobilise nuclear wastes, when buried in a suitable geological repository. A dense, compact, mechanically strong form of SYNROC suitable for geological disposal can be produced by a process as economical as that which incorporates radioactive waste in borosilicate glasses.

  15. Risk communication system for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hirosi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding and acceptance of the task of implementing high level radioactive waste disposal, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. First, text mining method was introduced to identify the core public interest, examining public comments on the technical report of high level radioactive waste disposal. Then we designed the dialog-mode contents based on the theory of norm activation by Schwartz. Finally, the discussion board was mounted on the web site. By constructing such web communication system which includes knowledge base contents, introspective contents, and interactive discussion board, we conducted the experiment for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The participants of the experiment increased their interest in the topics with which they were not familiar and actively posted their opinions on the BBS. The dialog-mode contents were significantly more effective than the knowledge-based contents in promoting introspection that brought people into a greater awareness of problems such as social dilemma. (author)

  16. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  17. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  18. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.-G.; Dix, Siegfried; Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  19. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  20. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  1. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  2. The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1998-01-01

    The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management. The selection of the principal radionuclides in the high level waste (HLW) management was developed in order to improve the disposal scenario of HLW. In this study the unified criteria for selection of the principal radionuclides were proposed as; (1) the value of hazard index estimated by annual limit of intake (ALI) for long-term tendency,(2) the relative dose factor related to adsorbed migration rate transferred by ground water, and (3) heat generation in the repository. From this study it can be concluded that the principal radionuclides in the HLW management were minor actinide (MA=Np, Am, Cm, etc), Tc, I, Cs and Sr, based on the unified basic criteria introduced in this study. The remaining short-lived fission product (SLFPs), after the selected nuclides are removed, should be immobilized and solidified in a glass matrix. Potential risk due to the remaining SLFPs can be lower than that of uranium ore after about 300 year. (author)

  3. Risk assessments for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    The risks associated with the disposal of high level wastes derive from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The assessment of these risks requires a methodology for risk analysis, an identification of the radioactive sources, and a method by which to express the relative hazard of the various radionuclides that comprise the high level waste. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out after a review of previous work in the area of probabilistic risk assessment. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. At the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected thirty-five year nuclear power program is determined

  4. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  5. Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Start here to find information on kidney cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  6. Mucorales-Specific T Cells in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Leonardo; Vallerini, Daniela; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Gilioli, Andrea; Forghieri, Fabio; Candoni, Anna; Cesaro, Simone; Quadrelli, Chiara; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Codeluppi, Mauro; Mussini, Cristina; Colaci, Elisabetta; Messerotti, Andrea; Paolini, Ambra; Maccaferri, Monica; Fantuzzi, Valeria; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Stefani, Alessandro; Morandi, Uliano; Maffei, Rossana; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Fanin, Renato; Comoli, Patrizia; Romani, Luigina; Beauvais, Anne; Viale, Pier Luigi; Latgè, Jean Paul; Lewis, Russell E; Luppi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Invasive mucormycosis (IM) is an emerging life-threatening fungal infection. It is difficult to obtain a definite diagnosis and to initiate timely intervention. Mucorales-specific T cells occur during the course of IM and are involved in the clearance of the infection. We have evaluated the feasibility of detecting Mucorales-specific T cells in hematological patients at risk for IM, and have correlated the detection of such cells with the clinical conditions of the patients. By using an enzyme linked immunospot assay, the presence of Mucorales-specific T cells in peripheral blood (PB) samples has been investigated at three time points during high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-γ, interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 were analysed in order to detect a correlation between the immune response and the clinical picture. Twenty-one (10.3%) of 204 patients, accounting for 32 (5.3%) of 598 PB samples, tested positive for Mucorales-specific T cells. Two groups could be identified. Group 1, including 15 patients without signs or symptoms of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), showed a predominance of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-gamma. Group 2 included 6 patients with a clinical picture consistent with invasive fungal disease (IFD): 2 cases of proven IM and 4 cases of possible IFD. The proven patients had significantly higher number of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 and higher rates of positive samples by using derived diagnostic cut-offs when compared with the 15 patients without IFD. Mucorales-specific T cells can be detected and monitored in patients with hematologic malignancies at risk for IM. Mucorales-specific T cells polarized to the production of T helper type 2 cytokines are associated with proven IM and may be evaluated as a surrogate diagnostic marker for IM.

  7. Mucorales-Specific T Cells in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Potenza

    Full Text Available Invasive mucormycosis (IM is an emerging life-threatening fungal infection. It is difficult to obtain a definite diagnosis and to initiate timely intervention. Mucorales-specific T cells occur during the course of IM and are involved in the clearance of the infection. We have evaluated the feasibility of detecting Mucorales-specific T cells in hematological patients at risk for IM, and have correlated the detection of such cells with the clinical conditions of the patients.By using an enzyme linked immunospot assay, the presence of Mucorales-specific T cells in peripheral blood (PB samples has been investigated at three time points during high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-γ, interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 were analysed in order to detect a correlation between the immune response and the clinical picture. Twenty-one (10.3% of 204 patients, accounting for 32 (5.3% of 598 PB samples, tested positive for Mucorales-specific T cells. Two groups could be identified. Group 1, including 15 patients without signs or symptoms of invasive fungal diseases (IFD, showed a predominance of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-gamma. Group 2 included 6 patients with a clinical picture consistent with invasive fungal disease (IFD: 2 cases of proven IM and 4 cases of possible IFD. The proven patients had significantly higher number of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 and higher rates of positive samples by using derived diagnostic cut-offs when compared with the 15 patients without IFD.Mucorales-specific T cells can be detected and monitored in patients with hematologic malignancies at risk for IM. Mucorales-specific T cells polarized to the production of T helper type 2 cytokines are associated with proven IM and may be evaluated as a surrogate diagnostic marker for IM.

  8. Outline of facility for studying high level radioactive materials (CPF) and study programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Motoi

    1983-01-01

    The Chemical Processing Facility for studying high level radioactive materials in Tokai Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. is a facility for fundamental studies centering around hot cells, necessary for the development of fuel recycle techniques for fast breeder reactors, an important point of nuclear fuel cycle, and of the techniques for processing and disposing high level radioactive liquid wastes. The operation of the facility was started in 1982, for both the system A (the test of fuel recycle for fast breeder reactors) and the system B (the test of vitrification of high level liquid wastes). In this report, the outline of the facility, the contents of testings and the reflection of the results are described. For the fuel recycle test, the hot test of the spent fuel pins of JOYO MK-1 core was started, and now the uranium and plutonium extraction test is underway. The scheduled tests are fuel solubility, the confirmation of residual properties in fuel melting, the confirmation of extracting conditions, the electrolytic reduction of plutonium, off-gas behaviour and the test of material reliability. For the test of vitrification of high level liquid wastes, the fundamental test on the solidifying techniques for the actual high level wastes eluted from the Tokai reprocessing plant has been started, and the following tests are programmed: Assessment of the properties of actual liquid wastes, denitration and concentration test, vitrification test, off-gas treatment test, the test of evaluating solidified wastes, and the test of storing solidified wastes. These test results are programmed to be reflected to the safety deliberation and the demonstration operation of a vitrification pilot plant. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Behavior of radioactive iodine and technetium in the spray calcination of high-level waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. A.; Farnsworth, R. K.

    1981-08-01

    The Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste Treatment Facility (RLSWTF) was designed and built as a part of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program (now the High-Level Waste Process Development Program) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In facility, installed in a radiochemical cell, is described in which installed in a radiochemical cell is described in which small volumes of radioactive liquid wastes can be solidified, the process off gas can be analyzed, and the methods for decontaminating this off gas can be tested. During the spray calcination of commercial high-level liquid waste spiked with Tc-99 and I-131 and 31 wt% loss of I-131 past the sintered-metal filters. These filters and venturi scrubber were very efficient in removing particulates and Tc-99 from the the off-gas stream. Liquid scrubbers were not efficient in removing I-131 as 25% of the total lost went to the building off-gas system. Therefore, solid adsorbents are needed to remove iodine. For all future operations where iodine is present, a silver zeolite adsorber is to be used.

  10. The TPO/c-MPL pathway in the bone marrow may protect leukemia cells from chemotherapy in AML Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Feng, Zeng; Ting, Liu; Yong, Zhang; Cheng, Chang; Xi, Zhang; Pei-Yan, Kong

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the interaction of human LSCs (leukemic stem cells) with the hematopoietic microenvironment, mediated by the thrombopoietin (TPO)/c-MPL pathway, may be an underlying mechanism for resistance to cell cycle-dependent cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, the role of TPO/c-MPL signaling in AML (acute myelogenous leukemia) chemotherapy resistance hasn't been fully understood. The c-MPL and TPO levels in different AML samples were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA. We also assessed the TPO levels in the osteoblasts derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The survival rate of an AML cell line that had been co-cultured with different BMSC-derived osteoblasts was measured to determine the IC50 of an AML chemotherapy drug daunorubicin (DNR). The levels of TPO/c-MPL in the initial and relapse AML patients were significantly higher than that in the control (P MPL expression was found in the bone marrow mononuclear cells of the relapse AML patients. More importantly, the IC50 of DNR in the HEL + AML-derived osteoblasts was the highest among all co-culture systems. High level of TPO/c-MPL signaling may protect LSCs from chemotherapy in AML. The effects of inhibition of the TPO/c-MPL pathway on enhancing the chemotherapy sensitivity of AML cells, and on their downstream effector molecules that direct the interactions between patient-derived blasts and leukemia repopulating cells need to be further studied.

  11. Increased Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 by T Cells, Induced by B7 in Sera, Reduces Adaptive Immunity in Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamri, Wafa; Abeles, Robin D; Hou, Tie Zheng

    2017-01-01

    , hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and biliary epithelial cells from healthy or diseased liver tissues. We also measured levels of soluble B7 serum samples from patients and controls, and mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Peripheral blood...... mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury contained high levels of soluble B7 compared to sera from mice without liver injury. Plasma exchange reduced circulating levels of soluble B7 in patients with ALF and expression of CTLA4 on T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CD4+ T cells from patients with ALF......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) have defects in innate immune responses to microbes (immune paresis) and are susceptible to sepsis. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), which interacts with the membrane receptor B7 (also called CD80 and CD86...

  12. Safe immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.; Kesson, S.; Ware, N.; Hibberson, W.; Major, A.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of methods of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes are discussed. Problems include the devitrification of glasses and the occurrence of radiation damage. An alternative method of radioctive waste immobilization is described in which the waste is incorporated in the constituent minerals of a synthetic rock, Synroc. Synroc is immune from devitrification and is composed of phases which possess crystal structures identical to those of minerals which are known to have retained radioactive elements in geological environments at elevated pressures and tempertures for long periods. The composition and mineralogy of Synroc is given and the process of immobilizing wastes in Synroc is described. Accelerated leaching tests at elevated pressures and temperatures are also described

  13. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  14. Tree-indexed processes: a high level crossing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kelbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a branching diffusion process on R1 starting at the origin. Take a high level u>0 and count the number R(u,n of branches reaching u by generation n. Let Fk,n(u be the probability P(R(u,n

  15. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantoin, T.S.

    1990-12-01

    For more than half a century, the Council of State Governments has served as a common ground for the states of the nation. The Council is a nonprofit, state-supported and -directed service organization that provides research and resources, identifies trends, supplies answers and creates a network for legislative, executive and judicial branch representatives. This List of Available Resources was prepared with the support of the US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-89CH10402. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. The purpose of the agreement, and reports issued pursuant to it, is to identify and analyze regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation

  16. Thermal characteristics of rocks for high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Kenji; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Okamoto, Masamichi; Kumata, Masahiro; Araki, Kunio; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-12-01

    Heat released by the radioactive decay of high-level waste in an underground repository causes a long term thermal disturbance in the surrounding rock mass. Several rocks constituting geological formations in Japan were gathered and specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and compressive strength were measured. Thermal analysis and chemical analysis were also carried out. It was found that volcanic rocks, i.e. Andesite and Basalt had the most favorable thermal characteristics up to around 1000 0 C and plutonic rock, i.e. Granite had also favorable characteristics under 573 0 C, transition temperature of quartz. Other igneous rocks, i.e. Rhyolite and Propylite had a problem of decomposition at around 500 0 C. Sedimentary rocks, i.e. Zeolite, Tuff, Sandstone and Diatomite were less favorable because of their decomposition, low thermal conductivity and large thermal expansion coefficient. (author)

  17. Separation processes for high-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    During World War II, production of nuclear materials in the United States for national defense, high-level waste (HLW) was generated as a byproduct. Since that time, further quantities of HLW radionuclides have been generated by continued nuclear materials production, research, and the commercial nuclear power program. In this paper HLW is defined as the highly radioactive material resulting from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The HLW is the liquid waste generated during the recovery of uranium and plutonium in a fuel processing plant that generally contains more than 99% of the nonvolatile fission products produced during reactor operation. Since this paper deals with waste separation processes, spent reactor fuel elements that have not been dissolved and further processed are excluded

  18. Powder technological vitrification of simulated high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahlert, S.

    1988-03-01

    High-level waste simulate from the reprocessing of light water reactor and fast breeder fuel was vitrified by powder technology. After denitration with formaldehyde, the simulated HLW is mixed with glass frit and simultaneously dried in an oil-heated mixer. After 'in-can calcination' for at least 24 hours at 850 or 950 K (depending on the type of waste and glass), the mixture is hot-pressed in-can for several hours at 920 or 1020 K respectively, at pressures between 0.4 and 1.0 MPa. The technology has been demonstrated inactively up to diameters of 30 cm. Leach resistance is significantly enhanced when compared to common borosilicate glasses by the utilization of glasses with higher silicon and aluminium content and lower sodium content. (orig.) [de

  19. Fluidized bed system for calcination of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, D P; Prasad, T L; Yadgiri, N K; Theyyunni, T K [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    During the operation of nuclear facilities significant quantities of radiochemical liquid effluents of different concentrations and varying chemical compositions are generated. These effluents contain activated radionuclides, corrosion products and fission products. The advantage of feeding the waste in solid form into the vitrifying equipment are multifold. Efforts are therefore made in many countries to calcine the high level waste, and obtain waste in the oxide form before the same is mixed with glass forming additives and fed into the melter unit. An experimental rig for fluidized bed calcination is constructed for carrying out the detailed investigation of this process, in order to adopt the same for plant scale application. To achieve better gas-solid contact and avoid raining down of solids, a distributor of bubble cap type was designed. A review of existing experience at various laboratories and design of new experimental facility for development of calciners are given. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs.

  20. FADO 2. 0: A high level tagging language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.M.L. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). EP-Div.); Pimenta, M.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Souza, J. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia)

    1989-12-01

    FADO 2.0 is a high level language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and concise way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicitly a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering. (orig.).

  1. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...

  2. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846

  3. High-level waste description, inventory and hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.; Hennelly, E.J.; McElroy, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste (HLW), including its origin, is described and the current differences in definitions discussed. Quantities of defense and commercial radioactive HLW, both volume and curie content, are given. Current waste handling, which is interimin nature, is described for the several sites. The HLW hazard is defined by the times during which various radionuclides are the dominant contributors. The hazard is also compared to that of the ore. Using ICRP-2, which is the legal reference in the US, the hazard of the waste reduces to a level equal to the ore in about 300 years. The disposal plans are summarized and it is shown that regulatory requirements will probably govern disposal operations in such a conservative manner that the risk (product of hazard times probability of release) may well be lower than for any other wastes in existence or perhaps lower than those for any other human endeavor

  4. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  5. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B 2 O 3 content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B 2 O 3 and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume

  6. Using the CMS high level trigger as a cloud resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colling, David; Huffman, Adam; Bauer, Daniela; McCrae, Alison; Cinquilli, Mattia; Gowdy, Stephen; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Ozga, Wojciech; Chaze, Olivier; Lahiff, Andrew; Grandi, Claudio; Tiradani, Anthony; Sgaravatto, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger is a compute farm of more than 10,000 cores. During data taking this resource is heavily used and is an integral part of the experiment's triggering system. However, outside of data taking periods this resource is largely unused. We describe why CMS wants to use the HLT as a cloud resource (outside of data taking periods) and how this has been achieved. In doing this we have turned a single-use cluster into an agile resource for CMS production computing. While we are able to use the HLT as a production cloud resource, there is still considerable further work that CMS needs to carry out before this resource can be used with the desired agility. This report, therefore, represents a snapshot of this activity at the time of CHEP 2013.

  7. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  8. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  9. A comparison of high-level waste form characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US DOE is responsible for the eventual disposal in a repository of spent fuels, high-level waste (HLW) and other radioactive wastes that may require long-term isolation. This includes light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW as the two major sources, plus other forms including non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources (such as activated metals in the Greater-Than-Class-C category). The Characteristics Data Base, sponsored by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was created to systematically tabulate the technical characteristics of these materials. Data are presented here on the immobilized HLW forms that are expected to be produced between now and 2020

  10. Conceptual process for conversion of high level waste to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    During a ten-year period highly radioactive wastes amounting to 22 million gallons of salt cake and 5 million gallons of wet sludge are to be converted to 1.2 million gallons of glass and 24 million gallons of decontaminated salt cake and placed in the new storage facilities which will provide high assurance of containment with minimal reliance on maintenance and surveillance. The glass will contain nearly all of the radioactivity in a form that is highly resistant to leaching and dispersion. The salt cake will contain a small amount of residual radioactivity. The process is shown in Figure 1 and the facilities may be arranged in seven modules to accomplish seven tasks, (1) remove wastes from tanks, (2) separate sludge and salt, (3) decontaminate salt, (4) solidify and package sludge and 137 Cs, (5) solidify and package decontaminated salt, (6) store high level waste, and (7) store decontaminated salt cake

  11. Coupled processes in NRC high-level waste research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzi, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses NRC research effort in support of evaluating license applications for disposal of nuclear waste and for promulgating regulations and issuing guidance documents on nuclear waste management. In order to do this they fund research activities at a number of laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial organizations. One of our research efforts is the coupled processes study. This paper discusses interest in coupled processes and describes the target areas of research efforts over the next few years. The specific research activities relate to the performance objectives of NRC's high-level waste (HLW) regulation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) HLW standard. The general objective of the research program is to ensure the NRC has a sufficient independent technical base to make sound regulatory decisions

  12. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  13. The development of a high level radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.

    1979-11-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste, from the removal of spent fuel from reactors to final disposal of vitrified waste, involves a complex choice of operational variables which interact one with another. If the various operations are designed and developed in isolation it will almost certainly lead to suboptimal choice. Management of highly active waste should therefore be viewed as a complete system and analysed in such a way that account is taken of the interactions between the various operations. This system must have clearly defined and agreed objectives as well as criteria against which performance can be judged. A thorough analysis of the system will provide a framework within which the necessary research and development can be carried out in a co-ordinated fashion and lead to an optimised strategy for managing highly active wastes. (author)

  14. Engineering-scale vitrification of commercial high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Hanson, M.S.; Knowlton, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    To date, technology for immobilizing commercial high-level waste (HLW) has been extensively developed, and two major demonstration projects have been completed, the Waste Solidification Engineering Prototypes (WSEP) Program and the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP). The feasibility of radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated in the WSEP program between 1966 and 1970 (McElroy et al. 1972) using simulated power-reactor waste composed of nonradioactive chemicals and HLW from spent, Hanford reactor fuel. Thirty-three engineering-scale canisters of solidified HLW were produced during the operations. In early 79, the NWVP demonstrated the vitrification of HLW from the processing of actual commercial nuclear fuel. This program consisted of two parts, (1) waste preparation and (2) vitrification by spray calcination and in-can melting. This report presents results from the NWVP

  15. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  16. High-level radioactive-waste-disposal investigations in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council (TENRAC) was designated in 1980 to coordinate the interaction between the State of Texas and the federal government relating to the high-level radioactive waste disposal issue. This report was prepared to summarize the many aspects of that issue with particular emphasis on the activities in Texas. The report is intended to provide a comprehensive introduction for individuals with little or no previous exposure to the issue and to provide a broader perspective for those individuals who have addressed specific aspects of the issue but have not had the opportunity to study it in a broader context. Following the introduction, contents of this report are as follows: (1) general status of major repository siting investigations in the US; (2) detailed review of Texas studies; (3) possible facilities to be sited in Texas; (4) current Texas policy; (5) federal regulations; and (6) federal legislation. 9 figures, 2 tables

  17. Conductivity of alanine solution for high level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Figel, M.; Regulla, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    The amino acid alanine is well known as a dosimetric detector material for high level dosimetry. Its application is based on the formation of radicals by ionising radiation. The free radicals are earlier detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy or chemically after dissolving the irradiated samples. Of all these methods the ESR/alanine system is the most advanced and is suggested for reference dosimetry. At present, however, the high cost of the system is a serious handicap for a large scale routine application in radiation plants. In this study the variation of electrical conductivity of L-alanine solution with applied dose is investigated in the range from 0.5-200 kGy. The conductivity was measured with a 50 MHz RF oscillator. This readout method is uncomplicated and may be suitable for routine application. The experiments were performed with L-alanine solution in glass ampoules. (Author)

  18. High level waste (HLW) steam reducing station evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannon, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Existing pressure equipment in High Level Waste does not have a documented technical baseline. Based on preliminary reviews, the existing equipment seems to be based on system required capacity instead of system capability. A planned approach to establish a technical baseline began September 1992 and used the Works Management System preventive maintenance schedule. Several issues with relief valves being undersized on steam reducing stations created a need to determine the risk of maintaining the steam in service. An Action Plan was developed to evaluate relief valves that did not have technical baselines and provided a path forward for continued operation. Based on Action Plan WER-HLE-931042, the steam systems will remain in service while the designs are being developed and implemented

  19. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the use of sea-covered rock and sediment as well as the on-land situation. Throughout the book the various principles and problems inherent in geological disposal are explained and illustrated by reference to a multitude of European and North American case studies, backed up by a large number of tables, figures and an extensive bibliography

  20. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, J.A. III.

    1995-01-01

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope

  1. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  2. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Mac Farlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  3. High-level radioactive waste glass and storage canister design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Management of high-level radioactive wastes is a primary concern in nuclear operations today. The main objective in managing these wastes is to convert them into a solid, durable form which is then isolated from man. A description is given of the design and evaluation of this waste form. The waste form has two main components: the solidified waste and the storage canister. The solid waste form discussed in this study is glass. Waste glasses have been designed to be inert to water attack, physically rugged, low in volatility, and stable over time. Two glass-making processes are under development at PNL. The storage canister is being designed to provide high-integrity containment for solidified wastes from processing to terminal storage. An outline is given of the steps in canister design: material selection, stress and thermal analyses, quality verification, and postfill processing. Examples are given of results obtained from actual nonradioactive demonstration tests. 14 refs

  4. Supervision of the ATLAS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, S.; Meessen, C.; Qian, Z.; Touchard, F.; Negri, France A.; Zobernig, H.; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics; Negri, France A.

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system provides software-based event selection after the initial LVL1 hardware trigger. It is composed of two stages, the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter. The HLT is implemented as software tasks running on large processor farms. An essential part of the HLT is the supervision system, which is responsible for configuring, coordinating, controlling and monitoring the many hundreds of processes running in the HLT. A prototype implementation of the supervision system, using tools from the ATLAS Online Software system is presented. Results from scalability tests are also presented where the supervision system was shown to be capable of controlling over 1000 HLT processes running on 230 nodes.

  5. National high-level waste systems analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.; Thiel, E.C.

    1995-05-01

    This document details the development of modeling capabilities that can provide a system-wide view of all US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level waste (HLW) treatment and storage systems. This model can assess the impact of budget constraints on storage and treatment system schedules and throughput. These impacts can then be assessed against existing and pending milestones to determine the impact to the overall HLW system. A nation-wide view of waste treatment availability will help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. The impacts of the availability of various treatment systems and throughput can be compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources or the need to renegotiate milestones

  6. Immobilization of high-level wastes into sintered glass: 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.O.; Messi de Bernasconi, N.; Audero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to immobilize the high-level radioactive wastes from fuel elements reprocessing, borosilicate glass was adopted. Sintering experiments are described with the variety VG 98/12 (SiO 2 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO and Na 2 O) (which does not present devitrification problems) mixed with simulated calcinated wastes. The hot pressing line (sintering under pressure) was explored in two variants 1: In can; 2: In graphite matrix with sintered pellet extraction. With scanning electron microscopy it is observed that the simulated wastes do not disolve in the vitreous matrix, but they remain dispersed in the same. The results obtained point out that the leaching velocities are independent from the density and from the matrix type employed, as well as from the fact that the wastes do no dissolve in the matrix. (M.E.L.) [es

  7. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. Broad in scope and balanced in approach, its coverage extends from technological and organizational questions to political ramifications...the environmental impact of building repositories...and even dealing with Indian tribes affected by repository site selection and development. Emphasis is on workable strategies for implementing the National Waste Policy Act of 1982, including a mission plan for the program...a monitored retrievable storage proposal...and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the program. Nine appendicies are included. They furnish additional data on such topics as policymaking, history, and the system issues resolved in NWPA

  8. Vitrification of high-level radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1993-12-01

    The main objective is to summarize work conducted on glasses as waste forms for high-level radioactive fission product solutions up to the late 1980's (section I and II). Section III addresses the question, whether waste forms designed for the immobilization of radioactive residues can be used for the same purpose for hazardous wastes. Of particular interest are those types of hazardous wastes, e.g., fly ashes from municipal combustion plants, easy to convert into glasses or ceramic materials. A large number of base glass compositions has been studied to vitrify waste from reprocessing but only borosilicate glasses with melting temperatures between 1100 C and 1200 C and very good hydrolytic stability is used today. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This summary presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste - an issue that has been debated over the last decade and that now appears to be moving toward major congressional action. After more than 20 years of commercial nuclear power, the Federal Government has yet to develop a broadly supported policy for fulfilling its legal responsibility for the final isolation of high-level radioactive waste. OTA's study concludes that until such a policy is adopted in law, there is a substantial risk that the false starts, shifts of policy, and fluctuating support that have plagued the final isolation program in the past will continue. The continued lack of final isolation facilities has raised two key problems that underlie debates about radioactive waste policy. First, some question the continued use of nuclear power until it is shown that safe final isolation for the resulting wastes can and will be accomplished, and argue that the failure to develop final isolation facilities is evidence that it may be an insoluble problem. Second, because there are no reprocessing facilities or federal waste isolation facilities to accept spent fuel, existing reactors are running out of spent fuel storage space, and by 1986 some may face a risk of shutting down for some period. Most of the 72,000 metric tons of spent fuel expected to be generated by the year 2000 will still be in temporary storage at that time. While it is possible that utilities could provide all necessary additional storage at reactor sites before existing basins are filled, some supplemental storage may be needed if there are delays in their efforts

  10. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.

    1985-01-01

    With the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), Congress for the first time established in law a comprehensive Federal policy for commercial high-level radioactive waste management, including interim storage and permanent disposal. NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a high-level radioactive waste management system based on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Authorization for other types of waste facilities will not be required unless major problems with geologic disposal are discovered, and studies to date have identified no insurmountable technical obstacles to developing geologic repositories. The NWPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit to Congress three key documents: (1) a Mission Plan, containing both a waste management plan with a schedule for transferring waste to Federal facilities and an implementation program for choosing sites and developing technologies to carry out that plan; (2) a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal, to include a site-specific design for a long-term federal storage facility, an evaluation of whether such an MRS facility is needed and feasible, and an analysis of how an MRS facility would be integrated with the repository program if authorized by Congress; and (3) a study of alternative institutional mechanisms for financing and managing the radioactive waste system, including the option of establishing an independent waste management organization outside of DOE. The Mission Plan and the report on alternative institutional mechanisms were submitted to the 99th US Congress in 1985. The MRS proposal is to be submitted in early 1986. Each of these documents is discussed following an overview of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  11. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  12. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, J.H.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure

  13. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  14. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab

  15. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program's (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant's melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy

  16. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, R [Library of Parliament, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Science and Technology Div.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab.

  17. T. B-cell subpopulation in patients with malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Motoyoshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Naruto, Mamiko.

    1978-01-01

    T, B cells in the peripheural blood of patients with malignant diseases were investigated. The percentages of T cells in patients with malignant lymphomas correlated to the extent of disease determined by clinical stagings of Ann Arbor's classification, in stages III and IV T-cells decreased to compare with those in stages I and II, while B-cells did not show any changes. Absolute numbers of lymphocytes, blastogenesis induced by PHA or PWM decreased remarkably during combination chemotherapies and during radiotherapy whereas the percentages of T-cells measuring in the same patients did not influenced consistently by these treatments. The DNA pattern of lymphocytes during treatments was examined by Flow-Microphotometry and the result suggested that those lymphocytes were damaged by treatments and subsequently they were refractory to the action of mitogens. The results indicate that selective timing needs between chemotherapy and immunotherapy. (auth.)

  18. Facial skin follllicular hyperkeratosis of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zhuchkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a clinical observation of paraneoplastic syndrome of a patient with basal cell carcinoma of skin. Authors present clinical features of the described for the first time, paraneoplastic retentional follicular hyperkeratosis of facial area.

  19. Erectile Dysfunction in patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia | Ibidapo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erectile Dysfunction in patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia. ... leading to an increased haemolysis as well as vaso-occlusive complications including ... bone pain crises, blood transfusion (over a 3 year period) as well as erectile dysfunction.

  20. Cardio–Pulmonary Response Of Patients With Sickle Cell Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardio–Pulmonary Response Of Patients With Sickle Cell Anaemia ... any risk of adverse cardio-respiratory response during the course of physical rehabilitation. A total of 70 subjects participated in the study; 30 of these had Haemoglobin ...

  1. Pregnancy Outcome among Patients with Sickle Cell Disease in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    The antenatal complications included anaemia (62.9%), vaso-oclusive. (bone pain) ... Conclusion: Pregnancy in sickle cell disease patients is associated with high maternal and perinatal morbidity .... and malaria (25.7%) were other common.

  2. Depression and anxiety in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety in the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: 76 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma participated in this program. All patients were rated with the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The mean scores of SAS and SDS were compared to those scores of the Norm of Chinese people. In addition, the different treatment results of the patients with different levels of anxiety and depression were studied. Further, the number of patients of SAS, SDS with more than 50 score were compared between primary cancer patients and recurrent cancer patients. RESULTS: The scores of SAS, SDS and the number of patients with more than 50 score in the patients group were obviously higher than those in Chinese Norm (P<0.01).The levels of anxiety and depression in 32 patients with recurrent cancer were more severe than those of 44 patients with primary cancer. The patients with anxiety and/or depression showed poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression are common symptoms in patients with OSCC and have negative effects on the prognosis, thus the psychological intervention for the patients must be carried out.

  3. Preorchiectomy Leydig Cell Dysfunction in Patients With Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard Kier, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Daugaard, Gedske

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about preorchiectomy Leydig cell function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC). The aim was to estimate the prevalence of preorchiectomy Leydig cell dysfunction and evaluate factors associated with this condition in a cohort of patients with TGCC. We evaluated luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) preorchiectomy in 561 patients with TGCC and compared with 561 healthy controls. We calculated TT/LH and cFT/LH ratios and constructed bivariate charts of TT/LH and cFT/LH from the controls. Logistic regression analysis with an abnormal cFT/LH ratio as outcome and clinical stage, tumor size, age, histology, presence of contralateral germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS), and bilateral tumors as covariates was performed. In patients who were negative for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (n = 374), TT (P = .004), cFT (P < .001), TT/LH ratio (P = .003), and cFT/LH ratio (P = .002) were lower than in controls. A total of 95 (25%) and 91 (24%) of hCG-negative patients had abnormal values when using combined evaluation of TT/LH and cFT/LH, respectively. Increasing tumor size, contralateral GCNIS, and increasing age were associated with Leydig cell dysfunction. In patients positive for hCG (n = 187), all reproductive hormones except SHBG were different from controls (P < .001). Patients with TGCC are at increased risk of Leydig cell dysfunction before orchiectomy. Contralateral GCNIS, increasing age, and increasing tumor size are associated with Leydig cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that patients with preexisting Leydig cell dysfunction are at increased risk of testosterone deficiency following treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, Irene; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Mworozi, Edison A; Tumwine, James K

    2015-06-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in sub Saharan Africa. While α+-thalassaemia is known to modulate sickle cell anaemia, its magnitude and significance in Uganda have hitherto not been described. To determine the prevalence of α+thalassaemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Mulago Hospital and to describe the clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out on patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kampala. Dried blood spots were used to analyze for the deletional α+ thalassaemia using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Of the 142 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 110 (77.5%) had the αα+thalassaemia deletion. The gene frequency of (-α) was 0.425. Ninety one percent (100/110) of those with α+thalassaemia were heterozygous (αα/α-). Amongst the patients older than 60 months, 15 (83.3%) of those without αα+thalassaemia had significant hepatomegaly of greater than 4 cm compared to 36 (45.6%) of those with α+thalassaemia (p=0.003). The gene frequency of (-α) of 0.425 noted in this study is higher than that reported from many places in Africa. Concurrent alpha thalassemia might be a protective trait against significant hepatomegaly in sickle cell anaemia patients more than 60 months of age at Mulago hospital.

  5. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Alpha thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia patients, Kampala, Uganda. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i2.48. Introduction. In the early 1960's many adults with sickle cell anaemia. (SCA) as well as those with mild disease were reported in Jamaica1. Various factors, both genetic and environmental, are.

  6. Beta thalassaemia traits in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... These three patients (1.2%) were found to have positive co-inheritance of thalassaemia trait and sickle cell anaemia. The erythrocyte indices were all reduced in these selected families except for one family whose mean cell haemoglobin concentration was within normal ...

  7. Avascular necrosis in sickle cell (homozygous S) patients: Predictive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with the development of AVN. Conclusion: In conclusion, patients with a raised steady state platelet count may have a higher tendency to develop AVN and may require closer orthopedic review and prophylactic intervention. Key words: Avascular necrosis, homozygous S, platelet count, sickle cell anemia, white cell count ...

  8. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  9. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume; Duret, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete structures; - GALATEE

  10. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume [CEA/Valrho, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Duret, Bernard [CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete

  11. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  14. Nutritional strategies of high level natural bodybuilders during competition preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, A J; Simper, T; Barker, M E

    2018-01-01

    Competitive bodybuilders employ a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in order to lose fat mass and maintain fat free mass. Although recommendations exist for contest preparation, applied research is limited and data on the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders are restricted to case studies or small cohorts. Moreover, the influence of different nutritional strategies on competitive outcome is unknown. Fifty-one competitors (35 male and 16 female) volunteered to take part in this project. The British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF) runs an annual national competition for high level bodybuilders; competitors must qualify by winning at a qualifying events or may be invited at the judge's discretion. Competitors are subject to stringent drug testing and have to undergo a polygraph test. Study of this cohort provides an opportunity to examine the dietary practices of high level natural bodybuilders. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of bodybuilders competing at the BNBF finals. Volunteers completed a 34-item questionnaire assessing diet at three time points. At each time point participants recorded food intake over a 24-h period in grams and/or portions. Competitors were categorised according to contest placing. A "placed" competitor finished in the top 5, and a "Non-placed" (DNP) competitor finished outside the top 5. Nutrient analysis was performed using Nutritics software. Repeated measures ANOVA and effect sizes (Cohen's d ) were used to test if nutrient intake changed over time and if placing was associated with intake. Mean preparation time for a competitor was 22 ± 9 weeks. Nutrient intake of bodybuilders reflected a high-protein, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. Total carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes decreased over time in both male and female cohorts ( P  preparation (5.1 vs 3.7 g/kg BW) than DNP competitors ( d  = 1.02, 95% CI

  15. Effects of TLR agonists on maturation and function of 3-day dendritic cells from AML patients in complete remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merk Martina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active dendritic cell (DC immunization protocols are rapidly gaining interest as therapeutic options in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Here we present for the first time a GMP-compliant 3-day protocol for generation of monocyte-derived DCs using different synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists in intensively pretreated patients with AML. Methods Four different maturation cocktails were compared for their impact on cell recovery, phenotype, cytokine secretion, migration, and lymphocyte activation in 20 AML patients and 25 healthy controls. Results Maturation cocktails containing the TLR7/8 agonists R848 or CL075, with and without the addition of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C, induced DCs that had a positive costimulatory profile, secreted high levels of IL-12(p70, showed chemotaxis to CCR7 ligands, had the ability to activate NK cells, and efficiently stimulated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this approach translates into biologically improved DCs, not only in healthy controls but also in AML patients. This data supports the clinical application of TLR-matured DCs in patients with AML for activation of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  16. An unusual scintigraphic pattern in sickle cell patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, A.M.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.; Norris, S.L.; Haywood, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed the nuclear medicine files of all patients enrolled in the sickle cell disease clinic who had had scans performed within the previous 5 years. We specifically looked for patterns of tracer uptake in these scans that would correlate with the severe anemia and consequent bone marrow hyperactivity of sickle cell patients. Thirty-three patients were included (21 men and 12 women) with a mean age of 26.8 years (range 17-48 years). The appearance of each of these patients' most recent scans was examined in the areas of the distal femurs, the proximal tibias and the distal tibias; a distinct triangular shaped pattern of increased activity was identified in these areas in a majority of patients. Thirty-three patients without sickle cell disease served as age-matched controls. This pattern was seen in 65.1% (95 out of 146 images) of the sickle cell patients' delayed images and 80.4% (82 out of 102 images) of their blood pool images. In contrast, the control patients demonstrated the triangular pattern in none of their blood pool studies (0%) and only 10.9% of their delayed bone images (P<0.001). The mean age of sickle cell patients with this pattern is 25.6 years which was significantly lower than that of those without this pattern (mean=37.5 years, P<0.05). Given the high prevalence of this unique scintigraphic pattern in a group of patients with known accelerated bone marrow function, these findings may be scintigraphic evidence of bone marrow expansion. The patient's age appears to be an important factor in visualization of this pattern. (orig.)

  17. Allogeneic split-skin grafting in stem cell transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Kyrre Berg; Vindeløv, Lars; Schmidt, G.

    2008-01-01

    donor chimaerism will not recognise skin from the stem cell donor as foreign. Due to advances in haematology, the number of BMT patients and their long-term survival is expected to increase. cGvHD, predisposing to skin problems and ulcerations, complicates up to 70% of cases of BMT. In BMT patients...

  18. Treatment of older patients with mantle-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Hoster, E; Hermine, O

    2012-01-01

    The long-term prognosis for older patients with mantle-cell lymphoma is poor. Chemoimmunotherapy results in low rates of complete remission, and most patients have a relapse. We investigated whether a fludarabine-containing induction regimen improved the complete-remission rate and whether...

  19. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E.; Weiss, H.

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  20. Modeling neurodegenerative diseases with patient-derived induced pluripotent cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Anna; Zhang, Yu; Chandrasekaran, Abinaya

    2017-01-01

    patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and isogenic controls generated using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing. The iPSCs are self-renewable and capable of being differentiated into the cell types affected by the diseases. These in vitro models based on patient-derived iPSCs provide...... the possibilities of generating three-dimensional (3D) models using the iPSCs-derived cells and compare their advantages and disadvantages to conventional two-dimensional (2D) models....

  1. High-level PC-based laser system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael S.

    1991-05-01

    Since the inception of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) there have been a multitude of comparison studies done in an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness and relative sizes of complementary, and sometimes competitive, laser weapon systems. It became more and more apparent that what the systems analyst needed was not only a fast, but a cost effective way to perform high-level trade studies. In the present investigation, a general procedure is presented for the development of PC-based algorithmic systems models for laser systems. This procedure points out all of the major issues that should be addressed in the design and development of such a model. Issues addressed include defining the problem to be modeled, defining a strategy for development, and finally, effective use of the model once developed. Being a general procedure, it will allow a systems analyst to develop a model to meet specific needs. To illustrate this method of model development, a description of the Strategic Defense Simulation - Design To (SDS-DT) model developed and used by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is presented. SDS-DT is a menu-driven, fast executing, PC-based program that can be used to either calculate performance, weight, volume, and cost values for a particular design or, alternatively, to run parametrics on particular system parameters to perhaps optimize a design.

  2. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  3. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  4. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  5. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  6. Underground excavation methods for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshel, J.; Gupta, D.; Nataraja, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on rock excavation methods for a High-Level Waste repository that should be selected to limit the potential for creating preferential pathways for groundwater to travel to the waste packages or for radionuclides to migrate to the accessible environment. The use of water and other foreign substances should be controlled so that the repository performance is not compromised. The excavated openings should remain stable so that operations can be carried out safely and the retrievability option maintained. As per the current conceptual designs presented by the Department of Energy, the exploratory shaft facility becomes a part of the repository if the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for repository development. Therefore, the methods of constructing the underground openings should be compatible with the performance requirements for the repository. Also, the degree of damage to the rock surrounding the openings and the extent of the damage zone should not preclude adequate site characterization. The ESf construction and operation should be compatible with the site data gathering activities, such as geological, thermomechanical, hydrological and geochemical testing

  7. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of actinide elements released from high-level waste glasses into a tuff groundwater in laboratory tests at 90 degrees C at various glass surface area/leachant volume ratios (S/V) between dissolved, suspended, and sorbed fractions has been measured. While the maximum release of actinides is controlled by the corrosion rate of the glass matrix, their solubility and sorption behavior affects the amounts present in potentially mobile phases. Actinide solubilities are affected by the solution pH and the presence of complexants released from the glass, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chloride, radiolytic products, such as nitrate and nitrite, and carbonate. Sorption onto inorganic colloids formed during lass corrosion may increase the amounts of actinides in solution, although subsequent sedimentation of these colloids under static conditions leads to a significant reduction in the amount of actinides in solution. The solution chemistry and observed actinide behavior depend on the S/V of the test. Tests at high S/V lead to higher pH values, greater complexant concentrations, and generate colloids more quickly than tests at low S/V. The S/V also affects the rate of glass corrosion

  8. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  9. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume.

  10. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Anderson, D.R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept

  11. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90 0 C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations

  12. Multi-threading in the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Adam Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Over the next decade of LHC data-taking the instantaneous luminosity will reach up 7.5 times the design value with over 200 interactions per bunch-crossing and will pose unprecedented challenges for the ATLAS trigger system. With the evolution of the CPU market to many-core systems, both the ATLAS offline reconstruction and High-Level Trigger (HLT) software will have to transition from a multi-process to a multithreaded processing paradigm in order not to exhaust the available physical memory of a typical compute node. The new multithreaded ATLAS software framework, AthenaMT, has been designed from the ground up to support both the offline and online use-cases with the aim to further harmonize the offline and trigger algorithms. The latter is crucial both in terms of maintenance effort and to guarantee the high trigger efficiency and rejection factors needed for the next two decades of data-taking. We report on an HLT prototype in which the need for HLT­specific components has been reduced to a minimum while...

  13. Evaluation of a high-level waste radiological maintenance facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Savannah River Site''s (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation''s first and world''s largest high level waste vitrification facility. DWPF began, operations in March 1996 to process radioactive waste, consisting of a matrixed predominantly 137 Cs precipitate and a predominately 90 Sr and alpha emitting sludge, into boro-silicate glass for long term storage. Presently, DWPF is processing only sludge waste and is preparing to process a combination of sludge and precipitate waste. During precipitate operations, canister dose rates are expected to exceed 10 Sv hr -1 (1000 rem hr -1 ). In sludge-only operations, canister contact gamma dose rates are approximately 15 mSv hr -1 (1500 mrem hr -1 ). Transferable contamination levels have been greater than 10 mSv hr -1 (100 cm 2 ) -1 for beta-gamma emitters and into the millions of Bq (100 cm 2 ) -1 for the alpha emitting radionuclides. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiological maintenance areas and their ability to support radiological work

  14. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  15. Options for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Laughton, A.S.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste within the fuel cycle, especially the high-level wastes from reprocessing of nuclear fuel, is currently a matter of particular concern. In the short term (meaning a timescale of tens of years) management by engineered storage is considered to provide a satisfactory solution. Beyond this, however, the two main alternative options which are considered in the paper are: (a) disposal by burial into geologic formations on land; and (b) disposal by emplacement into or onto the seabed. Status of our present knowledge on the land and seabed disposal options is reviewed together with an assessment of the extent to which their reliability and safety can be judged on presently available information. Further information is needed on the environmental behaviour of radioactivity in the form of solidified waste in both situations in order to provide a more complete, scientific assessment. Work done so far has clarified the areas where further research is most needed - for instance modelling of the environmental transfer processes associated with the seabed option. This is discussed together with an indication of the research programmes which are now being pursued

  16. High-level water purifying technology. Kodo josui shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H; Tsukiashi, K [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Research and development have been carried out on a high-level water purifying system using ozone and activated charcoals to supply drinking water free of carcinogenic matters and odors. This system comprises a system to utilize ozone by using silent discharge and oxygen enriching device, and a living organism/activated charcoal treatment system. The latter system utilizes living organisms deposited on activated charcoal surfaces to remove polluting substances including ammonia. The treatment experimenting equipment comprises an ozone generating system, an ozone treating column, an activated charcoal treating column, an ozone/activated charcoal control device, and a water amount and quality measuring system. An experiment was carried out using an experimental plant with a capacity of 20 m[sup 3]/day on water taken from the sedimentation process at an actual water purifying plant. As a result, trihalomethane formation potential was removed at about 40% in the ozone treatment, and at 70% in the whole treatment combining the ozone and living organism/activated charcoal treatments. For parameterization of palatability of water, a method is being studied that utilizes nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate degrees of water cluster. The method is regarded promising. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  17. NOx AND HETEROGENEITY EFFECTS IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Dan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Orlando, Thom

    2000-01-01

    We summarize contributions from our EMSP supported research to several field operations of the Office of Environmental Management (EM). In particular we emphasize its impact on safety programs at the Hanford and other EM sites where storage, maintenance and handling of HLW is a major mission. In recent years we were engaged in coordinated efforts to understand the chemistry initiated by radiation in HLW. Three projects of the EMSP (''The NOx System in Nuclear Waste,'' ''Mechanisms and Kinetics of Organic Aging in High Level Nuclear Wastes, D. Camaioni--PI'' and ''Interfacial Radiolysis Effects in Tanks Waste, T. Orlando--PI'') were involved in that effort, which included a team at Argonne, later moved to the University of Notre Dame, and two teams at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Much effort was invested in integrating the results of the scientific studies into the engineering operations via coordination meetings and participation in various stages of the resolution of some of the outstanding safety issues at the sites. However, in this Abstract we summarize the effort at Notre Dame

  18. Strategic lessons in high-level waste management planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Neil

    1999-07-01

    This presentation discusses some issues in the planning and execution of high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The topics are (1) Initial considerations, (2) Issues in structuring a programme, (3) Disposal concepts, (4) Geological environments, (5) Site selection and characterisation, (6) Waste transport, (7) Performance assessment methodology and application, (8) Some key issues. The options for spent fuel management can give rise to a variety of different wastes. The quantity of waste arising will affect the volume of rock required for deposition, both with respect to rock integrity and requirements for heat dissipation. A repository must not be considered in isolation from the rest of the waste management programme. The repository development plan should be supported by a schedule of activities and related funding mechanisms, implying a long-term commitment in policy terms, and should include a corresponding legal and regulatory framework. The idea that disposed waste might be retrieved by future generations for processing under new technology is discussed. Safeguards requirements on fissile material within spent fuel or any other wastes imply indefinite control. Disposal concepts include the geological environment and the engineered barrier system within it. Site selection involves several steps: regional-scale characterisation, local characterisation, hydrological studies, etc. Key issues are retrieval vs. safeguards, optimisation of repository design, reducing long programme timescales, international collaboration.

  19. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Broshears, R.E.; Pasztor, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Beijer Institute received request from the Swedish Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Naemnden for Anvaent Kaernbraensle - NAK) to undertake an international review of the major programmes which were currently making arrangements for the future disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel. The request was accepted, a detailed proposal was worked out and agreed to by NAK, for a critical technical review which concentrated on the following three main tasks: 1. a 'state-of-the-art' review of selected ongoing disposal programmes, both national and international; 2. an assessment of the scientific and technical controversies involved, and 3. recommendations for further research in this field. This review work was to be built on a survey of the available technical literature which was to serve as a basis for a series of detailed interviews, consultations and discussions with scientific and technical experts in Japan, Canada, USA, Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This first volume contains: disposal options; review of the state-of-the-art (international activities, national programs); analysis of waste disposal systems. (orig./HP)

  20. Synroc - a multiphase ceramic for high level nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.; Vance, E.R.; Hart, K.P.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Mercer, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Many natural minerals - particularly titanates - are very durable geochemically, having survived for millions of years with very little alteration. Moreover, some of these minerals have quantitatively retained radioactive elements and their daughter products over this time. The Synroc concept mimics nature by providing an all-titanate synthetic mineral phase assemblage to immobilise high level waste (HLW) from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations for safe geological disposal. In principle, many chemically hazardous inorganic wastes arising from industry could also be immobilised in highly durable ceramics and disposed of geologically, but in practice the cost structure of most industries is such that lower cost waste management solutions - for example, the development of reusable by-products or the use of cements rather than ceramics - have to be devised. In many thousands of aqueous leach tests at ANSTO, mostly at 70-90 deg C, Synroc has been shown to be exceptionally durable. The emphases of the recent ANSTO program have been on tailoring of the Synroc composition to varying HLW compositions, leach testing of Synroc containing radioactive transuranic actinides, study of leaching mechanisms by SEM and TEM, and the development and costing of a conceptual fully active Synroc fabrication plant design. A summary of recent results on these topics will be presented. 29 refs., 4 figs

  1. Hanford high-level waste melter system evaluation data packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Shafer, P.J.; Lamar, D.A.; Merrill, R.A.; Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.

    1996-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System is selecting a reference melter system for the Hanford High-Level Waste vitrification plant. A melter evaluation was conducted in FY 1994 to narrow down the long list of potential melter technologies to a few for testing. A formal evaluation was performed by a Melter Selection Working Group (MSWG), which met in June and August 1994. At the June meeting, MSWG evaluated 15 technologies and selected six for more thorough evaluation at the Aug. meeting. All 6 were variations of joule-heated or induction-heated melters. Between the June and August meetings, Hanford site staff and consultants compiled data packages for each of the six melter technologies as well as variants of the baseline technologies. Information was solicited from melter candidate vendors to supplement existing information. This document contains the data packages compiled to provide background information to MSWG in support of the evaluation of the six technologies. (A separate evaluation was performed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. to identify balance of plant impacts if a given melter system was selected.)

  2. Canadian high-level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Gray, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    In Canada responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes rests with the producer of those wastes. This fundamental principle applies to such diverse wastes as uranium mine and mill tailings, low-level wastes from universities and hospitals, wastes produced at nuclear research establishments, and wastes produced at nuclear generating stations. The federal government has accepted responsibility for historical wastes for which the original producer can no longer be held accountable. Management of radioactive wastes is subject to the regulatory control of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the federal agency responsible for regulating the nuclear industry. In this paper the authors summarize the current situation concerning the management of high level (used nuclear fuel) wastes. In 1981 the two governments also announced that selection of a disposal site would not proceed, and responsibility for site selection and operation would not be assigned until the Concept for used fuel disposal had been reviewed and assessed. Thus the concept assessment is generic rather than site specific. The Concept that has been developed has been designed to conform with safety and performance criteria established by the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is based on burial deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield, using a multi-barrier approach with a series of engineered and natural barriers: these include the waste form, container, buffer and backfill, and the host rock

  3. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  4. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  5. Automated generation of partial Markov chain from high level descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameret, P.-A.; Rauzy, A.; Roussel, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to generate partial Markov chains from high level implicit descriptions, namely AltaRica models. This algorithm relies on two components. First, a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths in a graph. Second, the definition of a notion of distance to select which states must be kept and which can be safely discarded. The proposed method solves two problems at once. First, it avoids a manual construction of Markov chains, which is both tedious and error prone. Second, up the price of acceptable approximations, it makes it possible to push back dramatically the exponential blow-up of the size of the resulting chains. We report experimental results that show the efficiency of the proposed approach. - Highlights: • We generate Markov chains from a higher level safety modeling language (AltaRica). • We use a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to generate partial Markov chains. • Hence we solve two problems: the first problem is the tedious manual construction of Markov chains. • The second problem is the blow-up of the size of the chains, at the cost of decent approximations. • The experimental results highlight the efficiency of the method

  6. Safety of geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an analysis of barrier performance of high-level waste disposal. Advantages of a multi-barrier system in repository are checked through experiments and simulations; thermal restriction, glass-leaching, and nuclide migration in both buffer materials and surrounding rock media. The temperature distribution in a repository is calculated with TRUMP code, then the pit interval is determined according to the temperature criteria of compacted bentonite. The simulation code for glass corrosion, STRAG, is developed on the basis of the experimental findings of the JSS project in which the actual radioactive glass fabricated CEA/Marcoule was used. STRAG is then verified through agreements of the simulated and measured values. Nuclide migration in compacted bentonite is calculated by SWIFT code, and the results show the bentonite capability for retention of nuclides released from waste glass. Migration of cesium isotope in rock is also examined with the small granite core samples, of which results suggest that bulk-granite except for fractures is expected as a porous media. (author)

  7. The Software Architecture of the LHCb High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a spectrometer dedicated to the study of heavy flavor at the LHC. The rate of proton-proton collisions at the LHC is 15 MHz, but disk space limitations mean that only 3 kHz can be written to tape for offline processing. For this reason the LHCb data acquisition system -- trigger -- plays a key role in selecting signal events and rejecting background. In contrast to previous experiments at hadron colliders like for example CDF or D0, the bulk of the LHCb trigger is implemented in software and deployed on a farm of 20k parallel processing nodes. This system, called the High Level Trigger (HLT) is responsible for reducing the rate from the maximum at which the detector can be read out, 1.1 MHz, to the 3 kHz which can be processed offline,and has 20 ms in which to process and accept/reject each event. In order to minimize systematic uncertainties, the HLT was designed from the outset to reuse the offline reconstruction and selection code, and is based around multiple independent and redunda...

  8. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products

  9. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  10. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  11. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  12. High level bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Mändar, Rando; Sõber, Tiina; Rööp, Tiiu; Mändar, Reet

    2017-06-01

    While contamination of mobile phones in the hospital has been found to be common in several studies, little information about bacterial abundance on phones used in the community is available. Our aim was to quantitatively determine the bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones. Altogether 27 mobile phones were studied. The contact plate method and microbial identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used for culture studies. Quantitative PCR reaction for detection of universal 16S rRNA, Enterococcus faecalis 16S rRNA and Escherichia coli allantoin permease were performed, and the presence of tetracycline ( tet A, tet B, tet M), erythromycin ( erm B) and sulphonamide ( sul 1) resistance genes was assessed. We found a high median bacterial count on secondary school students' mobile phones (10.5 CFU/cm 2 ) and a median of 17,032 bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies per phone. Potentially pathogenic microbes ( Staphylococcus aureus , Acinetobacter spp. , Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus and Neisseria flavescens ) were found among dominant microbes more often on phones with higher percentage of E. faecalis in total bacterial 16S rRNA. No differences in contamination level or dominating bacterial species between phone owner's gender and between phone types (touch screen/keypad) were found. No antibiotic resistance genes were detected on mobile phone surfaces. Quantitative study methods revealed high level bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones.

  13. The IFR pyroprocessing for high-level waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The process developed for the recycle of integral fast reactor (IFR) spent fuel utilizes a combination of pyrometallurgical and electrochemical methods and has been termed pyroprocessing. The process has been operated at full scale with simulated spent fuel using nonradioactive fission product elements. A comprehensive demonstration of the pyroprocessing of irradiated IFR fuel will begin later this year. Pyroprocessing involves the anodic dissolution of all the constituent elements of the IFR spent fuel and controlled electrotransport (electrorefining) to separate the actinide elements from the fission products present in the spent fuel. The process be applied to the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR oxide fuel to metallic form and a separation step to separate uranium from the transuranic (TRU) elements. The TRU elements are then recovered by electroefining in the same manner as the actinides from the IFR high-level wastes arising from pyroprocessing are virtually free of actinides, and the volume of the wastes is minimized by the intrinsic characteristics of the processing of the processing method

  14. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter

  15. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  16. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  17. Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewhey, J.D.; Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Coles, D.G.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phase in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 1100 0 C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY81

  18. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  19. Salt removal from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), there are 23 waste storage tanks containing high-level radioactive wastes that are to be retired. These tanks contain about 23 million liters of salt and about 10 million liters of sludge, that are to be relocated to new Type III, fully stress-relieved tanks with complete secondary containment. About 19 million liters of salt cake are to be dissolved. Steam jet circulators were originally proposed for the salt dissolution program. However, use of steam jet circulators raised the temperature of the tank contents and caused operating problems. These included increased corrosion risk and required long cooldown periods prior to transfer. Alternative dissolution concepts were investigated. Examination of mechanisms affecting salt dissolution showed that the ability of fresh water to contact the cake surface was the most significant factor influencing dissolution rate. Density driven and mechanical agitation techniques were developed on a bench scale and then were demonstrated in an actual waste tank. Actual waste tank demonstrations were in good agreement with bench-scale experiments at 1/85 scale. The density driven method utilizes simple equipment, but leaves a cake heel in the tank and is hindered by the presence of sludge or Zeolite in the salt cake. Mechanical agitation overcomes the problems found with both steam jet circulators and the density driven technique and is the best method for future waste tank salt removal

  20. High-level radioactive waste fixation in sintered vitreous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.O.; Messi de Bernasconi, N.; Audero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The safe storage of high-level wastes from fuel elements reprocessing includes, as a first step, the fixation of the same in materials having a good resistance to the leaching in aqueous medium, such as borosilicate glass. As an alternative to the usual method of the molten glasses, a procedure for the sintering of a powdered glass and waste mixture at lower temperatures (600-700 deg C) has been developed, which minimizes the volatilization of active compounds during the process. Two glasses matrices of different composition and characteristics were used, to which the simulated wastes were added in the ratio of a 10% in weight of oxides. Two sintering techniques were employed 1: cold pressing and further sintering; 2: hot pressing and sintering under pressure. The densities were measured, the microstructure of the samples was analyzed and leaching essays were made in distilled water. The pellet's microstructure was observed by means of optical microscopy, by reflection in polished samples and by transparency in thin slices. The presence of crystalline compounds was analyzed by means of x rays and electron microprobe. The results have shown the convenience to continue with hot pressing essays, because a denser product with a higher resistance to the leaching is thus obtained. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Decay rates of resonance states at high level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Gorin, T.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1996-05-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of an open quantum mechanical system is solved by using the stationary bi-orthogonal eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitean time independent Hamilton operator. We calculate the decay rates at low and high level density in two different formalism. The rates are, generally, time dependent and oscillate around an average value due to the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions. The decay law is studied disregarding the oscillations. In the one-channel case, it is proportional to t -b with b∼3/2 in all cases considered, including the critical region of overlapping where the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions is large. Starting from the shell model, we get b∼2 for 2 and 4 open decay channels and all coupling strengths to the continuum. When the closed system is described by a random matrix, b∼1+K/2 for K=2 and 4 channels. This law holds in a limited time interval. The distribution of the widths is different in the two models when more than one channel are open. This leads to the different exponents b in the power law. Our calculations are performed with 190 and 130 states, respectively, most of them in the critical region. The theoretical results should be proven experimentally by measuring the time behaviour of de-excitation of a realistic quantum system. (orig.)

  3. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Anderson, D.R.; Leinen, M.

    1983-01-01

    There exist large areas of the deep seabed that warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive wastes because (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanoes; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the foreseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and have been remarkably insensitive to past oceanic and climatic changes; and (6) sedimentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine-grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clayey sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried radionuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political, and social issues raised by this new concept

  4. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs

  5. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  6. Testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Menamin, T.

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions was held on 17 to 21 October 1988 in Cadarache, France, and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and the Savannah River Laboratory (US DOE). Participants included representatives from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the United States. The first part of the conference featured a workshop on in situ testing of simulated nuclear waste forms and proposed package components, with an emphasis on the materials interface interactions tests (MIIT). MIIT is a sevent-part programme that involves field testing of 15 glass and waste form systems supplied by seven countries, along with potential canister and overpack materials as well as geologic samples, in the salt geology at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. This effort is still in progress and these proceedings document studies and findings obtained thus far. The second part of the meeting emphasized multinational experimental studies and results derived from repository systems simulation tests (RSST), which were performed in granite, clay and salt environments

  7. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  8. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year

  9. Strategic lessons in high-level waste management planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Neil

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses some issues in the planning and execution of high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The topics are (1) Initial considerations, (2) Issues in structuring a programme, (3) Disposal concepts, (4) Geological environments, (5) Site selection and characterisation, (6) Waste transport, (7) Performance assessment methodology and application, (8) Some key issues. The options for spent fuel management can give rise to a variety of different wastes. The quantity of waste arising will affect the volume of rock required for deposition, both with respect to rock integrity and requirements for heat dissipation. A repository must not be considered in isolation from the rest of the waste management programme. The repository development plan should be supported by a schedule of activities and related funding mechanisms, implying a long-term commitment in policy terms, and should include a corresponding legal and regulatory framework. The idea that disposed waste might be retrieved by future generations for processing under new technology is discussed. Safeguards requirements on fissile material within spent fuel or any other wastes imply indefinite control. Disposal concepts include the geological environment and the engineered barrier system within it. Site selection involves several steps: regional-scale characterisation, local characterisation, hydrological studies, etc. Key issues are retrieval vs. safeguards, optimisation of repository design, reducing long programme timescales, international collaboration

  10. Immobilization of high-level wastes into sintered glass: 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, A.M.; Russo, D.O.; Messi de Bernasconi, N.; Audero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High level radioactive wastes are immobilized into borosilicate glasses. Experiences with the variety VG 98/12 (SiO 2 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO, Na 2 O) are described. The pressing was performed in a matrix of 12.7 mm diameter, the walls of which were lubricated with sterotex dissolved in Cl 4 C. The sintering was made in an horizontal electric furnace in air atmosphere at temperatures between 500 and 600 deg C. It was observed that the maximum density occurs at 605 deg C. Comparing both the hot and the cold pressing process, it is concluded that: 1) In spite of requiring more complex equipment the hot pressing process has the advantage that lower pressures are applied, with the consequent obtainment of waste blocks with larger diameters, and 2) it is advisable that pressing process should be performed in the definitive can. (M.E.L.) [es

  11. Potential host media for a high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W

    1982-01-01

    Earlier studies of burial of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories had concentrated on salt formations for well-publicized reasons. However, under the Carter administration, significant changes were made in the US nuclear waste management program. Changes which were made were: (1) expansion of the number of rock types under consideration; (2) adoption of the multiple-barrier approach to waste containment; (3) additional requirements for waste retrieval; and (4) new criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the isolation of high-level waste in geologic repositories. Results of the studies of different types of rocks as repository sites are summarized herein. It is concluded that each generic rock type has certain advantages and disadvantages when considered from various aspects of the waste disposal problem and that characteristics of rocks are so varied that a most favorable or least favorable rock type cannot be easily identified. This lack of definitive characteristics of rocks makes site selection and good engineering barriers very important for containment of the wastes. (BLM)

  12. Prognostic significance of Glasgow prognostic score in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is inversely related to prognosis in a variety of cancers; high levels of GPS is associated with poor prognosis. However, few studies regarding GPS in esophageal cancer (EC) are available. The aim of this study was to determine whether the GPS is useful for predicting cancer-specific survival (CSS) of patients for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: Patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. Our study showed that GPS was associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, and nodal metastasis (PGPS0, GPS1, and GPS2 were 60.8%, 34.7% and 10.7%, respectively (PGPS was a significant predictor of CSS. GPS1-2 had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.399 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.805-3.190] for 1-year CSS (PGPS is associated with tumor progression. GPS can be considered as an independent prognostic factor in patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC.

  13. Dichotomy of the human T cell response to Leishmania antigens. II. Absent or Th2-like response to gp63 and Th1-like response to lipophosphoglycan-associated protein in cells from cured visceral leishmaniasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Jardim, A

    1994-01-01

    -gamma) production in PBMC from cured patients, while cells from non-exposed donors gave weak responses. A similar pattern was induced by lipophosphoglycan-associated protein (LPGAP). By contrast, the major surface protease of Leishmania, gp63, induced only a weak proliferative response without IFN-gamma production...... in five of 17 samples from cured patients. Four of the five responding cultures produced IL-4, i.e. the response to this antigen was of the Th2 type. Furthermore, sera from acutely ill visceral leishmaniasis patients contained high levels of IgG antibodies to gp63. The Th2-like response to gp63...

  14. Patient Perception of Imiquimod Treatment for Actinic Keratosis and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma in 202 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalboer-Spuij, Rick; Holterhues, Cynthia; van Hattem, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A.; Gaastra, Menno T. W.; Kuijpers, Danielle I. M.; Hollestein, Loes M.; Nijsten, Tamar E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To document the impact on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of treatment with imiquimod cream in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Methods: This open-label, multicenter study included AK and sBCC patients

  15. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with mantle cell lymphoma on ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Kasparian, Saro; Iyer, Swaminathan; Pingali, Sai Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been increasingly widely used in relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia [1, 2]. With its use becoming more common, there have been emerging case reports of opportunistic infections like cryptococcal infections [3-8]. These infections in patients receiving ibrutinib were mostly reported in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, who have poor immune reconstitution. Here, we report two cases of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with MCL on ibrutinib.

  16. Cloned Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease (aprA) gene showing high level of keratinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, T I

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease(aprA) gene was previously cloned on a pUBHO-derivative plasmid. High levels of expression and gene stability were demonstrated when B. subtilis cells were grown on the laboratory medium 2XSG. B. subtilis cells harboring the multicopy aprA gene were grown on basal medium, supplemented with 1 % chicken feather as a source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Proteolytic and keratinolytic activities were monitored throughout the cultivation time. A high level of keratinolytic activity was obtained, and this indicates that alkaline protease is acting as a keratinase. Furthermore, considerable amounts of soluble proteins and free amino acids were obtained as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of feather. Biodegradation of feather waste using these cells represents an alternative way to improve the nutritional value of feather, since feather waste is currently utilized on a limited basis as a dietary protein supplement for animal feedstuffs. Moreover, the release of free amino acids from feather and the secreted keratinase enzyme would promote industries based on feather waste.

  17. Red Cell Alloantibodies in Multiple Transfused Thalassaemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, C N

    2011-01-01

    Thalassaemia major patients require lifelong transfusion support due to which they are prone for alloimmunization to foreign RBCs. Alloimmunization can be prevented by extended phenotype match blood transfusion. The study was conducted to know the extent of problem of alloimmunization and to find important red cell antibodies in thalassaemia patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 32 thalassaemia patients were enrolled. The specimen was subjected to red cell alloantibody and autoantibody by column gel agglutination technique. R 1 (w) R 1 , R 2 R 2 , rr (papaine and non papain) and 11 cell panel reagent cells were used in screening and identification of alloantibodies respectively. Six (18.8 %) subjects were alloimmunized. All alloimmunized subjects were recipient of more than 20 units of transfusion. Total seven clinically significant alloantibodies were identified. Anti E and anti c were commonest antibodies in four (12.5%) patients. Red cell alloimmunization is an important risk in thalassaemia patient. 71.4% of alloantibodies were anti E and anti c type. Extended phenotype match blood transfusion for Rh-c and Rh-E antigens or level 2 antigen matching stringency needs to be explored in preventing alloimmunization in thalassaemia patients.

  18. Prevalence of obesity and high level of cholesterol in hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine what proportion of patients with hypertension are obese and or have elevated serum cholesterol. The data of two hundred and fifty patients who attended the outpatient clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from January 1998 to December 2001 were analysed. Almost half ...

  19. Primary Patient-Derived Cancer Cells and Their Potential for Personalized Cancer Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Kodack

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personalized cancer therapy is based on a patient’s tumor lineage, histopathology, expression analyses, and/or tumor DNA or RNA analysis. Here, we aim to develop an in vitro functional assay of a patient’s living cancer cells that could complement these approaches. We present methods for developing cell cultures from tumor biopsies and identify the types of samples and culture conditions associated with higher efficiency of model establishment. Toward the application of patient-derived cell cultures for personalized care, we established an immunofluorescence-based functional assay that quantifies cancer cell responses to targeted therapy in mixed cell cultures. Assaying patient-derived lung cancer cultures with this method showed promise in modeling patient response for diagnostic use. This platform should allow for the development of co-clinical trial studies to prospectively test the value of drug profiling on tumor-biopsy-derived cultures to direct patient care.

  20. Study of heat diffusion in a granitic geologic formation of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.; Juignet, N.

    1980-06-01

    Thermal study of granitic underground storage of vitrified high level radioactive wastes in a regular network of shafts and galleries. The aim is to show influence on temperature rise of the geologic formation of main parameters to define the storage zone and to determine the network dimension in function of the rock properties. Two models were studied allowing a rapid variation of geometrical and physical parameters. A numerical method using finite element method or Green functions were used for calculations. Temperatures are determined either for the whole storage site or a unit cell of the lattice [fr