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Sample records for pathological damage caused

  1. Zika virus infection in immunocompetent pregnant mice causes fetal damage and placental pathology in the absence of fetal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Lawrence W.; Lanthier, Paula; Kim, In-Jeong; Kuki, Atsuo; Thomas, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during human pregnancy may cause diverse and serious congenital defects in the developing fetus. Previous efforts to generate animal models of human ZIKV infection and clinical symptoms often involved manipulating mice to impair their Type I interferon (IFN) signaling, thereby allowing enhanced infection and vertical transmission of virus to the embryo. Here, we show that even pregnant mice competent to generate Type I IFN responses that can limit ZIKV infection nonetheless develop profound placental pathology and high frequency of fetal demise. We consistently found that maternal ZIKV exposure led to placental pathology and that ZIKV RNA levels measured in maternal, placental or embryonic tissues were not predictive of the pathological effects seen in the embryos. Placental pathology included trophoblast hyperplasia in the labyrinth, trophoblast giant cell necrosis in the junctional zone, and loss of embryonic vessels. Our findings suggest that, in this context of limited infection, placental pathology rather than embryonic/fetal viral infection may be a stronger contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes in mice. Our finding demonstrates that in immunocompetent mice, direct viral infection of the embryo is not essential for fetal demise. Our immunologically unmanipulated pregnancy mouse model provides a consistent and easily measurable congenital abnormality readout to assess fetal outcome, and may serve as an additional model to test prophylactic and therapeutic interventions to protect the fetus during pregnancy, and for studying the mechanisms of ZIKV congenital immunopathogenesis. PMID:29634758

  2. Pathology of radiation induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Murata, Yoshihiko; Ogata, Hideo; Katagiri, Shiro; Sugita, Hironobu; Iwai, Kazuo; Sakurai, Isamu.

    1985-01-01

    We examined pathological findings of radiation induced lung damage. Twenty-three cases are chosen from our hospital autopsy cases for 9 years, which fulfil strict criteria of radiation lung damage. Lung damage could be classified into 3 groups : 1) interstitial pneumonia type (9 cases), 2) intermediate pneumonia type (8 cases), and 3) alveolar pneumonia type (6 cases), according to the degree of intra-luminal exudation. These classification is well correlated with clinical findings. Pathological alveolar pneumonia type corresponds to symptomatic, radiologic ground glass pneumonic shadow. And pathologic interstitial type corresponds to clinical asymptomatic, radiologic reticulo-nodular shadow. From the clinico-pathological view point these classification is reasonable one. Radiation affects many lung structures and showed characteristic feature of repair. Elastofibrosis of the alveolar wall is observed in every cases, obstructive bronchiolitis are observed in 5 cases, and obstructive bronchiolitis in 9 cases. They are remarkable additional findings. Thickening of the interlobular septum, broncho-vascular connective tissue, and pleural layer are observed in every cases together with vascular lesions. (author)

  3. Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological use of computer and video games has been associated with indicators of psychosocial well-being, such as loneliness, low self-esteem, low social competence, and low life satisfaction. However, few studies have decisively demonstrated whether these indicators of psychosocial well-being

  4. Vascular pathology: Cause or effect in Alzheimer disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Pérez, S; Tormos, A M; Pérez, S; Taléns-Visconti, R

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the main cortical neurodegenerative disease. The incidence of this disease increases with age, causing significant medical, social and economic problems, especially in countries with ageing populations. This review aims to highlight existing evidence of how vascular dysfunction may contribute to cognitive impairment in AD, as well as the therapeutic possibilities that might arise from this evidence. The vascular hypothesis emerged as an alternative to the amyloid cascade hypothesis as an explanation for the pathophysiology of AD. This hypothesis locates blood vessels as the origin for a variety of pathogenic pathways that lead to neuronal damage and dementia. Destruction of the organisation of the blood brain barrier, decreased cerebral blood flow, and the establishment of an inflammatory context would thus be responsible for any subsequent neuronal damage since these factors promote aggregation of β-amyloid peptide in the brain. The link between neurodegeneration and vascular dysfunction pathways has provided new drug targets and therapeutic approaches that will add to the treatments for AD. It is difficult to determine whether the vascular component in AD is the cause or the effect of the disease, but there is no doubt that vascular pathology has an important relationship with AD. Vascular dysfunction is likely to act synergistically with neurodegenerative changes in a cycle that exacerbates the cognitive impairment found in AD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Irreversible brain damage caused by methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Moeller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is an addictive scene substance usage of which is increasing rapidly. While methamphetamine often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, psychosis and hallucinations, reports of structural ongoing cerebral alterations are rare. We here report a case of this kind of damage caused through methamphetamine use.

  6. Cause of Damage. Hot cracking; Schadensursache Heissrissigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wader, Therese [BENTELER Steel/Tube GmbH, Paderborn (Germany). Vorentwicklung Werkstoffe

    2016-10-15

    Under certain conditions, Nb-containing stainless steels are susceptible to hot cracking. Such conditions include low melting phases on the grain boundaries, a coarse-grained microstructure such as cast structures, microstructure orientations towards the main tensile direction and high processing temperatures. The case of damage was characterized using metallographic and microanalytical methods. In the laboratory, the critical temperature range for the formation of hot cracks could furthermore specifically be localized under mechanical stresses by means of a dilatometer aiming at clearly verifying the cause of the damage, namely ''hot cracks''.

  7. Telomeres and genomic damage repair. Their implication in human pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Maria del R.; Dubner, Diana; Michelin, Severino; Gisone, Pablo; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres, functional complexed that protect eukaryotic chromosome ends, participate in the regulation of cell proliferation and could play a role in the stabilization of genomic regions in response to genotoxic stress. Their significance in human pathology becomes evident in several diseases sharing genomic instability as a common trait, in which alterations of the telomere metabolism have been demonstrated. Many of them are also associated with hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and cancer susceptibility. Besides the specific proteins belonging to the telomeric complex, other proteins involved in the DNA repair machinery, such as ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, PARP/tankyrase system, DNA-PK and RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 complexes, are closely related with the telomere. This suggests that the telomere sequesters DNA repair proteins for its own structure maintenance, with could also be released toward damaged sites in the genomic DNA. This communication describes essential aspects of telomere structure and function and their links with homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), V(D)J system and mismatch-repair (MMR). Several pathological conditions exhibiting alterations in some of these mechanisms are also considered. The cell response to ionizing radiation and its relationship with the telomeric metabolism is particularly taken into account as a model for studying genotoxicity. (author)

  8. Is eye damage caused by stereoscopic displays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Udo; Neumann, Markus D.; Kubbat, Wolfgang; Landau, Kurt

    2000-05-01

    A normal developing child will achieve emmetropia in youth and maintain it. Thereby cornea, lens and axial length of the eye grow astonishingly coordinated. In the last years research has evidenced that this coordinated growing process is a visually controlled closed loop. The mechanism has been studied particularly in animals. It was found that the growth of the axial length of the eyeball is controlled by image focus information from the retina. It was shown that maladjustment can occur by this visually-guided growth control mechanism that result in ametropia. Thereby it has been proven that e.g. short-sightedness is not only caused by heredity, but is acquired under certain visual conditions. It is shown that these conditions are similar to the conditions of viewing stereoscopic displays where the normal accommodation convergence coupling is disjoint. An evaluation is given of the potential of damaging the eyes by viewing stereoscopic displays. Concerning this, different viewing methods for stereoscopic displays are evaluated. Moreover, clues are given how the environment and display conditions shall be set and what users shall be chosen to minimize the risk of eye damages.

  9. Grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis A pathology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, R.; de Vries, H.E.; Schenk, G.J.; Geurts, J.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, immunohistochemical studies have provided compelling evidence that gray matter (GM) pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) is extensive. Until recently, this GM pathology was difficult to visualize using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) techniques. However, with newly

  10. Landslide Caused Damages in a Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, R.; Mair am Tinkhof, K.; Preh, A.

    2016-06-01

    On October 5th, 2010, cracks were found in a gallery 1.8 m high and 1.4 m wide. The gallery is 100 years old, runs parallel to a valley flank and was excavated in a tectonically strongly stressed, weathered and slightly dipping sandwich of clayey shales, sandstones and marls. The cracks in the roof as well as in the invert ran parallel to the axis of the gallery. Monitoring showed that crack widths were increasing 1.5 mm per year, sidewall distances were increasing 3.5 mm per year, whereas the height of the gallery was decreasing 2.5 mm per year. After eliminating several possible causes of cracking, a landslide producing the damages had to be taken into consideration. Monitoring of the valley flank surface as well as inclinometer readings revealed that a landslide was occurring, loading the gallery lining. Most probably the landslide had been reactivated by excessive rainfall in 2009 as well as by works for the renewal of a weir in the valley bottom. As stabilization of the slope was not an option for several reasons, it was decided to replace the gallery by a new one deeper inside the slope, which will be ready for operation in 2017. Thus the old gallery has to be kept in operation till then and it was decided to reinforce the old gallery by a heavily reinforced shotcrete lining 10 cm thick. As slope displacements went on, cracks in the shotcrete lining developed with a completely different pattern: in the section where the gallery lies completely in the landslide shear zone no cracks formed until now due to heavy reinforcement, whereas in the transition sections stable ground-landslide and landslide-stable ground diagonal tension cracks in the roof due to shear by the landslide developed. Numerical models showed that cracking and spalling of the shotcrete lining would occur only after some centimetres of additional displacements of the slope, which hopefully will not occur before 2017.

  11. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  12. DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.K.; Peili Chen; Hahnfeldt, P.J.; Klatky, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of continuous-time Markov chain models for ionizing radiation damage to the genome of mammalian cells. In such models, immediate damage induced by the radiation is regarded as a batch-Poisson arrival process of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Enzymatic modification of the immediate damage is modeled as a Markov process similar to those described by the master equation of stochastic chemical kinetics. An illustrative example is the restitution/complete-exchange model. The model postulates that, after being induced by radiation, DSBs subsequently either undergo enzymatically mediated restitution (repair) or participate pairwise in chromosome exchanges. Some of the exchanges make irremediable lesions such as dicentric chromosome aberrations. One may have rapid irradiation followed by enzymatic DSB processing or have prolonged irradiation with both DSB arrival and enzymatic DSB processing continuing throughout the irradiation period. Methods for analyzing the Markov chains include using an approximate model for expected values, the discrete-time Markov chain embedded at transitions, partial differential equations for generating functions, normal perturbation theory, singular perturbation theory with scaling, numerical computations, and certain matrix methods that combine Perron-Frobenius theory with variational estimates. Applications to experimental results on expected values, variances, and statistical distributions of DNA lesions are briefly outlined. Continuous-time Markov chains are the most systematic of those radiation damage models that treat DSB-DSB interactions within the cell nucleus as homogeneous (e.g., ignore diffusion limitations). They contain virtually all other relevant homogeneous models and semiempirical summaries as special cases, limiting cases, or approximations. However, the Markov models do not seem to be well suited for studying spatial dependence of DSB interactions. 51 refs., 5 figs

  13. Environmental damage caused by fossil fuels consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbir, F.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the objectives of this study is to identify the negative effects of the fossil fuels use and to evaluate their economic significance. An economic value of the damage for each of the analyzed effects has been estimated in US dollars per unit energy of the fuel used ($/GJ). This external costs of fossil fuel use should be added to their existing market price, and such real costs should be compared with the real costs of other, environmentally acceptable, energy alternatives, such as hydrogen

  14. Molecular Pathology of Murine Ureteritis Causing Obstructive Uropathy with Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Namiki, Yuka; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Primary causes of urinary tract obstruction that induces urine retention and results in hydronephrosis include uroliths, inflammation, and tumors. In this study, we analyzed the molecular pathology of ureteritis causing hydronephrosis in laboratory rodents. F2 progenies of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice were studied histopathologically and by comprehensive gene expression analysis of their ureters. Incidence of hydronephrosis was approximately 5% in F2 progenies. Histopathologically, this hydronephrosis was caused by stenosis of the proximal ureter, which showed fibrosis and papillary malformations of the proliferative epithelium with infiltrations of B-cell-dominated lymphocytes. Additionally, CD16-positive large granular leukocytes and eosinophils infiltrated from the ureteral mucosa to the muscular layer. Eosinophilic crystals were characteristically observed in the lumen of the ureter and the cytoplasm of large granular leukocytes, eosinophils, and transitional epithelial cells. Comprehensive gene profiling revealed remarkably elevated expression of genes associated with hyperimmune responses through activation of B cells in diseased ureters. Furthermore, diseased ureters showed dramatically higher gene expression of chitinase 3-like 3, known as Ym1, which is associated with formation both of adenomas in the transitional epithelium and of eosinophilic crystals in inflammatory conditions. The Ym1 protein was mainly localized to the cytoplasm of the transitional epithelium, infiltrated cells, and eosinophilic crystals in diseased ureters. We determined that the primary cause of hydronephrosis in F2 mice was ureteritis mediated by the local hyperimmune response with malformation of the transitional epithelium. Our data provide a novel molecular pathogenesis for elucidating causes of aseptic inflammation in human upper urinary tracts. PMID:22114694

  15. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  16. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patricia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Silva Santos, Luis; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, Joao Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was

  17. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  18. Helicobacter pylori genotypes associated with gastric histo-pathological damages in a Moroccan population.

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    Samia Alaoui Boukhris

    Full Text Available H. pylori persistent infection induces chronic gastritis and is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma development. The severity of these diseases is related to human's genetic diversity, H. pylori genetic variability and environmental factors. To identify the prevalence of histo-pathological damages caused by H. pylori infection in Moroccan population, and to determine their association to H. pylori genotypes, a prospective study has been conducted during 3 years on patients attending the gastroenterology department of Hassan II University Hospital (CHU of Fez, Morocco. A total of 801 Moroccan adults' patients were recruited; H. pylori was diagnosed and genotyped by PCR in biopsy specimens and histological exam was performed. We found a high rate of glandular atrophy. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy showed statistically significant association with H. pylori infection. However, intestinal metaplasia was inversely associated to this infection and no association was observed with gastric cancer cases. A statistically significant association was found between intestinal metaplasia and vacAs1 and vac Am1 genotypes in patients aged 50 years and more but not in younger. This last genotype is also associated to gastric cancer. In this study, gastric cancer showed no significant association with H. pylori. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of other etiological agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and possibly environmental and dietetic factors in the occurrence of this pathology.

  19. The organ specificity in pathological damage of chronic intermittent hypoxia: an experimental study on rat with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Jian-li; Feng, Shu-zhi; Sun, Ning; Chen, Bao-yuan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-09-01

    It is known today that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and its characteristic chronic intermittent hypoxia can cause damages to multiple organs, including the cardiovascular system, urinary system, and liver. It is still unclear, however, whether the damage caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and the severity of the damage are organ-specific. This research observed the pathological effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on rat's thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney, under the condition of lipid metabolism disturbance, through establishing the rat model of chronic intermittent hypoxia with high-fat diet by imitating the features of human sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. In this model, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group fed by regular diet, a high-fat group fed by high-fat diet, and a high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group fed by high-fat diet and treated with intermittent hypoxia 7 h a day. At the end of the ninth week, the pathological changes of rat's organs, including the thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney are observed (under both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). As the result of the experiment shows, while there was no abnormal effect observed on any organs of the control group, slight pathological changes were found in the organs of the high-fat group. For the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, however, remarkably severer damages were found on all the organs. It also showed that the severity of the damage varies by organ in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, with the thoracic aorta being the worst, followed by the liver and myocardium, and the kidney being the slightest. Chronic intermittent hypoxia can lead to multiple-organ damage to rat with high-fat diet. Different organs appear to have different sensitivity to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

  20. Lattice damage caused by the irradiation of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, B; Mainwood, A; Newton, M; Davies, G

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is perceived to be radiation-hard, but the damage caused to the diamond is not well understood. The intrinsic defects (vacancies and interstitials) which are created by radiation damage are immobile at room temperature in diamond, unlike in silicon. Therefore, once the mechanisms of damage are understood for one type and energy of the particle, the dose and energy dependence of irradiation by other particles at a range of energies can be extrapolated. When a crystal is irradiated, the generation rates of vacancies and self-interstitials are generally determined by optical or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy experiments carried out after the irradiation has stopped. However, as the irradiation proceeds some of the carbon atoms displaced from their lattice sites may relax back into the vacant site, and the damage event will not be observed in the later measurement. In this paper, the mechanisms for radiation damage by charged particles in particular electrons and photons are investigat...

  1. Secondary damages to forests caused by industrial exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaubauer, E

    1966-01-01

    Acute and chronic damages of diverse origins modify the susceptibility of trees to certain insects and infectious diseases. Especially in connection with air pollution damages, it must be pointed out that such predisposition may occur long before any symptoms become visible or before any growth losses can be measured. In many instances, it is very difficult to evaluate these secondary damages. Very extensive regional comparisons are necessary in order to obtain evidence of damage. Increased occurrence of parasites and/or disease within the emission area must be compared with the frequency and intensity of occurrence outside of said area; this may then serve as circumstantial proof of a demonstrated secondary damage. Examples of these kinds of effects caused by parasitic fungi and insects are discussed in detail. 27 references.

  2. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

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    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  3. Reducing environmental damages caused by transportation: towards an heterodox approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletto, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    According to orthodox economics, monetary incentives are the best way to reduce environmental damages caused by transportation. This approach is consistent with the consideration of environmental damages as a market failure and with the use of pigouvian taxes to re-establish market equilibrium. Using heterodox economics both the theoretical and the policy approach will change radically. Indeed, market is just one of the structural components of the existing transport system; others being: institutions, technologies, values. Then, a shift in policy approaches is needed: from the orthodox efficient allocation of existing resources, to the heterodox promotion of new development patterns, needed to alter the given structural situation. Consistently with this paradigmatic shift, environmental damages caused by transportation can be reduced only by making the transition to a new transport system viable. Moreover, an heterodox approach to the reduction of environmental damages caused by transportation gives rise to a sound revision of policy tools; among these must be considered: selective industrial policies to foster the ecological reconversion of transport supply (instead of a non-discriminatory support to ecological innovations); participatory decision procedures to evaluate and select transport policies (instead of neutral technical tools - such as Cba or Eia); information campaigns based on ethical considerations (instead of economic incentives to transport demand); attribution of the status of commons to environmental resources, in order to protect them from the free riding of transport activities (instead of the attribution to them of private property rights). This essay is composed of four parts. In the first one, some data on environmental damages caused by transportation in Italy are shown. In the second one, orthodox and heterodox paradigms of public interventions in the economy are compared, with a specific attention to environmental applications. In the

  4. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  5. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

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    Hrvoje Antičević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concerning the design of deep geological repositories, requirements in terms of damaged rock are the same or more rigorous than for the design of tunnel. The aforementioned research is directed towards determining the depth of damage zone caused by blasting. The depth of the damage zone is determined by measuring the changes of physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass around the tunnel excavation profile. By this research the drilling and blasting parameters were correlated with the depth and size of the damage zone (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in pathology laboratory technicians exposed to organic solvents

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    TATIANE DE AQUINO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate potential DNA damage and cytotoxicity in pathology laboratory technicians exposed to organic solvents, mainly xylene. Peripheral blood and buccal cells samples were collected from 18 technicians occupationally exposed to organic solvents and 11 non-exposed individuals. The technicians were sampled at two moments: Monday and Friday. DNA damage and cytotoxicity were evaluated using the Comet Assay and the Buccal Micronucleus Cytome assay. Fifteen subjects (83.5% of the exposed group to solvents complained about some symptom probably related to contact with vapours of organic solvents. DNA damage in the exposed group to solvents was nearly 2-fold higher on Friday than on Monday, and in both moments the individuals of this group showed higher levels of DNA damage in relation to controls. No statistical difference was detected in buccal cell micronucleus frequency between the laboratory technicians and the control group. However, in the analysis performed on Friday, technicians presented higher frequency (about 3-fold of karyolytic and apoptotic-like cells (karyorrhectic and pyknotic in relation to control group. Considering the damage frequency and the working time, a positive correlation was found in the exposed group to solvents (r=0.468; p=0.05. The results suggest that pathology laboratory workers inappropriately exposed to organic solvents have increased levels of DNA damage.

  7. Liability for damage caused by medical X-ray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A case of liability for damage caused by X-ray medical treatment was recently brought before the courts in Norway. Following a mistake by the physician handling the X-ray apparatus the plaintiff had received an overdose of radiation on her nose and a lengthy and expensive plastic surgery treatment had been required to repair the damage. The local court of Aalesund ruled in April 1975 that the physician concerned had committed a fault but could not be accused of gross negligence or gross fault in view of Norwegian case law on medical liability. Therefore the plaintiff obtained compensation for her medical expenses but was refused compensation for non-material damage (disfigurement and pretium doloris). (NEA) [fr

  8. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

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    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  10. Diverse Placental Pathologies as the Main Causes of Fetal Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Holm, Jozien P.; Ravise, Joke M.; van der Meer, Jan; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Timmer, Albertus; van der, Meer J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occurrence of placental causes of fetal death in relation to different gestational ages and their clinical manifestations during pregnancy. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study conducted from 2002 to 2006, we studied 750 couples with singleton intrauterine fetal death

  11. DNA damage caused by UV- and near UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Much work with mutants deficient in DNA repair has been performed concerning UV-induced DNA damage under the condition where there is no artificial stimulation. In an attempt to infer the effects of solar wavelengths, the outcome of the work is discussed in terms of cellular radiation sensitivity, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and mutation induction, leading to the conclusion that some DNA damage occurs even by irradiation of the shorter wavelength light (270 - 315 nm) and is repaired by excision repair. It has been thought to date that pyrimidine dimer (PD) plays the most important role in UV-induced DNA damage, followed by (6 - 4) photoproducts. As for DNA damage induced by near UV irradiation, the yield of DNA single-strand breaks and of DNA-protein crosslinking, other than PD, is considered. The DNA-protein crosslinking has proved to be induced by irradiation at any wavelength of UV ranging from 260 to 425 nm. Near UV irradiation causes the inhibition of cell proliferation to take place. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Brain damage and addictive behavior: a neuropsychological and electroencephalogram investigation with pathologic gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regard, Marianne; Knoch, Daria; Gütling, Eva; Landis, Theodor

    2003-03-01

    Gambling is a form of nonsubstance addiction classified as an impulse control disorder. Pathologic gamblers are considered healthy with respect to their cognitive status. Lesions of the frontolimbic systems, mostly of the right hemisphere, are associated with addictive behavior. Because gamblers are not regarded as "brain-lesioned" and gambling is nontoxic, gambling is a model to test whether addicted "healthy" people are relatively impaired in frontolimbic neuropsychological functions. Twenty-one nonsubstance dependent gamblers and nineteen healthy subjects underwent a behavioral neurologic interview centered on incidence, origin, and symptoms of possible brain damage, a neuropsychological examination, and an electroencephalogram. Seventeen gamblers (81%) had a positive medical history for brain damage (mainly traumatic head injury, pre- or perinatal complications). The gamblers, compared with the controls, were significantly more impaired in concentration, memory, and executive functions, and evidenced a higher prevalence of non-right-handedness (43%) and, non-left-hemisphere language dominance (52%). Electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed dysfunctional activity in 65% of the gamblers, compared with 26% of controls. This study shows that the "healthy" gamblers are indeed brain-damaged. Compared with a matched control population, pathologic gamblers evidenced more brain injuries, more fronto-temporo-limbic neuropsychological dysfunctions and more EEG abnormalities. The authors thus conjecture that addictive gambling may be a consequence of brain damage, especially of the frontolimbic systems, a finding that may well have medicolegal consequences.

  13. Compensation of damage to the environment caused by industrial catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, H.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial accidents have caused considerable damage to the environment and the author reviews third party liability systems and insurance in the different countries concerned. He considers that indemnification of major accidents costing between 50 millions and several billions French francs requires the setting up of an elaborate system which makes provision for high amounts. The most dangerous activities in the oil and chemical sectors should be subject to special requirements regarding insurance or financial security patterned on the system for nuclear installations. (NEA) [fr

  14. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation is characterised by neuronal lysosomal storage pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clayton, Emma L.; Mizielinska, Sarah; Edgar, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report that mice which express FTD-causative mutant CHMP2B at physiological levels develop a novel lysosomal storage pathology characterised by large neuronal autofluorescent aggregates...... in human CHMP2B mutation brain than in neurodegenerative disease or age-matched control brains. These data suggest that lysosomal storage pathology is the major neuronal pathology in FTD caused by CHMP2B mutation. Recent evidence suggests that two other genes associated with FTD, GRN and TMEM106B...... are important for lysosomal function. Our identification of lysosomal storage pathology in FTD caused by CHMP2B mutation now provides evidence that endolysosomal dysfunction is a major degenerative pathway in FTD....

  15. Molecular Imaging on the Cerebral Pathological Damage Target of Ketamine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Hong-jie1,2;HU Shu1;JIA Shao-wei1;GAO Zhou1;WANG Tong3;ZHAO Zheng-qin1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the cerebral pathological damage target which result from abusing ketamine through molecular imaging techniques, 20 cases of ketamine dependent patients looking for treatment at the Peking University Shenzhen Hospital and 31 healthy volunteers were included in this study, all of them got brain SPECT DAT imaging. The results were analyzed by SPSS 16.0. The bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen of healthy volunteers were roughly equally large, and the radioactive distribution of DAT in healthy volunteers were uniform and symmetrical. The bilateral corpora striatum showed typical “panda eyes” pattern. But the bilateral corpora striatum of ketamine dependent patients got smaller in shape, got disorders in pattern, and the radioactive distribution of DAT reduced or defected or even got disturbance and with much more non-specific radioactive. The V, m and Ra of bilateral corpora striatum in ketamine dependent patients were (21.03±3.15) cm3, (22.08±3.31) g and (5.37±1.08) %, respectively, which were significantly lower than the healthy volunteers (p<0.01. The cerebral pathological damage target which resulted from abusing ketamine was similar to those of compound codeine phosphate antitussive solution dependence, heroin dependence and MDMA dependence, all of these psychoactive substances damaged the function of DAT.

  16. [Causes and management of severe acute liver damage during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Martinez, Alvaro; Romero, Carlos; Juarez, Guido; Hasbun, Jorge; Parra-Cordero, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests appear in 3% of pregnancies. Severe acute liver damage can be an exclusive condition of pregnancy (dependent or independent of pre-eclampsia) or a concomitant disease. HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are the most severe liver diseases associated with pregnancy. Both appear during the third trimester and have a similar clinical presentation. Acute fatty liver may be associated with hypoglycemia and HELLP syndrome is closely linked with pre-eclampsia. Among concomitant conditions, fulminant acute hepatitis caused by medications or virus is the most severe disease. Its clinical presentation may be hyper-acute with neurological involvement and severe coagulation disorders. It has a high mortality and patients should be transplanted. Fulminant hepatic failure caused by acetaminophen overdose can be managed with n-acetyl cysteine. Because of the high fetal mortality rate, the gestational age at diagnosis is crucial.

  17. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.

    2012-04-01

    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  18. Bone marrow scintigraphy: evaluation of damage caused by cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciambellotti, E.; Cartia, G.L.; Coda, C.

    1988-01-01

    For various reasons the well-known myelopoietic damage caused by cancer chemotherapy is not easy to quantify by means of usual diagnostic procedures. The bone marrow scan with 99m Tc-nanocolloid rapidly cleared by the phagocitic action of the RES, which has a topographic extension similar to red marrow, has been used for many years to evaluate the inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, both localized and diffuse. Such examination was thus performed in patients undergoing cytostatic therapy, either to follow-up metastatic lesions or to evaluate a tissue damage due to different drugs. The BMS is easily performed and has no side-effects. It consists of a dinamic and a static part. Moreover, it helped pointing out important diagnostic data, such as the reduction of the sacroiliac uptake index below the normal values (3.7) in 33 out of 57 cases, and an abnormal distribution of nanocolloid in the skeleton (Munz's classification, 1983) in 37 out of 69 cases, higher in more myelotoxic cytostatic, which could be detected even after a few months

  19. Electron beam deposition system causing little damage to organic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Minoru [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan); Matsumura, Michio, E-mail: matsu@chem.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Maeda, Yasuhiro [Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Conditions for deposition of an aluminum (Al) layer on an organic light-emitting layer with an electron beam (EB) deposition system were optimized with respect to deposition rate and damage to organic layers. The damage to the organic layers was found to be mostly caused by X-rays emitted from a target bombarded with accelerated electrons. In order to decrease the X-ray intensity while maintaining a high deposition rate, we used an EB source which emits high-density EB at low acceleration voltage. In addition, we inserted a heat reflector and a sintered-carbon liner between the Al target and copper crucible to improve heat insulation. As a result, the voltage needed for the deposition of Al electrodes at a rate of about 8 nm/s was lowered from normal voltages of 2.0 kV or higher to as low as 1.5 kV. To reduce the number of electrons hitting the substrate, we set pole pieces near the target and an electron trap in the chamber. The devices on which Al electrodes were deposited with the EB system showed almost the same properties as those of devices on which the Al electrodes were deposited by a resistive-heating method.

  20. [Study on sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Sui; Liu, Jian-jun; Xu, Xin-yun; Huang, Hai-yan; Gong, Chun-mei; Hu, Gong-hua; Liu, Qing-cheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Hong, Wen-xu; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xin-feng; Yuan, Jian-hui; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2013-11-01

    To study in vitro sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats. Sperms of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected 4 hours after being contaminated by trichloroethylene of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L in vitro. Giemsa staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of sperms, and flow cytometer was used to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The sperm motilities in 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups decreased significantly compared with that in control group (P trichloroethylene groups were significantly higher than that in control group (Ptrichloroethylene groups and control group (Ptrichloroethylene can reduce sperm motility and increase the aberration rate and apoptosis rate of sperms in male SD rats.

  1. Pannus inflammation in sacroiliitis following immune pathological injury and radiological structural damage: a study of 193 patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan Min; Lin, Ling; Peng, Jian Hua; Gong, Yao; Hou, Zhi Duo; Chen, Su Biao; Xiao, Zheng Yu

    2018-06-08

    The pathogenesis of sacroiliitis is unclear; therefore, we aimed to systematically study the immunopathology of sacroiliitis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and explore the relationship between pannus formation, inflammation, and the structural damage caused by sacroiliitis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was performed in 193 patients with axSpA. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected at baseline and during the follow up. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to detect CD34+ microvessels, CD68+ osteoclasts/macrophages, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and caspase-3. Autopsy subjects were used as controls. In early sacroiliitis (grade 0-1) all pathological features could be observed, with the most common being subchondral pannus formation. Among the 193 patients, 98 were followed up for 1-13 years (mean 3.6 years); 63.3% had radiological progression at the endpoint. Multiple regression analysis showed that cartilage pannus invasion (OR 2.99, P = 0.010) and endochondral ossification (OR 3.97, P = 0.049) at baseline were risk factors for radiological structural damage. Compared to SIJ controls, the subchondral microvessel density, number of CD68+ multinuclear osteoclasts, and the levels of VEGF, caspase-3, MMP-3, and TNF-α expressed at the interface of the bone and cartilage were significantly higher in patients with sacroiliitis. Subchondral fibrovascular tissue formation is the most important pathological feature in early sacroiliitis. The existence of cartilage pannus invasion or endochondral ossification at baseline can predict radiological structural damage during the follow up.

  2. Echinococcal disease of the bone: An unusual cause of a pathological fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Goodier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is caused by the larva of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multiloccularis and is endemic in many rural areas of Southern Africa. Echinococcosis of the bone is an unusual manifestation of echinococcal disease and a rare cause of a lytic lesion of bone. This report describes a 30-yr old female who presented with an Echinococcal cyst of the right radius complicated by a pathological fracture.

  3. Characterization of genetic miscoding lesions caused by postmortem damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hansen, Anders J; Willerslev, Eske

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of postmortem damage in mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in a large data set of cloned sequences from ancient human specimens. The most common forms of damage observed are two complementary groups of transitions, termed "type 1" (adenine-->guanine/thymine-->cytosine) and "type 2...

  4. Electrocautery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P.G ten; Wilbers, J.; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms

  5. Economic damage caused by a nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemans, T.; Schwarz, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study is directed towards the estimation of the economic damage which arises from a severe possible accident with a newly built 1000 MWE nuclear power plant in the Netherlands. A number of cases have been considered which are specified by the weather conditions during and the severity of the accident and the location of the nuclear power plant. For each accident case the economic damage has been estimated for the following impact categories: loss of the power plant, public health, evacuation and relocation of population, export of agricultural products, working and living in contaminated regions, decontamination, costs of transportation and incoming foreign tourism. The consequences for drinking water could not be quantified adequately. The total economic damage could reach 30 billion guilders. Besides the power plant itself, loss of export and decreasing incoming foreign tourism determine an important part of the total damage. 12 figs.; 52 tabs

  6. In vivo signatures of nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia caused by FTLD pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Francesca; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Henry, Maya; Gesierich, Benno; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Ogar, Jennifer; Filippi, Massimo; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Sidhu, Manu; Trojanowski, John Q.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina; Seeley, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify early cognitive and neuroimaging features of sporadic nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes. Methods: We prospectively collected clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic data in 11 patients with sporadic nfvPPA with FTLD-tau (nfvPPA-tau, n = 9) or FTLD–transactive response DNA binding protein pathology of 43 kD type A (nfvPPA-TDP, n = 2). We analyzed patterns of cognitive and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy at presentation in the whole group and in each pathologic subtype separately. We also considered longitudinal clinical data. Results: At first evaluation, regardless of pathologic FTLD subtype, apraxia of speech (AOS) was the most common cognitive feature and atrophy involved the left posterior frontal lobe. Each pathologic subtype showed few distinctive features. At presentation, patients with nfvPPA-tau presented with mild to moderate AOS, mixed dysarthria with prominent hypokinetic features, clear agrammatism, and atrophy in the GM of the left posterior frontal regions and in left frontal WM. While speech and language deficits were prominent early, within 3 years of symptom onset, all patients with nfvPPA-tau developed significant extrapyramidal motor signs. At presentation, patients with nfvPPA-TDP had severe AOS, dysarthria with spastic features, mild agrammatism, and atrophy in left posterior frontal GM only. Selective mutism occurred early, when general neurologic examination only showed mild decrease in finger dexterity in the right hand. Conclusions: Clinical features in sporadic nfvPPA caused by FTLD subtypes relate to neurodegeneration of GM and WM in frontal motor speech and language networks. We propose that early WM atrophy in nfvPPA is suggestive of FTLD-tau pathology while early selective GM loss might be indicative of FTLD-TDP. PMID:24353332

  7. Compensation for the damage caused by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joirysch, A.; Supataeva, O.

    1993-01-01

    The teachings of the accident at the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl clearly showed that the existing rules of Russian legislation cannot handle the problems in respect of civil liability for nuclear damage. This paper describes how the Soviet State and Soviet law tried to cope with the question of compensation for damage to human health and property in a special legal situation, due to the lack of any particular legislation covering this area and to the fact that the USSR is a Party neither to the Vienna nor the Paris Convention. In 1991 a law of the Russian Federation 'On the social protection of citizens who suffered as a consequence of the Chernobyl disaster' established a State system of services and compensation for such damage and the procedure for financing was laid down by a ministerial letter. 4 refs

  8. KEKB facility damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    As shown in photos, severe damages were observed at several facilities in Tsukuba campus, including the infrastructure, especially at the ground - weakened area. KEKB also damaged facility has been under the upgrade stage to SuperKEKB. So works for disassembling of KEKB machine and for remodeling of the equipment were undertaken. Fortunately no one was injured but the situations were quite hazardous. KEKB ring set ∼13m below the ground also experienced the severe tremors. All expansion points were injured and the cracks on the ceiling/wall/floor were created around the ring, but significant damage such as the tunnel destruction was not observed. Repairs were started, and resumed possible SuperKEKB construction though it will delay 2-3 months. (author)

  9. Pathology, toxicology, and latency of irritant gases known to cause bronchiolitis obliterans disease: Does diacetyl fit the pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Kerger

    2015-01-01

    of cytotoxicity action but can exhibit more insidious and isolated bronchiolar tissue damage with a similar latency to fibrosis. To date, animal and human studies on the highly soluble gas, diacetyl, have not identified a coherent pattern of pathology and latency that would be expected based on studies of other known causes of bronchiolitis obliterans disease.

  10. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)

  11. Repair of radiation damage caused by cyclotron-produced neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, B.I.

    1979-01-01

    Hall et al. present experimental data on repair of sublethal damage in cultured mammalian cells exposed to 35 MeV neutrons and 60 Co γ rays. Hall and Kraljevic present experimental data on repair of potentially lethal damage in cultured mammalian cells exposed to 35 MeV neutrons and 210 kVp x rays. These results of Hall et al. are very difficult to explain from basic concepts in radiobiology. Contrary to Rossi, these data do not support his thesis that repair of radiation damage is dose-dependent and linear energy transfer independent. Nor do these results meet the expectations of multitarget-single hit theory which would require dose-independent repair equal to n. The observation of the same extrapolation number for neutrons and for x rays is also surprising. From the point of view of radiotherapy, the doses of interest are about 140 rad for neutrons and about 300 rad for x rays. There are no data for repair of potentially lethal damage below 800 rad for x rays and 400 rad for neutrons. The difference in survival between single and split dose is negligible up to a total of about 600 rad of x rays or of neutrons. These data of Hall et al. therefore have little significance to radiotherapists and are an enigma to radiobiologists

  12. Cytomegalovirus-Induced Effector T Cells Cause Endothelial Cell Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Berg, Pablo J. E. J.; Yong, Si-La; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; van Lier, René A. W.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been linked to inflammatory diseases that involve vascular endothelial cell damage, but definitive proof for a direct cytopathic effect of CMV in these diseases is lacking. CMV infection is associated with a strong increase in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells

  13. Oxidative DNA damage causes mitochondrial genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudican, Nicole A; Song, Binwei; Shadel, Gerald S; Doetsch, Paul W

    2005-06-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress by exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2) or utilizing mutants lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod2Delta). Experiments were conducted with strains compromised in mitochondrial base excision repair (ntg1Delta) and oxidative damage resistance (pif1Delta) in order to delineate the relationship between these pathways. We observed enhanced ROS production, resulting in a direct increase in oxidative mtDNA damage and mutagenesis. Repair-deficient mutants exposed to oxidative stress conditions exhibited profound genomic instability. Elimination of Ntg1p and Pif1p resulted in a synergistic corruption of respiratory competency upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial genomic integrity was substantially compromised in ntg1Delta pif1Delta sod2Delta strains, since these cells exhibit a total loss of mtDNA. A stable respiration-defective strain, possessing a normal complement of mtDNA damage resistance pathways, exhibited a complete loss of mtDNA upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). This loss was preventable by Sod2p overexpression. These results provide direct evidence that oxidative mtDNA damage can be a major contributor to mitochondrial genomic instability and demonstrate cooperation of Ntg1p and Pif1p to resist the introduction of lesions into the mitochondrial genome.

  14. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yu; Kong Xiangquan; Xu Haibo; Liu Dingxi; Yuan Ren; Yu Qun; Xiong Yin; Deng Xianbo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  15. DNA damage and genetic methylation changes caused by Cd in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoling; Liu, Zhihong; Chen, Ruijuan; Li, Xiaojun; Tai, Peidong; Gong, Zongqiang; Jia, Chunyun; Liu, Wan

    2015-09-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MASP) techniques are sensitive to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and genetic methylation, respectively. Using these 2 techniques, Arabidopsis thaliana cultured with 0 mg/L (control), 0.5 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, and 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) for 16 d was used to analyze the DNA damage and methylation changes as a result of cadmium (Cd). The DNA was amplified by 14 AFLP primer pairs and 13 MSAP primer combinations. In the AFLP experiment, 62 polymorphic sites were found in the patterns of 11 primer combinations and a total of 1116 fragments were obtained in these patterns. There were no polymorphic bands in the remaining 3 pairs. The proportions of polymorphic sites in the 0.5-mg/L Cd(2+) and 5.0-mg/L Cd(2+) treatments were significantly different. Seven polymorphic fragments were then separated and successfully sequenced, yielding 6 nucleobase substitutions and 1 nucleobase deletion. Similarly, in the MSAP experiment, the MSAP% and number of demethylated-type bands were unchanged after Cd treatment, but the number of methylated-type bands was increased significantly in the 5.0-mg/L Cd(2+) treatment group, a finding that may be associated with the AFLP results. The polymorphic bands were also sequenced and the functions of their homologous genes were determined. The DNA damage and methylation changes may be the primary cause of certain pathology changes as a result of Cd uptake in plants. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Damages to gladiolu corm caused by fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiwei; Wang Dan; Zhang Dongxue; Zheng Chun

    2007-01-01

    Gladiolus corms were irradiated to 100-500kGy by fast neutrons in the CFBR-II pulsed reactor, Scanning electron microscope images of the irradiated samples revealed significant radiation damages to the gladiolus corms, and the mutagenic effects were studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Within the dose range, radiation damage to the corm increased with the dose, with corm epidermis of the samples irradiated in vertical incidence being more serious than those irradiated in side-incidence to the same dose. Biological characters were investigated via field experiments, and the bands of protein subunit were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the fast neutrons irradiation inhibited growth of M1 generation seedling significantly. Protein expression was obviously inhibited by the irradiation. The study indicates that fast neutron induction is an effective way for gladiolus breeding. And the results may lay a foundation for studies on fast neutron mutation breeding. (authors)

  17. Interventions for skin changes caused by nerve damage in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Merete Reinar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND More than three million persons are disabled by leprosy worldwide. The main complication of sensory nerve damage is neuropathic ulceration, particularly of the feet. In this review we explored interventions that can prevent and treat secondary damage to skin and limbs. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of self-care, dressings and footwear in preventing and healing secondary damage to the skin in persons affected by leprosy. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (April 2008, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2008, MEDLINE (from 2003 to April 2008, EMBASE (from 2005 to April 2008, CINAHL (1982-2006 and LILACS (1982- April 2008 as well as online registers of ongoing trials (April 2008. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials involving anyone with leprosy and damage to peripheral nerves treated with any measures designed to prevent damage with the aim of healing existing ulcers and preventing development of new ulcers. Data collection and analysis: Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS Eight trials with a total of 557 participants were included. The quality of the trials was generally poor. The interventions and outcome measures were diverse. Although three studies that compared zinc tape to more traditional dressings found some benefit, none of these showed a statistically significant effect. One trial indicated that topical ketanserin had a better effect on wound healing than clioquinol cream or zinc paste, RR was 6.00 (95% CI 1.45 to 24.75. We did not combine the results of the two studies that compared topical phenytoin to saline dressing, but both studies found statistically significant effects in favour of phenytoin for healing of ulcer (SMD -2.34; 95% CI -3.30 to -1.39; and SMD -0.79; 95% CI -1.20 to 0.39. Canvas shoes were not much better than PVC-boots, and double rocker shoes did not promote healing

  18. Interventions for skin changes caused by nerve damage in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinar, Liv Merete; Forsetlund, Louise; Bjørndal, Arild; Lockwood, Diana

    2008-07-16

    More than three million persons are disabled by leprosy worldwide. The main complication of sensory nerve damage is neuropathic ulceration, particularly of the feet. In this review we explored interventions that can prevent and treat secondary damage to skin and limbs. To assess the effects of self-care, dressings and footwear in preventing and healing secondary damage to the skin in persons affected by leprosy. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (April 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2008), MEDLINE (from 2003 to April 2008), EMBASE (from 2005 to April 2008), CINAHL (1982-2006) and LILACS (1982- April 2008 ) as well as online registers of ongoing trials (April 2008). Randomised controlled trials involving anyone with leprosy and damage to peripheral nerves treated with any measures designed to prevent damage with the aim of healing existing ulcers and preventing development of new ulcers. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. Eight trials with a total of 557 participants were included. The quality of the trials was generally poor. The interventions and outcome measures were diverse. Although three studies that compared zinc tape to more traditional dressings found some benefit, none of these showed a statistically significant effect. One trial indicated that topical ketanserin had a better effect on wound healing than clioquinol cream or zinc paste, RR was 6.00 (95% CI 1.45 to 24.75). We did not combine the results of the two studies that compared topical phenytoin to saline dressing, but both studies found statistically significant effects in favour of phenytoin for healing of ulcer (SMD -2.34; 95% CI -3.30 to -1.39; and SMD -0.79; 95% CI -1.20 to 0.39). Canvas shoes were not much better than PVC-boots, and double rocker shoes did not promote healing much more than below-knee plasters. One study suggested that topical ketanserin is more effective than clioquinol cream

  19. Three model systems measure oxidation/nitration damage caused ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    caused by peroxynitrite ... (OONO–) or its carbon dioxide derivatives cause oxidation/nitration and hence mutation to various body poly- mers e.g. .... The work described in this paper is quite brief due to ex- ... exact way to balance the dose of antioxidants in mixtures ... tralizing conditions the half-life of OONO– is less than.

  20. Compensation of damage caused by diverted nuclear substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, J.

    1981-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the insurance system for nuclear liability. As a rule, if nuclear fuel, radioactive products or waste are governed by nuclear energy law providing for strict and channelled liability, their legal holder will pay for damage arising from them anywhere within 20 years after theft or diversion and 10 years after the nuclear incident. In most countries, atomic liability insurers will implicitly grant their cover through policies underwritten by legal holders. If diverted substances have a low specific radioactivity, their legal holder remains liable according to common law and insurance policies cover this conventional liability. (NEA) [fr

  1. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    .... PHMSA-2011-0177] Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY... liquid pipelines to communicate the potential for damage to pipeline facilities caused by severe flooding... pipelines in case of flooding. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on the Office of Pipeline Safety home...

  2. Mechanical injuries, burns and combination damage caused by reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslowski, L.

    1981-01-01

    In cases of combination damage the initial treatment of wounds is the same as with injuries without accompanying radiation exposure. In the beginning the general principles of surgical treatment apply. In case of a mass accident, the examination of the injured to decide on the necessary kind of treatment has priority. A common problem to all the decisions is that the extent of a radiation exposure that may have been sustained cannot be established at once. Whether the radiation exposure has been so heavy as to require the modification of the surgical measures can be seen only from the blood count, the bone marrow biopsy, the reticulocyte count or from a chromosome analysis. (DG) [de

  3. Damage on sliding bearings of internal combustion engines. Damage patterns, causes, prevention; Schaeden an Gleitlagern von Verbrennungsmotoren. Erscheinungsbilder, Ursachen, Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G. [Miba Gleitlager GmbH, Laakrichen (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Bearing failures are consequences of system deficiencies which cause an inadequate function of the hydrodynamic action and, thereby, too high a friction, at least locally. The bearing overheats, what ultimately leads to its destruction and that of adjacent components. These 'consequential damages' are frequently severe. We identify, therefore, early stages of malfunction, already as 'bearing damage'. In this condition, a diagnosis and remedial measures to avoid total destruction are possible. Typical bearing conditions, possible causes and remedies are described herein. (orig.)

  4. EXTRACRANIAL NON-ATHEROSCLEROTIC PATHOLOGY OF THE CAROTID ARTERY IN THE CAUSES OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Dudanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We present the experience of treatment of patients with cerebral vascular accident by the ischemic type, the cause of which was non-atherosclerotic lesion of brachiocephalic arteries.Materials and methods. During 2011–2015 years 4118 patients with acute ischemic stroke were observed. Of these, 589 patients (14.3% were operated in the acute period of stroke in the period from 4–6 hours to 14 days. The cause of the stroke was various types of pathology of the extracranial divisions of the brachiocephalic arteries (EDBA. Of this number, with atherosclerotic carotid artery stenoses, 336 patients (57.1% were operated on, with non-atherosclerotic pathology of carotid arteries — 253 patients (42.9%. Of these 253 patients, dissection of the intima of the carotid arteries was detected in 10 (3.9% patients, aneurysms in the extracranial segment of the ECA and ICA were detected in 14 (5.5%, and 229 (90.6% revealed various types of tortuosity and kinks carotid arteries and fibrous dysplasia. All patients are operated on. Various types of reconstructions of carotid arteries with a good clinical effect have been performed. There were no lethal outcomes.Concusions. The data obtained in the study confirm the opinion that not only atherosclerotic lesions of the ICA are an indication for surgical treatment at an early date. This stage is an important part of the comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Itoh, C.; Shirai, K.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of impact tests, small-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests, have been executed to determine local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by the impact of aircraft engine missiles. The results of the test program showed that (1) the use of the similarity law is appropriate, (2) suitable empirical formulas exist for predicting the local damage caused by rigid missiles, (3) reduction factors may be used for evaluating the reduction in local damage due to the deformability of the engines, (4) the reinforcement ratio has no effect on local damage, and (5) the test results could be adequately predicted using nonlinear response analysis. (orig.)

  6. Plasmid DNA damage caused by stibine and trimethylstibine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrewes, Paul; Kitchin, Kirk T.; Wallace, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Antimony is classified as 'possibly carcinogenic to humans' and there is also sufficient evidence for antimony carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Stibine is a volatile inorganic antimony compound to which humans can be exposed in occupational settings (e.g., lead-acid battery charging). Because it is highly toxic, stibine is considered a significant health risk; however, its genotoxicity has received little attention. For the work reported here, stibine was generated by sodium borohydride reduction of potassium antimony tartrate. Trimethylstibine is a volatile organometallic antimony compound found commonly in landfill and sewage fermentation gases at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 100 μg/m 3 . Trimethylstibine is generally considered to pose little environmental or health risk. In the work reported here, trimethylstibine was generated by reduction of trimethylantimony dichloride using either sodium borohydride or the thiol compounds, dithioerythritol (DTE), L-cysteine, and glutathione. Here we report the evaluation of the in vitro genotoxicities of five antimony compounds--potassium antimony tartrate, stibine, potassium hexahydroxyantimonate, trimethylantimony dichloride, and trimethylstibine--using a plasmid DNA-nicking assay. Of these five antimony compounds, only stibine and trimethylstibine were genotoxic (significant nicking to pBR 322 plasmid DNA). We found stibine and trimethylstibine to be about equipotent with trimethylarsine using this plasmid DNA-nicking assay. Reaction of trimethylantimony dichloride with either glutathione or L-cysteine to produce DNA-damaging trimethylstibine was observed with a trimethylantimony dichloride concentration as low as 50 μM and L-cysteine or glutathione concentrations as low as 500 and 200 μM, respectively, for a 24 h incubation

  7. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K; Chen, Y J; Ohira, C; Nojima, K; Ando, S; Kobayashi, N; Ohbuchi, T; Shimizu, W [Space and Particle Radiation Science Research Group, Chiba (Japan); Koike, S; Kanai, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Accelerator Physics

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/{mu}m also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/{mu}m in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/{mu}m were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/{mu} steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  8. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W.; Koike, S.; Kanai, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/μm also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/μm in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/μm were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/μ steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  9. External Dacryocystorhinostomy; Success Rate and Causes of Failure in Endoscopic and Pathologic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Asghari Asl, Sajedeh; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Jafari, Farhad; Izadi, Pupak

    2017-01-01

    External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the method of choice to treat nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction and the other approaches are compared with it, with a failure rate of 4% to 13%. The current study aimed to assess the causes of failure in external DCR by postoperative endoscopic and pathological evaluation. The current retrospective cross sectional study followed-up113 patients with external DCR and silicone intubation for three months. Silicone tubes were removed after the third months. Failure was confirmed based on the clinical findings and irrigation test. Paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) scanning, and endoscopic and pathological evaluations were performed in the failed cases. Totally, 113 patients underwent external DCR. The patients included 71 females and 42 males. The mean age of the patients was 55.91 years; ranged from 18 to 86. Epiphora was the most common complaint before surgery (90.3%). Clinically, epiphora continued in 17 cases (15%), of which 94.11% had at least one sinus CT abnormality and 82.35% had at least one endoscopic abnormality. The most common endoscopic findings were deviated septum (70.6%), scar tissue (52.94%), concha bullosa (46.9%), septal adhesion (47.05%), enlarged middle turbinate (41.2%), and sump syndrome (11.7%). The failure was significantly associated with the chronicity of the initial symptoms (P-value=0.00). Pathologically, there were significant relationship amongst the failure rate, scar formation, and allergic rhinitis (P-values =0.00 and <0.05, respectively). Preoperative endonasal evaluation and consultation with an otolaryngologist can improve surgical outcomes and help to have a better conscious to intranasal abnormalities before external DCR surgery.

  10. Understanding transportation-caused rangeland damage in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshkamat, S S; Tsendbazar, N E; Zuidgeest, M H P; Shiirev-Adiya, S; van der Veen, A; van Maarseveen, M F A M

    2013-01-15

    Mongolia, a vast and sparsely populated semi-arid country, has very little formal road infrastructure. Since the 1990s, private ownership and usage of vehicles has been increasing, which has created a web of dirt track corridors due to the communal land tenure and unobstructed terrain, with some of these corridors reaching over 4 km in width. This practice aids wind- and water-aided erosion and desertification, causing enormous negative environmental effects. Little is being done to counter the phenomenon, mainly because the logic of the driving behaviour that causes this dirt road widening is not fully understood. The research in this article postulates that this driving behaviour has rational foundations and is linked to various geographical factors (natural and man-made geographical features). We analysed 11,000 km of arterial routes in the country using spatial statistics and determined that geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis offers a good explanation for whether, and by how much, the selected geographical factors affect the creation of corridor widths and how their effect varies across the landscape. We determined that corridor widths are correlated to factors such as proximity to river crossings, traffic intensity, and vegetation abundance. Knowing these factors can help local planners and engineers design counter-measures that could help to control and reduce the widths of these corridors, until paved roads can replace the dirt track corridors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the damages in rocks caused by the construction of a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Escalier des Orres, P.

    1988-12-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Commission) has conducted a bibliographic study of the damages in the rock caused by the construction of a repository, and several hydraulic simulations, to appreciate the influence of these damages on the safety of the repository. These studies have led to the proposal of construction techniques in accordance safety requirements and industrial feasibility [fr

  12. Diagnosis of some pathological causes of respiratory infections in broilers in Al-Hamdaniya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. AL-Barrodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological causes of respiratory infections in five broilers flocks in Al-Hamdanyia region were studied. Each flock consisted of 5000-7000 birds at 20-40 days of old which suffered from respiratory infection signs with high mortality ratio. Specific ELISA kit for avian influenza virus (AIV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, and infectious bronchitis disease virus (IBV, were used as sera diagnostic tests as well as bacteriological isolation. Results shows (AIV infections at all flocks with nearly similar percentages which were 14%, 15%, 18%, 13%, 10% respectively, (NDV were recorded at three flocks of older ages with 8%, 12%, 20% at the flocks number 3-5 respectively but no any infection of (IBV infection was recorded. Bacteriological isolation shows E.coli infections in three flocks with 20% at each of the flocks number 3 and 5 but it was 10% in the flock number 4, also three Gram positive bacteria were isolated, Streptococcus fecalis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and Staphylococcus aureus at nearly similar percentages ranged from 5% - 20%. In conclusion the real cause of respiratory infection in this study was (AIV which causes bird immune suppression leading to other disease infections like (NDV, and other bacterial infections.

  13. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory... Gas and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems. Subject: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused...

  14. Chronic exposure to microcystin-LR affected mitochondrial DNA maintenance and caused pathological changes of lung tissue in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinxiu; Xu, Lizhi; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Qingya; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), an important variant of cyanotoxin family, was frequently encountered in the contaminated aquatic environment and taken as a potent hepatotoxin. However, a little was known on the association between the long-term MC-LR exposure and lung damage. In this study, we investigated the changes of the pulmonary histopathology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and the expression of mtDNA encoded genes in the mice with chronic exposed to MC-LR at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg/L) for 12 months. Our results showed that the long-term and persistent exposure to MC-LR disturbed the balance of redox system, influenced mtDNA stability, changed the expression of mitochondrial genes in the lung cells. Notably, MC-LR exposure influenced the level of inflammatory cytokines and resulted in thickening of the alveolar septa. In conclusion, chronic exposure to MC-LR affected mtDNA maintenance, and caused lung impairment in mice. - Highlights: • A simulated natural exposure to MC-LR caused the lung pathological changes. • The chronic exposure disturbed the redox system balance of lung tissue cells. • The chronic exposure impaired the mtDNA stability and mitochondria function. • The lung was one of the vulnerable organs to MC-LR exposure in mice. - Long-term exposure to MC-LR in drinking water disturbed the balance of redox system, affected mitochondrial DNA maintenance and caused lung impairment in mice.

  15. The classification, recording, databasing and use of information about building damage caused by subsidence and landslides

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Building damage as a result of subsidence and lateral movement can be caused by numerous mechanisms including mining, dissolution of soluble rocks, shrink–swell of clays and landslides. In many instances, the distribution and severity of the damage caused can be diagnostic of the underlying geological condition and can be used as an aid to geological and geomorphological mapping. Many rigid buildings are sensitive to movement, meaning that careful surveys can delineate fine details that can b...

  16. TDP-43 causes differential pathology in neuronal versus glial cells in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sen; Wang, Chuan-En; Wei, Wenjie; Gaertig, Marta A; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-05-15

    Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although recent studies have revealed that mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells is toxic, how mutant TDP-43 causes primarily neuronal degeneration in an age-dependent manner remains unclear. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) that expresses mutant TDP-43 (M337V) ubiquitously, we found that mutant TDP-43 accumulates preferentially in neuronal cells in the postnatal mouse brain. We then ubiquitously or selectively expressed mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells in the striatum of adult mouse brains via stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors and found that it also preferentially accumulates in neuronal cells. Expression of mutant TDP-43 in neurons in the striatum causes more severe degeneration, earlier death and more robust symptoms in mice than expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells; however, aging increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells, and expression of mutant TDP-43 in older mice caused earlier onset of phenotypes and more severe neuropathology than that in younger mice. Although expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells via stereotaxic injection does not lead to robust neurological phenotypes, systemic inhibition of the proteasome activity via MG132 in postnatal mice could exacerbate glial TDP-43-mediated toxicity and cause mice to die earlier. Consistently, this inhibition increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells in mouse brains. Thus, the differential accumulation of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal versus glial cells contributes to the preferential toxicity of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal cells and age-dependent pathology.

  17. Effect of low dose pre-irradiation on DNA damage and genetic material damage caused by high dosage of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Zhu Jingjuan; Shang Qingjun; Wang Zhuomin; Cui Fuxian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose γ-rays pre-irradiation on the induction of DNA damage and genetic material damage in peripheral lymphocytes by high dosage of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Methods: Male Kunming strain mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, sham-irradiated group, low dose irradiated group(LDR group), cyclophosphamide chemotherapy group(CTX group) and low dose irradiation combined with chemotherapy group(LDR + CTX group). After being feeded for one week, all the mice were implanted subcutaneously with S180 cells in the left groin (control group excluded). On days 8 and 11, groups of LDR and LDR + CTX were administered with 75 mGy of whole-body irradiation, 30 h later groups CTX and LDR + CTX were injected intraperitoneally 3.0 mg cyclophosphamide. All the mice were sacrificed on day 13. DNA damage of the peripheral lymphocytes was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Genetic material damage was analyzed using micronucleus frequency(MNF) of polychromatoerythrocytes(PCE) in bone marrow. Results: (1) Compared with control group and sham-irradiated group, the DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes in CTX group were increased significantly (P 0.05). Conclusions: (1) High- dosage of CTX chemotherapy can cause DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes. 75 mGy y-irradiation before chemotherapy may have certain protective effect on DNA damage. (2) CTX has potent mutagenic effect, giving remarkable rise to MNF of PCE. 75 mGy γ-ray pre-irradiation has not obvious protection against genetic toxicity of high-dose CTX chemotherapy. (authors)

  18. High levels of virus replication and an intense inflammatory response contribute to the severe pathology in lymphoid tissues caused by Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zenglei; Hu, Jiao; Hu, Shunlin; Song, Qingqing; Ding, Pingyun; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-03-01

    Some strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VIId cause more-severe tissue damage in lymphoid organs compared to other virulent strains. In this study, we aim to define the mechanism of this distinct pathological manifestation of genotype VII viruses. Pathology, virus replication, and the innate immune response in lymphoid tissues of chickens infected with two genotype VIId NDV strains (JS5/05 and JS3/05), genotype IX NDV F48E8 and genotype IV NDV Herts/33, were compared. Histopathologic examination showed that JS5/05 and JS3/05 produced more-severe lesions in the spleen and thymus, but these four virulent strains caused comparable mild lesions in the bursa. In addition, JS3/05 and JS5/05 replicated at significantly higher levels in the lymphatic organs than F48E8 and Herts/33. A microarray assay performed on the spleens of chickens infected with JS5/05 or Herts/33 revealed that JS5/05 elicited a more potent inflammatory response by increasing the number and expression levels of activated genes. Moreover, cytokine gene expression profiling showed that JS5/05 and JS3/05 induced a stronger cytokine response in lymphoid tissues compared to F48E8 and Herts/33. Taken together, our results indicate that the severe pathology in immune organs caused by genotype VIId NDV strains is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense inflammatory response.

  19. Oxidative stress damage as a detrimental factor in preterm birth pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar

    2014-01-01

    Normal term and spontaneous preterm births (PTB) are documented to be associated with oxidative stress (OS), and imbalances in the redox system (balance between pro- and antioxidant) have been reported in the maternal-fetal intrauterine compartments. The exact mechanism of labor initiation either at term or preterm by OS is still unclear, and this lack of understanding can partially be blamed for failure of antioxidant supplementation trials in PTB prevention. Based on recent findings from our laboratory, we postulate heterogeneity in host OS response. The physiologic (at term) and pathophysiologic (preterm) pathways of labor are not mediated by OS alone but by OS-induced damage to intrauterine tissues, especially fetal membranes of the placenta. OS damage affects all major cellular elements in the fetal cells, and this damage promotes fetal cell senescence (aging). The aging of the fetal cells is predominated by p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38MAPK) pathways. Senescing cells generate biomolecular signals that are uterotonic, triggering labor process. The aging of fetal cells is normal at term. However, aging is premature in PTB, especially in those PTBs complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes, where elements of redox imbalances and OS damage are more dominant. We postulate that fetal cell senescence signals generated by OS damage are likely triggers for labor. This review highlights the mechanisms involved in senescence development at term and preterm by OS damage and provides insight into novel fetal signals of labor initiation pathways.

  20. Oxidative stress damage as a detrimental factor in preterm birth pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar eMenon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal term and spontaneous preterm births (PTB are documented to be associated with oxidative stress (OS, and imbalances in the redox system (balance between pro- and antioxidant have been reported in the maternal-fetal intrauterine compartments. The exact mechanism of labor initiation either at term or preterm by OS is still unclear, and this lack of understanding can partially be blamed for failure of antioxidant supplementation trials in PTB prevention. Based on recent findings from our laboratory, we postulate heterogeneity in host OS response. The physiologic (at term and pathophysiologic (preterm pathways of labor are not mediated by OS alone but by OS-induced damage to intrauterine tissues, especially fetal membranes of the placenta. OS damage affects all major cellular elements in the fetal cells, and this damage promotes fetal cell senescence (aging. The aging of the fetal cells are predominated by p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38MAPK pathways. Senescing cells generate biomolecular signals that are uterotonic, triggering labor process. The aging of fetal cells is normal at term. However, aging is premature in PTB, especially in those PTBs complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM, where elements of redox imbalances and OS damage are more dominant. We postulate that fetal cell senescence signals generated by OS damage are likely triggers for labor. This review highlights the mechanisms involved in senescence development at term and preterm by OS damage and provides insight into novel fetal signals of labor initiation pathways.

  1. Hemifacial Pain and Hemisensory Disturbance Referred from Occipital Neuralgia Caused by Pathological Vascular Contact of the Greater Occipital Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Byung-chul; Choi, Jin-gyu

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique case of chronic occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact of the left greater occipital nerve. After 12 months of left-sided, unremitting occipital neuralgia, a hypesthesia and facial pain developed in the left hemiface. The decompression of the left greater occipital nerve from pathological contacts with the occipital artery resulted in immediate relief for hemifacial sensory change and facial pain, as well as chronic occipital neuralgia. Although re...

  2. Storm damage in the Black Forest caused by the winter storm "Lothar" – Part 1: Airborne damage assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmoeckel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An airborne survey of the Black Forest as affected by the winter storm "Lothar" in 1999 is performed by means of a color line scanner (CLS with a CCD sensor, whose data in a visible and a near-infrared channel provide the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI as a measure of the damage in previously intact forest areas. The camera data, height data from a digital evelation model (DEM, land use information, and soil data are georeferenced and processed in a geographic information system (GIS to derive relationship of the damage pattern to the characteristics of the local orography and soil types. The data cover an area of 4900 km2, 2767 km2 of which were forested. The 363 detected storm damage areas with a minimum detection size of 1.5 ha amount to 0.8% of the total forest area. Visual inspections at certain sites prove that none of the larger damage areas are missed, but areas smaller than 1.5 ha cause the total damage area to be up to twice our result, i.e. ≈1.6% of the forest area. More than 50% of the detected damaged areas are smaller than 5 ha and most of them have a size ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 ha. Forests on slopes with an inclination angle between 10 and 15 degrees show the highest fraction of damaged forest, doubling those on plains and below 5 degrees inclination angle. Forests on northwestern slopes are more affected than those on southwestern and western slopes, which faced the wind during highest wind speed occurrence. In contrast to other studies, this paper shows, that in steep areas, lee slopes are more damaged than the luv slopes. As expected, wet to moist soils represent an unstable location for the trees. But also medium-dry to dry locations that were considered to be relatively stable exhibited a highly damaged forest fraction. This can be attributed to mostly saturated soil from previous rain.

  3. Manual on the Fatigue of Structures. II. Causes and Prevention of Damage. 7. Mechanical Surface Damage,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    AO-A103 «29 ADVISORY 6R0UP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT—ETC F/O 20/11 MANUAL ON THE FATIfUE OF STRUCTURES. IX. CAUSES AND PREVENTION —ETC... stresses . In the case of 99.999% pure aluminium Vyas and Preece240 investigated the changes in the surface finish of the metal under the electron...during the erosion process. In the case of annealed nickel and of electrolytically polished test specimens cavitation- stressed in distilled water at 25°C

  4. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  5. Chronic Broca's Aphasia Is Caused by Damage to Broca's and Wernicke's Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Fillmore, Paul; Guo, Dazhou; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Despite being perhaps the most studied form of aphasia, the critical lesion location for Broca's aphasia has long been debated, and in chronic patients, cortical damage often extends far beyond Broca's area. In a group of 70 patients, we examined brain damage associated with Broca's aphasia using voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). We found that damage to the posterior portion of Broca's area, the pars opercularis, is associated with Broca's aphasia. However, several individuals with other aphasic patterns had considerable damage to pars opercularis, suggesting that involvement of this region is not sufficient to cause Broca's aphasia. When examining only individuals with pars opercularis damage, we found that patients with Broca's aphasia had greater damage in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG; roughly Wernicke's area) than those with other aphasia types. Using discriminant function analysis and logistic regression, based on proportional damage to the pars opercularis and Wernicke's area, to predict whether individuals had Broca's or another types of aphasia, over 95% were classified correctly. Our findings suggest that persons with Broca's aphasia have damage to both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, a conclusion that is incongruent with classical neuropsychology, which has rarely considered the effects of damage to both areas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Conditional Müllercell ablation causes independent neuronal and vascular pathologies in a novel transgenic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiyong; Fruttiger, Marcus; Zhu, Ling; Chung, Sook H; Barnett, Nigel L; Kirk, Joshua K; Lee, SoRa; Coorey, Nathan J; Killingsworth, Murray; Sherman, Larry S; Gillies, Mark C

    2012-11-07

    Müller cells are the major glia of the retina that serve numerous functions essential to retinal homeostasis, yet the contribution of Müller glial dysfunction to retinal diseases remains largely unknown. We have developed a transgenic model using a portion of the regulatory region of the retinaldehyde binding protein 1 gene for conditional Müller cell ablation and the consequences of primary Müller cell dysfunction have been studied in adult mice. We found that selective ablation of Müller cells led to photoreceptor apoptosis, vascular telangiectasis, blood-retinal barrier breakdown and, later, intraretinal neovascularization. These changes were accompanied by impaired retinal function and an imbalance between vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor inhibited photoreceptor injury but had no effect on the vasculopathy. Conversely, inhibition of VEGF-A activity attenuated vascular leak but did not protect photoreceptors. Our findings show that Müller glial deficiency may be an important upstream cause of retinal neuronal and vascular pathologies in retinal diseases. Combined neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic therapies may be required to treat Müller cell deficiency in retinal diseases and in other parts of the CNS associated with glial dysfunction.

  7. Benign oral pathology as a cause of false positive 131I uptake in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: We present three thyroidectomised patients with a history of thyroid carcinoma who had non-metastatic 131 I uptake due to benign oral pathology. A salivary gland study suggested impaired function but no obstruction was demonstrated on a sialogram. The symptoms resolved on antibiotic therapy and a subsequent 131 I study was normal. A subsequent thallium study demonstrated physiological tracer distribution. A 35-year-old female with papillary cell carcinoma of the thyroid demonstrated a focus of uptake on the right hemi-mandible following both a diagnostic and a therapeutic dose of 131 I. This area was tender and an OPG confirmed an area of liquefaction at this site. A 53-year-old female with medullary cell carcinoma of the thyroid demonstrated a focus of uptake in the right side of the maxilla following a diagnostic administration of 131 I. An OPG confirmed an area of liquefaction around the apex of the right upper centre. These three cases illustrate salivary gland and dental inflammation as causes of false positive 131 I uptake. It is important to differentiate non-metastatic 131 I uptake from that due to functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma in order to avoid inappropriate treatment with large additional doses of 131 I. As in these patients, clinical assessment and the use of anatomical imaging or other isotopes such as thallium or technetium can be helpful in ruling out a mistaken diagnosis of metastasis

  8. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug-related perinatal damage from the pathological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fanni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug dosage in the perinatal period represents a continuous challenge for the neonatologist because of interindividual variability of drug metabolism. The human liver plays a central role in the uptake, transport, metabolism and excretion of the vast majority of xenobiotics and drugs. The protein products of human CYP3A account for the largest portion of CYP450 proteins in human liver. At least 50% of currently used drugs in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs are substrates of CYP3A4 including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, immunomodulators, benzodiazepines, proton pump inhibitors, steroid hormones and acetaminophen. The variable CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 expression recently reported in neonatal liver suggests the existence of a marked interindividual variability in drug metabolism during the intrauterine and neonatal lives and, as a consequence, the need of an individualized tailored therapeutic approach in NICUs. The increased risk for adverse effects reported for some drugs in neonates could be related to pharmacokinetic peculiarities of the newborn liver. The fetal and neonatal liver in infants undergoing drug-induced liver injury (DILI is always characterized by the overlapping between developmental and pathological changes, the differential diagnosis between these changes representing often a challenge for the pathologist. Data here reported clearly evidence the peculiarity of the histological examination of the newborn liver, as compared to the adult liver. In conclusion, the role of the pathologist in the interpretation of liver reactions to drugs may be relevant, only when supported by the dialogue with neonatologists. A deep knowledge of the events taking place during liver development at different gestational ages is necessary for a dedicated neonatal pathologist, in order to avoid misinterpretation of the histological changes related to liver development, giving them a pathological significance. Proceedings of the International

  10. An animal experimental model for evaluating endothelial damage caused by various angiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlob, R.

    1981-01-01

    The endothelial damage caused by X-ray contrast media is tested on en face preparations of the rat aorta after silver staining. Hypertonic contrast media cause dehydration of the vessels so that solutions of silver nitrate penetrate into the media during the phase of rehydration whereby medial transverse lines are stained. These artifacts can be avoided by 3 minute rehydration of the vessels by Ringer solution prior to silver staining. In addition it is recommended to add highly diluted silver nitrate to the fixing media in order to intensify the pattern of the endothelial silver lines. Modern contrast media may cause very little endothelial damage, however, significant differences can be detected when in addition to the evaluation of larger foci damages of single endothelial cells ( brown cells with sparing of the nuclei and pseudonuclei ) are evaluated as well. No significant differences were found between the endothelial toxicity of meglumin diatrizoate and meglumin iothalamate. (orig.) [de

  11. [Diagnosis of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction caused by occlusion pathology and treatment of such patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, V A; Rabukhina, N A; Kravchenko, D V

    2007-01-01

    Patients with temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction need complex treatment that includes prosthetic treatment in intrajoint relation stabilization. In cases of TMJ pathology it is necessary to examine patients and make axiography, function analysis, MPI-analysis, magnetic resonance tomography and zonography of TMJ, electromyography of the masticatory muscles. The authors examined 47 patients with TMJ dysfunction, 43 of them had occlusion pathology. We managed to eliminate the dysfunction symptoms and to receive stable result of the treatment in all the patients.

  12. Hippocampal damage causes retrograde but not anterograde memory loss for context fear discrimination in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin Q; Sutherland, Robert J; McDonald, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that the hippocampus (HPC) plays and essential role in context discrimination in rodents. Studies reporting anterograde amnesia (AA) used repeated, alternating, distributed conditioning and extinction sessions to measure context fear discrimination. In addition, there is uncertainty about the extent of damage to the HPC. Here, we induced conditioned fear prior to discrimination tests and rats sustained extensive, quantified pre- or post-training HPC damage. Unlike previous work, we found that extensive HPC damage spares context discrimination, we observed no AA. There must be a non-HPC system that can acquire long-term memories that support context fear discrimination. Post-training HPC damage caused retrograde amnesia (RA) for context discrimination, even when rats are fear conditioned for multiple sessions. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the role of HPC in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Threats to repair injury caused by judicial errors and criminal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Vasilisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The grounds for the occurrence of punitive damages are related to the illicit actions of the persons with responsibilities in the courts and the criminal prosecution bodies. In order to provide protection against such unfair situations, there are a number of legal guarantees. The legislator has highlighted both the specific circle of reasons (illegal detention, unlawful criminal prosecution, unlawful sentencing, etc. necessary to ensure that the damage caused to the person can be repaired, as well as the circle of conditions for the right to reparation (the acquittal, the order for termination of the criminal proceedings or for the prosecution, etc.. The reparation of the damage caused by judicial and criminal prosecution errors arises at the time when the act whereby the person was convicted or illegally arrested, ie at the time when the rehabilitation act became irrevocable, was found to be illegal.

  14. Cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniella Renata; Sakita, Karina Mayumi; Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene Setsuko; Kioshima, Érika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to characterize cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies. It was evaluated 12 clinical isolates of C. albicans from vaginal samples: 4 from asymptomatic women (AS), 4 from women with a single episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 4 from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). We evaluated the ability of C. albicans to adhere to human cervical cancer cells (SiHa), the yeast-SiHa cell interactions and cell damage. All of the clinical isolates presented a high adhesion capacity on SiHa cells. However, clinical isolates from symptomatic women (VVC and RVVC) had higher filamentation after contact (24 h) with SiHa cells and a greater capacity to cause cell damage (>80 %). Clinical isolates from symptomatic women had greater potential to invade SiHa cells, suggesting that they are more pathogenic than AS isolates.

  15. Compensation for damage caused by abuse of procedural rights in civil litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakočević Milka V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of compensation for damage caused by the abuse of procedural rights as a measure within the oppressive apparatus for sanctioning the abuse of process in civil proceedings, which issue is, unlike others related to the idea of prohibition of abuse of rights within the system of civil procedure, the least treated in the procedural doctrine. The author deals with procedural aspects of certain essential issues that are important in the context of the matter concerned, highlighting the nature of the claim for damages caused by the abuse of process, the manner this right is realized (whether in the pending litigation or by initiating a separate civil procedure, the procedural form of the claim for compensation of damages, etc.

  16. Evaluation of environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneikis, J.; Shtreimikiene, D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods to evaluate the environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy are presented. The products of burning fossil fuel (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and ashes) make the bulk of the pollutants that are being discharged into the atmosphere. To evaluate the damage caused by these pollutants an empirical method is suggested. The direct and analytical methods are used as a basis in collecting data for the empirical evaluation. All the three methods are described and empirical formulas suggested for calculating environmental damage due to burning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. The authors prove the necessity to change the present system of environmental taxes in Lithuania, which are purely symbolic. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs

  17. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Mura, R.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Methods: Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions

  18. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  19. Consumption of Coprinus comatus polysaccharide extract causes recovery of alcoholic liver damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozalp, F.O.; Canbek, M.; Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Uyanoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Karlkava, K.; Oglakci, A.

    2014-01-01

    Excess use of alcohol is known to be associated with liver diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Various practices may be applied to prevent or treat the damage caused by chronic alcoholism. Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. (Agaricaceae) is a macrofungus that has been

  20. Lumbar vertebral haemangioma causing pathological fracture, epidural haemorrhage, and cord compression: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, S; Khan, S K; Braybrooke, J R

    2011-01-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are recognized to be one of the commonest benign tumours of the vertebral column, occurring mostly in the thoracic spine. The vast majority of these are asymptomatic. Infrequently, these can turn symptomatic and cause neurological deficit (cord compression) through any of four reported mechanisms: (1) epidural extension; (2) expansion of the involved vertebra(e) causing spinal canal stenosis; (3) spontaneous epidural haemorrhage; (4) pathological burst fracture. Thoracic haemangiomas have been reported to be more likely to produce cord compression than lumbar haemangiomas. A forty-nine year old male with acute onset spinal cord compression from a pathological fracture in a first lumbar vertebral haemangioma. An MRI delineated the haemangioma and extent of bleeding that caused the cord compression. These were confirmed during surgery and the haematoma was evacuated. The spine was instrumented from T12 to L2, and a cement vertebroplasty was performed intra-operatively. Written consent for publication was obtained from the patient. The junctional location of the first lumbar vertebra, and the structural weakness from normal bone being replaced by the haemangioma, probably caused it to fracture under axial loading. This pathological fracture caused bleeding from the vascularized bone, resulting in cord compression.

  1. Analyses of the Secondary Particle Radiation and the DNA Damage it Causes to Human Keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel E. A.; Tafrov S.; Rusek, A.; Sivertz, M. B.; Yip, K.; Thompson, K. H.

    2011-11-01

    High-energy protons, and high mass and energy ions, along with the secondary particles they produce, are the main contributors to the radiation hazard during space explorations. Skin, particularly the epidermis, consisting mainly of keratinocytes with potential for proliferation and malignant transformation, absorbs the majority of the radiation dose. Therefore, we used normal human keratinocytes to investigate and quantify the DNA damage caused by secondary radiation. Its manifestation depends on the presence of retinol in the serum-free media, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases. We simulated the generation of secondary radiation after the impact of protons and iron ions on an aluminum shield. We also measured the intensity and the type of the resulting secondary particles at two sample locations; our findings agreed well with our predictions. We showed that secondary particles inflict DNA damage to different extents, depending on the type of primary radiation. Low-energy protons produce fewer secondary particles and cause less DNA damage than do high-energy protons. However, both generate fewer secondary particles and inflict less DNA damage than do high mass and energy ions. The majority of cells repaired the initial damage, as denoted by the presence of 53BPI foci, within the first 24 hours after exposure, but some cells maintained the 53BP1 foci longer.

  2. Management of wildlife causing damage at Argonne National Laboratory-East, DuPage County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The DOE, after an independent review, has adopted an Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) which evaluates use of an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management approach at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois (April 1995). In 1994, the USDA issued a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that covers nationwide animal damage control activities. The EA for Management of Wildlife Causing Damage at ANL-E tiers off this programmatic EIS. The USDA wrote the EA as a result of DOE`s request to USDA to prepare and implement a comprehensive Wildlife Management Damage Plan; the USDA has authority for animal damage control under the Animal Damage Control Act of 1931, as amended, and the Rural Development, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1988. DOE has determined, based on the analysis in the EA, that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants in Bogor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danniswari, Dibyanti; Nasrullah, Nizar

    2017-10-01

    Certain plants are called stranglers (hemiepiphyte) because they grow on host trees and slowly choking the host, which often results in the host’s death. The existence of strangler plants on roadside greenbelt trees is quite common in Bogor, but they may cause tree’s failure and threaten users’ safety. To prevent such hazard, evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants is important. This study was directed to analyse the vegetation of strangler plants in Bogor, to assess the damage caused by stranglers, and to compose strangled trees maintenance recommendations. This study was conducted in March to May 2014 by doing survey at five major roads in Bogor, which were Jalan Ahmad Yani, Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Pemuda, Jalan Semeru, and Jalan Juanda. The results showed that strangler species found in Bogor are Ficus benjamina, Ficus glauca, Ficus elastica, and Schefflera actinophylla. The most common species in Bogor is F. benjamina. Host trees that tend to be preferred by strangler plants are trees with large trunk, many branches, and medium to high height. The maintenance for every strangled tree is different according to the damage level, mild to severe damage could be treated by strangler root cutting to tree logging, respectively.

  4. Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Ruth; Kidd, Martin; Knight, Andrew T

    2014-08-01

    Many populations of threatened mammals persist outside formally protected areas, and their survival depends on the willingness of communities to coexist with them. An understanding of the attitudes, and specifically the tolerance, of individuals and communities and the factors that determine these is therefore fundamental to designing strategies to alleviate human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify factors that affected attitudes toward 4 groups of terrestrial mammals. Elephants (65%) elicited the most positive attitudes, followed by primates (55%), ungulates (53%), and carnivores (44%). Urban residents presented the most positive attitudes (80%), followed by commercial farmers (51%) and communal farmers (26%). A tolerance to damage index showed that human tolerance of ungulates and primates was proportional to the probability of experiencing damage while elephants elicited tolerance levels higher than anticipated and carnivores elicited tolerance levels lower than anticipated. Contrary to conventional wisdom, experiencing damage was not always the dominant factor determining attitudes. Communal farmers had a lower probability of being positive toward carnivores irrespective of probability of experiencing damage, while commercial farmers and urban residents were more likely to be positive toward carnivores irrespective of damage. Urban residents were more likely to be positive toward ungulates, elephants, and primates when probability of damage was low, but not when it was high. Commercial and communal farmers had a higher probability of being positive toward ungulates, primates, and elephants irrespective of probability of experiencing damage. Taxonomic bias may therefore be important. Identifying the distinct factors explaining these attitudes and the specific contexts in which they operate, inclusive of the species causing damage, will be essential for prioritizing conservation investments. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  5. Magnesium-oxide boards cause moisture damage inside facades in new Danish buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Grelk, Bent

    2016-01-01

    building elements seemed to suffer from some sort of disease, which manifested itself by damages such as significant moisture, boards leaking salty water (‘tears’), corrosion of fittings and anchors and mould growth. The damages were caused by the fact that MgO-boards absorb moisture from outside air...... in periods with high outdoor humidity (90-100% RH) and form water drops on the surfaces. The drops contain a high amount of soluble chloride ions and appear on the surfaces of the boards and may often run down the boards and to adjacent structures. Metal fixtures for the MgO-and siding boards may corrode...

  6. Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Lucio A; Albert, Scott; Carney, David; Gatto, Louis A; Halter, Jeffrey M; Nieman, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that is, the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) is unknown. In the present study we found that ventilating the normal lung with high peak pressure (45 cmH(2)0) and low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP of 3 cmH(2)O) did not initially result in altered alveolar mechanics, but alveolar instability developed over time. Anesthetized rats underwent tracheostomy, were placed on pressure control ventilation, and underwent sternotomy. Rats were then assigned to one of three ventilation strategies: control group (n = 3, P control = 14 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 3 cmH(2)O), high pressure/low PEEP group (n = 6, P control = 45 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 3 cmH(2)O), and high pressure/high PEEP group (n = 5, P control = 45 cmH(2)O, PEEP = 10 cmH(2)O). In vivo microscopic footage of subpleural alveolar stability (that is, recruitment/derecruitment) was taken at baseline and than every 15 minutes for 90 minutes following ventilator adjustments. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was determined by measuring the area of individual alveoli at peak inspiration (I) and end expiration (E) by computer image analysis. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was quantified by the percentage change in alveolar area during tidal ventilation (%I - E Delta). Alveoli were stable in the control group for the entire experiment (low %I - E Delta). Alveoli in the high pressure/low PEEP group were initially stable (low %I - E Delta), but with time alveolar recruitment/derecruitment developed. The development of alveolar instability in the high pressure/low PEEP group was associated with histologic lung injury. A large change in

  7. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Alina Dumitrache

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to civil liability. The paper analyzes the objective basis of legal accountability, namely the illicit act causing damages committed in fulfilling labor duties or in connection tot hem, therewith the method detailed and comparative documentation of legislation in the field and relevant doctrine.

  8. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Xu-Chu; Jin, Li-Fen; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Jiang, Cai-Xia; Chen, Qing; Ren, Xiao-Bin; Cao, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2011-04-12

    Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  9. Protective effects of Curcuma longa against neurobehavioral and neurochemical damage caused by cerium chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Yamina; Nciri, Riadh; Brahmi, Noura; Saidi, Saber; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Aldahmash, Waleed; El Feki, Abdelfatteh; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2018-05-07

    Cerium chloride (CeCl 3 ) is considered an environmental pollutant and a potent neurotoxic agent. Medicinal plants have many bioactive compounds that provide protection against damage caused by such pollutants. Curcuma longa is a bioactive compound-rich plant with very important antioxidant properties. To study the preventive and healing effects of Curcuma longa on cerium-damaged mouse brains, we intraperitoneally injected cerium chloride (CeCl 3 , 20 mg/kg BW) along with Curcuma longa extract, administrated by gavage (100 mg/kg BW), into mice for 60 days. We then examined mouse behavior, brain tissue damage, and brain oxidative stress parameters. Our results revealed a significant modification in the behavior of the CeCl 3 -treated mice. In addition, CeCl 3 induced a significant increment in lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein (PCO), and advanced oxidation protein product levels, as well as a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity remarkably increased in the brain of CeCl 3 -treated mice. Histopathological observations confirmed these results. Curcuma longa attenuated CeCl 3 -induced oxidative stress and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. It also decreased AChE activity in the CeCl 3 -damaged mouse brain that was confirmed by histopathology. In conclusion, this study suggests that Curcuma longa has a neuroprotective effect against CeCl 3 -induced damage in the brain.

  10. In vivo imaging reveals rapid astrocyte depletion and axon damage in a model of neuromyelitis optica-related pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herwerth, Marina; Kalluri, Sudhakar Reddy; Srivastava, Rajneesh

    2016-01-01

    IgG autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), an astrocytic water channel. Antibodies against AQP4 can damage astrocytes via complement, but NMO histopathology also shows demyelination, and - importantly - axon injury, which may determine permanent deficits following NMO relapses. The dynamics...... antibodies in mice. RESULTS: We found that human AQP4 antibodies caused acute astrocyte depletion with initial oligodendrocyte survival. Within two hours of antibody application, we observed secondary axon injury in the form of progressive swellings. Astrocyte toxicity and axon damage were dependent on AQP4...... antibody concentration and complement, specifically C1q. INTERPRETATION: In vivo imaging of the spinal cord reveals the swift development of NMO-related acute axon injury following AQP4 antibody-mediated astrocyte depletion. This approach will be useful in studying the mechanisms underlying the spread...

  11. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  12. Susceptibility of sweet and sour cherry cultivars/genotypes to feeding damage caused by Bryobia rubrioculus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honarparvar, N.; Khanjani, M.; Zemek, Rostislav; Bouzari, N.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2018), s. 78-90 ISSN 1362-1971 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Prunus * brown mite * fee ding damage Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2016

  13. Germline PRKACA amplification leads to Cushing syndrome caused by 3 adrenocortical pathologic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, J Aidan; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the pathology of 5 patients with germline PRKACA copy number gain and Cushing syndrome: 4 males and 1 female, aged 2 to 43 years, including a mother and son. Imaging showed normal or slightly enlarged adrenal glands in 4 patients and a unilateral mass in the fifth. Biochemically, the patients had corticotropin-independent hypercortisolism. Four underwent bilateral adrenalectomy; unilateral adrenalectomy was performed in the patient with the adrenal mass. Pathologically, 3 patients, including the 1 with the tumor (adenoma), had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease with extranodular cortical atrophy and mild intracapsular and extracapsular extension of cortical cells. The other 2 patients had cortical hyperplasia and prominent capsular and extracapsular micronodular cortical hyperplasia. Immunoperoxidase staining revealed differences for synaptophysin, inhibin-A, and Ki-67 (nuclei) in the atrophic cortices (patients 1, 2, and 3) and hyperplastic cortices (patients 4 and 5) and for Ki-67 (nuclei) and vimentin in the extracortical nodules in the 2 groups of patients. β-Catenin stained the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nuclei of the adenoma. The patients were well at follow-up (1-23 years); 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion was elevated in the patient who had unilateral adrenalectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemifacial Pain and Hemisensory Disturbance Referred from Occipital Neuralgia Caused by Pathological Vascular Contact of the Greater Occipital Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byung-Chul; Choi, Jin-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique case of chronic occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact of the left greater occipital nerve. After 12 months of left-sided, unremitting occipital neuralgia, a hypesthesia and facial pain developed in the left hemiface. The decompression of the left greater occipital nerve from pathological contacts with the occipital artery resulted in immediate relief for hemifacial sensory change and facial pain, as well as chronic occipital neuralgia. Although referral of pain from the stimulation of occipital and cervical structures innervated by upper cervical nerves to the frontal head of V1 trigeminal distribution has been reported, the development of hemifacial sensory change associated with referred trigeminal pain from chronic occipital neuralgia is extremely rare. Chronic continuous and strong afferent input of occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact with the greater occipital nerve seemed to be associated with sensitization and hypersensitivity of the second-order neurons in the trigeminocervical complex, a population of neurons in the C2 dorsal horn characterized by receiving convergent input from dural and cervical structures.

  15. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A

    2015-11-01

    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  16. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Zelm, Rosalie van; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health consequences caused by this fraud. From 2009 to 2015, approximately nine million fraudulent Volkswagen cars, as sold in Europe and the US, emitted a cumulative amount of 526 ktonnes of nitrogen oxides more than was legally allowed. These fraudulent emissions are associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars, which is approximately 5.3 times larger than the 7.3 billion US dollars that Volkswagen Group has set aside to cover worldwide costs related to the diesel emissions scandal. - Highlights: • Health damages from Volkswagen's emission fraud are estimated in the USA and Europe. • Combined health damages in the USA and Europe are estimated at 45 thousand DALYs. • Health damages will further increase to 119 thousand DALYs if cars are not recalled. • Combined health costs in the USA and Europe are estimated at 39 billion US dollars. • Costs will further increase to 102 billion US dollars if cars are not recalled. - The diesel emission fraud committed by Volkswagen Group has led to substantial unforeseen emissions of nitrogen oxides and subsequent health damage costs in Europe and the US.

  17. Annealing damage caused by implantation of group IB elements into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Svenningsen, B.; Chadderton, L.T.; Whitton, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the Rutherford backscattering method (RBS) have been used in an investigation of the annealing of radiation damage produced in silicon by 80 keV Cu + , Ag + and Au + ions up to doses of 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Whilst the damage caused by Cu + and Ag + implantation, measured by RBS, persists following annealing sequences up to temperatures of 800 0 C, Au + -implanted samples show recovery. Furthermore, RBS indicates quite clearly that, in the case of gold, atomic diffusion to the silicon surface takes place. TEM and electron diffraction both indicate that in all three implants the anomalous 'damage' remaining in RBS spectra is due to an amorphous-polycrystalline transition. In the case of Au + implants, however, there is less inhibition of the process of recovery, quite apart from the thermal history of the sample. The importance of using another technique, especially TEM, in conjunction with RBS investigations of radiation damage in the solid state is emphasized. (author)

  18. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eggert

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL, while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  19. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  20. The application of SEM in analyzing the damage to the petroleum reservoirs caused by drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Ismail

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to analyze the damage to the potential oil and gas reservoirs due to the invasion of drilling fluid during drilling operation. Two types of rock samples representing low and high permeability were used to stimulate the petroleum reservoirs. Sea water based drilling fluids were used in this study. Detail observations to the rock samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of both permeability restoration and SEM observation showed that severe permeability impairments were obtained for high permeability rock. These results indicate that the relative size of the barite particles and the pore size distribution and characteristics of the formation play an important role in determining the damage caused by the drilling fluids

  1. Reduction of aesthetical properties of organic coatings caused by mechanical damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, S.; Deflorian, F.; Scrinzi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Organic coatings are the most commonly used system for protection from corrosion. In many applications, the protective properties against corrosion are associated with several other properties, including resistance to abrasion and good aesthetic appearance. This is particularly important for the automotive and transport industry, building trade, domestic products, packaging. To evaluate the abrasion resistance of organic coatings the Taber Abraser test is frequently used. The aim of this work is to evaluate the reduction of aesthetical properties, caused by abrasion by Taber test, using different abrasive pastes. The level of damage was evaluated through gloss measurements; 20 deg. was the most sensitive angle to gloss changes, with this geometry different samples could be compared. The correlation between the changes of gloss and the damage was investigated using optical microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. With increase of grain dimensions, the paste became more abrasive with negative effect on the aesthetical aspect of the organic coating

  2. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  3. Phototherapy causes DNA damage in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan; Senturk, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA strand is a target of phototherapy. The study included 65 term infants aged between 3-10 days that had been exposed to intensive (n = 23) or conventional (n = 23) phototherapy for at least 48 hours due to neonatal jaundice, and a control group (n = 19). DNA damage was assayed by single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Plasma total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were also measured, and correlation between DNA damage and oxidative stress was investigated. Mean values of DNA damage scores in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p Total oxidant status levels in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p = 0.005). Mean (standard deviation) values were 18.1 (4.2), 16.9 (4.4), 13.5 (4.2) micromol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively. Similarly, oxidative stress index levels in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p = 0.041). Plasma total antioxidant capacity and total bilirubin levels did not differ between the groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between DNA damage scores and bilirubin, total oxidant status and oxidative stress levels in either phototherapy group (p > 0.05). Both conventional phototherapy and intensive phototherapy cause endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage in jaundiced term infants.

  4. Clinical multiple sclerosis occurs at one end of a spectrum of CNS pathology: a modified threshold liability model leads to new ways of thinking about the cause of clinical multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegert, David G

    2005-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait, the causes of which are elusive. A threshold liability model influences thinking about the causes of this disorder. According to this model, a population has a normal distribution of genetic liability to MS. In addition, a threshold exists, so that MS begins when an individual's liability exceeds the MS threshold; environmental and other causative factors may increase or decrease an individual's MS liability. It is argued here, however, that this model is misleading, as it is based on the incorrect assumption that MS is a disorder that one either has or does not have. This paper hypothesizes, instead, that patients with a diagnosis of MS share identical CNS pathology, termed MS pathology, with some individuals who have a diagnosis of possible MS and with some apparently healthy individuals, who may never have a diagnosis of MS. In order to accommodate this hypothesis, the current threshold liability model is modified as follows. (1) In addition to a normal distribution of MS liability within a population, a spectrum of MS pathology occurs in some who have a high MS liability. (2) A clinical MS threshold exists at a point on this liability distribution, where the burden and distribution of MS pathology permits a diagnosis of clinical MS. (3) Additional thresholds exist that correspond to a lower MS liability and a lesser burden of MS pathology than occur at the clinical MS threshold. This modified threshold model leads to the postulate that causes act at various time points to increase MS liability and induce MS pathology. The accumulation of MS pathology sometimes leads to a diagnosis of clinical MS. One implication of this model is that the MS pathology in clinical MS and in some with possible MS differs only in the extent but not in the type of CNS injury. Thus, it may be possible to obtain insight into the causative environmental factors that increase MS liability and induce MS pathology by focusing on patients who

  5. Could mesenchymal stem cell therapy help in the treatment of muscle damage caused by Bothrops alternatus venom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita da Costa Telles

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in the treatment of myonecrosis induced by Bothrops alternatus venom in rats. Seventy-five male adult Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups. G1 and G2 were injected in the gastrocnemius muscle with 120μg of B. alternatus venom, while G3 received 200μL of PBS only. Three days after the venom injection, 12 rats from G1 were treated with 5.0 x 106 MSC in PBS, whereas G2 and G3 rats received PBS. Every three days, blood and muscle samples of five animals from each group were taken for serum biochemical and pathological analyses. Histological examinations showed more intense muscle lesions following MSC treatment, characterized by disorganization and loss of muscle fibers, with focal necrosis and inflammatory infiltration by mononuclear cells. In conclusion, the use of MSC for the treatment of local damage caused by inoculation of B. alternatus venom impaired muscle regeneration and interfered in the healing process.

  6. Characterization of non-dimer DNA lesions and cellular damages caused by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Kumi

    1989-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity induced by ultraviolet (UV) light, non-dimer DNA damages produced by near UV light (wave-length: 290∼320 nm) were examined by alkaline elution using Chinese hamster V-79 cells. UV exposure produced a dose-dependent induction of DNA single strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks. However, neither of these DNA lesions were repaired within a 24 hr incubation of the cells following UV exposure. Rather the number of these lesions increased. Also, UV exposure inhibited DNA and RNA synthesis. In addition, UV induced both cytotoxicity and chromosomal aberration. Electron spin resornance (ESR) studies showed that the exposure of cells to UV light resulted in the appearance of an ESR signal at -120degC. The roles of glutathione, vitamin E and vitamin B 2 , which were celluar antioxidant, on the induction of cytotoxicity by UV exposure were also examined. Pretreatment with vitamin E reduced the cytotoxicty caused by UV, whereas neither preteatment with vitamin B 2 nor the alteration of cellular gluthaione content affected the cytotoxicity. These results suggest that non-dimer DNA damages, such as DNA single strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks play an important role in inducing UV-carcinogenicity and UV-cytotoxicity, and that the mechanisms of these damages may be associated with the generation of free radicals. (author)

  7. Damage Mechanism in Counter Pairs Caused by Bionic Non-smoothed Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhan-hui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four biomimetic non-smoothed surface specimens with different shapes were prepared by laser processing. Tests were conducted on MMU-5G wear and abrasion test machine to study the influencing rule of non-smoothed surfaces on counter pairs. The results show that the mass loss of the friction pair matching with the non-smoothed units is much greater than the ones matching with the smooth specimens. The pairs matching with different non-smoothed units suffer differently. The non-smoothed surface protruding zone exerts micro cutting on counter pairs. The striation causes the greatest mass loss of the pairs than the other non-smoothed units, which almost doubles the damage of the grid ones suffering the least. The difference in pairs damage is attributed to the different mechanism of undertaking the load in the process of wear. The damage can be alleviated effectively by changing the shapes of the units without increasing or decreasing the area ratio of the non-smoothed units.

  8. Oxidative Damage Caused by Common Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Afshordi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria in foodstuff are the most important agent of foodborne disease. Aside from their infectious effects, obligate aerobes have a respiratory metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Therefore, they can produce reactive oxygen species and free radicals in contaminated food. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage produced by two common food pathogenic bacteria in foodstuff. Materials and Methods: The egg yolks were incubated with different dilutions (105,106, and 107 of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis at 37°C for 20 hours. The level of MDA in egg yolk was measured by fast and simple enzymatic or colorimetric methods, such as the thiobarbituric acid reactive species method. Results: The high group (107 had a higher MDA level of 1.97 ± 0.11 (μg MDA/g in S. aureus and 1.65 ± 0.27 (mg MDA/L in S. enteritidis than the control (0.90 ± 0.13 mg MDA/L. Conclusions: We concluded that common food pathogenic bacteria can induce oxidative damage in foodstuff aside from other common problems. Heating or sterilization methods cannot protect foodstuff from the damage caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Aerial pesticide application causes DNA damage in pilots from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Waliszewski, S M; Amador-Muñoz, O; Meza, E; Calderón-Segura, M E; Zenteno, E; Huichapan-Martínez, J; Caba, M; Félix-Gastélum, R; Longoria-Espinoza, R

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agricultural production originates residues in the environment where they are applied. Pesticide aerial application is a frequent source of exposure to pesticides by persons dedicated to agricultural practices and those living in neighboring communities of sprayed fields. The aim of the study was to assess the genotoxic effects of pesticides in workers occupationally exposed to these chemicals during their aerial application to agricultural fields of Sinaloa, Mexico. The study involved 30 pilots of airplanes used to apply pesticides via aerial application and 30 unexposed controls. Damage was evaluated through the micronucleus assay and by other nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells of oral mucosa. The highest frequency ratios (FR) equal to 269.5 corresponded to binucleated cells followed by 54.2, corresponding to cells with pyknotic nuclei, 45.2 of cells with chromatin condensation, 3.7 of cells with broken-egg, 3.6 of cells with micronucleus, and 2.0 of karyolytic cells. Age, worked time, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not have significant influence on nuclear abnormalities in the pilots studied. Pesticide exposure was the main factor for nuclear abnormality results and DNA damage. Marked genotoxic damage was developed even in younger pilots with 2 years of short working period, caused by their daily occupational exposure to pesticides.

  10. Causes and Consequences of Sensory Hair Cell Damage and Recovery in Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E; Monroe, J David

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are the mechanotransductive receptors that detect gravity, sound, and vibration in all vertebrates. Damage to these sensitive receptors often results in deficits in vestibular function and hearing. There are currently two main reasons for studying the process of hair cell loss in fishes. First, fishes, like other non-mammalian vertebrates, have the ability to regenerate hair cells that have been damaged or lost via exposure to ototoxic chemicals or acoustic overstimulation. Thus, they are used as a biomedical model to understand the process of hair cell death and regeneration and find therapeutics that treat or prevent human hearing loss. Secondly, scientists and governmental natural resource managers are concerned about the potential effects of intense anthropogenic sounds on aquatic organisms, including fishes. Dr. Arthur N. Popper and his students, postdocs and research associates have performed pioneering experiments in both of these lines of fish hearing research. This review will discuss the current knowledge regarding the causes and consequences of both lateral line and inner ear hair cell damage in teleost fishes.

  11. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiao-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. Methods 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Results Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P P P P Conclusion The findings in this study indicated that there was detectable chromium exposure in electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  12. SEAWEED EXTRACTS AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR THE ATTENUATION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN OBESITY-RELATED PATHOLOGIES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Kim, Kui-Jin; You, SangGuan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that seaweed extracts are a significant source of bioactive compounds comparable to the dietary phytochemicals such as onion and tea extracts. The exploration of natural antioxidants that attenuate oxidative damage is important for developing strategies to treat obesity-related pathologies. The objective of this study was to screen the effects of seaweed extracts of 49 species on adipocyte differentiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and to investigate their total phenol contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Our results show that high total phenol contents were observed in the extracts of Ecklonia cava (see Table 1 for taxonomic authors) (681.1 ± 16.0 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g -1 ), Dictyopteris undulata (641.3 ± 70.7 μg GAE · g -1 ), and Laurencia intermedia (560.9 ± 48.1 μg GAE · g -1 ). In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activities were markedly higher in Sargassum macrocarpum (60.2%), Polysiphonia morrowii (55.0%), and Ishige okamurae (52.9%) than those of other seaweed extracts (P Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, and Grateloupia lanceolata significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the production of ROS was positively correlated with lipid accumulation (R 2  = 0.8149). According to these preliminary results, some of the seaweed extracts can inhibit ROS generation, which may protect against oxidative stress that is linked to obesity. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism between the verified seaweeds and ROS, and the resulting effects on obesity. [Table: see text]. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  14. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  15. [Neuroprotective effect of naloxone in brain damage caused by repeated febrile seizure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ying; Qin, Jiong; Chang, Xing-zhi; Yang, Zhi-xian

    2004-04-01

    The brain damage caused by repeated febrile seizure (FS) during developing age is harmful to the intellectual development of children. So how to decrease the related damage is a very important issue. The main purpose of the present study was to find out whether the non-specific opiate antagonist naloxone at low dose has the neuroprotective effect on seizure-induced brain damage. Warm water induced rat FS model was developed in this study. Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group (n = 10) and hyperthermic seizure groups (n = 37). The latter was further divided into FS control group (n = 13) and naloxone-treated group (n = 24). The dose of naloxone is different in two naloxone-treated groups (12/each group), in one group the dose was 1 mg/kg, in the other one 2 mg/kg. Seven febrile seizures were induced in each rat of hyperthermic seizure groups with the interval of 2 days. The rats were weighed and injected intraperitoneally with naloxone once the FS occurred in naloxone-treated group, while the rats of the other groups were injected with 0.9% sodium chloride. Latency, duration and grade of FS in different groups were observed and compared. HE-staining and the electron microscopy (EM) were used to detect the morphologic and ultrastructural changes of hippocampal neurons. In naloxone-treated group, the rats' FS duration and FS grade (5.02 +/- 0.63, 2.63 +/- 0.72) were significantly lower (t = 5.508, P seizure, it could lighten the brain damage resulted from repeated FS to some extent.

  16. How Networks of Informal Trails Cause Landscape Level Damage to Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Marina Pickering, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    When visitors are not constrained to remain on formal trails, informal trail networks can develop and damage plant communities in protected areas. These networks can form in areas with low growing vegetation, where formal trails are limited, where there is limited regulation and where vegetation is slow to recover once disturbed. To demonstrate the extent of impacts from unregulated recreational use, we assessed damage to alpine vegetation by hikers and pack animals in the highest protected area in the southern Hemisphere: Aconcagua Park, in the Andes. Within the 237 ha area surveyed in the Horcones Valley, over 19 km of trails were found, nearly all of which (94%) were informal. This network of trails resulted in the direct loss of 11.5 ha of vegetation and extensive fragmentation of alpine meadows (21 fragments) and steppe vegetation (68 fragments). When levels of disturbance off these trails were quantified using rapid visual assessments, 81% of 102 randomly located plots showed evidence of disturbance, with the severity of disturbance greatest close to trails. As a result, vegetation in 90% of the Valley has been damaged by visitor use, nearly all of it from unregulated use. These results highlight the extent to which informal trails and trampling off-trail can cause landscape damage to areas of high conservation value, and hence the importance of better regulation of visitor use. The methodology used for off-trail impact assessment can be easily applied or adapted for other popular protected areas where trampling off-trail is also an issue.

  17. Green Tea Polyphenols for the Protection against Renal Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Yokozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is a beverage that is popular worldwide. Polyphenols in green tea have been receiving much attention as potential compounds for the maintenance of human health due to their varied biological activity and low toxicity. In particular, the contribution of antioxidant activity to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress has been focused upon. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate and (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, which account for a large fraction of the components of green tea polyphenol, on oxidative stress-related renal disease. Our observations suggest that green tea polyphenols have a beneficial effect on pathological states related to oxidative stress of the kidney.

  18. Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavone, Lucio A; Albert, Scott; Carney, David; Gatto, Louis A; Halter, Jeffrey M; Nieman, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that is, the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) is unknown. In the present study we ...

  19. Prediction of the extent of formation damage caused by water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homadhi, Emad S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    2013-06-15

    As a general practice water is injected along the O/W contact to maintain reservoir pressure during production. Down hole analysis of the injected water shows that, even after surface treatment, it still can contain a considerable amount of solid particles. These particles can bridge formation pores and cause a considerable reduction in the injectivity. To ensure good injectivity over a longer term, the concentration and size of these solids should not exceed certain limits. In this article core flood tests were carried out to simulate high rate injectors. The injected brine contained solid particles in different concentrations and sizes. Particle concentration was between 5 and 20 ppm and the particle mean size was between 2 and 9 {mu}m. The results were presented as damaging ratio versus pore volume injected. Contrarily to previous studies instead of using experimental results in calibrating or evaluating certain theoretical models, the results in this study were directly fitted to produce equations which can predict the extent of damage caused by injected water by knowing the mean size and concentration of the solid particles contained in that water. (orig.)

  20. THE ROLE OF CYTOKINE NETWORK IN HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE CAUSED BY СHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ph. Skljar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver damage in chronic viral hepatitis C is caused by both direct cytopathic viral effects, and indirect immune-mediated mechanisms. The cytokines locally produced in the liver, as well as those circulating in the blood circulation, play an important role in the control of viral replication and sufficiently contribute to hepatocellular damage. The goal of present study was to investigate the contents of some cytokines in blood serum and their local levels, being in interrelation with indices of necrotic inflammatory changes in the liver tissue. Correlations established between systemic and local contents of studied cytokines, and morphological indices indicate that, among immunological tests checked, the contents of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNFα in blood serum and supernatants of liver biopsies were of the greatest significance for determining the stage of fibrosis. Quantitative assays of abovementioned cytokines in blood serum represent, therefore, an alternative approach in order to perform noninvasive screening of liver fibrosis.

  1. Influence of damage caused by Kr ions and neutrons on electrical properties of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croitoru, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Seidman, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, new measurements of physical properties of high-resistivity silicon, used in high-energy detectors, are presented. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the causes which damage the 2electronic characteristics of the detection systems under irradiation of neutrons and ionized particles (Kr). The Hall effect coefficient (R sub H) and resistivity (rho) measurements as a function of temperature (T), for non-irradiated and irradiated by neutrons and Kr ions, were performed. The measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity of non-irradiated samples and irradiated at neutron fluences (PHI=9.9x10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 (neutrons) and PHI>=7.5x10 sup 8 Kr/cm sup 3 (ions), cannot be explained, considering the usual theoretical relations. The results, obtained in these experiments, have shown a change of mechanism of conduction due to the damaged regions, where localized levels are created, which are the main cause of the deviation of the electrical characteristics of the detectors ...

  2. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Mura, Rossano; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions (i.e., decreased attachment level, bone loss, tooth mobility/migration, altered periodontal perception) were eligible. Methodologic shortcomings were identified by the adoption of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment, mainly concerning the internal validity of findings according to an unspecific bruxism diagnosis. The six included articles covered a high variability of topics, without multiple papers on the same argument. Findings showed that the only effect of bruxism on periodontal structures was an increase in periodontal sensation, whereas a relationship with periodontal lesions was absent. Based on the analysis of Hill criteria, the validity of causation conclusions was limited, mainly owing to the absence of a longitudinal evaluation of the temporal relationship and dose-response effects between bruxism and periodontal lesions. Despite the scarce quantity and quality of the literature that prevents sound conclusions on the causal link between bruxism and the periodontal problems assessed in this review, it seems reasonable to suggest that bruxism cannot cause periodontal damage per se. It is also important to emphasize, however, that because of methodologic problems, particularly regarding sleep bruxism assessment, more high-quality studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) are needed to further clarify this issue.

  3. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    infections affect different host populations differently. Our experiment demonstrates that O. ophiodiicola is the causative agent of SFD and can elicit pathological changes that likely impact fitness of wild snakes. This information, and the laboratory model we describe, will be essential in addressing unresolved questions regarding disease ecology and outcomes of O. ophiodiicola infection and helping to conserve snake populations threatened by the disease. The SFD model of infection also offers utility for exploring larger concepts related to comparative fungal virulence, host response, and host-pathogen evolution. Copyright © 2015 Lorch et al.

  4. Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

    2008-02-01

    The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals. Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests. There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting. Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting. It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10-12 days postexercise. Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice.

  5. The inadequate liability and compensation regime for damage caused by nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jon M. Van

    2010-09-01

    The specific obligation to provide restitution and compensation when nuclear activities cause injuries has been recognized repeatedly and is now certainly part of customary international law. But problems remain regarding how to measure damages, how to implement the duty to repair the injuries, and what specific obligations exist to protect neighboring states from transboundary pollution. Although some treaties exist governing liability for harm resulting from nuclear accidents, they are not adequate to protect victims and have not been widely ratified. The failure to require nuclear operators to prepare for damage that may result from accidents constitutes a subsidy to the nuclear industry and makes it difficult to compare the real costs of nuclear energy with the costs of other energy sources. This survey of settled norms and unresolved issues demonstrates that further work is needed to develop a comprehensive and authoritative regime to govern harm from nuclear activities. Although it is clear that both the operators of nuclear facilities and the states that have jurisdiction over them would be responsible to provide restitution and compensation for such harm under a strict liability regime, the types of injuries that must be compensated and the range of damages that must be covered remain subjects of controversy. Although the underlying customary international law principles (the no-harm principle and the polluter-pays principle) are clear, the actual treaties that have been drafted are inadequate and they have not been widely ratified. Victims of damage from nuclear activities would have difficulty finding a neutral tribunal in which to bring their claims and would face procedural obstacles including caps on liabilities and inappropriately short statutes of limitations as well as difficulties regarding proof of damages. The failure to develop a proper regime that would ensure full restitution and compensation for harm resulting from nuclear facilities

  6. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  7. Increasing N-acetylaspartate in the Brain during Postnatal Myelination Does Not Cause the CNS Pathologies of Canavan Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash P. Appu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Canavan disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA, a deacetylase that catabolizes N-acetylaspartate (NAA. The precise involvement of elevated NAA in the pathogenesis of Canavan disease is an ongoing debate. In the present study, we tested the effects of elevated NAA in the brain during postnatal development. Mice were administered high doses of the hydrophobic methyl ester of NAA (M-NAA twice daily starting on day 7 after birth. This treatment increased NAA levels in the brain to those observed in the brains of Nur7 mice, an established model of Canavan disease. We evaluated various serological parameters, oxidative stress, inflammatory and neurodegeneration markers and the results showed that there were no pathological alterations in any measure with increased brain NAA levels. We examined oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde content (indicator of lipid peroxidation, expression of NADPH oxidase and nuclear translocation of the stress-responsive transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF-2 in brain. We also examined additional pathological markers by immunohistochemistry and the expression of activated caspase-3 and interleukin-6 by Western blot. None of the markers were increased in the brains of M-NAA treated mice, and no vacuoles were observed in any brain region. These results show that ASPA expression prevents the pathologies associated with excessive NAA concentrations in the brain during postnatal myelination. We hypothesize that the pathogenesis of Canavan disease involves not only disrupted NAA metabolism, but also excessive NAA related signaling processes in oligodendrocytes that have not been fully determined and we discuss some of the potential mechanisms.

  8. Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion; Ursachen und Vermeidung von Behaelterschaeden durch Biokorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuever, Jan [Amtliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Bremen (MPA), Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration deals with the causes and prevention of vessel damages due to corrosion by microorganisms (MIC, microbially induced corrosion) in the presence and absence of oxygen. In particular, the microbially induced corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria and the formation of sulfuric acid by microorganisms are described. Consequential damage caused by microorganisms are inactivation of filters and catalysts, degradation products from the fermentation process and deposits in the pipe system.

  9. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Werner; Noeldgen, Markus; Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus; Fehling, Ekkehard

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  10. Agricultural and forest means to reduce damage caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabe, W

    1971-01-01

    Agriculture and forestry may try to reduce damage caused by air pollution by the following means: under heavy pollution sensitive crops can be replaced by more tolerant ones through changes in land use; at lower grades of air pollution the kind of land use may be maintained by planting relatively tolerant species and strains; breeding of plant material which is more tolerant than the present average is necessary to meet future requirements; certain damage may be decreased by soil amelioration, fertilization and watering of plants; the impact of certain air pollutants can be reduced by planting shelterbelts and by silvicultural means which affect the structure of a stand; and a strict control of insect pests and plant diseases is of special value in air polluted regions. Any special case has to be handled individually. It has to be asked whether one of the means mentioned above will be successful and in what area it should be applied. Several methods for the delineation of polluted regions are listed. Agricultural and forest means to adapt to a given situation of air pollution is gaining increasing importance because of the large areas with a medium high level of pollution, even if the general prospects of success are not regarded as very high.

  11. Fusarium infection causes genotoxic disorders and antioxidant-based damages in Orobanche spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybeke, Mehmet

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the toxic effects of Fusarium oxysporum on root parasitic weed, Orobanche spp. Comparative genetic and gene expression studies were conducted on uninfected and fungus-infected orobanches. In genetic studies, isolated total DNA was amplified by RAPD PCR. Fragment properties were analysed by GTS test. According to the results, the fragment properties of control and Fusarium infected (experimental) groups varied widely; and it has been observed that Fusarium has genotoxic effects on the DNA of orobanches. In gene expression studies, the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes or proteins were associated with ROS damage and toxic effects, therefore, gene expressions of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Zn-superoxide dismutase (=SOD2, mitochondrial), glutamine synthetase (GS), heat shock protein gene (HSP70), BAX, Caspase-3 and BCL2 were significantly higher in the experimental group. In the light of obtained data, it was concluded that F. oxysporum (1) caused heavy ROS damage in Orobanche (2) induced significant irrevocable genotoxic effects on the DNA of Orobanche, (3) degraded protein metabolism and synthesis, and finally (4) triggered apoptosis. The results of this study can be a ground for further research on reducing the toxic effects of Fusarium on agricultural products, so that advancements in bio-herbicide technology may provide a sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Hardness and microstructure analysis of damaged gear caused by adhesive wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rizky Budi; Nugroho, Sri; Ismail, Rifky

    2018-03-01

    This study was a result from research on repairing project of damaged elevator gear box. The objective of this research is to analyze the failure part on elevator gearbox at flourmill factory. The equipment was damaged after one year installed and running on factory. Severe wear was occurred on high speed helical gear. These helical gear was one of main part of elevator gearbox in flour mill manufacture. Visually, plastic deformation didn't occurred and not visible on the failure helical gear shaft. Some test would be performed to check the chemical composition, microstructure and hardness of failure helical gear. The material of failure helical gear shaft was a medium carbon steel alloy. The microstructure was showed a martensitic phase formed on the surface to the center area of gear shaft. Otherwise, the depth of hardness layer slight formed on surface and lack depth of hardness layer was a main trigger of severe wear. It was not enough to resist wear due to friction caused by rolling and sliding on surface between high speed gear and low speed gear. Enhancement of hardness layer on surface and depth of hardness layer will make the component has more long life time. Furthermore, to perform next research is needed to analyze the reliability of enhanced hardness on layer and depth of hardness layer on helical gear shaft.

  13. Phakopsora euvitis Causes Unusual Damage to Leaves and Modifies Carbohydrate Metabolism in Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Nogueira Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian grapevine rust (Phakopsora euvitis is a serious disease, which causes severe leaf necrosis and early plant defoliation. These symptoms are unusual for a strict biotrophic pathogen. This work was performed to quantify the effects of P. euvitis on photosynthesis, carbohydrates, and biomass accumulation of grapevine. The reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of the green leaf tissue surrounding the lesions was quantified using the virtual lesion concept (β parameter. Gas exchange and responses of CO2 assimilation to increasing intercellular CO2 concentration were analyzed. Histopathological analyses and quantification of starch were also performed on diseased leaves. Biomass and carbohydrate accumulation were quantified in different organs of diseased and healthy plants. Rust reduced the photosynthetic rate, and β was estimated at 5.78, indicating a large virtual lesion. Mesophyll conductance, maximum rubisco carboxylation rate, and regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate dependent on electron transport rate were reduced, causing diffusive and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. Hypertrophy, chloroplast degeneration of mesophyll cells, and starch accumulation in cells close to lesions were observed. Root carbohydrate concentration was reduced, even at low rust severity. Asian grapevine rust dramatically reduced photosynthesis and altered the dynamics of production and accumulation of carbohydrates, unlike strict biotrophic pathogens. The reduction in carbohydrate reserves in roots would support polyetic damage on grapevine, caused by a polycyclic disease.

  14. Hypothyroidism Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adult Rat Hippocampus: A Mechanism Associated with Hippocampal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Paola Torres-Manzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are essential for hippocampal neuronal viability in adulthood, and their deficiency causes hypothyroidism, which is related to oxidative stress events and neuronal damage. Also, it has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism causes a glucose deprivation in the neuron. This study is aimed at evaluating the temporal participation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERE in hippocampal neurons of adult hypothyroid rats and its association with the oxidative stress events. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into euthyroid and hypothyroid groups. Thyroidectomy with parathyroid gland reimplementation caused hypothyroidism at three weeks postsurgery. Oxidative stress, redox environment, and antioxidant enzyme markers, as well as the expression of the ERE through the pathways of PERK, ATF6, and IRE1, were evaluated at the 3rd and 4th weeks postsurgery. We found a rise in ROS and nitrite production; also, catalase increased and glutathione peroxidase diminished their activities. These events promote an enhancement of the lipoperoxidation, as well as of γ-GT, myeloperoxidase, and caspase 3 activities. With respect to ERE, there were ATF6, IRE1, and GADD153 overexpressions with a reduction in mitochondrial activity and GSH2/GSSG ratio. We conclude that the endoplasmic reticulum stress might play a pivotal role in the activation of hypothyroidism-induced hippocampal cell death.

  15. Dual pathology as a cause of proteinuria in the post-transplant period; report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rohit; Mendonca, Satish; Nijhawan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is common after renal transplantation and affects between 35%-45% of patients during the same year as their transplant. We report a case of dual pathology in the renal allograft as a cause of severe proteinuria. A 38-year-old male presented with end-stage renal disease. He underwent live related renal allograft transplant. His immediate post-transplant period was unremarkable. He developed rise in serum creatinine (2.1 mg/dl) 6 months after transplant and was biopsied. He was diagnosed as a case of acute cellular rejection type Ib with suspicion for antibody mediated rejection. He was treated with methylprednisolone to which he showed a good response with return of serum creatinine to 1.6 mg/dl. Subsequently, he developed a nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after this episode of rejection. Repeat biopsy was performed. He was diagnosed as a case of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN) (morphologically consistent with pattern of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) with chronic humoral rejection in the form of transplant glomerulopathy (TG). IHC for C4d and immunofluorescence studies were instrumental making the diagnosis. He was treated with steroids and rituximab to which he showed a good response with remission of proteinuria. This case highlights the importance of picking up dual pathology in an allograft biopsy to ensure appropriate therapy. The role of C4d and its correct interpretation is further highlighted, especially with regard to pattern (granular versus linear) and location (glomerular capillaries versus peritubular capillaries).

  16. Dual pathology as a cause of proteinuria in the post-transplant period; report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewari Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteinuria is common after renal transplantation and affects between 35%-45% of patients during the same year as their transplant. We report a case of dual pathology in the renal allograft as a cause of severe proteinuria. A 38-year-old male presented with end-stage renal disease. He underwent live related renal allograft transplant. His immediate post-transplant period was unremarkable. He developed rise in serum creatinine (2.1 mg/dl 6 months after transplant and was biopsied. He was diagnosed as a case of acute cellular rejection type Ib with suspicion for antibody mediated rejection. He was treated with methylprednisolone to which he showed a good response with return of serum creatinine to 1.6 mg/dl. Subsequently, he developed a nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after this episode of rejection. Repeat biopsy was performed. He was diagnosed as a case of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN (morphologically consistent with pattern of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with chronic humoral rejection in the form of transplant glomerulopathy (TG. IHC for C4d and immunofluorescence studies were instrumental making the diagnosis. He was treated with steroids and rituximab to which he showed a good response with remission of proteinuria. This case highlights the importance of picking up dual pathology in an allograft biopsy to ensure appropriate therapy. The role of C4d and its correct interpretation is further highlighted, especially with regard to pattern (granular versus linear and location (glomerular capillaries versus peritubular capillaries.

  17. [Imaging manifestations and pathologic basis for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome caused by benign and malignant liver tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Youkuan; Xiao, Enhua; Shang, Quanliang; Chen, Juan

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the imaging manifestations of CT, MRI and pathological basis for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome caused by benign and malignant liver tumors.
 CT or MRI images and pathological features for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome were retrospectively analyzed in 50 patients with benign and malignant liver tumors. Picture archive and communication system (PACS) was used to observe and compare the morphology, size, width, depth, edge of the capsular retraction and the status of liquid under the liver capsule. The structure, differentiation and proliferation of the tumor were analyzed under the microscope.
 There were malignant liver tumors in 44 patients and benign tumor in 6 patients. The smooth or rough for the edge of capsular retraction was significant difference between the benign tumors and the malignant tumors with three differentiated grades (all PBenign and malignant hepatic tumors may appear capsule retraction syndrome, but there are morphological differences between them. The differences are closely related with the lesion size, differentiated degree of tumor and fibrous tissue proliferation.

  18. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A.

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  19. Irradiation damage to the gonads caused by radiotherapy of benign diseases. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenstein, E.; Nuesslin, F.

    1976-01-01

    The irradiation damage to the gonads caused by the radiotherapy of parotiditis and mastitis and of cheloids was determined partially under different irradiation methods. The measurements were carried out with LiF dosimeters in the Alderson phantom with a tube tension of 250 kV for the inflammatory diseases and 55 kV for the cheloids. The gonad dose measured at the surface was within the range of hundreths of permille for the parotiditis, for the mastitis it was between tenths of permille and 2 0 / 00 depending on the therapy method. The gonad dose of the cheloid irradiations showed a clear relation to the distance between radiation source and gonads. The importance of radiation protection is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  20. The changes of fingernail microcirculation in the patients with hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guoquan; Qian Jianjun; Wang Zuofa

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the microcirculation changes in the patients with hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays. Methods: The XOX-1A type microcirculation microscope was used in observation of the microcirculation changes of fingernail, in 22 patients with III-IV degree hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays. Results: A series of abnormal signs were observed in all these patients and it was found that the microcirculation abnormality of the fingernail were the most clinical significant sign. Conclusion: The fingernail microcirculation changes can be used as an indicator for prognosis in the hand skin radiation damage patients

  1. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  2. Nanosecond laser therapy reverses pathologic and molecular changes in age-related macular degeneration without retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, A I; Guymer, R H; Vessey, K A; Greferath, U; Mills, S A; Brassington, K H; Luu, C D; Aung, K Z; Trogrlic, L; Plunkett, M; Fletcher, E L

    2015-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss, characterized by drusen deposits and thickened Bruch's membrane (BM). This study details the capacity of nanosecond laser treatment to reduce drusen and thin BM while maintaining retinal structure. Fifty patients with AMD had a single nanosecond laser treatment session and after 2 yr, change in drusen area was compared with an untreated cohort of patients. The retinal effect of the laser was determined in human and mouse eyes using immunohistochemistry and compared with untreated eyes. In a mouse with thickened BM (ApoEnull), the effect of laser treatment was quantified using electron microscopy and quantitative PCR. In patients with AMD, nanosecond laser treatment reduced drusen load at 2 yr. Retinal structure was not compromised in human and mouse retina after laser treatment, with only a discrete retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) injury, and limited mononuclear cell response observed. BM was thinned in the ApoEnull mouse 3 mo after treatment (ApoEnull treated 683 ± 38 nm, ApoEnull untreated 890 ± 60 nm, C57Bl6J 606 ± 43 nm), with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -3 increased (>260%). Nanosecond laser resolved drusen independent of retinal damage and improved BM structure, suggesting this treatment has the potential to reduce AMD progression. © FASEB.

  3. Study of the damage rate caused by intervertebral foramen type inside and outside and the pass of the intervertebral DRG RF puncture way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Haitao

    2014-09-01

    This paper was to analyze and contrast the damage rate on the thoracic segment different position of the dorsal root ganglion(dorsal root ganglion, DRG) caused by different puncture path in radiofrequency ablation, thus the best RF target way for the thoracic segment of different types of DRG was confirmed. According to the difference of puncture and ablation damage way, 14 segmental spinal specimens were randomly divided into three groups, and then conducted DRG radiofrequency damage on percutaneous puncture path according to the type of DRG position.The damage effect of different puncture path by the judgment standard of the result of pathology analyzed. The experiment showed that RF damage of group A were 72.58 ± 18.88%, 54.16 ± 24.84% and 32.85 ± 28.11%; that of group B were 771.86 ± 15.15% and 72.02 ± 17.86%, 57.14 ± 18.02% and 52.47 ± 20.64%, 68.75 ± 14.63% and 71.78 ± 16.00%; and that of group C were 82.46 ± 14.10%, 81.53 ± 11.81% and 80.83 ± 13.33%. It was concluded that the singleness of DRG puncture route is one of the important reasons for the poor thoracic segments DRG radiofrequency (RF) ablation effect. While according to the type of DRG different positions with double joint puncture path can significantly improve the rate of DRG RF damage.

  4. Murine liver damage caused by exposure to nano-titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Due to its unique physiochemical properties, nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO_2) is widely used in all aspects of people’s daily lives, bringing it into increasing contact with humans. Thus, this material’s security issues for humans have become a heavily researched subject. Nano-TiO_2 can enter the body through the mouth, skin, respiratory tract or in other ways, after which it enters the blood circulation and is deposited in the liver, changing biochemical indicators and causing liver inflammation. Meanwhile, the light sensitivity of these nanoparticles allows them to become media-generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing an imbalance between oxidation and anti-oxidation that leads to oxidative stress and liver damage. Nano-TiO_2 can be transported into cells via phagocytosis, where the nanoparticles bind to the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in the disintegration of the membrane and the electron transport chain within the mitochondria. Thus, more ROS are produced. Nano-TiO_2 can also enter the nucleus, where it can directly embed into or indirectly affect DNA, thereby causing DNA breakage or affecting gene expression. These effects include increased mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammation-related factors and decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of IκB and IL-2, resulting in inflammation. Long-term inflammation of the liver causes HSC cell activation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is promoted by multiple signalling pathways, resulting in liver fibrosis. In this paper, the latest progress on murine liver injury induced by environmental TiO_2 is systematically described. The toxicity of nano-TiO_2 also depends on size, exposure time, surface properties, dosage, administration route, and its surface modification. Therefore, its toxic effects in humans should be studied in greater depth. This paper also provides useful reference information regarding the safe use of nano-TiO_2 in the future. (topical review)

  5. Oxidative stress induction by T-2 toxin causes DNA damage and triggers apoptosis via caspase pathway in human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Manjari; Jayaraj, R.; Bhaskar, A.S.B.; Lakshmana Rao, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    T-2 toxin is the most toxic trichothecene and both humans and animals suffer from several pathological conditions after consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with trichothecenes. We investigated the molecular mechanism of T-2 toxin induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HeLa cells. T-2 toxin at LC50 of 10 ng/ml caused time dependent increase in cytotoxicity as assessed by dye uptake, lactatedehydrogenase leakage and MTT assay. The toxin caused generation of reactive oxygen species as early as 30 min followed by significant depletion of glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. The results indicate oxidative stress as underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity. Single stranded DNA damage after T-2 treatment was observed as early as 2 and 4 h by DNA diffusion assay. The cells exhibited apoptotic morphology like condensed chromatin and nuclear fragmentation after 4 h of treatment. Downstream of T-2 induced oxidative stress and DNA damage a time dependent increase in expression level of p53 protein was observed. The increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio indicated shift in response, in favour of apoptotic process in T-2 toxin treated cells. Western blot analysis showed increase in levels of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome-c followed by activation of caspases-9, -3 and -7 leading to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In addition to caspase-dependent pathway, our results showed involvement of caspase-independent AIF pathway in T-2 induced apoptosis. Broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk could partially protect the cells from DNA damage but could not inhibit AIF induced oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation beyond 4 h. Results of the study clearly show that oxidative stress is the underlying mechanism by which T-2 toxin causes DNA damage and apoptosis.

  6. Lysergic acid diethylamide causes photoreceptor cell damage through inducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Di; Xu, Ling-Li; Gong, Yan; Wu, Guo-Hai; Wang, Yu-Wen; Wu, Shan-Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Mao, Wei; Zhou, Yu-Sheng; Li, Qin-Bo; Yuan, Jian-Shu

    2018-01-19

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a classical hallucinogen, was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina and little is known about the exact mechanism. This study was to investigate the effect of LSD on macrophage activation state at non-toxic concentration and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by LSD on 661 W cells after co-culturing with RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with LSD-induced RAW264.7 cells to the M1 phenotype, releasing more pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the M1-related gene expression. Moreover, after co-culturing with RAW264.7 cells, significant oxidative stress in 661 W cells treated with LSD was observed, by increasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing the level of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our study demonstrated that LSD caused photoreceptor cell damage by inducing inflammatory response and resultant oxidative stress, providing the scientific rationale for the toxicity of LSD to retina.

  7. Ex-core fuel damage event at paks causes, consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsz, J.; Gado, J.

    2004-01-01

    On April 10, 2003 Paks NPP experienced a loss of decay-heat removal to 30 irradiated fuel assemblies undergoing a cleaning process in a fuel service pit near the unit 2 spent fuel pool. Following chemical cleaning of high decay-heat fuel, a delay in removing the cleaning vessel's lid left the cleaning system in such a condition that did not provide adequate cooling to the fuel. After several hours of the fuel being under-cooled, a steam bubble developed in the vessel, essentially uncovering the fuel. When the lid of the vessel was removed, the sudden introduction of cool water thermally shocked the fuel causing significant structural damage and a release of fission product gases to the reactor building. The paper will discuss the causes of the event as well as the contributing factors to it. Detailed information will be given about the planning and preparation of the recovery actions. The in-depth analyses of the consequences and lessons learned complete the lecture. (author)

  8. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CAUSING WATER DAMAGE TO LOESS DOUBLE-ARCHED TUNNEL BASED ON TFN-AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Zheng-jun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analysis the factors causing water damage to loess double-arched tunnel, this paper conducts field investigation on water damage to tunnels on Lishi-Jundu Expressway in Shanxi, China, confirms its development characteristics, builds an index system (covering 36 evaluation indexes for construction condition, design stage, construction stage, and operation stage for the factors causing water damage to loess double-arched tunnel, applies TFN-AHP (triangular fuzzy number-analytic hierarchy process in calculating the weight of indexes at different levels, and obtains the final sequence of weight of the factors causing water seepage to loess double-arched tunnel. It is found out that water damage to loess double-arched tunnel always develops in construction joints, expansion joints, settlement joints, and lining joints of tunnel and even around them; there is dotted water seepage, linear water seepage, and planar water seepage according to the trace and scope of water damage to tunnel lining. The result shows that water damage to loess double-arched tunnel mainly refers to linear water seepage, planar water seepage is also developed well, and partition and equipment box at the entrance and exit of tunnel are prone to water seepage; construction stage is crucial for controlling water damage to loess double-arched tunnel, atmospheric precipitation is the main water source, and the structure defect of double-arched tunnel increases the possibility of water seepage; the final sequence for weight of various factors is similar to the actual result.

  9. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial ...

  10. SERIES: Genomic instability in cancer Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents comprise a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER), and mismatch repair (MMR) respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial fo...

  11. Liability for damage caused by shortage and failure to use necessary medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Mihajlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide for successful, safe and high quality medical services, health care institutions need to be equipped with adequate medical devices. For this reason, every medical institution is legally obliged to have relevant medical devices. In case a patient has been deprived of some medical service for the lack of necessary medical devices (which the institution has been obliged to provide, the medical institution is responsible for the damage and harm sustained by the patient. The responsibility implies non-contractual liability (in tort law or pre-contractual liability (in contract law. In both cases, the liability is based on the presumed culpability. In order to be excluded from liability, the medical institution has to prove that the patient has been deprived of medical service (or that the institution has refused to enter into a medical service provider agreement on justifiable grounds, i.e. due to the lack of necessary medical devices. On the other hand, in case the medial institutions fail to provide needed care or violate their obligation to use medical devices when necessary, it is regarded as medical negligence (professional error. In most cases, it implies the liability of medical institutions for damage, injury or harm caused to the patient by medical services provided without applying a relevant medical device, whose use has been medically indicated. The liability is even more substantial in cases where the medical device has been available but the medical institutions has not applied it in medial treatment (even though its use has been medically indicated; such conduct is qualified as gross negligence.

  12. A methodology for the economic assessment of material damage caused by SO2 and NOx emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.; Weltschev, M.; Trukenmueller, A.; Friedrich, R.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to materials causes high economic losses in Europe. A large part of this damage can be attributed to the emissions caused by the energy and the transport sector. In the paper, the procedure for the economic assessment of material damages caused by SO 2 and NO x emissions in Europe is described. Model and data requirements are outlined, and gaps and uncertainties of the quantification are discussed. Two types of results are presented. First, the marginal (additional) costs of damage to material caused by an additional power plant are assessed. The analysis covers plants with different technologies. Results for the fossil power plants are in the range of 0.0062 to 0.12 mECU/kWh. In addition, the total economic material damage due to the present air pollution was assessed. It is in the range of 2.9 to 5.3 x 10 9 ECU/year. However, the analysis has many uncertainties. Most noteworthy are the material inventories and partially the damage functions and input data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  14. Meta-Analysis of Attitudes toward Damage-Causing Mammalian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANSKY, RUTH; KIDD, MARTIN; KNIGHT, ANDREW T

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of threatened mammals persist outside formally protected areas, and their survival depends on the willingness of communities to coexist with them. An understanding of the attitudes, and specifically the tolerance, of individuals and communities and the factors that determine these is therefore fundamental to designing strategies to alleviate human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify factors that affected attitudes toward 4 groups of terrestrial mammals. Elephants (65%) elicited the most positive attitudes, followed by primates (55%), ungulates (53%), and carnivores (44%). Urban residents presented the most positive attitudes (80%), followed by commercial farmers (51%) and communal farmers (26%). A tolerance to damage index showed that human tolerance of ungulates and primates was proportional to the probability of experiencing damage while elephants elicited tolerance levels higher than anticipated and carnivores elicited tolerance levels lower than anticipated. Contrary to conventional wisdom, experiencing damage was not always the dominant factor determining attitudes. Communal farmers had a lower probability of being positive toward carnivores irrespective of probability of experiencing damage, while commercial farmers and urban residents were more likely to be positive toward carnivores irrespective of damage. Urban residents were more likely to be positive toward ungulates, elephants, and primates when probability of damage was low, but not when it was high. Commercial and communal farmers had a higher probability of being positive toward ungulates, primates, and elephants irrespective of probability of experiencing damage. Taxonomic bias may therefore be important. Identifying the distinct factors explaining these attitudes and the specific contexts in which they operate, inclusive of the species causing damage, will be essential for prioritizing conservation investments. Meta-Análisis de las Posturas hacia la Mam

  15. Influence of damage caused by Kr ions and neutrons on electrical properties of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, N.; Gubbini, E.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rattaggi, M.; Seidman, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, new measurements of physical properties of high-resistivity silicon, used in high-energy detectors, are presented. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the causes which damage the 2electronic characteristics of the detection systems under irradiation of neutrons and ionized particles (Kr). The Hall effect coefficient (R H ) and resistivity (ρ) measurements as a function of temperature (T), for non-irradiated and irradiated by neutrons and Kr ions, were performed. The measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity of non-irradiated samples and irradiated at neutron fluences (PHI≤9.9x10 10 n/cm 2 ) and Kr (PHI≤7.5x10 8 Kr/cm 2 ), have shown that the obtained characteristics, R H (T) and ρ(T), are of the same shape as those known for a silicon single crystal. A slight difference of the slope of ln ρ∼ln T, for neutron- and a large difference for Kr ion irradiation as compared with that of non-irradiated samples, was observed. On increasing the irradiation to PHI larger than the value indicated above, for neutrons and Kr ions, important changes in the physical properties were observed. The resistivity increases with increasing PHI, up to a value of the same order with intrinsic silicon (ρ∼10 5 Ω cm), for both neutron and Kr ion irradiation. The values of R H increase with increasing PHI up to a fluence, for which a change of sign, from negative to positive, occurs. The variation of values of R H and ρ as a function of PHI, for neutrons and Kr ions, is similar, but the characteristics R H (PHI) and ρ(PHI), are displaced. Therefore, larger values of PHI are needed in order to obtain the same values of ρ as those for Kr ion irradiation. The dependence on T of electrical parameters of samples, irradiated at PHI≥9.9x10 10 n/cm 2 (neutrons) and PHI≥7.5x10 8 Kr/cm 3 (ions), cannot be explained, considering the usual theoretical relations. The results, obtained in these experiments, have shown a change of mechanism of

  16. Mice Deficient in Both Mn Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Have Increased Oxidative Damage and a Greater Incidence of Pathology but No Reduction in Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Li, Yan; Bokov, Alex; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Baynes, John W.; Epstein, Charles; Richardson, Arlan

    2009-01-01

    To test the impact of increased mitochondrial oxidative stress as a mechanism underlying aging and age-related pathologies, we generated mice with a combined deficiency in two mitochondrial-localized antioxidant enzymes, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx-1). We compared life span, pathology, and oxidative damage in Gpx1−/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1+/−, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/−, and wild-type control mice. Oxidative damage was elevated in Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice, as shown by increased DNA oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle and increased protein oxidation in brain. Surprisingly, Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice showed no reduction in life span, despite increased levels of oxidative damage. Consistent with the important role for oxidative stress in tumorigenesis during aging, the incidence of neoplasms was significantly increased in the older Sod2+/−Gpx1−/− mice (28–30 months). Thus, these data do not support a significant role for increased oxidative stress as a result of compromised mitochondrial antioxidant defenses in modulating life span in mice and do not support the oxidative stress theory of aging. PMID:19776219

  17. Mechanisms involved in reproductive damage caused by gossypol in rats and protective effects of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia T Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gossypol is a chemical present in the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium sp. that reduces fertility in farm animals. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and may help to protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity of gossypol in rats and the protective effects of vitamin E. Forty Wistar rats were used, divided into four experimental groups (n = 10: DMSO/ saline + corn oil; DMSO/saline + vitamin E; gossypol + corn oil; and gossypol + vitamin E. RESULTS: Fertility was significantly reduced in male rats treated with gossypol in that a significant decrease in epididy-mal sperm count was observed (P 0.05. The levels of reduced glutathione and pyridine nucleotides in testis homogen-ate were significantly reduced by gossypol (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively and this reduction was accompanied by increased levels of oxidized glutathione (P < 0.05. Vitamin E showed a preventive effect on the changes in the levels of these substances. Gossypol significantly increased the levels of malondialdehyde (P < 0.01, a lipid peroxida-tion indicator, whereas treatment with vitamin E inhibited the action of the gossypol. Vitamin E prevented a decrease in mitochondrial ATP induced by gossypol (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the reproductive dysfunction caused by gossypol may be related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial bioenergetic damage and that treatment with vitamin E can prevent the infertility caused by the toxin.

  18. Does vitamin E prevent tubal damage caused by smoking? A light microscopy and animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muzeyyen; Ustunyurt, Emin; Kosus, Aydin; Kosus, Nermin; Turhan, Nilgun; Hızlı, Deniz; Sarac, Gulce Naz; Erdogan, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To assess the histomorphological effects of smoking on the cilia of fallopian tubes in mice and the effect of vitamin E on the negative effects of smoke. Eighteen 12-14 week-old Swiss albino type female mice were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of six mice: Group A: control group; Group B: mice exposed to cigarette smoke; Group C: mice exposed to cigarette smoke together with vitamin E. Groups B and C were exposed to cigarette smoke for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, tubal excision was performed in all animals. Histopathologic examination of excised tubal tissue was conducted under light microscopy. The number of cilia was significantly lower in Group B. Although not statistically significant, the median number of cilia in Group C was measured to be higher than in Group B but lower than in Group A. Based on the results, it can be concluded that smoking decreases tubal cilia numbers. Supplementation by vitamin E may treat or at least help to slow down the decrease in number of cilia caused by smoking; therefore it could be used therapeutically in the treatment of smoking-related tubal damage. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Fatal Waterborne Outbreak of Pesticide Poisoning Caused by Damaged Pipelines, Sindhikela, Bolangir, Orissa, India, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, M.; Hutin, Y.J.; Ramachandran, V.; Murhekar, M.; Panda, M.; Hutin, Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated a cluster of pesticide poisoning in Orissa. Methods. We searched the village for cases of vomiting and sweating on 2 February 2008. We described the outbreak by time, place, and person. We compared cases with controls. Results. We identified 65 cases (two deaths; attack rate: 12 per 1000; case fatality: 3%). The epidemic curve suggested a point source outbreak, and cases clustered close to a roadside eatery. Consumption of water from a specific source (odds ratio [OR]: 35, confidence interval [CI]: 13 93) and eating in the eatery (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.14.7) was associated with illness. On 31 January 2008, villagers had used pesticides to kill street dogs and had discarded leftovers in the drains. Damaged pipelines located beneath and supplying water may have aspirated the pesticide during the nocturnal negative pressure phase and rinsed it off the next morning in the water supply. Conclusions. Inappropriate use of pesticides contaminated the water supply and caused this outbreak. Education programs and regulations need to be combined to ensure a safer use of pesticides in India.

  20. Microdosimetric constraints on specific adaptation mechanisms to reduce DNA damage caused by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Heusser, P.; Vijayalaxmi

    1990-01-01

    The protective effect of pre-exposure of lymphocytes to ionising radiation indicates the presence of 'adaptive repair' in mammalian cells. Microdosimetric considerations, however, raise some doubts on the advantage of such a cellular mechanism for specifically reducing the radiation damage caused by environmental exposures. Contrary to most chemicals which endanger the integrity of the mammalian genome, the local dose and dose rate from ionising radiation at the cellular level remain quite high, even at lowest exposures. A single electron or alpha particle passing through a cell nucleus already yields nuclear doses of up to about 3 mGy and 400 mGy, respectively. Macroscopic doses below these nuclear doses from a single event will only reduce the fraction of cell nuclei encountering the passage of a particle but not the dose or dose rate in the affected volume. At environmental doses in the range of 1 to 5 mGy per annum, the time between two consecutive hits in a specific cell nucleus is in the range of months to years. Very low concentrations of bleomycin, a drug with high affinity to DNA, also triggers an adaptive response. This points to a more general stress response mechanism which may benefit the cell even at environmental levels of radioactivity, e.g. by protecting the integrity of DNA from attacks by chemicals, by endogenous radicals, by acids from anoxia, etc. (author)

  1. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  2. Damage caused to our forests and its control up to 1918

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozicka, J

    1963-01-01

    Air pollution was mentioned as soon as 1699 by Chr. Lehman, chronicler of Krusne hory and its injurious effects were observed since the thirties of the nineteenth century by brothers Baar on their plot situated in the neighborhood of a manufactory chimney at Kdyne near Klatovy, as well as since 1843 by the surveyor William Rowland in managing the town forest of Pribram in the surroundings of silver works at Brezove hory. The problem of damage caused to our forests by air pollution arose the interest of our foresters 1850, when at the conference of the Bohemian Forestry Union held in Decin Rowland read a paper on air pollution in the area of Pribram and in surroundings of a brick-kiln at Zdiky in the Kaplice region. After 1853, the smoke effects began to be apparent in the Jachymov region, since 1880 in the Ostrava region, since the nineties of the past century in the Sokolovo, Loket, Karlovy Vary, Usti n. L. and Nachod regions and, since the first decade of the present century in the Bilina and Kladno regions. It was found that silver fir, Norway spruce and Scotch pine were the most sensitive species to smoke, whereas European larch proved to be very resistant. Broadleaved species showed also a good growth in the smoke affected areas. Basing on this experience, our foresters tried, therefore, to reduce the injouris smoke effects by growing broadleaved species in those areas. 12 references.

  3. Exploiting Scanning Behavior for Predators Can Reduce Rice Damage Caused by Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is often damaged by birds, especially sparrows, in Asia. Bird nets are sometimes used as countermeasures; however this approach is expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, farmers generally eschew bird nets, even though no alternative countermeasures are available. This study focused on exploiting the bird behavior of scanning for predators to reduce crop damage. When birds forage for seeds on the ground they often stop pecking and briefly raise their heads, apparently to scan for predators. Low visibility habitats increase scanning behavior and increased scanning behavior reduces habitat quality from the bird’s perspective; therefore, this study tested the relationship between rice damage rate and visibility at the periphery of rice fields, where tree sparrows rest after feeding. Overall, low visibility reduced damage to rice. Because visibility was mainly affected by weeds, weed management techniques contribute to crop damage management. To reduce damage, weeding can be decreased; therefore, this technique is cost- and labor-efficient.

  4. SERIES: Genomic instability in cancer Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D

    2013-01-01

    Alkylating agents comprise a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER), and mismatch repair (MMR) respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial for an organism's favorable response to alkylating agents. Furthermore, an individual's response to alkylating agents can vary considerably from tissue to tissue and from person to person, pointing to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that modulate alkylating agent toxicity. PMID:22237395

  5. Celastrol ameliorates liver metabolic damage caused by a high-fat diet through Sirt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: Celastrol ameliorates NAFLD by decreasing lipid synthesis and improving the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory status. And Sirt1 has an important role in Celastrol-ameliorating liver metabolic damage caused by HFD. Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Celastrol, Sirt1, Lipid metabolism, Chronic inflammation, Oxidative stress

  6. Pathological Methods Applied to the Investigation of Causes of Death in Developing Countries: Minimally Invasive Autopsy Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Castillo

    Full Text Available Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDA remain the gold standard in the determination of cause of death (CoD. However, performing CDAs in developing countries is challenging due to limited facilities and human resources, and poor acceptability. We aimed to develop and test a simplified minimally invasive autopsy (MIA procedure involving organ-directed sampling with microbiology and pathology analyses implementable by trained technicians in low- income settings.A standardized scheme for the MIA has been developed and tested in a series of 30 autopsies performed at the Maputo Central Hospital, Mozambique. The procedure involves the collection of 20 mL of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and puncture of liver, lungs, heart, spleen, kidneys, bone marrow and brain in all cases plus uterus in women of childbearing age, using biopsy needles.The sampling success ranged from 67% for the kidney to 100% for blood, CSF, lung, liver and brain. The amount of tissue obtained in the procedure varied from less than 10 mm2 for the lung, spleen and kidney, to over 35 mm2 for the liver and brain. A CoD was identified in the histological and/or the microbiological analysis in 83% of the MIAs.A simplified MIA technique allows obtaining adequate material from body fluids and major organs leading to accurate diagnoses. This procedure could improve the determination of CoD in developing countries.

  7. Altered microRNA expression in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology caused by progranulin mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocerha Jannet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be triggered through genetic or sporadic mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have become a major therapeutic focus as their pervasive expression and powerful regulatory roles in disease pathogenesis become increasingly apparent. Here we examine the role of miRNAs in FTLD patients with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 pathology (FTLD-TDP caused by genetic mutations in the progranulin (PGRN gene. Results Using miRNA array profiling, we identified the 20 miRNAs that showed greatest evidence (unadjusted P PGRN mutations when compared to 32 FTLD-TDP patients with no apparent genetic abnormalities. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses provided technical validation of the differential expression for 9 of the 20 miRNAs in frontal cortex. Additional qRT-PCR analyses showed that 5 out of 9 miRNAs (miR-922, miR-516a-3p, miR-571, miR-548b-5p, and miR-548c-5p were also significantly dysregulated (unadjusted P PGRN mutation carriers, consistent with a systemic reduction in PGRN levels. We developed a list of gene targets for the 5 candidate miRNAs and found 18 genes dysregulated in a reported FTLD mRNA study to exhibit anti-correlated miRNA-mRNA patterns in affected cortex and cerebellar tissue. Among the targets is brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3, which was recently identified as an important player in synapse biology. Conclusions Our study suggests that miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of FTLD-TDP caused by PGRN mutations and provides new insight into potential future therapeutic options.

  8. Finding peace from Hiroshima. One oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoufalos, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The article informs about one oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation. In a small town just outside Osaka, Japan, Ritsuko Komaki was born, quite literally, into the atomic age. She was just an infant in 1945 when the first atomic bomb ever detonated on a human population devastated her family's ancestral home of Hiroshima. One of her friends, Sasaki was diagnosed with leukemia, and was later hospitalized with bone marrow suppression. Her grandmother had been exposed to the same chemical radiation that Sasaki had, yet never contracted leukemia despite presenting with all the other side effects of exposure. Komaki wa wondering why her grandmother never had any leukemia, but Sadako did? She never had any cancer, but she had all the symptoms of exposure, e.g. hair loss, diarrhea and bone marrow problems. During medical school, Komaki volunteered her summers at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, the institute the United States built in Japan to examine the victims of atomic exposure. Anyone diagnosed as anemic underwent a bone marrow exam, and Komaki learned a great deal about chromosomal abnormalities by performing blood tests alongside visiting researchers from Yale University and other American hospitals. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had fostered a national paranoia about radiation and radioactivity. In Japan, they hate radiation, and for so many years, they did not want to hear about radiation therapy. Patients had an illogical fear of it that delayed offering it as treatment there. In Japan, the majority of cancer treatment culminated in surgery. Radiation oncology was not a recognized specialization; oncologists were grouped in with diagnostic radiation techs. Yet today, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, is the chief operating officer of one of the most sophisticated radiation oncology treatment facilities in the United States: the 120 million US Dollar M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. And ironically, the technical equipment that forms

  9. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K; Shiono, K; Inoue, N; Senda, S [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  11. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  12. An observation of histological evidence on internal organ damages in mice caused by repeated exposures to motorcycle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y. P.; Juswono, Unggul P.; Noor, Johan A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a source of ultrafine particles, which have significant impacts on human health. Repeated and prolonged exposure to ultrafine particles may have a significant association with organ damage. Here, we evaluated the correlation between repeated exposure to ultrafine particles and organ damage in mice. Motorcycle emissions were injected into an exposure chamber with mice for a period of 20 seconds. This treatment was conducted over 10 days. The mice were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th days for organ preparations. Based on the results, motorcycle emission exposure caused organ damage in mice, with different severities depending on the organ. The highest damage was found for the lung, followed by the kidney, erythrocytes, and liver.

  13. Protective effect of lycopene on whole body irradiation induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice: pathological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid on whole body radiation-induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice. The first phase of the study was carried out to fix the effective concentration of Iycopene by performing a 30 days survival studies using different graded doses (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of lycopene administered orally to mice via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (10 Gy). Based on the results of survival studies, the effective dose of Iycopene was fixed which was then administered to mice orally via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (4 Gy) to evaluate its radioprotective efficacy by performing various biochemical assays in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The results indicated that radiation-induced decrease in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays were altered by pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene (20 mg/kg body weight) which restored the antioxidant status to near normal and decreased the levels of lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays.These results were further confirmed by histopathological examinations which indicated that pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene reduced the hepatic damage induced by radiation. (author)

  14. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  15. Damage caused by Tetranychus Merganser Bondreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae on Nopal Verdura Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L. Miller during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Espíndola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus merganser occurs in some crops in Mexico and USA. This mite could be considered a potential pest in countries like Japan. In this work we recorded the damages that T. merganser causes to the nopal verdura (prickly pear vegetable crop in one of the principal cactus crop regions of Mexico.

  16. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A; Samson, Leona D

    2012-01-12

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial for a favourable response of an organism to alkylating agents. Furthermore, the response of an individual to alkylating agents can vary considerably from tissue to tissue and from person to person, pointing to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that modulate alkylating agent toxicity.

  17. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  18. Impact of oxygen concentration on yields of DNA damages caused by ionizing radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Václav; Davídková, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 101, 012015 (2008), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems, RADAM'07. Dublin, 19.06.2007-22.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H031; GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation damage to DNA * oxygen concentration * theoretical modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Indemnification of damage to the environment caused by non-nuclear industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, H.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental damage has reached catastrophic proportions, implying the death of hundreds of people or expenses of many hundreds of million dollars. The financial impact of this damage is however small at the level of the industrial sector concerned which could bear its costs. If States would take measures to redistribute such costs, they would avoid having to compensate victims of the gravest accidents. Special procedures were introduced for this purpose in certain industrial sectors. (NEA) [fr

  20. Computer-assisted estimation of leaf damage caused by spider mites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloudová, B.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Zemek, Rostislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2, (2006), s. 81-91 ISSN 0168-1699 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Tetranychus urticae * Acari * Tetranychidae Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.851, year: 2006

  1. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA.

  2. Damage of rat liver tissue caused by repeated and sustained +Gz exposure and the mechanism thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the mechanisms of positive acceleration (+Gz on the damage of rat liver tissue and the effect of +Gz on the expression of JNK/c-Jun in liver cells. Methods  Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6: control, +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group. With prone position, the rats in control group were fixed to the turning arm of centrifuge with head towards the axis for 5 minutes. The fixation method in +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group was the same as in the control group. The increase rate of acceleration was 1G/s with a peak-time of 3 minutes, and each +Gz exposure repeated 5 times with an interval of 30 minutes. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of liver tissue, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression of hepatic c-Jun mRNA, and Western blotting to detect the hepatic protein expression of p-c-Jun, c-Jun, p-JNK and JNK. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined. Results  The levels of serum ALT and AST increased significantly in +6Gz and, especially, the +10Gz group than in control group and +2Gz group (P<0.05. The same situation also existed in the increase of c-Jun mRNA expression (P<0.05. Hepatic c-jun and p-c-Jun (c-Jun activated form protein expression increased with the increase of G value. Compared with control group, no change was found in JNK protein expression in the other three groups, but the expression of p-JNK (activated form of JNK increased in +6Gz and +10Gz groups (P<0.05. HE staining showed the disorganized liver cells with irregular shapes, the unclear cell gap and the vacuolar changes in +6Gz and +10Gz groups. Conclusions  Repeated and sustained +Gz may cause enhanced expression of c-Jun/ p-c-Jun and p-JNK in hepatic cells. JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway may play an important role in the process of hepatic stress injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.15

  3. NRC Information Notice No. 92-01: Cable damage caused by inadequate cable installation procedures and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1989, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) removed the cables from a conduit in the reactor protection system of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, to inspect for damage. TVA selected this conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit during construction may have damaged cables in the conduit. When the cables were removed, TVA found significant damage in the insulation of some cables. This damage was not attributed to heat generated by the alleged welding arc. The damage was principally attributed to the pulling stresses exerted during the initial installation of the cables. Some of the cables had insulation removed down to the conductors. To assess the extent of cable damage and determine the scope of its investigation, TVA removed more cables from conduits that constituted the most difficult pulls (worst case) and found varying degrees of damage that it attributed to pulling stresses. To fill a conduit at Watts Bar, personnel used pull cords to pull more cables through the conduits over the top of existing cables. This practice is called ''pull-by.'' This practice can cause damage to the existing cables from the sawing action of the pull cords and the friction of cables as they are pulled over existing cables. TVA instituted programs to assess the adequacy of cable installation at all its nuclear facilities and take appropriate corrective actions. At Watts Bar, TVA replaced cables in conduits which exceeded a calculated threshold value of side wall bearing pressure (SWBP) and performed a high-potential (hi-pot) tests on a number of other cables in conduits with SWBP below the calculated threshold value

  4. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage

  5. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Altman, K.I.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts

  6. Method for assessing damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by radiation and epichlorohydrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.; Hauswirth, W.W.; Ross, W.E.; Neims, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and reliable method for quantification of damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), especially strand breaks. The degree of damage to mtDNA is assessed by the proportion of physical forms (i.e., supercoiled versus open-circular and linear forms) upon agarose gel electrophoresis, blotting, and visualization by hybridization with [ 32 P]mtDNA probes. The use of a radiolabeled probe is a crucial step in the procedure because it provides both a means to quantify by radioautography and to obtain the mtDNA specificity required to eliminate misinterpretation due to nuclear DNA contamination. To demonstrate the utility of this technique, X-irradiation and epichlorohydrin are shown to damage both isolated mtDNA and mtDNA in whole cells in a dose-dependent fashion

  7. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.; Bond, V.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sondhaus, C.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Control Office; Altman, K.I. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

    1998-12-31

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Infection Causes Characteristic DNA Damage Patterns in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Koeppel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Since the bacterium exerts multiple genotoxic effects, we examined the circumstances of DNA damage accumulation and identified regions within the host genome with high susceptibility to H. pylori-induced damage. Infection impaired several DNA repair factors, the extent of which depends on a functional cagPAI. This leads to accumulation of a unique DNA damage pattern, preferentially in transcribed regions and proximal to telomeres, in both gastric cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells. The observed pattern correlates with focal amplifications in adenocarcinomas of the stomach and partly overlaps with known cancer genes. We thus demonstrate an impact of a bacterial infection directed toward specific host genomic regions and describe underlying characteristics that make such regions more likely to acquire heritable changes during infection, which could contribute to cellular transformation.

  9. Two damaging hydrogeological events in Calabria, September 2000 and November 2015. Comparative analysis of causes and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Caloiero, Tommaso; Aurora Pasqua, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Each year, especially during winter season, some episode of intense rain affects Calabria, the southernmost Italian peninsular region, triggering flash floods and mass movements that cause damage and fatalities. This work presents a comparative analysis between two events that affected the southeast sector of the region, in 2000 and 2014, respectively. The event occurred between 9th and 10th of September 2000 is known in Italy as Soverato event, after the name of the municipality where it reached the highest damage severity. In the Soverato area, more than 200 mm of rain that fell in 24 hours caused a disastrous flood that swept away a campsite at about 4 a.m., killing 13 people and hurting 45. Besides, the rain affected a larger area, causing damage in 89 (out of 409) municipalities of the region. Flooding was the most common process, which damaged housing and trading. Landslide mostly affected the road network, housing and cultivations. The most recent event affected the same regional sector between 30th October and 2nd November 2015. The daily rain recorded at some of the rain gauges of the area almost reached 400 mm. Out of the 409 municipalities of Calabria, 109 suffered damage. The most frequent types of processes were both flash floods and landslides. The most heavily damaged element was the road network: the representative picture of the event is a railway bridge destroyed by the river flow. Housing was damaged too, and 486 people were temporarily evacuated from home. The event also caused a victim killed by a flood. The event-centred study approach aims to highlight differences and similarities in both the causes and the effects of the two events that occurred at a temporal distance of 14 years. The comparative analysis focus on three main aspects: the intensity of triggering rain, the modifications of urbanised areas, and the evolution of emergency management. The comparative analysis of rain is made by comparing the return period of both daily and

  10. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  11. White matter damage and glymphatic dysfunction in a model of vascular dementia in rats with no prior vascular pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Chengcheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingjiang; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Talan; Liu, Amy; Chen, Jieli

    2017-02-01

    We investigated cognitive function, axonal/white matter (WM) changes and glymphatic function of vascular dementia using a multiple microinfarction (MMI) model in retired breeder (RB) rats. The MMI model induces significant (p rats subjected to MMI exhibit significant axonal/WM damage identified by decreased myelin thickness, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers, axon density, synaptic protein expression in the cortex and striatum, cortical neuronal branching, and dendritic spine density in the cortex and hippocampus compared with age-matched controls. MMI evokes significant dilation of perivascular spaces as well as water channel dysfunction indicated by decreased Aquaporin-4 expression around blood vessels. MMI-induced glymphatic dysfunction with delayed cerebrospinal fluid penetration into the brain parenchyma via paravascular pathways as well as delayed waste clearance from the brain. The MMI model in RB rats decreases Aquaporin-4 and induces glymphatic dysfunction which may play an important role in MMI-induced axonal/WM damage and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Static-transmission-error vibratory-excitation contributions from plastically deformed gear teeth caused by tooth bending-fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, W. D.; Reagor, C. P.

    2007-02-01

    To assess gear health and detect gear-tooth damage, the vibratory response from meshing gear-pair excitations is commonly monitored by accelerometers. In an earlier paper, strong evidence was presented suggesting that, in the case of tooth bending-fatigue damage, the principal source of detectable damage is whole-tooth plastic deformation; i.e. yielding, rather than changes in tooth stiffness caused by tooth-root cracks. Such plastic deformations are geometric deviation contributions to the "static-transmission-error" (STE) vibratory excitation caused by meshing gear pairs. The STE contributions caused by two likely occurring forms of such plastic deformations on a single tooth are derived, and displayed in the time domain as a function of involute "roll distance." Example calculations are provided for transverse contact ratios of Qt=1.4 and 1.8, for spur gears and for helical-gear axial contact ratios ranging from Qa=1.2 to Qa=3.6. Low-pass- and band-pass-filtered versions of these same STE contributions also are computed and displayed in the time domain. Several calculations, consisting of superposition of the computed STE tooth-meshing fundamental harmonic contribution and the band-pass STE contribution caused by a plastically deformed tooth, exhibit the amplitude and frequency or phase modulation character commonly observed in accelerometer-response waveforms caused by damaged teeth. General formulas are provided that enable computation of these STE vibratory-excitation contributions for any form of plastic deformation on any number of teeth for spur and helical gears with any contact ratios.

  13. Geospatial relationships of tree species damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in south Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Garrigues; Zhaofei Fan; David L. Evans; Scott D. Roberts; William H. Cooke III

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina generated substantial impacts on the forests and biological resources of the affected area in Mississippi. This study seeks to use classification tree analysis (CTA) to determine which variables are significant in predicting hurricane damage (shear or windthrow) in the Southeast Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory District. Logistic regressions...

  14. BDNF Regains Function in Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Deficits Caused by Diencephalic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Lindsey C.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage…

  15. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein causes a delay in repair of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Wook; Nickel, Kwangok P.; Torres, Alexandra D.; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F.; Kimple, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus related (HPV+) head and neck cancers (HNCs) demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to traditional HPV negative (HPV−) HNC patients. We have recently shown that HPV+ HNC cells are more sensitive to radiation than HPV− HNC cells. However, roles of HPV oncogenes in regulating the response of DNA damage repair remain unknown. Material and methods: Using immortalized normal oral epithelial cell lines, HPV+ HNC derived cell lines, and HPV16 E7-transgenic mice we assessed the repair of DNA damage using γ-H2AX foci, single and split dose clonogenic survival assays, and immunoblot. The ability of E7 to modulate expression of proteins associated with DNA repair pathways was assessed by immunoblot. Results: HPV16 E7 increased retention of γ-H2AX nuclear foci and significantly decreased sublethal DNA damage repair. While phospho-ATM, phospho-ATR, Ku70, and Ku80 expressions were not altered by E7, Rad51 was induced by E7. Correspondingly, HPV+ HNC cell lines showed retention of Rad51 after γ-radiation. Conclusions: Our findings provide further understanding as to how HPV16 E7 manipulates cellular DNA damage responses that may underlie its oncogenic potential and influence the altered sensitivity to radiation seen in HPV+ HNC as compared to HPV− HNC

  16. Causes of keel bone damage and their solutions in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander-Matauschek, A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Sandilands, V.; Tobalske, B.W.; Toscano, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone damage (KBD) is a critical issue facing the contemporary laying hen industry due to the likely pain leading to compromised welfare and reduced productivity. Recent reports suggest that KBD, while highly variable and likely dependent on a host of factors, extends to all housing systems

  17. Field data analysis of asphalt road paving damages caused by tree roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2015-04-01

    Tree root damages are a frequent problem along paved cycling paths and service roads of rivers and streams. Damages occur mostly on streets with thin asphalt layers and especially in the upper part of the pavement structure. The maintainers of these roads are faced with frequent and high annual repair costs in order to guarantee traffic safety and pleasant cycling conditions. The focus of this research project is to get an insight in the processes governing the growth of the tree roots in asphalt layers and to develop test methods to avoid rood penetration into the road structure. Tree vegetation has been analysed selectively along a 300 km long cycle and service path of the Danube River in the region of Austria. Tree characteristics, topographic as well as hydrologic conditions have been analysed at 119 spots with different asphalt damage intensities. On 5 spots additional investigations on the root growth characteristics where performed. First results underline a high potential damage of pioneer trees which are growing naturally along rivers. Mostly, local occurring fast growing tree species penetrated the road layer structure. In a few cases other tree species where as well responsible for road structure damages. The age respectively the size of the trees didn't seem to influence significantly the occurrence of asphalt damages. Road structure damages were found to appear unaffected by hydrologic or topographic conditions. However, results have to be interpreted with care as the investigations represent a temporally limited view of the problem situation. The investigations of the root growth characteristics proved that tree roots penetrate the road structure mostly between the gravel sublayer and the asphalt layer as the layers it selves don't allow a penetration because of their high compaction. Furthermore roots appear to be attracted by condensed water at the underside of the asphalt layer. Further steps of the research project imply testing of different

  18. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger's beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yuko; Maeda, Kaori; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger's beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger's beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger's beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases.

  19. Methylmercury Causes Blood-Brain Barrier Damage in Rats via Upregulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Takahashi

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of methylmercury (MeHg intoxication include cerebellar ataxia, concentric constriction of visual fields, and sensory and auditory disturbances. The symptoms depend on the site of MeHg damage, such as the cerebellum and occipital lobes. However, the underlying mechanism of MeHg-induced tissue vulnerability remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we used a rat model of subacute MeHg intoxication to investigate possible MeHg-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB damage. The model was established by exposing the rats to 20-ppm MeHg for up to 4 weeks; the rats exhibited severe cerebellar pathological changes, although there were no significant differences in mercury content among the different brain regions. BBB damage in the cerebellum after MeHg exposure was confirmed based on extravasation of endogenous immunoglobulin G (IgG and decreased expression of rat endothelial cell antigen-1. Furthermore, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a potent angiogenic growth factor, increased markedly in the cerebellum and mildly in the occipital lobe following MeHg exposure. VEGF expression was detected mainly in astrocytes of the BBB. Intravenous administration of anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody mildly reduced the rate of hind-limb crossing signs observed in MeHg-exposed rats. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that MeHg induces BBB damage via upregulation of VEGF expression at the BBB in vivo. Further studies are required in order to determine whether treatment targeted at VEGF can ameliorate MeHg-induced toxicity.

  20. Genetic damage caused by methyl-parathion in mouse spermatozoa is related to oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Rojas-Garcia, A.E.; Uriostegui-Acosta, M.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are considered genotoxic mainly to somatic cells, but results are not conclusive. Few studies have reported OP alterations on sperm chromatin and DNA, and oxidative stress has been related to their toxicity. Sperm cells are very sensitive to oxidative damage which has been associated with reproductive dysfunctions. We evaluated the effects of methyl-parathion (Me-Pa; a widely used OP) on sperm DNA, exploring the sensitive stage(s) of spermatogenesis and the relationship with oxidative stress. Male mice (10-12-weeks old) were administered Me-Pa (3-20 mg/kg bw/i.p.) and euthanized at 7- or 28-days post-treatment. Mature spermatozoa were obtained and evaluated for chromatin structure through SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay; DNA Fragmentation Index parameters: Mean DFI and DFI%) and chromomycin-A 3 (CMA 3 )-staining, for DNA damage through in situ-nick translation (NT-positive) and for oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation (LPO; malondialdehyde production). At 7-days post-treatment (mature spermatozoa when Me-Pa exposure), dose-dependent alterations in chromatin structure (Mean DFI and CMA 3 -staining) were observed, as well as increased DNA damage, from 2-5-fold in DFI% and NT-positive cells. Chromatin alterations and DNA damage were also observed at 28-days post-treatment (cells at meiosis at the time of exposure); suggesting that the damage induced in spermatocytes was not repaired. Positive correlations were observed between LPO and sperm DNA-related parameters. These data suggest that oxidative stress is related to Me-Pa alterations on sperm DNA integrity and cells at meiosis (28-days post-treatment) and epididymal maturation (7-days post-treatment) are Me-Pa targets. These findings suggest a potential risk of Me-Pa to the offspring after transmission

  1. CORRELATION AMONG DAMAGES CAUSED BY YELLOW BEETLE, CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION OF GUAVA ACCESSES GROWN IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.

  2. Structures of masonry walls in buildings of permanent ruin – causes of damage and methods of repairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Szostak

    2017-01-01

    Currently there is a lot of castles classified as objects of the permanent ruin. In according to conservation doctrine, it is needed to protect this objects and prevent further degradation. Usually one of the most destructed element in this type of object is masonry wall. In this article has been described selected types of the masonry walls of the permanent ruin, causes of their damages and repairs methods.

  3. Structures of masonry walls in buildings of permanent ruin – causes of damage and methods of repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szostak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a lot of castles classified as objects of the permanent ruin. In according to conservation doctrine, it is needed to protect this objects and prevent further degradation. Usually one of the most destructed element in this type of object is masonry wall. In this article has been described selected types of the masonry walls of the permanent ruin, causes of their damages and repairs methods.

  4. Nur77 forms novel nuclear structures upon DNA damage that cause transcriptional arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseleuc, Louis de; Denis, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 has been implicated in both growth and apoptosis, and its function and activity can be modulated by cellular redistribution. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Nur77 was used to evaluate the role of Nur77 intracellular redistribution in response to genotoxic stress. Selected DNA damaging agents and transcription inhibition lead to rapid redistribution of Nur77 into nuclear structures distinct from conventional nuclear bodies. These nuclear bodies formed transiently were tightly bound to the nuclear matrix and conditions that lead to their appearance were associated with Nur77 transcriptional inhibition. The formation of Nur77 nuclear bodies might be involved in programmed cell death modulation upon exposure to DNA damaging agents that inhibit transcription by sequestrating this proapoptotic factor in dense nuclear structures

  5. The enigma of multiple sclerosis: inflammation and neurodegeneration cause heterogeneous dysfunction and damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    progression correlate with axonal damage, and that brain atrophy resulting from axonal loss is a feature of early multiple sclerosis, and is not restricted to the secondary progressive forms of the disease. Inflammatory mediators (CD8 T cells and antibodies) are implicated in axonal damage, and treatment...... cells for oligodendrocytes. SUMMARY: Oligodendrocyte precursors are abundant in multiple sclerosis lesions, but fail to remyelinate. Oligodendrocyte growth and regeneration are probably compromised by the action of growth inhibitory signals and lack of growth stimuli. Inflammatory cells and mediators......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis has an autoimmune inflammatory component, which has dominated the description of multiple sclerosis. A degenerative component to multiple sclerosis was always apparent, but was underappreciated until recently. Recent work has brought...

  6. Numerical studies for the analysis of damage caused by gas explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischbieter, F.; Horneff, W.; Michelmann, K.; Schaepermeier, E.

    1981-08-01

    Within the framework of the establishment of an immediate safety programme for the Nuclear Process Heat Project, analyses and data available from former explosion accidents are to be reviewed for the derivation of information to be included in the safety concept for the nuclear process heat system. This system is characterised by a close linkage, both in terms of function and spatial arrangement, of the explosive process unit and the nuclear unit of the process heat system. The study in hand deals with the numerical investigation of the deflagrational damage analysis. It is arranged into two parts: (1) Analysis of selected aspects of the explosion accident at Flixborough by means of comparative assessment of various scenarios. (2) Computer-aided calculation of the characteristics of damage to window panes as one of very common structural elements of accident analyses. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Upper urinary tract damage caused by ketamine snorting—A report of nine cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Ying Lee; Yu-Chao Hsu; Chao-Yu Hsu; Eric Chieh-Lung Chou; Ching-Chia Li; Yung-Shun Juan; Mei-Yu Jang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The toxicity of ketamine to genitourinary system not only involved in lower urinary tract, which include urinary frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, dysuria and hematuria, but also upper urinary tracts. However, the reports of ketmaine-induced upper urinary tract damage were rare. Materials and methods: Herein, we reported nine ketamine abusers presented with moderate flank pain with hydronephrosis and lower urinary tract symptoms from three medical centers located around Taiwa...

  8. Individual vs. overarching protection for minimizing the expected damage caused by an attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell; Dai, Yuanshun

    2013-01-01

    The article considers a system consisting of identical elements which can be protected and attacked individually and collectively. The system is aimed at supplying a demand. If, following the attack, the cumulative performance of the elements becomes less than the demand the damage proportional to the unsupplied demand is inflicted. Additional damage is associated with the destruction of the equipment. To destroy any system element the attacker always must penetrate/destroy the collective (overarching) protection. Both the attacker and the defender have limited resources and can distribute them freely between the two types of attack and protection. The attacker chooses the resource distribution and the number of attacked elements to maximize the expected damage associated with equipment losses and unsupplied demand. The defender chooses the resource distribution and the number of protected elements to minimize the system destruction probability. The bi-contest minmax game is formulated and its solutions are presented and analyzed. The influence of the game parameters on the optimal defense and attack strategies is discussed

  9. Spectroellipsometric detection of silicon substrate damage caused by radiofrequency sputtering of niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Tivadar; Serényi, Miklós; Szilágyi, Edit; Zolnai, Zsolt; Czigány, Zsolt; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc; Petrik, Péter; Fried, Miklós

    2017-11-01

    Substrate surface damage induced by deposition of metal atoms by radiofrequency (rf) sputtering or ion beam sputtering onto single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface has been characterized earlier by electrical measurements. The question arises whether it is possible to characterize surface damage using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). In our experiments niobium oxide layers were deposited by rf sputtering on c-Si substrates in gas mixture of oxygen and argon. Multiple angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed, a four-layer optical model (surface roughness layer, niobium oxide layer, native silicon oxide layer and ion implantation-amorphized silicon [i-a-Si] layer on a c-Si substrate) was created in order to evaluate the spectra. The evaluations yielded thicknesses of several nm for the i-a-Si layer. Better agreement could be achieved between the measured and the generated spectra by inserting a mixed layer (with components of c-Si and i-a-Si applying the effective medium approximation) between the silicon oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. High depth resolution Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements were performed to investigate the interface disorder between the deposited niobium oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. Atomic resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy investigation was applied to visualize the details of the damaged subsurface region of the substrate.

  10. Experience with fuel damage caused by abnormal conditions in handling and transporting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to determine the expected condition of spent USA light-water reactor (LWR) fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or, if fuel is declared a waste, at disposal facilities. Initial findings were described in an earlier PNL paper at PATRAM '80 and in a report. Updated findings are described in this paper, which includes an evaluation of information obtained from the literature and a compilation of cases of known or suspected damage to fuel as a result of handling and/or transporting operations. To date, PNL has evaluated 123 actual cases (98 USA and 25 non-USA). Irradiated fuel was involved in all but 10 of the cases. From this study, it is calculated that the frequency of unusual occurrences involving fuel damage from handling and transporting operations has been low. The damage that did occur was generally minor. The current base of experience with fuel handling and transporting operations indicates that nearly all of these unusual occurrences had only a minor or negligible effect on spent fuel storage facility operations

  11. Population Growth and Damage Caused by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Different Cultivars and Phenological Stages of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, M; Lampert, S; Salvadori, J R; Lau, D; Pereira, P R V S; Smaniotto, M A

    2013-10-01

    Among the aphids associated with wheat and other winter cereals, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is currently the predominant species in the wheat growing region of southern Brazil. The damage caused by this aphid occurs by direct feeding and/or by the transmission of pathogenic viruses, such as the Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus. In order to estimate the direct damage caused by R. padi on wheat, we evaluated the population growth of this aphid during the tillering and elongation stages and its effects on grain yield components. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse with three wheat cultivars (BRS Guabiju, BRS Timbaúva, and Embrapa 16). The effect of a period of 16 days, starting from an infestation of 40 aviruliferous aphids/plant, was evaluated and compared to non-infested plants. In both stages, the population growth of R. padi was lower on the BRS Timbaúva. Although infestation caused a reduction in the grain yield of the three cultivars, this effect was lower for BRS Timbaúva. The cultivar Embrapa 16 supported higher infestations and was more tolerant to damage than the BRS Guabiju.

  12. Ubiquitous expression of CUG or CAG trinucleotide repeat RNA causes common morphological defects in a Drosophila model of RNA-mediated pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kynan T Lawlor

    Full Text Available Expanded DNA repeat sequences are known to cause over 20 diseases, including Huntington's disease, several types of spinocerebellar ataxia and myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 2. A shared genetic basis, and overlapping clinical features for some of these diseases, indicate that common pathways may contribute to pathology. Multiple mechanisms, mediated by both expanded homopolymeric proteins and expanded repeat RNA, have been identified by the use of model systems, that may account for shared pathology. The use of such animal models enables identification of distinct pathways and their 'molecular hallmarks' that can be used to determine the contribution of each pathway in human pathology. Here we characterise a tergite disruption phenotype in adult flies, caused by ubiquitous expression of either untranslated CUG or CAG expanded repeat RNA. Using the tergite phenotype as a quantitative trait we define a new genetic system in which to examine 'hairpin' repeat RNA-mediated cellular perturbation. Further experiments use this system to examine whether pathways involving Muscleblind sequestration or Dicer processing, which have been shown to mediate repeat RNA-mediated pathology in other model systems, contribute to cellular perturbation in this model.

  13. Intermittent hypoxia causes histological kidney damage and increases growth factor expression in a mouse model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisher Abuyassin

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and accelerated loss of kidney function. It is unclear whether the decline in function is due to OSA per se or to other confounding factors such as obesity. In addition, the structural kidney abnormalities associated with OSA are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH, a key pathological feature of OSA, induces renal histopathological damage using a mouse model. Ten 8-week old wild-type male CB57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either IH or intermittent air (IA for 60 days. After euthanasia, one kidney per animal was paraformaldehyde-fixed and then sectioned for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Measurements of glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial matrix expansion were made in periodic acid-Schiff stained kidney sections, while glomerular transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A proteins were semi-quantified by immunohistochemistry. The antigen-antibody reaction was detected by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine chromogen where the color intensity semi-quantified glomerular protein expression. To enhance the accuracy of protein semi-quantification, the percentage of only highly-positive staining was used for analysis. Levels of TGF-β, CTGF and VEGF-A proteins in the kidney cortex were further quantified by western blotting. Cellular apoptosis was also investigated by measuring cortical antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax proteins by western blotting. Further investigation of cellular apoptosis was carried out by fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL staining. Finally, the levels of serum creatinine and 24-hour urinary albumin were measured as a general index of renal function. Our results indicate that mice exposed to IH

  14. Intermittent hypoxia causes histological kidney damage and increases growth factor expression in a mouse model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Badran, Mohammad; Ayas, Najib T; Laher, Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and accelerated loss of kidney function. It is unclear whether the decline in function is due to OSA per se or to other confounding factors such as obesity. In addition, the structural kidney abnormalities associated with OSA are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH), a key pathological feature of OSA, induces renal histopathological damage using a mouse model. Ten 8-week old wild-type male CB57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either IH or intermittent air (IA) for 60 days. After euthanasia, one kidney per animal was paraformaldehyde-fixed and then sectioned for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Measurements of glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial matrix expansion were made in periodic acid-Schiff stained kidney sections, while glomerular transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) proteins were semi-quantified by immunohistochemistry. The antigen-antibody reaction was detected by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine chromogen where the color intensity semi-quantified glomerular protein expression. To enhance the accuracy of protein semi-quantification, the percentage of only highly-positive staining was used for analysis. Levels of TGF-β, CTGF and VEGF-A proteins in the kidney cortex were further quantified by western blotting. Cellular apoptosis was also investigated by measuring cortical antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) proteins by western blotting. Further investigation of cellular apoptosis was carried out by fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining. Finally, the levels of serum creatinine and 24-hour urinary albumin were measured as a general index of renal function. Our results indicate that mice exposed to IH have an

  15. Dentinal temperature transients caused by exposure to CO2 laser irradiation and possible pulpal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, I W; Lawrenson, B; Saunders, E M; Longbottom, C

    1990-02-01

    An investigation is described that attempts to establish, in vitro, the characteristics of heat transference following laser irradiation of bovine dentinal tissue and the relationship with the periodicity of radiation. The results of this study appear to indicate that at depths of overlying dentine of up to 3 mm, laser-induced thermal injury to the pulp is a definite possibility. Fail-safe facilities to prevent build up of heat must be incorporated into the design of dental lasers to allow their beneficial effects to be utilized without the risk of iatrogenic damage.

  16. Surgical intervention for complications caused by late radiation damage of the small bowel; a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halteren, H.K. van; Gortzak, E.; Taal, B.G.; Helmerhorst, Th.J.M.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Hart, A.A.M.; Zoetmulder, F.A.N.

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied the records of 46 patients who had been operated on between 1974 and 1990 in the Netherlands Cancer Institute because of complications due to late radiation damage of the small bowel. The following factors led to an increase in complication-risk: hypalbuminemia. more than one laparotomy prior to irradiation and a short interval (< 12 months) between irradiation and surgical intervention. The following factors related to a poorer survival: incomplete resection of the primary tumor and a short interval (< 12 months) between irradiation and surgical intervention. The type f surgical intervention did not have cumulative prognostic value in relation to complication-risk or survival. (author)

  17. Change in the dibenzyldimethylammonium accumulation by irradiated Streptococcus cells caused by radiation damage modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Leont'eva, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Anoxia, concentrated cell suspension, glutathione (10 -4 -10 -2 M) or low concentrations of cysteine (10 -4 -10 -3 M) exerted a radioprotective effect and suppressed the accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium chloride (DDA + ) by γ-irradiated (40 krad) S. faecalis cells. Dilution of the cell suspensions and higher cysteine concentrations (>10 -3 M) increased the effects of irradiation on bacterial accumulation of DDA + and decreased the cell survival. The lethal action of irradiation apparently involves damage to the mechanisms which maintain a normal membrane potential

  18. Optimal choice: assessing the probability of additional damage to buildings caused by water level changes of larger areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnagte, J. L.; Luger, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northern parts of the Netherlands exploration of natural gas reservoirs causes subsidence over large areas. As a consequence, the water levels in canals and polders have to be adjusted over time in order to keep the groundwater levels at a constant depth relative to the surface level. In the middle of the subsidence area it is relatively easy to follow the settlements by a uniform lowering of the water level. This would however result in a relative lowering of the groundwater table at the edges of the subsidence area. Given the presence of soft compressible soils, this would result in induced settlements. For buildings in these areas this will increase the chance of damage. A major design challenge lies therefore in the optimisation of the use of compartments. The more compartments the higher the cost therefore the aim is to make compartments in the water management system that are as large as possible without causing inadmissible damage to buildings. In order to asses expected damage from different use of compartments three tools are needed. The first is a generally accepted method of damage determination, the second a method to determine the contribution to damage of a new influence, e.g. a groundwater table change. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a method is needed to evaluate effects not for single buildings but for larger areas. The first need is covered by established damage criteria like those of Burland & Wroth or Boscardin & Cording. Up until now the second and the third have been problematic. This paper presents a method which enables to assign a contribution to the probability of damage of various recognised mechanisms such as soil and foundation inhomogeneity, uneven loading, ground water level changes. Shallow subsidence due to peat oxidation and deep subsidence due to reservoir depletion can be combined. In order to address the third issue: evaluation of effects for larger areas, the method uses a probabilistic approach. Apart from a

  19. Unexpected ICD pulse generator failure due to electronic circuit damage caused by electrical overstress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R G; Hayes, D L; Almquist, A K; Epstein, A E; Parsonnet, V; Tyers, G F; Vlay, S C; Schoenfeld, M H

    2001-07-01

    Because it is a lifesaving device, the unexpected failure of an ICD can be catastrophic. We report ICD electronic circuit failure due to electrical overstress damage (EOS) to the high voltage hybird circuit and other electronic components in a series of ICD pulse generator models. Data were obtained from the Multicenter Registry of Pacemaker and ICD Pacemaker and Lead Failures, and from the manufactures' adverse event reports, that were in the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Of 16 nonbattery Guidant/CPI ICD pulse generator failures reported to the registry, 6 (38%) have been confirmed by the manufacturer to be EOS related, and Guidant/CPI has reported 273 such failures to the FDA as of 12/29/00. The signs of failure included loss of telemetry and inability to deliver therapy, and some patients have experienced serious adverse events. Hybrid circuit damage may have occurred during capacitor charging or reform, and the majority appears to have happened during normal ICD function. While the incidence of this problem is unknown, a management strategy should be adopted that includes routine follow-up every 3 months and device evaluation after a shock or exposure to external defibrillation or electrosurgical devices. This study suggests that additional data are needed to determine the incidence of this problem, and that our present methods for monitoring the performance of ICD's following market release are inadequate.

  20. Mild hyperthermia can induce adaptation to cytogenetic damage caused by subsequent X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Lu.; Jiang, Jie.

    1995-01-01

    Many low-level environmental agents are able to induce an increased resistance to subsequent mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation. In this paper, an induced cytogenetic adaptation to radiation in human lymphocytes was studied with mild hyperthermia as the adaptive treatment and compared with that induced by low-dose radiation. We found that this adaptation could be induced not only in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes (at 14, 38 and 42 h after addition of PHA), but also in unstimulated G 0 -phase cells (before addition of PHA) by mild hyperthermia (41 degrees C for 1 h) as well as 50 mGy X rays. When the two adaptive treatments were combined, no additive effects on the magnitude of the adaptation induced were observed, suggesting that low-dose radiation and hyperthermia may share one mechanism of induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage. Some mechanisms which may be involved in the induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage by low-dose radiation are discussed and compared with the effects of mild hyperthermia in inducing thermotolerance and radioresistance. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Silicon surface damage caused by reactive ion etching in fluorocarbon gas mixtures containing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norstroem, H.; Blom, H.; Ostling, M.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Keinonen, J.; Berg, S.

    1991-01-01

    For selective etching of SiO 2 on silicon, gases or gas mixtures containing hydrogen are often used. Hydrogen from the glow discharge promotes the formation of a thin film polymer layer responsible for the selectivity of the etching process. The reactive ion etch (RIE) process is known to create damage in the silicon substrate. The influence of hydrogen on the damage and deactivation of dopants is investigated in the present work. The distribution of hydrogen in silicon, after different etching and annealing conditions have been studied. The influence of the RIE process on the charge carrier concentration in silicon has been investigated. Various analytical techniques like contact resistivity measurements, four point probe measurements, and Hall measurements have been used to determine the influence of the RIE process on the electrical properties of processed silicon wafers. The hydrogen profile in as-etched and post annealed wafers was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear reaction. The depth of the deactivated surface layer is discussed in terms of the impinging hydrogen ion energy, i.e., the possibility of H + ions to pick up an energy equal to the peak-to-peak voltage of the rf signal

  2. Elevated Plasma Cardiac Troponin T Levels Caused by Skeletal Muscle Damage in Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Stephan C A; Schaaf, Gerben J; Michels, Michelle; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; van Gestel, Tom J M; In 't Groen, Stijn; Pijnenburg, Joon; Dekkers, Dick H W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verdijk, Lex B; Brusse, Esther; van Schaik, Ron H N; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van Doorn, Pieter A; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2016-02-01

    Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values normal in all patients, whereas CK-myocardial band levels were increased in 59% of patients. cTnT levels correlated with CK levels in all 3 subgroups (Pmass index measured with echocardiography was normal in all the 3 subgroups. cTnT mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue. Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  4. Characterization of microdose damage caused by single heavy ion observed in trench type power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Naomi; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Maru, Akifumi; Tamura, Takashi; Hirao, Toshio; Abe, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    It was demonstrated that anomalously large degradation observed in power MOSFETs was caused by a single heavy ion. It was identified as a microdose effect and successfully characterized by several parameters extracted from experimental data. (author)

  5. Intensity of diffracted X-rays from biomolecules with radiation damage caused by strong X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Takeshi; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Moribayashi, Kengo; Fukuda, Yuji; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of single biomolecules, the diffraction intensities, per effective pixel of a single biomolecule with radiation damage, caused by irradiation using a strong coherent X-ray pulse, were examined. A parameter survey was carried out for various experimental conditions, using a developed simulation program that considers the effect of electric field ionization, which was slightly reported on in previous studies. The two simple relationships among the parameters were identified as follows: (1) the diffraction intensity of a biomolecule slightly increases with the incident X-ray energy; and that (2) the diffraction intensity is approximately proportional to the target radius, when the radius is longer than 400 Å, since the upper limit of the incident intensity for damage to the biomolecules marginally changes with respect to the target radius. (author)

  6. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  7. Displacement damage caused by gamma-rays and neutrons on Au and Se.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report documents theoretical calculations of displacement damage produced by gamma rays and neutrons on various materials. The average energy of the gamma rays was 1.24 MeV and 1.0 MeV for the neutrons. The fluence of the gamma rays was 1.2e14 γ/cm2 , for the neutrons it was 1.0e12 n/cm2. The initial materials of interest were Au and Se. The total doses of the gamma ray exposures were in the 100 kRad range for both elements. An equivalent electron fluence was approximated to be the same as the gamma ray fluence over one gamma ray attenuation length in both materials and at the same 1.24 MeV energy. The maximum recoil energy of the Au and Se for these electrons was calculated relativisticaly to be 29 and 72 eV respectively. The relativisitic McKinley and Feshbach theory for the atomic recoil cross sections produced by the electrons were in the 10s of mbarn range and an upper limit for the concentration of Frenkel pairs for the gamma ray exposures for both elements was in the ppb range. The Robinson Energy Partioning Theory for non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) of ions in solids was used to calculate the concentration of Frenkel pairs produced by the 1 MeV neutrons, and this concentration was also in the ppb range for both Au and Se. Low damage levels like this can have effects on minority carrier recombination in semiconductors, but are not expected to have any effect on metals like Au, or metalloids such as Se.

  8. Polymyxin B causes DNA damage in HK-2 cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B; Zhang, T; Azad, M A K; Wang, J; Nowell, C J; Kalitsis, P; Velkov, T; Hudson, D F; Li, J

    2018-03-20

    Increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria presents an imminent risk to global health. Polymyxins are 'last-resort' antibiotics against Gram-negative 'superbugs'; however, nephrotoxicity remains a key impediment in their clinical use. Molecular mechanisms underlying this nephrotoxicity remain poorly defined. Here, we examined the pathways which led to polymyxin B induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Human proximal tubular cells were treated with polymyxin B (12.5-100 μM) for up to 24 h and showed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency, as well as abnormal mitotic events (over 40% in treated cells, p < 0.05). Time-course studies were performed using a mouse nephrotoxicity model (cumulative 72 mg/kg). Kidneys were collected over 48 h and investigated for histopathology and DNA damage. Notable increases in γH2AX foci (indicative of double-stranded breaks) were observed in both cell culture (up to ~ 44% cells with 5+ foci at 24 h, p < 0.05) and mice treated with polymyxin B (up to ~ 25%, p < 0.05). Consistent with these results, in vitro assays showed high binding affinity of polymyxin B to DNA. Together, our results indicate that polymyxin B nephrotoxicity is associated with DNA damage, leading to chromosome missegregation and genome instability. This novel mechanistic information may lead to new strategies to overcome the nephrotoxicity of this important last-line class of antibiotics.

  9. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bingzhen; Shen, Chunzi; Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS 2 via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD 50 (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD 50 (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD 50 (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS 2 . - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss

  10. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingzhen [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shen, Chunzi [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zibo (China); Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhiping, E-mail: zhipingw@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  11. Lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera inhibit damage caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in HEp-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Villaseñor, H.; Canizalez-Román, A.; de la Garza, M.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Leon-Sicairos, N.

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. It produces a characteristic intestinal histopathological lesion on enterocytes known as ‘attaching and effacing’ (A/E), and these two steps are mediated by a type-III secretory system. In the

  12. Evaluation of Host Community Attitudes to the Development of Social Pathologies Caused by the Development of Tourism in the City of Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Kazemipour Sabet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present article is to evaluate the host community attitudes about expanding social pathologies caused by the development of tourism in the city of Hamedan. The survey method (descriptive–analytical was used in this study and researcher made questionnaire in the form of Likert was used. For this purpose, the entire population was divided into two different groups, including local residents, and shopkeepers who depend on tourism activities. The theoretical framework used in this paper is the Travis Hirschi's social control theory. Also, in this study, stratified random sampling method was used with a combination of male and female, between the ages of 18 and higher, and accordingly, the statistical sample selected on the basis of the Cochran formula is estimated 400 persons. To assess the reliability of research tools, as well as Cronbach's alpha is used, which its coefficient is 0.83. Information collected through questionnaires, after encoding, using the statistical software SPSS, have been analyzed. The results of this study show that tourism in the city of Hamedan partly is developed. The results indicate that, there is a significant relationship between tourism development and the attitudes of respondents to increase social pathologies. With regard to significant level achieved (Sig = 0.000, and with 95 confidence level, it can be said that this relationship is significant. The intensity of the relationship between the two variables is equal to 0.20. The results show that citizens in Hamedan about the negative impacts, and rating of developed social pathologies, have considered the distribution of Anti-cultural items with the average of 3.33 of 5 as a factor of social pathologies with the highest rank, and the spread of gambling with the average of 2.04 of 5 as a factor of social pathologies with the lowest rank.

  13. Water pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; Lentini, Marco; Conte, Barbara; Esposito, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution. As control, some specimens were cultured in vitro in Cd- and Pb-added media, at the same pollutants' levels as measured in the most polluted site. P. neesiana cell ultrastructure was modified and severe alterations were observed in chloroplasts from samples exposed in the most polluted site, and Cd- and Pb-cultured samples. Concurrently, a strong increase in the occurrence of Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) was detected in gametophytes following the pollution gradient. In conclusion, ultrastructural damages can be directly related to HSP 70 occurrence in liverwort tissues, and proportional to the degree of pollution present in the river; thus our study suggests P. neesiana as an affordable bioindicator of freshwaters pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the phycotoxin Okadaic acid cause oxidative stress damages and histological alterations to seabream (Sparus aurata)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souid, Ghada; Souayed, Nouha; Haouas, Zohra; Maaroufi, Khira

    2018-03-15

    Okadaic Acid (OA) is a marine toxin responsible for DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) in humans produced by dinoflagellate. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA have been well reported in mammalian experimental animals and in vitro cultured cells. However, there are no available investigations regarding the involvement of the oxidative stress pathways in OA toxicity, especially on aquatic animals such as fish. In this context, we aimed in the present work to demonstrate whether OA (7.5 μg/ml) induces oxidative stress and histopathological damages in the fish species Sparus aurata under short term exposure (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). To this end, we have assessed lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidative stress response in liver tissue, and finally ultrastructural changes were investigated in hepatic and gills tissues. Our results clearly showed that OA induced significant enhancement in all tested parameters in a time dependent manner and seems to be a strong inducer of oxidative stress in aquatic animals. The data of the present study indicate also that histology is a successful tool to reveal OA impact on liver and gill tissues of Sparus aurata since the animal showed vascular dilation and hepatocellular membrane disintegration in liver and hypertrophy in secondary lamellae and necrotic aspect in the primary lamellae in gill tissue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Histological evaluation of brain damage caused by crude quinolizidine alkaloid extracts from lupines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos Pineda, J; Nolasco Rodríguez, G; Monteon, J A; García López, P M; Ruiz Lopez, M A; García Estrada, J

    2005-10-01

    The effects of the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of crude extracts of lupin quinolizidine alkaloids (LQAs) were studied in adult rat brain tissue. Mature L. exaltatus and L. montanus seeds were collected in western Mexico, and the LQAs from these seeds were extracted and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. This LQA extract was administered to the right lateral ventricle of adult rats through a stainless steel cannula on five consecutive days. While control animals received 10 microl of sesame oil daily (vehicle), the experimental rats (10 per group) received 20 ng of LQA from either L. exaltatus or from L. montanus. All the animals were sacrificed 40 h after receiving the last dose of alkaloids, and their brains were removed, fixed and coronal paraffin sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Immediately after the administration of LQA the animals began grooming and suffered tachycardia, tachypnea, piloerection, tail erection, muscular contractions, loss of equilibrium, excitation, and unsteady walk. In the brains of the animals treated with LQA damaged neurons were identified. The most frequent abnormalities observed in this brain tissue were "red neurons" with shrunken eosinophilic cytoplasm, strongly stained pyknotic nuclei, neuronal swelling, spongiform neuropil, "ghost cells" (hypochromasia), and abundant neuronophagic figures in numerous brain areas. While some alterations in neurons were observed in control tissues, unlike those found in the animals treated with LQA these were not significant. Thus, the histopathological changes observed can be principally attributed to the administration of sparteine and lupanine present in the alkaloid extracts.

  16. Compensation for oil pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Liability and compensation for pollution damage caused by oil spills from laden tankers is governed by two international conventions: the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability Convention established a system of strict liability for tanker owners and introduced compulsory liability insurance. The Fund Convention created a system of supplementary compensation administered by an intergovernmental organization, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), which at present has 56 member states (August 1993). The IOPC Fund pays compensation to victims of oil pollution in member states when the compensation from the ship owner and his insurer is insufficient. (author)

  17. The causes of skin damage and leg ulceration in chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip Coleridge

    2006-09-01

    Chronic venous disease with skin changes of the leg is a common condition affecting up to 1 in 20 people in westernized countries. The causes of this problem are not fully understood, although research in recent years has revealed a number of important mechanisms that contribute to the disease process. Patients with chronic venous disease suffer persistently raised pressures in their deep and superficial veins in the lower limb. Leucocytes become "trapped" in the circulation of the leg during periods of venous hyper-tension produced by sitting or standing. Studies of the plasma levels of neutrophil granule enzymes shows that these are increased during periods of venous hypertension, suggesting that this causes activation of the neutrophils. Investigation of the leucocyte surface ligands CD11b and CD62L shows that the more activated neutrophils and monocytes are sequestered during venous hypertension. Measurement of plasma levels of the soluble parts of the endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM, ICAM, and ELAM show that these are all elevated in patients with chronic venous disease compared to controls. Following 30 minutes of venous hypertension produced by standing, these levels are further increased. These data suggest that venous hypertension causes neutrophil and monocyte activation, which in turn causes injury to the endothelium. Chronic injury to the endothelium leads to a chronic inflammatory condition of the skin that we know clinically as lipodermatosclerosis. This is mediated by perivascular inflammatory cells, principally macrophages, in the skin microcirculation. These stimulate fibroblasts in the skin leading to tissue remodeling and laying down of fibrous tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates proliferation of capillaries within the skin. Skin in this state has the potential to ulcerate in response to minor injury.

  18. [The phylogenetic theory of pathology. The arterial hypertension--a test of metabolic disorder. The biological basis of damage of target organs (a lecture)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2013-05-01

    The increase of blood tension is a diagnostic test of disorders of homeostasis, trophology, endoecology and adaptation in paracrine regulated coenosis of cells. This conditions results in disorder of microcirculation in the distal section of arterial race and in compensatory increase of blood tension in its proximal section. The increase of blood tension disturbs the function of paracrine coenosis of cells which have one's own system of hemo- and hydrodynamics such as brain with system of spinal liquor and kidneys with local pool of primary urine. They counteract the rise of blood tension and activate local, humoral system of renin-angiotensin-II increasing peripheral resistance to blood flow. At that, the compensatory blood tension becomes even higher. The aldosterone and natriuretic peptides are functional synergists. So, they preserve and excrete ions of Na+ and support the stability of unified pool of intercellular medium ("Inner Ocean" of organism) where all cells live. The parameters of this pool are limited most strictly in vivo. If at the level of nephron the conditions are formed that can alter the parameters of unified pool of intercellular medium the vasomotor center rises blood tension from the level of organism "forcing" nephrons to re-establish the parameters of this pool and normalize the biological functions and biological reactions. The blood pressure increase under pathology of kidneys is caused because of pathological compensation at the level of organism mediated by vegetal nervous system and dictated by necessity to preserve the parameters of inner medium of organism.

  19. UV-B component of sunlight causes measurable damage in field-grown maize (Zea mays L.): developmental and cellular heterogeneity of damage and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, A.E.; Thornber, C.S.; Walbot, V.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation has diverse morphogenetic and damaging effects on plants. The end point of damage is reduced plant growth, but in the short term UV radiation damages specific cellular components. We measured cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in maize DNA from plants grown in natural solar radiation. Green maize tissues had detectable DNA damage, roots had less damage, and anthers had much more damage than green leaves. This heterogeneity in damage levels may reflect differences in dose received or in damage repair. The architecture of green tissues had no measurable effects on DNA damage levels, as leaf sheath and leaf blade were equivalent. We observed a slight increase in damage levels in plants sampled at the end of the day, but there was no accumulation of damage over the growing season. We measured photoreactivation, and found substantial levels of this light-dependent repair in both the epidermis and inner cell layers of leaves, and in all organelles that contain DNA – the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria. We conclude that maize has efficient mechanisms for photo repair of daily UV-induced DNA damage that prevent accumulation

  20. Interface Control Document for the EMPACT Module that Estimates Electric Power Transmission System Response to EMP-Caused Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mccown, Andrew William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)ory

    2016-06-26

    The EPREP code is designed to evaluate the effects of an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) on the electric power transmission system. The EPREP code embodies an umbrella framework that allows a user to set up analysis conditions and to examine analysis results. The code links to three major physics/engineering modules. The first module describes the EM wave in space and time. The second module evaluates the damage caused by the wave on specific electric power (EP) transmission system components. The third module evaluates the consequence of the damaged network on its (reduced) ability to provide electric power to meet demand. This third module is the focus of the present paper. The EMPACT code serves as the third module. The EMPACT name denotes EMP effects on Alternating Current Transmission systems. The EMPACT algorithms compute electric power transmission network flow solutions under severely damaged network conditions. Initial solutions are often characterized by unacceptible network conditions including line overloads and bad voltages. The EMPACT code contains algorithms to adjust optimally network parameters to eliminate network problems while minimizing outages. System adjustments include automatically adjusting control equipment (generator V control, variable transformers, and variable shunts), as well as non-automatic control of generator power settings and minimal load shedding. The goal is to evaluate the minimal loss of customer load under equilibrium (steady-state) conditions during peak demand.

  1. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  2. Environmental enrichment may protect against neural and behavioural damage caused by withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use. The environmental enrichment (EE) has a protective effect on the neural and cognitive impairments induced by psychoactive drugs, including ethyl alcohol. The present study aims to determine the influence of withdrawal from intermittent long-term alcohol exposure on alcohol preference, emotional reactivity and neural aspects of early isolated or grouped reared rats kept under standard or complex environments and the influence of social isolation on these measures, as well. Our results point out new insights on this matter showing that the EE can attenuate the adverse effects of withdrawal and social isolation on rat's behavior. This effect is probably due to its protective action on the mPFC integrity, including the cingulate area 1 (Cg1), and the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortex (IL), what could account for the absence of changes in the emotional reactivity in EE alcohol withdrawal rats. We argue that morphological changes at these cortical levels can afford the emotional, cognitive and behavioural dysregulations verified following withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effect of Xingnaojia formulation on rats with brain and liver damage caused by chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Wang, S U; Guo, Zhi-Gang; Huang, Ning; Zhao, Fan-Rong; Zhu, Mo-Li; Ma, Li-Juan; Liang, Jin-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Zhong-Lin; Wan, Guang-Rui

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a formulation of traditional Chinese medicine extracts known as Xingnaojia (XNJ) on the liver function, learning ability and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism and to verify the mechanism by which it protects the brain and liver. A rat model of chronic alcoholism was used in the study. The spatial learning ability and memory of the rats were tested. The rats were then sacrificed and their brains and hepatic tissues were isolated. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of glutamate (Glu), N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the hippocampus were analyzed. The ultrastructure of the hepatic tissue was observed by electron microscopy. In addition, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in serum were tested and the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TCHOL) were analyzed. XNJ enhanced the learning and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism. Treatment with XNJ increased the activity of SOD, and decreased the expression levels of NR2B mRNA and NR2B, CB1 and CDK5 proteins in the brain tissues compared with those in the model rats. It also increased the activity of ALDH in the serum and liver, decreased the serum levels of LDL, TG and TCHOL and increased the serum level of HDL. These results indicate that XNJ exhibited a protective effect against brain and liver damage in rats with chronic alcoholism.

  4. A comparison of penetration and damage caused by different types of arrowheads on loose and tight fit clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Nichole; Savage, Anne; Noton, Nikolas; Beattie, Eilidh; Milne, Louise; Fraser, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Bows and arrows are used more for recreation, sport and hunting in the Western world and tend not to be as popular a weapon as firearms or knives. Yet there are still injuries and fatalities caused by these low-velocity weapons due to their availability to the public and that a licence is not required to own them. This study aimed to highlight the penetration capabilities of aluminium arrows into soft tissue and bones in the presence of clothing. Further from that, how the type and fit of clothing as well as arrowhead type contribute to penetration capacity. In this study ballistic gelatine blocks (non-clothed and loose fit or tight fit clothed) were shot using a 24lb weight draw recurve bow and aluminium arrows accompanied by four different arrowheads (bullet, judo, blunt and broadhead). The penetration capability of aluminium arrows was examined, and the depth of penetration was found to be dependent on the type of arrowhead used as well as by the type and fit or lack thereof of the clothing covering the block. Loose fit clothing reduced penetration with half of the samples, reducing penetration capacity by percentages between 0% and 98.33%, at a range of 10m. While the remaining half of the samples covered with tight clothing led to reductions in penetration of between 14.06% and 94.12%. The damage to the clothing and the gelatine (puncturing, cutting and tearing) was affected by the shape of the arrowhead, with the least damaged caused by the blunt arrowheads and the most by the broadhead arrows. Clothing fibres were also at times found within the projectile tract within the gelatine showing potential for subsequent infection of an individual with an arrow wound. Ribs, femur bones and spinal columns encased in some of the gelatine blocks all showed varying levels of damage, with the most and obvious damage being exhibited by the ribs and spinal column. The information gleaned from the damage to clothing, gelatine blocks and bones could potentially be useful for

  5. Enterococcus faecalis infection causes inflammation, intracellular oxphos-independent ROS production, and DNA damage in human gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper A B Strickertsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. METHODS: To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells we established an in vitro E. faecalis infection model system using the gastric carcinoma cell line MKN74. Total ROS and superoxide was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular oxygen consumption was characterized non-invasively using XF24 microplate based respirometry. Gene expression was examined by microarray, and response pathways were identified by Gene Set Analysis (GSA. Selected gene transcripts were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial mutations were determined by sequencing. RESULTS: Infection of MKN74 cells with E. faecalis induced intracellular ROS production through a pathway independent of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos. Furthermore, E. faecalis infection induced mitochondrial DNA instability. Following infection, genes coding for inflammatory response proteins were transcriptionally up-regulated while DNA damage repair and cell cycle control genes were down-regulated. Cell growth slowed down when infected with viable E. faecalis and responded in a dose dependent manner to E. faecalis lysate. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by E. faecalis induced an oxphos-independent intracellular ROS response and damaged the mitochondrial genome in gastric cell culture. Finally the bacteria induced an NF-κB inflammatory response as well as impaired DNA damage response and cell cycle control gene

  6. Aluminium-induced excessive ROS causes cellular damage and metabolic shifts in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowra, Umakanta; Yanase, Emiko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium-induced oxidative damage caused by excessive ROS production was evaluated in black gram pulse crop. Black gram plants were treated with different aluminium (Al 3+ ) concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM with pH 4.7) and further the effects of Al 3+ were characterised by means of root growth inhibition, histochemical assay, ROS content analysis, protein carbonylation quantification and 1 H-NMR analysis. The results showed that aluminium induces excessive ROS production which leads to cellular damage, root injury, stunt root growth and other metabolic shifts. In black gram, Al 3+ induces cellular damage at the earliest stage of stress which was characterised from histochemical analysis. From this study, it was observed that prolonged stress can activate certain aluminium detoxification defence mechanism. Probably excessive ROS triggers such defence mechanism in black gram. Al 3+ can induce excessive ROS initially in the root region then transported to other parts of the plant. As much as the Al 3+ concentration increases, the rate of cellular injury and ROS production also increases. But after 72 h of stress, plants showed a lowered ROS level and cellular damage which indicates the upregulation of defensive mechanisms. Metabolic shift analysis also showed that the black gram plant under stress has less metabolic content after 24 h of treatment, but gradually, it was increased after 72 h of treatment. It was assumed that ROS played the most important role as a signalling molecule for aluminium stress in black gram.

  7. Safety assessment of the potential for foreign object - caused fretting - wear damages on PWR steam generator U-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Jhung, Myung Jo; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the safety assessment of the potential for fretting-wear damages on Steam Generator (SG) U-tubes caused by foreign object in operating nuclear power plants. The operating SG shell-side flow field conditions are obtained from three-dimensional SG flow calculation using the ATHOS3 code. Modal analyses are performed for the finite element modelings of U-tubes to get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor. The wear rate of U-tube caused by foreign object is calculated using the Archard formula and the remaining life of the tube is predicted. Also, discussed in this study are the effects of flow velocity, internal pressure, tube-to-foreign object contact angle, and vibration of the tube on the remaining life of the tube

  8. Bodily ownership modulation in defensive responses: physiological evidence in brain-damaged patients with pathological embodiment of other’s body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossataro, C.; Gindri, P.; Mezzanato, T.; Pia, L.; Garbarini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Do conscious beliefs about the body affect defensive mechanisms within the body? To answer this question we took advantage from a monothematic delusion of bodily ownership, in which brain-damaged patients misidentify alien limbs as their own. We investigated whether the delusional belief that an alien hand is their own hand modulates a subcortical defensive response, such as the hand-blink reflex. The blink, dramatically increases when the threated hand is inside the defensive peripersonal-space of the face. In our between-subjects design, including patients and controls, the threat was brought near the face either by the own hand or by another person’s hand. Our results show an ownership-dependent modulation of the defensive response. In controls, as well as in the patients’ intact-side, the response enhancement is significantly greater when the threat was brought near the face by the own than by the alien hand. Crucially, in the patients’ affected-side (where the pathological embodiment occurs), the alien (embodied) hand elicited a response enhancement comparable to that found when the threat is brought near the face by the real hand. These findings suggest the existence of a mutual interaction between our conscious beliefs about the body and the physiological mechanisms within the body. PMID:27292285

  9. Pathological jealousy and pathological love: Apples to apples or apples to oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravogiannis, Andrea Lorena da C; Kim, Hyoun S; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Zilberman, Monica L; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-01-01

    Pathological jealousy evokes emotions, thoughts, and behaviors that cause damage to social and interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, pathological love is the uncontrollable behavior of caring for a partner that results in neglecting the needs of the self. The aim of the present research was to assess the similarities and differences between the two psychopathologies of love. To this end, thirty-two individuals with pathological jealousy and 33 individuals with pathological love were compared on demographics, aspects of romantic relationship (jealousy, satisfaction, love style), psychiatric co-morbidities, personality and psychological characteristics (e.g., impulsivity). In a univariate analysis individuals with pathological jealousy were more likely to be in a current relationship and reported greater satisfaction. The avoidant attachment and the ludus love style were associated with pathological jealousy whereas the secure attachment and agape love style was associated with pathological love. Almost three-quarters (72.3%) of the sample met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder, however no differences emerged between the pathological jealousy and pathological love groups. In a binary logistic regression, relationship status and impairments in parenting significantly differentiated the groups. While both pathological jealousy and pathological love share similarities, they also present with unique differences, which may have important treatment implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of anterior teeth damage caused by complex caries through aesthetic endorestoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a microbiological disease that result in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. It is multifactorial, therefore prevention must be based on a multifactorial approach. The damage of anterior teeth due to complex caries, for certain person may interfere their performance and decrease their self confidence aesthetically. Restoration of tooth form and function, especially on anterior teeth is highly valuable. Purpose: To present a case of maxillary anterior teeth with complex caries, through endorestoration treatment for recovering its original function and aesthetic. Case: The 21 years old male patient with complex carries on maxillary anterior teeth number 12, 11, 21, 22 and 23. The patient felt bad about his performance and affect his self confidence. The patient visited the clinic to repair his teeth and to get its form and function aesthetically. Case management: The endorestoration treatment was performed for carious teeth through pulpectomy followed by insertion of post retention and porcelain fused to metal crowns. Conclusion: Anterior teeth with severed complex caries can be managed through endorestoration treatment to recover its performance and function aesthetically.Latar belakang: Dental karies adalah penyakit infeksi yang berakibat kerusakan jaringan kalsifikasi dan bersifat multifactorial. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dilakukan dengan pendekatan multifactorial. Kerusakan gigi anterior karena karies kompleks untuk orang-orang tertentu mungkin berdampak pada penampilan dan penurunan kepercayaan diri karena factor estetik. Perbaikan gigi anterior dari berbagai kerusakan baik dalam hal bentuk maupun fungsinya sangat besar nilainya. Tujuan: Untuk menunjukkan kasus gigi anterior rahang atas karena karies kompleks melalui perawatan endorestorasi untuk mengembalikan fungsi gigi asli dan estetik. Kasus: Laki-laki usia 21 tahun dengan karies kompleks pada gigi anterior rahang atas 12, 11, 21

  11. Chronic cigarette smoke causes oxidative damage and apoptosis to retinal pigmented epithelial cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Fujihara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop features of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Two month old C57Bl6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or cigarette smoke in a smoking chamber for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 months. Eyes were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde/2% paraformaldehyde and examined for ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. The contralateral eye was fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and examined for oxidative injury to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG immunolabeling and apoptosis by TUNEL labeling. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke had immunolabeling for 8-OHdG in 85+/-3.7% of RPE cells counted compared to 9.5+/-3.9% in controls (p<0.00001. Bruch membrane was thicker in mice exposed to smoke (1086+/-332 nm than those raised in air (543+/-132 nm; p = 0.0069. The two most pronounced ultrastructural changes (severity grading scale from 0-3 seen were a loss of basal infoldings (mean difference in grade = 1.98; p<0.0001, and an increase in intracellular vacuoles (mean difference in grade = 1.7; p<0.0001. Ultrastructural changes to Bruch membrane in cigarette-smoke exposed mice were smaller in magnitude but consistently demonstrated significantly higher grade injury in cigarette-exposed mice, including basal laminar deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.54; p<0.0001, increased outer collagenous layer deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.59; p = 0.002, and increased basal laminar deposit continuity (mean difference in grade = 0.4; p<0.0001. TUNEL assay showed a higher percentage of apoptotic RPE from mice exposed to cigarette smoke (average 8.0+/-1.1% than room air (average 0+/-0%; p = 0.043. Mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop evidence of oxidative damage with ultrastructural degeneration to the RPE and Bruch membrane, and RPE cell apoptosis. This model could be useful for studying the

  12. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-05-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health consequences caused by this fraud. From 2009 to 2015, approximately nine million fraudulent Volkswagen cars, as sold in Europe and the US, emitted a cumulative amount of 526 ktonnes of nitrogen oxides more than was legally allowed. These fraudulent emissions are associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars, which is approximately 5.3 times larger than the 7.3 billion US dollars that Volkswagen Group has set aside to cover worldwide costs related to the diesel emissions scandal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An assessment of environmental damage caused by NATO bombing of NIS Jugopetrol facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, D.; Radu, A.; Novakovic, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper present our investigation of the effects of NATO bombing of the Jugopetrol facilities in Serbia during the Spring of 1999. Concentrations of hazardous material in air, water and soil have been measured and compared to the situation before the bombing. Only partial results are presented in this paper. High concentrations of hydrocarbons were detected in the air immediately after the bombing and the destruction of installations, due to burning and evaporation of oil derivatives. A great amount of spilled mineral oils has been detected in water and soil near the destroyed installations. We have detected a noticeable increase in pollution after the NATO bombing. In addition to above mentioned pollution, the destruction of large parts of waste treatment system within the Jugopetrol's installations caused severe environmental problems. The recovery of the destroyed installation and waste treatment systems require considerable amount of money and time, and cannot be accomplished without the help of foreign investment. (author)

  14. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Yuko; MAEDA, Kaori; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger’s beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger’s beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger’s beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases. PMID:25328004

  15. An FBXO40 knockout generated by CRISPR/Cas9 causes muscle hypertrophy in pigs without detectable pathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Li, Zhiyuan; Zou, Yunjing; Hao, Haiyang; Li, Ning; Li, Qiuyan

    2018-04-15

    The regulatory function of Fbxo40 has been well characterized in mice. As a key component of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, Fbxo40 induces IRS1 ubiquitination, thus inactivating the IGF1/Akt pathway. The expression of Fbxo40 is restricted to muscle, and mice with an Fbxo40 null mutation exhibit muscle hypertrophy. However, the function of FBXO40 has not been elucidated in pigs, and it is not known whether FBXO40 mutations affect their health. We therefore generated FBXO40 knockout pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. CRISPR/Cas9 technology was combined with G418 selection, making it possible to generate donor cells at an efficiency of 75.86%. In muscle from FBXO40 knockout pigs, IRS1 levels were higher, and the IGF1/Akt pathway was stimulated. Mutant animals also had approximately 4% more muscle mass compared to WT controls. The knockout pigs developed normally and no pathological changes were found in major organs. These results demonstrate that FBXO40 is a promising candidate gene for improving production traits in agricultural livestock and for developing therapeutic interventions for muscle diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Feeding behavior and crop damage caused by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, G A; Almeida Paz, I C L; Piovezan, U; Garcia, R G; Lima, K A O; Nääs, I A; Salgado, D D; Pilecco, M; Belloni, M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the yield loss caused by capybaras in rural areas of Dourados-MS, their feeding periods, crop preferences and the landscape characteristics of farms that may affect the occurrence of capybara's herds. Semi-structured interviews in 24 different farms were done during a period between April 2010 and August 2011. Field observations were held at different times of the day, and also during the night in order to record peaks of the feeding behavior in six farms. Direct counting of capybaras along with the group of animals reported as seen by the farmers during the interviews was used to estimate the size of herds. Data was analyzed using the Principal Components Analyses and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The average number of capybaras found in a regular herd was 18.8 ± 7.90 animals. The average number of capybara herd by farms was of 1.38 ± 0.92 while the average number of capybaras by farms was 32.33 ± 27.87. Capybaras selected rice (Oryza sativa) when it was available (14.5% of devastation in 1.18% of total planted area); however, the most eaten crop was corn (Zea mays) with 38.55% of loss rate in 16.17% of the total planted area. Capybaras ate mostly in the evening and during the night. The availability of water resources in the rural area predisposed the occurrence of capybara's herds.

  17. Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy in Mice Causes Placental Damage and Fetal Demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Cao, Bin; Govero, Jennifer; Smith, Amber M; Fernandez, Estefania; Cabrera, Omar H; Garber, Charise; Noll, Michelle; Klein, Robyn S; Noguchi, Kevin K; Mysorekar, Indira U; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-05-19

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women causes intrauterine growth restriction, spontaneous abortion, and microcephaly. Here, we describe two mouse models of placental and fetal disease associated with in utero transmission of ZIKV. Female mice lacking type I interferon signaling (Ifnar1(-/-)) crossed to wild-type (WT) males produced heterozygous fetuses resembling the immune status of human fetuses. Maternal inoculation at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) or E7.5 resulted in fetal demise that was associated with ZIKV infection of the placenta and fetal brain. We identified ZIKV within trophoblasts of the maternal and fetal placenta, consistent with a trans-placental infection route. Antibody blockade of Ifnar1 signaling in WT pregnant mice enhanced ZIKV trans-placental infection although it did not result in fetal death. These models will facilitate the study of ZIKV pathogenesis, in utero transmission, and testing of therapies and vaccines to prevent congenital malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  19. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  20. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Oliveira, L.V.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 μL of concentrated venom (40 μg/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm 2 energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  1. Damage caused by a nanosecond UV laser on a heated copper surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henč-Bartolić, V., E-mail: visnja.henc@fer.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jakovljević, S., E-mail: suzana.jakovljevic@fsb.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Panjan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zupanič, F. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A Cu-plate was exposed to nanosecond UV laser with max. energy 1.1 J/cm{sup 2}. • Surface topography was studied on the cold and heated copper plate. • At room temperature, a crater formed, the melt was ejected from it. • Capillary waves formed in the vicinity of the crater at 360 °C. - Abstract: This work studied the effect of thin copper plate temperature on its surface morphology after irradiation using a pulsed nanosecond UV laser. The surface characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and stylus profilometry. When a target was at room temperature, a crater and the radial flow of molten Cu from the crater was observed. When the thin target was warm (about 360 °C ± 20 °C), a crater was smaller, and quasi-semicircular waves with the periodicity of around 3 μm appeared in its vicinity. The origin of the waves is Marangoni effect, causing thermocapillary waves, which in same occasions had a structure of final states of chaos in Rayleigh–Bénard convection.

  2. To Investigate the Effect of Colchicine in Prevention of Adhesions Caused by Serosal Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Adhesion formation is a process which starts with an inflammation caused by a number of factors and eventually results in fibrosis. Colchicine prevents adhesion formation which is antifibrous process. The effectivity of colchicine in the prevention of adhesions was investigated. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 rats were equally divided into three groups: (I control group 1 (n=12, (II abrasion group 2 (n=12, and (III abrasion + colchicine group 3 (n=12. Group 1 underwent laparotomy and was orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 2, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and they were orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 3, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and the rats were orally given colchicine 50 mcg kg/day mixed with physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and adhesions were examined both macroscopically and microscopically. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed using Zühlke’s score. Results. A significant difference was observed among the adhesion scores of the groups both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Microscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion. Oral administration of colchicine is effective in the prevention of adhesions.

  3. Executive order no. 433 of 24th May 1996. Executive order on the international fund for compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Danish executive order on the international fund for the compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992 is related to the Danish law no. 205 of March 29th 1996, and is based on the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Damage, 1992. The document includes the convention's protocol presented in French, Danish and English. (AB)

  4. Can Diopatra neapolitana (Annelida: Onuphidae) regenerate body damage caused by bait digging or predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A.; Freitas, R.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The regenerative ability of Diopatra neapolitana was evaluated under laboratory conditions following nine experimental amputation levels: before the beginning of the branchiae (chaetiger 3 or 4), in the branchial region, at chaetigers 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 and after the branchiae, at chaetigers 45-55. Specimens amputated at the 20th chaetiger were not able to regenerate and did not survive. The posterior portion of the specimens amputated up to chaetiger 15, regenerated the anterior part but the anterior ends were unable to survive. The anterior end of the specimens amputated at and beyond the 25th chaetiger regenerated the posterior part but the posterior ends were not able to regenerate an anterior part. Percent survival was directly related to the number of branchial segments left in the regenerating specimen and reached 100% only when the specimens were amputated beyond the branchial region. These results indicate that the species has regenerative ability and should survive the loss of a few anterior chaetigers, namely caused by predation. However, the results also indicate that bait digging could impair the survival of the posterior part remaining in the tube, as usually more than 20 chaetigers are harvested by bait collectors. Regarding field-collected specimens, D. neapolitana was found regenerating a mean of 9.0 ± 2.51 chaetigers, and Diopatra marocensis 7.5 ± 1.93 chaetigers, at the anterior end. The higher percentage of field-collected specimens showing regeneration of the anterior end belonged to D. marocensis. Only very few specimens, for both species, were found regenerating the posterior part of the body.

  5. Dominant Repression by Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB44 Causes Oxidative Damage and Hypersensitivity to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Persak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  6. Investigating a potential biological treatment to prevent pathological fractures caused by unicameral bone cysts in children under 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Pascua, Luis R; Sánchez-Herraéz, Sergio; Casas-Ramos, Paula; Molnar Fuentes, Sebastián; Santos Sánchez, José Ángel

    2014-10-01

    There is no consensus on when and how to treat unicameral bone cysts (UBCs), partly because of a lack of knowledge of the aetiology. To review the different treatment techniques for UBCs and to describe our results with a single injection of autogenous bone marrow (BM) mixed with demineralised bone matrix (DBM) in very young children. We reviewed five patients under the age of 8 years with UBCs treated by percutaneous aspiration and a single injection of BM associated with DBM. The cyst was located in the proximal humerus in four patients and in the proximal femur in one patient. Assessment of the need for surgery was based on the clinical and radiographic suspicion of new pathological fractures. The administration of a second injection, when necessary, was based on the surgeon's judgement regarding the risk of fracture. The mean follow-up after first injection was 41 months. There were no complications related to the procedure, except a non-displaced fracture, which healed without problems. All patients were pain free and progressively resumed their activities without restriction until a new fracture occurred in two cases. According to Capanna's classification, only one case healed completely (grade 1), one lesion was classified as grade 2, and there were three recurrences at 11, 12 and 27 months after initial treatment (grade 3). The final outcome was treatment failure for three out of the five patients. Two patients were treated with a second injection and one patient is waiting for surgery. A single injection of aspirated autogenous BM mixed with DBM in very young children with active UBCs at risk of fracture is very simple, comfortable and safe. Nevertheless, the results seem to be unpredictable and are probably more dependent on the natural evolution of the cyst than on the treatment. Further comparative studies with larger sample numbers are needed.

  7. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  8. Effect of certain natural antioxidants in protecting against damage caused by gamma radiation in ischemic rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in various clinical pathologies one of which is ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)- induced injury. Intestinal I/R enhances production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory mediators and induces apoptosis. In other hand. the intestinal tract shows a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to a rapid cell turnover and is often implicated in radiation sickness the radiation damage may either be a consequence of a direct effect resulting in disruption of critical molecule (such as an enzyme or DNA) or an indirect effect through ionization of water molecules and formation of ROS. consequently, supplementation of antioxidants may be a beneficial approach to protect against cellular damages associated with oxidative stress. the current study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of vitamin E (100 mg/kg p.o.), tomato extract (67 mg/kg. p.o.) and turmeric (100 mg/kg, p.o) against ileal injury induced in rats by total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for another 30 min. Furthermore, this protective effect of the mentioned drugs was extended into injury that could happened in ileal tissues of rats exposed to (6 Gy) gamma radiation followed by intestinal I/R. Drugs were administered one daily for 14 consecutive days prior to the ischemic insult. Damage induced by I/R was manifested by depletion of ileal content of reduced glutathion (GSH) as well as Lactate dehydrogenas (LDH) activity, associated with elevation of ileal contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Intestinal ischemic insults were exacerbated by radiation injury on comparing different untreated controls; except the ileal content of GSH which has elevated due to the preconditioning effect of irradiation. Vitamin E provided a significant protection against the decrease in LDH activity as well as the increase in TBARS

  9. Pathological findings in the fatal case (the late Mr. Kuboyama) of the radiation sickness caused by Bikini ashes. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, S; Hashimoto, K; Fukushima, N; Tashiro, K; Sugano, H; Mori, W

    1955-01-01

    Autopsy findings and the case history are summarized from a case diagnosed as radiation sickness caused by exposure to fall-out from a thermonuclear explosion. The patient died 207 days following exposure while on a fishing boat said to be located about 100 mi east of Bikini at the time of the explosion. Evidence was also found of a secondary virus hepatitis and aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia.

  10. Enantioselective oxidative stress and oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Xia, YiLu; Cai, Weidan; Zhang, Yina; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Du, Shaoting

    2017-04-01

    The rational use and environmental security of chiral pesticides has gained the interest of many researchers. The enantioselective effects of Rac- and S-metolachlor on oxidative stress in Scenedesmus obliquus were determined in this study. Stronger green fluorescence was observed in response to S-metolachlor treatment than to Rac-metolachlor treatment, suggesting that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were stimulated by S-metolachlor. ROS levels following S-metolachlor treatment were 1.92-, 8.31-, and 1.08-times higher than those observed following Rac-metolachlor treatment at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were stimulated with increasing herbicide concentrations, with S-metolachlor exhibiting a greater effect. Oxidative damage in terms of chlorophyll (Chl) content, cellular membrane permeability, and cellular ultrastructures of S. obliquus were investigated. Chla and Chlb contents in algae treated with Rac-metolachlor were 2-6-fold higher than those in algae treated with S-metolachlor at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L. The cellular membrane permeability of algae exposed to 0.3 mg/L Rac- and S-metolachlor was 6.19- and 42.5-times that of the control. Correlation analysis implied that ROS are the major factor responsible for the oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor. Damage to the chloroplasts and cell membrane of S. obliquus, low production of starch granules, and an increased number of vacuoles were observed upon ultrastructural morphology analysis by transmission electron microscope. These results indicate that S-metolachlor has a greater effect on S. obliquus than Rac-metolachlor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The assessment of health damage caused by air pollution and its implication for policy making in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daisheng; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin; Larssen, Steinar; Liu Jianhui; Zhang Dingsheng

    2010-01-01

    We establish the link between energy use, air pollution, and public health impacts in Taiyuan for 2000, and for 2010 and 2015 under alternative scenarios. We find that in year 2000 more than 2200 excess deaths may have been caused by particulate matter (PM) pollution. Using alternative methods for monetization of health impacts the total health damage amounts to 0.8-1.7 billion Yuan, which is 2.4-4.9% of the city's GDP in 2000. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, scenarios assuming extensive fuel switch in low-and-medium-stack pollution sources and extension of the district heating system could prevent 200-1100 PM 10 -related premature deaths in 2010 and substantially reduce population morbidity. The actual PM pollution in 2007 was lower than modeled in these two scenarios. We also find that if air quality in urban Taiyuan were to reach the Chinese National Grade II Standard in 2015, the number of premature deaths would still be around 1330 and the economic cost about 1-2% of the city's GDP in 2015. Our results imply that there are large health benefits to be gained by setting stricter standards for the future in China, and that targeting low-and-medium-stack source effectively reduces health damage.

  12. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection.

  13. Image analysis of epicuticular damage to foliage caused by dry deposition of the air pollutant nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Pamela E; Parry, Sally D; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Heath, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Nitric acid vapor is produced by the same photochemical processes that produce ozone. In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidant. In the environment, where the concentrations are much lower, it is an innocuous source of plant nitrogen. As an air pollutant, which mode of action does dry deposition of nitric acid follow? We investigated the effects of dry deposition of nitric acid on the foliage of four tree species native to the western United States. A novel controlled environment, fumigation system enabled a four-week exposure at concentrations consistent with ambient diurnal patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and automated image analysis revealed changes in the epicuticular wax layer during fumigation. Exposure to nitric acid resulted in a reproducible suite of damage symptoms that increased with increasing dose. Each tree species tested exhibited a unique set of damage features, including cracks, lesions, and conformation changes to epicuticular crystallite structures. Dry deposition of atmospheric nitric acid caused substantial perturbation to the epicuticular surface of all four tree species investigated, consistent with the chemical oxidation of epicuticular waxes. Automated image analysis eliminated many biases that can trouble microscopy studies. Trade names and commercial enterprises or products are mentioned solely for information. No endorsements by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are implied.

  14. Oxidative damage of U937 human leukemic cells caused by hydroxyl radical results in singlet oxygen formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rác

    Full Text Available The exposure of human cells to oxidative stress leads to the oxidation of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nuclei acids. In this study, the oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA was studied after the addition of hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent to cell suspension containing human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937. EPR spin-trapping data showed that the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the cell suspension formed hydroxyl radical via Fenton reaction mediated by endogenous metals. The malondialdehyde HPLC analysis showed no lipid peroxidation after the addition of hydrogen peroxide, whereas the Fenton reagent caused significant lipid peroxidation. The formation of protein carbonyls monitored by dot blot immunoassay and the DNA fragmentation measured by comet assay occurred after the addition of both hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent. Oxidative damage of biomolecules leads to the formation of singlet oxygen as conformed by EPR spin-trapping spectroscopy and the green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It is proposed here that singlet oxygen is formed by the decomposition of high-energy intermediates such as dioxetane or tetroxide formed by oxidative damage of biomolecules.

  15. Feeling touch on the own hand restores the capacity to visually discriminate it from someone else' hand: Pathological embodiment receding in brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossataro, Carlotta; Bruno, Valentina; Gindri, Patrizia; Pia, Lorenzo; Berti, Anna; Garbarini, Francesca

    2017-06-23

    The sense of body ownership, i.e., the belief that a specific body part belongs to us, can be selectively impaired in brain-damaged patients. Recently, a pathological form of embodiment has been described in patients who, when the examiner's hand is located in a body-congruent position, systematically claim that it is their own hand (E+ patients). This paradoxical behavior suggests that, in these patients, the altered sense of body ownership also affects their capacity of visually discriminating the body-identity details of the own and the alien hand, even when both hands are clearly visible on the table. Here, we investigated whether, in E+ patients with spared tactile sensibility, a coherent body ownership could be restored by introducing a multisensory conflict between what the patients feel on the own hand and what they see on the alien hand. To this aim, we asked the patients to rate their sense of body ownership over the alien hand, either after segregated tactile stimulations of the own hand (out of view) and of the alien hand (visible) or after synchronous and asynchronous tactile stimulations of both hands, as in the rubber hand illusion set-up. Our results show that, when the tactile sensation perceived on the patient's own hand was in conflict with visual stimuli observed on the examiner's hand, E+ patients noticed the conflict and spontaneously described visual details of the (visible) examiner's hand (e.g., the fingers length, the nails shape, the skin color…), to conclude that it was not their own hand. These data represent the first evidence that, in E+ patients, an incongruent visual-tactile stimulation of the own and of the alien hand reduces, at least transitorily, the delusional body ownership over the alien hand, by restoring the access to the perceptual self-identity system, where visual body identity details are stored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calculation of Core Damage Frequency for the Change of the Common Cause Failure Parameters According to the Testing Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil You; Jin, Young Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2011-01-01

    Common cause failure (CCF) probabilities are differently estimated according to testing strategies. There are two representative testing schemes; staggered testing and non-staggered testing schemes. For the cases where trains or channels of standby safety systems consisting of more than two redundant components are tested in a staggered manner, the standby safety components within a train can be tested simultaneously or consecutively. In this case, mixed testing scheme, staggered and non-staggered testing schemes, are used for testing the components. Kang et al. derived the formulas for the estimations of the CCF probabilities of the components under the mixed testing scheme. This paper presents the sensitivity study results on the core damage frequency (CDF) of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) for the changes of the CCF parameters according to the testing strategies

  17. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we...... therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. Methods To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells...... we established an in vitro E. faecalis infection model system using the gastric carcinoma cell line MKN74. Total ROS and superoxide was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular oxygen consumption was characterized non-invasively using XF24 microplate based respirometry. Gene expression...

  18. Biological and chemical diagnosis of damage to crops caused by air pollution and tracing the source of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Raay, A

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the biological and chemical diagnosis of damage of crops caused by air pollution. Field observations were made as well as trials in fumigation chambers. The field work showed a great deal of fluoride contamination near industrial plants. A network of monitoring points was set up around the fluoride-emitting sources. The HF pollution was determined by the limed paper method, the fluoride content of plants, leaf necrosis in some plants, and an impinger and tubes filled with coated silver pellets, directed by a weather-vane. These investigations were carried out in two areas of New Zealand as well as near Delfzijl in Groningen. Fluoride was emitted by factories producing aluminum, superphosphate or sodium triphosphate.

  19. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika; Erika: elements d'evaluation des dommages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  20. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  1. Using Information from Rendezvous Missions for Best-Case Appraisals of Impact Damage to Planet Earth Caused by Natural Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James O.; Chodas, Paul W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Mathias, Donovan L.; Burkhard, Craig D.

    2017-01-01

    The Asteroid Threat Assessment Project (ATAP), a part of NASAs Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) has the responsibility to appraise the range of surface damage by potential asteroid impacts on land or water. If a threat is realized, the project will provide appraisals to officials empowered to make decisions about potential mitigation actions. This paper describes a scenario for assessment of surface damage when characterization of an asteroid had been accomplished by a rendezvous mission that would be conducted by the international planetary defense community. It is shown that the combination of data from ground and in-situ measurements on an asteroid provides knowledge that can be used to pin-point its impact location and predict the level of devastation it would cause. The hypothetical asteroid 2017 PDC with a size range of 160 to 290 m in diameter to be discussed at the PDC 2017 is used as an example. In order of importance for appraising potential damage, information required is: (1) where will the surface impact occur? (2) what is the mass, shape and size of the asteroid and what is its entry state (speed and entry angle) at the 100 km atmospheric pierce point? And (3) is the asteroid a monolith or a rubble pile? If it is a rubble pile, what is its structure and heterogeneity from the surface and throughout its interior? Item (1) is of first order importance to determine levels of devastation (loss of life and infrastructure damage) because it varies strongly on the impact location. Items (2) and (3) are used as inputs for ATAPs simulations to define the level of surface hazards: winds, overpressure, thermal exposure; all created by the deposition of energy during the objects atmospheric flight, andor cratering. Topics presented in this paper include: (i) the devastation predicted by 2017 PDCs impact on land based on initial observations using ATAPs risk assessment capability, (ii) how information corresponding to items (1) to (3) could be obtained

  2. Assessment of thermal fatigue damage caused by local fluid temperature fluctuation (part I: characteristics of constraint and stress caused by thermal striation and stratification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The source of the membrane constraint due to local temperature fluctuation was shown. • Thermal fatigue that occurred at a mixing tee and branched elbow was analyzed. • Cracking occurrence was reasonably explained by the constraint and stress conditions. - Abstract: This study was aimed at identifying the constraint conditions under local temperature fluctuation by thermal striping at a mixing tee and by thermal stratification at an elbow pipe branched from the main pipe. Numerical and analytical approaches were made to derive the thermal stress and its fluctuation. It was shown that an inhomogeneous temperature distribution in a straight pipe caused thermal stress due to a membrane constraint even if an external membrane constraint did not act on the pipe. Although the membrane constraint increased the mean stress at the mixing tee, it did not contribute to fluctuation of the thermal stress. On the other hand, the membrane constraint played an important role in the fatigue damage accumulation near the stratification layer of the branched elbow. Based on the constraint and stress conditions analyzed, the characteristics of the cracking observed in actual nuclear power plants were reasonably explained. Namely, at the mixing tee, where thermal crazing has been found, the lack of contribution of the membrane constraint to stress fluctuation caused a stress gradient in the thickness direction and arrested crack growth. On the other hand, at the branched elbow, where axial through-wall cracks have been found, the relatively large hoop stress fluctuation was brought about by movement of the stratified layer together with the membrane constraint even under a relatively low frequency of stress fluctuation

  3. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, Antonius W.T.; Faber, Hette; Cotteleer, Femmy; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. Single doses up to 40 Gy were applied. Parotid saliva samples were collected, and the three lobes of the parotid gland were examined individually on the macro- and micromorphologic level up to 1 year after irradiation. Results: Dose-dependent loss of gland weight was observed 1 year after total or partial X-irradiation. Weight loss of the glands correlated very well with loss of secretory function. Irradiating the cranial 50% volume (implicating a shielded lateral lobe) resulted in substantially more damage in terms of weight loss and loss of secretory function than 50% caudal irradiation (shielding the ventral and dorsal lobe). Histologic examinations of the glands 1 year after irradiation revealed that the shielded lateral lobe was severely affected, in contrast to the shielded ventral and dorsal lobes. Time studies showed that irradiation of the cranial 50% volume caused late development of secondary damage in the shielded lateral lobe, becoming manifest between 240 and 360 days after irradiation. The possible clinical significance of this finding is discussed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the observed region-dependent volume effect for late function loss in the rat parotid gland after partial irradiation is mainly caused by secondary events in the shielded lateral lobe. The most probable first step (primary radiation event) in the development of this secondary damage is radiation exposure to the hilus region (located between the ventral and dorsal lobe). By injuring major excretory ducts and supply routes for blood and nerves in this area, the facility system necessary for proper functioning of the nonexposed lateral lobe is seriously affected

  4. Polymorphisms in metabolism and repair genes affects DNA damage caused by open-cast coal mining exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; León-Mejía, Grethel; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Brango, Hugo; Kvitko, Katia; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggest that occupational exposure to open-cast coal mining residues like dust particles, heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause a wide range of DNA damage and genomic instability that could be associated to initial steps in cancer development and other work-related diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate if key polymorphisms in metabolism genes CYP1A1Msp1, GSTM1Null, GSTT1Null and DNA repair genes XRCC1Arg194Trp and hOGG1Ser326Cys could modify individual susceptibility to adverse coal exposure effects, considering the DNA damage (Comet assay) and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes (CBMN) and buccal mucosa cells (BMNCyt) as endpoints for genotoxicity. The study population is comprised of 200 healthy male subjects, 100 open-cast coal-mining workers from "El Cerrejón" (world's largest open-cast coal mine located in Guajira - Colombia) and 100 non-exposed referents from general population. The data revealed a significant increase of CBMN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed workers carrying the wild-type variant of GSTT1 (+) gene. Exposed subjects carrying GSTT1null polymorphism showed a lower micronucleus frequency compared with their positive counterparts (FR: 0.83; P=0.04), while BMNCyt, frequency and Comet assay parameters in lymphocytes: Damage Index (DI) and percentage of DNA in the tail (Tail % DNA) were significantly higher in exposed workers with the GSTM1Null polymorphism. Other exfoliated buccal mucosa abnormalities related to cell death (Karyorrhexis and Karyolysis) were increased in GSTT/M1Null carriers. Nuclear buds were significantly higher in workers carrying the CYP1A1Msp1 (m1/m2, m2/m2) allele. Moreover, BMNCyt frequency and Comet assay parameters were significantly lower in exposed carriers of XRCC1Arg194Trp (Arg/Trp, Trp/Trp) and hOGG1Ser326Cys (Ser/Cys, Cys/Cys), thereby providing new data to the increasing evidence about the protective role of these polymorphisms

  5. Do native parasitic plants cause more damage to exotic invasive hosts than native non-invasive hosts? An implication for biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community.

  6. Vitamin E protects against the mitochondrial damage caused by cyclosporin A in LLC-PK1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriba, G. de; Perez de Hornedo, J.; Ramirez Rubio, S.; Calvino Fernandez, M.; Benito Martinez, S.; Maiques Camarero, M.; Parra Cid, T.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has nephrotoxic effects known to involve reactive oxygen species (ROS), since antioxidants prevent the kidney damage induced by this drug. Given that mitochondria are among the main sources of intracellular ROS, the aims of our study were to examine the mitochondrial effects of CsA in the porcine renal endothelial cell line LLC-PK1 and the influence of the antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E). Following the treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with CsA, we assessed the mitochondrial synthesis of superoxide anion, permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, cardiolipin peroxidation, cytochrome c release and cellular apoptosis, using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy procedures. Similar experiments were done after Vit E preincubation of cells. CsA treatment increased superoxide anion in a dose-dependent way. CsA opened the permeability transition pores, caused Bax migration to mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and cardiolipin content. Also CsA released cytochrome c into cytosol and provoked cellular apoptosis. Vit E pretreatment inhibited the effects that CsA induced on mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells and avoided apoptosis. CsA modifies mitochondrial LLC-PK1 cell physiology with loss of negative electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane and increased lipid peroxidation. These features are related to apoptosis and can explain the cellular damage that CsA induces. As Vit E inhibited these effects, our results suggest that they were mediated by an increase in ROS production by mitochondria.

  7. Root canal treatment of a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, K; Bayram, M; Taşdemir, T

    2011-12-01

    To present the successful endodontic management of a maxillary lateral incisor tooth with a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement. A 22-year-old female was diagnosed with a skeletal Class II, Division 2 malocclusion with Class II molar and canine relationships on both sides. The treatment plan included distalization of the maxillary first molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy. For the maxillary molar distalization, an appliance in conjunction with a miniscrew anchorage system was designed. Two months later, the patient came to the clinic with complaints of pain in the maxillary right lateral incisor region. On intraoral examination, intraoral sinus tracts were detected in the maxillary right buccal sulcus and palate. A large radiolucent lesion with a well-defined margin around the root of the maxillary right lateral incisor was seen. Root canal treatment was performed on the maxillary right lateral incisor tooth. The root canal was filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, using a lateral compaction technique. The final restoration of the tooth was completed using composite, and the tooth was reviewed after 10 months. The tooth was asymptomatic and radiographically showed repair of the lesion. Healing was achieved without any need for further endodontic or surgical intervention. Key learning points • This case illustrates the need to take care with miniscrews when performing orthodontic treatment, especially when the miniscrews are in close proximity to root apices. • The periradicular lesion as a result of miniscrew damage was successfully treated with root canal treatment. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum (VR1 isolated from an Ayurvedic medicine (Kutajarista ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by Aeromonas veronii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patole Milind S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a safe and effective probiotic microorganism. Among various sources of isolation, traditionally fermented foods are considered to be rich in Lactobacillus spp., which can be exploited for their probiotic attribute. Antibacterial property of L. plantarum has been demonstrated against various enteric pathogens in both in vitro and in vivo systems. This study was aimed at characterizing L. plantarum isolated from Kutajarista, an ayurvedic fermented biomedicine, and assessing its antagonistic property against a common enteropathogen Aeromonas veronii. Results We report the isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista, and efficacy of its cell free supernatant (CFS in amelioration of cytotoxicity caused by Aeromonas veronii. On the part of probiotic attributes, VR1 was tolerant to pH 2, 0.3% bile salts and simulated gastric juice. Additionally, VR1 also exhibited adhesive property to human intestinal HT-29 cell line. Furthermore, CFS of VR1 was antibacterial to enteric pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas veronii and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Detailed study regarding the effect of VR1 CFS on A. veronii cytotoxicity showed a significant decrease in vacuole formation and detrimental cellular changes in Vero cells. On the other hand, A. veronii CFS caused disruption of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and actin in MDCK cell line, which was prevented by pre-incubation with CFS of VR1. Conclusions This is the first study to report isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista and characterisation for its probiotic attributes. Our study demonstrates the antagonistic property of VR1 to A. veronii and effect of VR1 CFS in reduction of cellular damage caused by A. veronii in both Vero and MDCK cell lines.

  9. Microglial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-09-26

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial pathology and its significance during aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia (AD). The identification of dystrophic (senescent) microglia has created an ostensible conflict with prior work claiming a role for activated microglia and neuroinflammation during normal aging and in AD, and this has raised a basic question: does the brain's immune system become hyperactive (inflamed) or does it become weakened (senescent) in elderly and demented people, and what is the impact on neuronal function and cognition? Here we strive to reconcile these seemingly contradictory notions by arguing that both low-grade neuroinflammation and microglial senescence are the result of aging-associated free radical injury. Both processes are damaging for microglia as they synergistically exhaust this essential cell population to the point where the brain's immune system is effete and unable to support neuronal function.

  10. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J N

    1993-01-01

    The concept of critical levels was developed in order to define short-term and long-term average concentrations of gaseous pollutants above which plants may be damaged. Although the usual way in which pollutants in precipitation (wet deposition) influence vegetation is by affecting soil processes, plant foliage exposed to fog and cloud, which often contain much greater concentrations of pollutant ions than rain, may be damaged directly. The idea of a critical level has been extended to define concentrations of pollutants in wet deposition above which direct damage to plants is likely. Concentrations of acidity and sulphate measured in mountain and coastal cloud are summarised. Vegetation at risk of injury is identified as montane forest growing close to the cloud base, where ion concentrations are highest. The direct effects of acidic precipitation on trees are reviewed, based on experimental exposure of plants to simulated acidic rain, fog or mist. Although most experiments have reported results in terms of pH (H(+) concentration), the accompanying anion is important, with sulphate being more damaging than nitrate. Both conifers and broadleaved tree seedlings showing subtle changes in the structural characteristics of leaf surfaces after exposure to mist or rain at or about pH 3.5, or sulphate concentration of 150 micromol litre(-1). Visible lesions on leaf surfaces occur at around pH 3 (500 micromol litre(-1) sulphate), broadleaved species tending to be more sensitive than conifers. Effects on photosynthesis and water relations, and interactions with other stresses (e.g. frost), have usually been observed only for treatments which have also caused visible injury to the leaf surface. Few experiments on the direct effects of polluted cloud have been conducted under field conditions with mature trees, which unlike seedlings in controlled conditions, may suffer a growth reduction in the absence of visible injury. Although leaching of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+)) is

  11. Renal deterioration caused by carcinogens as a consequence of free radical mediated tissue damage: a review of the protective action of melatonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Hicyilmaz, Hicran [Suleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This brief review summarizes some of the publications that document the preventive role of melatonin in kidney damage caused by carcinogens such as 2-nitropropane, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, nitrilotriacetic acid and potassium bromate. Numerous chemicals generate excessive free radicals that eventually induce renal worsening. Melatonin partially or totally prevents free radical mediated tissue damages induced by many carcinogens. Protective actions of melatonin against the harmful effects of carcinogens are believed to stem from its direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Dietary or pharmacologically given melatonin may attenuate the oxidative stress, thereby mitigating the subsequent renal damage. (orig.)

  12. Clinical study of suppository delivery of 5-fluorouracil and pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia and 5-fluorouracil suppository in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Takaaki [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suppository has been reported effective in shrinking locally advanced rectal cancers and facilitating subsequent surgery. Suppository and intravenous 5-FU administration were compared with respect to tissue concentrations in rectal cancer cases. Just before the operation patients received 100 mg of 5-FU via suppository or intravenously. Portal and systemic blood, tumor tissue, normal mucosa and muscle layer separately at 5, 10, 15 cm in the oral direction from the tumor and the pararectal lymph node were harvested for high-performance liquid chromatography determination of 5-FU concentrations. Rectal 5-FU concentrations were significantly higher in the suppository cases compared with the intravenously administrated ones. Suppository distributed more 5-FU at pararectal lymph nodes than intravenous injection. This fact revealed 5-FU suppositories to be a useful drug delivery system for rectal cancer. The pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by combined treatment were evaluated in 22 cases. Normal lymph nodes showed congestion only. Fibrotic and necrotic changes were characteristic of damaged metastatic areas. In 6 cases (27.3%), no metastatic cells were detected on fibrotically changed areas. The down staging of the lymph node metastatic factor was carried out by preoperative combined treatment. High concentrations of 5-FU at mucosa could suggest the usefulness of 5-FU suppository administration just before operation for prevention of suture-line implantation. (author)

  13. Clinical study of suppository delivery of 5-fluorouracil and pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia and 5-fluorouracil suppository in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Takaaki

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suppository has been reported effective in shrinking locally advanced rectal cancers and facilitating subsequent surgery. Suppository and intravenous 5-FU administration were compared with respect to tissue concentrations in rectal cancer cases. Just before the operation patients received 100 mg of 5-FU via suppository or intravenously. Portal and systemic blood, tumor tissue, normal mucosa and muscle layer separately at 5, 10, 15 cm in the oral direction from the tumor and the pararectal lymph node were harvested for high-performance liquid chromatography determination of 5-FU concentrations. Rectal 5-FU concentrations were significantly higher in the suppository cases compared with the intravenously administrated ones. Suppository distributed more 5-FU at pararectal lymph nodes than intravenous injection. This fact revealed 5-FU suppositories to be a useful drug delivery system for rectal cancer. The pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by combined treatment were evaluated in 22 cases. Normal lymph nodes showed congestion only. Fibrotic and necrotic changes were characteristic of damaged metastatic areas. In 6 cases (27.3%), no metastatic cells were detected on fibrotically changed areas. The down staging of the lymph node metastatic factor was carried out by preoperative combined treatment. High concentrations of 5-FU at mucosa could suggest the usefulness of 5-FU suppository administration just before operation for prevention of suture-line implantation. (author)

  14. Civil liability and compensation for damages caused by certain hazardous and noxious substances during their carriage by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, A. de.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper current international efforts directed at the establishment of a special legal regime for civil liability and compensation for damages caused by hazardous and noxious substances during their transport by sea, specifically chemicals and liquid gas products, are described and analysed. Special attention is given to the way in which concern with the development of an 'environment oriented' regime which provides full recovery for victims in a reliable manner, on the one hand, and, on the other, considerations relating to cost effectiveness complement or conflict with each other. Another important area of investigation concerns the potential role of the marine insurance industry in accident prevention through the provision of incentives for careful (i.e. safe and environmentally sound) behaviour. There is a distinct regulatory trend in favour of strict liability (i.e. liability without fault) and compulsory insurance. There is also a growing perception of the need to depart from the traditional pattern of maritime liability which channels liability automatically to the person exercizing operational control during transport by sea (i.e. the carrier), and to additionally impose liability on those responsible for the risks attached to the inherently harmful characteristics of the cargoes carried. (orig.) [de

  15. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Population dynamics and damage caused by the leaf miner Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on seven potato processing varieties grown in temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Carmona, D.; Vincini, A.M.; Monterubbianesi, G.; Caldiz, D.

    2010-01-01

    The leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard is considered a key pest for potatoes in Argentina. Population dynamics and leaf damage caused by the leafminer on seven selected potato processing varieties were assessed at Balcarce during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Adult population dynamic was monitored using yellow sticky traps, while leaf damage (punctures and mines) was assessed using a damage index scale from low to severe. Liriomyza huidobrensis adults were present throughout the growing season and the population increased along crop development. The same was true for all varieties regarding larval damage, being low on early crop stages and severe late in the season. Varieties were grouped in two different categories according to damage scale index. Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator showed a higher damage index when compared with Santana, Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, which exhibited a lower damage. Moreover, it could be assumed that damage was related to the foliage greenness, with light green colored varieties (Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator) being more attractive and affected by L. huidobrensis. (author)

  17. Pulmonary and central nervous system pathology in fatal cases of hand foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijun; Nicholls, John M; Liu, Fengfeng; Wang, Joshua; Feng, Zijian; Liu, Dongge; Sun, Yanni; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Yunqian; Li, Hai; Qi, Shunxiang; Huang, Xueyong; Sui, Jilin; Liao, Qiaohong; Peiris, Malik; Yu, Hongjie; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    In the past 17 years, neurological disease associated with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has increased dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region with a high fatality rate in young infants, often due to pulmonary oedema, however the mechanism of this oedema remains obscure. We analysed the brainstem, heart and lungs of 15 fatal cases of confirmed EV-A71 infection in order to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of death and pulmonary oedema. In keeping with other case studies, the main cause of death was neurogenic pulmonary oedema. In the brainstem, 11 cases showed inflammation and all cases showed parenchymal inflammation with seven cases showing moderate or severe clasmatodendrosis. No viral antigen was detected in sections of the brainstem in any of the cases. All fatal cases showed evidence of pulmonary oedema; however, there was absence of direct pulmonary viral damage or myocarditis-induced damage and EV-A71 viral antigen staining was negative. Though there was no increase in staining for Na/K-ATPase, 11 of the 15 cases showed a marked reduction in aquaporin-4 staining in the lung, and this reduction may contribute to the development of fatal pulmonary oedema. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The effect of urbanization in an arid region: Formation of a perched water table that causes environmental damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli, A.; Issar, A.; Wolf, M.

    1984-03-01

    Construction in a new neighborhood in the israeli town of Dimona, situated in an arid region in the south of the country (150 mm average annual rainfall), resulted in a rise in groundwater levels during the subsequent rainy seasons This caused flooding of shelter basements, soil sliding, and sagging which permanently damaged walls and buildings The neighborhood had been built on continental sands and marls blanketed by loess, on a valley slope near a rocky anticlinal dip-slope Subsurface studies, using piezometer holes and groundwater analyses, revealed the presence of sand lenses alternating with plastic marls, which act as seasonal aquifers with perched water tables Groundwaters obtain high SO{4/-2} and Cl- corrosivity through contact with these nonflushed marls of the Neogene valley fill (Hazeva Formation) The reasons for the rising of groundwater were found to be (a) artificial interference with the natural (pre-construction) drainage system—interception of the hillside runoff by building plots, roads, etc, (b) partial denudation of the loess blanket, increasing the local infiltration and the build-up of local, perched water tables, and (c) corrosion of concrete and steel pipelines, as well as foundations, by prolonged contact with corrosive groundwater, resulting in haphazard but massive leakage Guidelines are proposed for an environmental improvement plan, which would include terracing and planting of the watershed above town to increase evapotranspiration, lowering of the water table by pumping, and diverting the water to suburban parks (groves of saltresistant trees), and replacement of steel and cement pipes by a non-corrodable plastic pipe system

  19. Vitamins as radioprotectors in vivo II. protection by vitamin A and soybean oil against radiation damage caused by internal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harapanhalli, R.S.; Narra, V.R.; Yaghmai, V.; Azure, M.T.; Goddu, M.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    Tissue-incorporated radionuclides impart radiation energy over extended periods of time depending on their effective half-lives. The capacity of vitamin A dissolved in soybean oil to protect against the biological effects caused by internal radionuclides is investigated. The radiochemicals examined are DNA-binding 125 IdU, cytoplasmically localized H 125 IPDM and the α-particle emitter 210 Po citrate. As in our previous studies, spermatogenesis in mice is used as the experimental model and spermatogonial cell survival is the biological end point. Surprisingly, soybean oil itself provides substantial and equal protection against the Auger effect of 125 IdU, which is comparable to a high-LET radiation effect, as well as the low-LET effects of H 125 IPDM, the dose modification factors (DMFs) being 3.6 ± 0.9 (SEM) and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The protection afforded by the oil against the effects of 5.3 MeV α particles emitted by 210Po is also significant (DMF = 2.2 ± 0.4). The presence of vitamin A in the oil further enhanced the radioprotection against the effect of 125 IdU (DMF = 4.8 ± 1.3) and H 125 IKPDM (DMF = 5.1 ± 0.6); however, no enhancement is provided against the effects of α particles. These interesting results with soybean oil and vitamin A, together with data on the subcellular distribution of the protectors, provide clues regarding the mechanistic aspects of the protection. In addition, the data for vitamin A reaffirm our earlier conclusion that the mechanism by which DNA-bound Auger emitters impart biological damage is primarily indirect in nature. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Detection of damaged areas caused by the oil extraction in a steppe region using winter landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjachina, Ksenya; Hu, Zhiyong; Chibilyev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Oil production in a steppe region disturbs the landscape and damages the steppe ecosystem. The objective of this research was to detect areas damaged by oil production in an oil field within the Russian Volga-Ural steppe region using winter Landsat imagery. We developed a practicable and effective approach using winter snow season multispectral Landsat satellite imagery. To this end, we applied seven algorithms of spectral or texture-based transformation: K-means, maximum likelihood estimation, topsoil grain size index, soil brightness, normalized differential snow index, tasselled cap, and co-occurrence measures. The co-occurrence texture measure variance shows the optimal result of identifying damaged areas. The unique feature of our method is that it can differentiate damaged areas from the bare soil of cropland within a cold steppe region where the area damaged by oil production is mixed with bare (fallow) croplands that have a polygonal shape similar to well pads. Such similarities can lead to confusion in object-based classification. Using the co-occurrence measures, we found that from 1988 to 2015, damaged area is nearly three times as big in the peak period of the oil field development (2001 and 2009) as in 1988. Landscape fragmentation also peaked in 2001 and 2009. Our approach for this project is useful and cost effective regular monitoring of damages from oil production for both the Volga-Ural steppe region and other cold steppe regions.

  1. Changes in properties of DNA caused by gamma and ultraviolet radiation. Dependence of conformational changes on the chemical nature of the damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorlickova, M; Palacek, E [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1978-02-16

    Changes in the pulse-polarographic behaviour and circular dichroism spectra of DNA were investigated after gamma and ultraviolet irradiations and after degradation by DNAase I. It was found that moderate doses of radiation cause local conformational changes in the double helix which are dependent on the chemical nature of the damage. Only the accumulation of structural changes after high doses of the radiations or after extensive enzymic treatment may cause formation of single-standed regions in DNA.

  2. To observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats in order to understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devdas S Samala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experimental study was to observe the intensity of the inflammatory reaction caused by neonatal urine and meconium on the intestinal wall of rats to better understand etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 adult Wistar rats were used as experimental models to simulate the effect of exposed bowel in cases of gastroschisis. The peritoneal cavity of the rats was injected with substances which constitute human amniotic fluid to study the effect on the bowel. Sterile urine and meconium were obtained from newborn humans. The rats were divided into four groups according to the material to be injected. In Group I (Control group 3 mL of distilled water was injected, in Group II (Urine group 3 mL of neonatal urine was injected, in Group III (Meconium group 5% meconium suspension was injected, while in Group IV, a combination of 5% meconium suspension and urine was injected. A total of 3mL solution was injected into the right inferior quadrant twice a day for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 6 th day by a high dose of thiopentone sodium. A segment of small bowel specimen was excised, fixed in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic analysis for determination of the degree of inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall. All pathology specimens were studied by the same pathologist. Results: The maximum bowel damage was seen in Group II (Urine group in the form of serositis, severe enteritis, parietal necrosis, and peeling. A lesser degree of damage was observed in Group III (Meconium group as mild enteritis (mild lymphoid hyperplasia. The least damage was seen in Group IV (Combination of meconium and urine and Group I (Control group. Conclusion: The intraabdominal injection of neonatal human urine produces significant inflammatory reactions in the intestinal wall of rats.

  3. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Michael G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab

  4. The use of the DInSAR method in the monitoring of road damage caused by mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdzek, Radosław; Malik, Hubert; Leśniak, Andrzej

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews existing remote sensing methods of road damage detection and demonstrates the possibility of using DInSAR (Differential Interferometry SAR) method to identify endangered road sections. In this study two radar images collected by Sentinel-1 satellite have been used. Images were acquired with 24 days interval in 2015. The analysis allowed to estimate the scale of the post-mining deformation that occurred in Upper Silesia and to indicate areas where road infrastructure is particularly vulnerable to damage.

  5. Application of routine MRI and 1H-MRS in evaluating the central neurological damages caused by occupational manganese exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangrong; Long Liling; Jiang Muliang

    2010-01-01

    .051±0.024), (0.047± 0.018), (0.043±0.020) μg/ml respectively, which was not significantly different (F=0.623, P= 0.541) and did not exceed the upper limit of normal reference value ( 0.05). No obvious changes of the PI and NAA/Cr were found in the 8 manganese exposed workers after 1 year follow-up. Conclusion: Manganese exposure could lead to the high intensity signal on T 1 WI, therefore the increased PI may be the biomarkers of central nerve system damages caused by the occupational manganese exposure. (authors)

  6. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  7. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E_2) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. - Highlights: • Waterborne exposure to B[a]P resulted in high accumulation in crab ovary. • The haemolymph 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly decreased by B[a]P exposure. • B[a]P induced oxidative damage in crab ovary. • B[a]P exposure caused histopathological alterations in crab ovary. - B[a]P disrupted sex steroids, caused oxidative damage and histological alternation in female crab P. trituberculatus.

  8. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative measurement of damage caused by 1064-nm wavelength optical trapping of Escherichia coli cells using on-chip single cell cultivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayano, Satoru; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinobu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We quantitatively examined the possible damage to the growth and cell division ability of Escherichia coli caused by 1064-nm optical trapping. Using the synchronous behavior of two sister E. coli cells, the growth and interdivision times between those two cells, one of which was trapped by optical tweezers, the other was not irradiated, were compared using an on-chip single cell cultivation system. Cell growth stopped during the optical trapping period, even with the smallest irradiated power on the trapped cells. Moreover, the damage to the cell's growth and interdivision period was proportional to the total irradiated energy (work) on the cell, i.e., irradiation time multiplied by irradiation power. The division ability was more easily affected by a smaller energy, 0.36 J, which was 30% smaller than the energy that adversely affected growth, 0.54 J. The results indicate that the damage caused by optical trapping can be estimated from the total energy applied to cells, and furthermore, that the use of optical trapping for manipulating cells might cause damage to cell division and growth mechanisms, even at wavelengths under 1064 nm, if the total irradiation energy is excessive

  10. Unexpected damage and/or failures caused by creep below the limit temperature for creep design; Ovaentade krypskador och/eller haverier orsakade av krypmekanismer under graenstemperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Eklund, Anders; Taflin, Anders; Thunvik, Thomas

    2006-07-15

    Recently, several cases of cracking caused by creep have occurred in components operating at temperatures below the specified limit temperature for creep. Components operating below this limit temperature have not been designed with due regard to creep cracking and have accordingly not been subjected to inspection for creep damage. This work has surveyed the extent of these cases of creep damage by reviewing earlier failures and performed metallographic studies of damaged components and made parametric calculations of creep crack growth below the limit temperature. The following critical parameters have been determined for power plants: Creep damage below the transition temperature does not usually occur until operating times above 200.000 hours. Time to rupture differs from ordinary creep crack growth because these cracks have substantially longer incubation time of 20-30 years, with relative low creep deformation, and after that a rapid creep crack growth with only some few years to the creep rupture. Operation at 470-480 deg C, i.e. up to some 10 deg C below the transition temperature for a material like EN 13CrMo4-5, can be expected to result in severe creep damages comparable with ordinary creep failures at stressed locations. Operation at a temperature of 450-460 deg C can give rise to creep damage, however, this damage shows a more sparse occurrence. Creep damaged welds occurring below the limit temperature show cracks at the melting junction of the weld bead in opposite to ordinary creep damages. System stresses can also cause a more rapid crack growth. An international survey also shows that the variation of creep strength values between individual steel batches are just as wide as for ordinary creep. Based on this work, the following complementary recommendations can be issued: Elastic stress analysis (based on expansion calculations) can also be recommended for the identification of areas with intensified stresses. One should also perform a complete

  11. [Factors causing damage and destruction of beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anděl, Michal; Němcová, Vlasta; Pavlíková, Nela; Urbanová, Jana; Cecháková, Marie; Havlová, Andrea; Straková, Radka; Večeřová, Livia; Mandys, Václav; Kovář, Jan; Heneberg, Petr; Trnka, Jan; Polák, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Insulin secretion in patients with manifested diabetes mellitus tends to disappear months to decades after the diagnosis, which is a clear sign of a gradual loss of pancreatic islet beta-cells. In our sample of 30 type 2 diabetic patients, whose disease manifested between 30 and 45 years of age, about a half have retained or even increased insulin secretion 30 years later, while the other half exhibit a much diminished or lost insulin secretion. Factors that can damage or destroy beta-cells can be divided into the following groups: Metabolic factors: hyperglycemia and glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species; Pharmacological factors: antimicrobial medication pentamidine, SSRI antidepressants; Factors related to impaired insulin secretion: MODY type diabetes; Environmental toxic factors: rat poison Vacor, streptozotocin, polychlorinated and polybrominated hydrocarbons; Disorders of the exocrine pancreas: tumor infiltration, fibrous infiltration, chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis; Infections, inflammation, autoimmunity, viral factors: Coxsackie viruses, H1N1 influenza, enteroviruses. We are currently working on finding other factors leading to beta-cell damage, studying their effect on apoptosis and necrosis and looking for possible protective factors to prevent this damage. We our increasing knowledge about the mechanisms of beta-cell damage and destruction we come ever closer to suggest measures for their prevention. In this review we offer a brief and simplified summary of some of the findings related to this area.Key words: pancreatic islet beta-cells of Langerhans - factors damaging or destroying beta-cells - insulin secretion.

  12. Morphology of the primary damage caused by the argon-ion laser to the iris of the pigmented rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.K.; Zypen, E. van der; Frankhauser, F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the argon-ion laser upon the iris of the pigmented rabbit were analysed by ultrastructural methods. Apart from the physical parameters of the energy source, the damage strongly depends on the concentration, location, and distribution of the iris pigment. The irradiation of the iris results in the formation of a crater. Depending on the distance of the epicentre of the impact, various degrees of ultrastructural damage are observed. The region immediately adjacent to the crater lumen at a revealing distance of 25 μm consists of homogenous masses, revealing a vacuolar structure. As the only residuals of destroyed cells, melanin granules are observed within the homogenous masses. Destruction of the collagen fibrils and their disintegration into subfibrils with elimination of all cell compartments is found in an area ranging from 25 μm to 300 μm from the wall of the crater. Damage to the chromatin structure is visible up to a distance of 300 μm to 375 μm from the wall of the crater. Characterised by an invasion of macrophages into the damaged area, the cleaning phase starts 24 h after irradiation. The results of this experiment indicate that because of the great energy dose required for man with the inherent widespread tissue damage and low probability of a lasting iridectomy, the cw argon-ion laser appears to be an unsuitable energy source for clinical iridectomy. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  13. Optical damage in reduced Z-cut LiNbO3 crystals caused by longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Aillerie, M.

    2012-01-01

    The marked optical damage was observed in thin Z-cut plates of the deeply reduced nominally pure LiNbO 3 crystals, when a 514.5-nm-laser beam with ordinary polarization was focused on the ±Z face. The longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects are shown to be responsible for most of the important peculiarities of the optical damage dynamics. The anisotropy in the behavior between the +Z and -Z faces has been explained by interference of the different kinds of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects to the space-charge field with an altering relative sign.

  14. Dissociation of DNA damage and mitochondrial injury caused by hydrogen peroxide in SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since lung epithelial cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, the alveolar surface is a major site of oxidative stress, and each cell type may respond differently to oxidative stress. We compared the extent of oxidative DNA damage with that of mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells at the single cell level. Result DNA damage and mitochondrial injury were measured after oxidative stress in the SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cell line challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Single cell analysis of DNA damage was determined by assessing the number of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG positive cells, a marker of DNA modification, and the length of a comet tail. Mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm, was determined using JC-1. A 1 h pulse of H2O2 induced small amounts of apoptosis (3%. 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the length of the comet tail increased within 1 h of exposure to H2O2. The number of cells with reduced ΔΨm increased after the addition of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of a continual loss of ΔΨm, DNA fragmentation was reduced 2 h after exposure to H2O2. Conclusion The data suggest that SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to oxidative stress, showing that DNA damage can be dissociated from mitochondrial injury.

  15. Comparison of cotton square and boll damage and resulting lint and seed loss caused by verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retention of bolls and squares (referred to as fruit retention), boll damage, and resulting cotton lint and seed weight loss were assessed when two (2010) and three (2011) age classes of sympodial fruiting branches with different ages of squares and bolls where exposed to verde plant bug, Creontiade...

  16. Analysis of the Causes and Recommendations on Elimination of Biological Damage of Structures During the Repair and Reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  17. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. Methods To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells...... intracellular ROS production through a pathway independent of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Furthermore, E. faecalis infection induced mitochondrial DNA instability. Following infection, genes coding for inflammatory response proteins were transcriptionally up-regulated while DNA damage repair and cell...... cycle control genes were down-regulated. Cell growth slowed down when infected with viable E. faecalis and responded in a dose dependent manner to E. faecalis lysate. Conclusions Infection by E. faecalis induced an oxphos-independent intracellular ROS response and damaged the mitochondrial genome...

  18. Evaluation of the Toxicity, AChE Activity and DNA Damage Caused by Imidacloprid on Earthworms, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Qi, Suzhen; Mu, Xiyan; Chai, Tingting; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Li, Dongzhi; Che, Wunan; Wang, Chengju

    2015-10-01

    Imidacloprid is a well-known pesticide and it is timely to evaluate its toxicity to earthworms (Eisenia fetida). In the present study, the effect of imidacloprid on reproduction, growth, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage in earthworms was assessed using an artificial soil medium. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and the median number of hatched cocoons (EC50) of imidacloprid to earthworms was 3.05 and 0.92 mg/kg respectively, the lowest observed effect concentration of imidacloprid about hatchability, growth, AChE activity and DNA damage was 0.02, 0.5, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively.

  19. Significance of 8-oxoG in the spectrum of DNA damages caused by ionising radiation of different quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Václav; Davídková, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 122, 1-4 (2007), s. 113-115 ISSN 0144-8420. [Symposium on Microdosimetry /14./. Venezia, 13.11.2005-18.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4048401; GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : DNA damage * 8-oxoguanine * ionizing radiation * theoretical modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  20. Oxidant Status and Lipid Composition of Erythrocyte Membranes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Chronic Liver Damage, and a Combination of Both Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Hernández-Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an important set of cirrhotic and diabetic patients that present both diseases. However, information about metabolic and cellular blood markers that are altered, in conjunction or distinctively, in the 3 pathological conditions is scarce. The aim of this project was to evaluate several indicators of prooxidant reactions and the membrane composition of blood samples (serum and red blood cells (RBCs from patients clinically classified as diabetic (n=60, cirrhotic (n=70, and diabetic with liver cirrhosis (n=25 as compared to samples from a similar population of healthy individuals (n=60. The results showed that levels of TBARS, nitrites, cysteine, and conjugated dienes in the RBC of cirrhotic patients were significantly increased. However, the coincidence of diabetes and cirrhosis partially reduced the alterations promoted by the cirrhotic condition. The amount of total phospholipids and cholesterol was greatly enhanced in the patients with both pathologies (between 60 and 200% according to the type of phospholipid but not in the patients with only one disease. Overall, the data indicate that the cooccurrence of diabetes and cirrhosis elicits a physiopathological equilibrium that is different from the alterations typical of each individual malady.

  1. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption rates: 2, 4 W/kg) will increase. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) were obtained from neonatal (1- to 3-day-old) Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats. After the SGN were treated with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of LPS, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline comet assay were used to quantify cellular activity and DNA damage, respectively. The SGN were treated with the moderate LPS concentrations before RF-EMR exposure. After 24 h intermittent exposure at an absorption rate of 2 and 4 W/kg, DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay, ultrastructure changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and expression of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin1 were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified by the dichlorofluorescin-diacetate assay. LPS (100 μg/ml) induced DNA damage and suppressed cellular activity (P 0.05); therefore, 40 μg/ml was used to pretreat the concentration before exposure to RF-EMR. RF-EMR could not directly induce DNA damage. However, the 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) group showed mitochondria vacuoles, karyopyknosis, presence of lysosomes and autophagosome, and increasing expression of LC3-II and Beclin1. The ROS values significantly increased in the 4 W/kg exposure, 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) exposure, and H2O2 groups (P spiral ganglion neurons, but it could cause the changes of cellular ultrastructure at special SAR 4

  2. An experimental demonstration of stem damage as a predictor of fire-caused mortality for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.; Schwartz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We subjected 159 small ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) to treatments designed to test the relative importance of stem damage as a predictor of postfire mortality. The treatments consisted of a group with the basal bark artificially thinned, a second group with fuels removed from the base of the stem, and an untreated control. Following prescribed burning, crown scorch severity was equivalent among the groups. Postfire mortality was significantly less frequent in the fuels removal group than in the bark removal and control groups. No model of mortality for the fuels removal group was possible, because dead trees constituted trees. Mortality in the bark removal group was best predicted by crown scorch and stem scorch severity, whereas death in the control group was predicted by crown scorch severity and bark thickness. The relative lack of mortality in the fuels removal group and the increased sensitivity to stem damage in the bark removal group suggest that stem damage is a critical determinant of postfire mortality for small ponderosa pine.

  3. Descriptive study of damage caused by the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon, and its influence on date palm oases of Rjim Maatoug, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasmi; Lkbel, Chaieb; Habib Ben Hamouda, Med

    2008-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was accidentally introduced in the southwestern oases of Tunisia (Tozeur) around 1980 and spread to the Rjim Maatoug region. In these areas O. agamemnon was specific to date palm trees causing severe damage that can result in potential danger due to collapse of the tree. This study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in 4 sites in the region of Rjim Maatoug. Different levels of palm tree attack were determined, ovioposition sites were identified, and pest damage was described in detail to specify their relative importance and to indicate factors governing palm tree attack. Eggs were individually oviposited in the attacked parts. Dead parts of palm trees were the main target of O. agamemnon including the respiratory roots, tough, trunk bark, dry petiole and the periphery of the crown. The crown itself was not attacked. Feeding by larvae caused significant damage. The biggest danger occurred when heavy attacks of larvae invaded the respiratory roots at the level of the soil, and secondarily on the periphery of the crown, which can result in fungal diseases. Several cases of Deglet Nour date palm tree collapse were caused by this pest in Rjim Maatoug. Attacks on other parts of the tree were without danger for the palm tree. In the absence of pest management, application of a quarantine program combined with field cultivation techniques could help farmers significantly decrease attack of O. agamemnon on palm trees.

  4. Brief communication: On-site data collection of damage caused by flash floods: Experiences from Braunsbach, Germany, in May/June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Jonas; Rözer, Viktor; Sieg, Tobias; Vogel, Kristin; Thieken, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    At the end of May and beginning of June 2016, several municipalities in Southern Germany suffered from severe flash floods and debris flows which have been triggered by intense rainfall in Central Europe. Overall, the insured losses of these events amounted to EUR 1.2 billion in Germany. Especially the strong and unexpected flash flood on May 29th in Braunsbach (Baden Wurttemberg) - a small village counting about 1,000 residents - attracted media and policymakers due to its devastating character. The understanding of damage caused by flash floods requires ex-post collection of relevant but yet sparsely available information, linking process intensities to damage by using adequate methods of data gathering. Thus, on-site data collection was carried out after the flash flood event in Braunsbach, using open source software as helpful and efficient tool for data acquisition and evaluation. A digital survey was designed and conducted by a team of five researchers who investigated all buildings affected by water and debris flows. The collected data includes an estimation of a particular damage class, the inundation depth, and other relevant information. A post - hoc data analysis was done with R 3.3.1 and QGIS 2.14.3, performing both, a Random Forest Model (RF) and Random Generalized Linear Model (RGLM) as well as preparing a Spearman's rank correlation matrix. For visual interpretation and better overview of the study area and analysis results, a "process intensity" map was created, revealing important links of damage driving factors. We find that not only the water depth, which is often considered as only damage driving factor in riverine flood loss modelling, but also the exposition of a building to the flow direction and susceptible building parts like e.g. shop windows seem to be risk factors in flash-flood prone regions. Although no significant correlations were found, the analyses indicate that also building material (i.e. half-timbered or masonry) and structural

  5. DNA Damage Response and Immune Defence: Links and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Schumacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage plays a causal role in numerous human pathologies including cancer, premature aging and chronic inflammatory conditions. In response to genotoxic insults, the DNA damage response (DDR orchestrates DNA damage checkpoint activation and facilitates the removal of DNA lesions. The DDR can also arouse the immune system by for example inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides as well as ligands for receptors found on immune cells. The activation of immune signalling is triggered by different components of the DDR including DNA damage sensors, transducer kinases, and effectors. In this review, we describe recent advances on the understanding of the role of DDR in activating immune signalling. We highlight evidence gained into (i which molecular and cellular pathways of DDR activate immune signalling, (ii how DNA damage drives chronic inflammation, and (iii how chronic inflammation causes DNA damage and pathology in humans.

  6. Applying of centrifugal chromatography on DEAE cellulose and viscosity measurement to estimate damage caused by gamma irradiation in lymphocyte DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinski, R.

    1977-01-01

    DNA isolated from limphocytes of pig blood was irradiated by γ radiation in the range of 0.5-50 Krads. Changes caused by irradiation (single and double breaks) were determined by using viscosity measurement and centrifugal chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Study of DNA chromatograms showed possibility to apply centrifugal chromatography on DEAE cellulose to estimate changes caused by irradiation. (author)

  7. Probable causes of damage of heat-exchange tubes of low-pressure-exchanges of PND-3 type and repair methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Esin, S. B.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Modestov, V. S.

    2017-08-01

    The structures of low-pressure heaters (LPH), which are installed at nuclear power plants with the K-1000-60/1500 type turbine plants are considered. It was revealed that only the PND-3 type low-pressure heaters have the damages of the heat exchange tubes. For a short operation life, the number of the damaged heat-exchange tubes of PND-3 is approximately 50 pcs for Kalinin NPP and 100-150 pcs for Balakovo NPP. The low-pressure heaters were manufactured at AO Ural Plant of Chemical Machine-Building "Uralkhimmash," OAO Taganrog Boiler-Making Works "Krasny Kotelshchik," and Vitkovice Machinery Group, but the damage nature of the heat-exchange tubes is identical for all PND-3. The damages occur in the place of passage of the heat exchange tubes through the first, the second, and the third partitions over the lower tube plate (the first path of the turbine condensate). Hydraulic shocks can be one of the possible causes of the damage of the heat-exchange tubes of PND-3. The analysis of the average thermal and dynamic loads of the tube systems of PND-1-PND-4 revealed that PND-3 by the thermal power are loaded 1.4-1.6 times and by the dynamic effects are loaded 1.8-2.0 times more than the remaining LPHs. Another possible cause of damage can be the cascaded drain of the separate into PND-4 and then through the drainage heat exchange into PND-3. An additional factor can be the structure of the condensate drainage unit. The advanced system of the heating steam flow and pumping scheme of the separate drain using the existing drainage pumps of PND-3 for K-1000-60/1500 turbine plants for Balakovo and Kalinin NPPs were proposed. The considered decisions make it possible to reduce the flow rate of the heating steam condensate from PND-3 into PND-4 and the speed of the heating steam in the tube space of PND-3 and eliminate the occurrence of hydraulic shocks and damages of the heat exchanger tubes.

  8. Liability for damage caused by ground subsidence in the Netherlands. The role of the Mining Law and the Technical Committee Ground Subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggenkamp, M.M.; Verwer, Ch.P.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the legal regulatory framework in respect of movements of the soil (i.e. subsidence and earth tremors) following the exploration and extraction of minerals in the Netherlands, and the liability for the damage they cause. This legal framework has been changed considerably since the new Mining Act came into force on January 1st, 2003. After having examined the causes of subsidence and subsequent earth tremors, and relationships with the exploration and extraction of subsoil minerals such as oil, gas, salt and coal, the article continues by presenting the legislation of this area. The authors analyse the applicable legislation before as well as after the introduction of the new Mining Act. The two judicial regimen have a similar approach: While the rules and regulations concerning earth movements are laid down in the Mining Act, the legal foundation for the liability for damage resulting from earth movements is provided by the Civil Code. The parliamentary debates on the Mining Bill specifically dealt with the issue of earth movements and the question whether either a system of absolute (vicarious) liability would apply, or a system of strict liability. One of the reasons for not having a system of absolute liability was the wish of Parliament to lay down in the Mining Act provisions for the creation of a Technical Committee on Earth Movements. It is the remit of this Committee to advise the Minister of Economic Affairs on all matters related to movements of the soil. It's duty is also to advise on the causal) relationship between mining activities and earth movements, and the amount of damages to be paid by the mining companies, at the request of individual persons. In order to avoid individuals not receiving any compensation for damages, the new Mining Act also calls for the introduction of a special Fund for Mining Damages. Individual persons would be entitled to make a claim to this fund in situations such as the mining company

  9. Medial temporal lobe damage causes deficits in episodic memory and episodic future thinking not attributable to deficits in narrative construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2011-07-13

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) makes critical contributions to episodic memory, but its contributions to episodic future thinking remain a matter of debate. By one view, imagining future events relies on MTL mechanisms that also support memory for past events. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that future thinking is independent of MTL-mediated processes and can be supported by regions outside the MTL. The current study investigated the nature and necessity of MTL involvement in imagining the future and tested the novel hypothesis that the MTL contributes to future thinking by supporting online binding processes related to narrative construction. Human amnesic patients with well characterized MTL damage and healthy controls constructed narratives about (1) future events, (2) past events, and (3) visually presented pictures. While all three tasks place similar demands on narrative construction, only the past and future conditions require memory/future thinking to mentally generate relevant narrative information. Patients produced impoverished descriptions of both past and future events but were unimpaired at producing detailed picture narratives. In addition, future-thinking performance positively correlated with episodic memory performance but did not correlate with picture narrative performance. Finally, future-thinking impairments were present when MTL lesions were restricted to the hippocampus and did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the MTL. These results indicate that the ability to generate and maintain a detailed narrative is preserved in amnesia and suggest that a common MTL mechanism supports both episodic memory and episodic future thinking.

  10. Medial Temporal Lobe Damage Causes Deficits in Episodic Memory and Episodic Future Thinking Not Attributable to Deficits in Narrative Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) makes critical contributions to episodic memory, but its contributions to episodic future thinking remain a matter of debate. By one view, imagining future events relies on MTL mechanisms that also support memory for past events. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that future thinking is independent of MTL-mediated processes and can be supported by regions outside the MTL. The current study investigated the nature and necessity of MTL involvement in imagining the future and tested the novel hypothesis that the MTL contributes to future thinking by supporting online binding processes related to narrative construction. Human amnesic patients with well-characterized MTL damage and healthy controls constructed narratives about (a) future events, (b) past events, and (c) visually-presented pictures. While all three tasks place similar demands on narrative construction, only the past and future conditions require memory/future thinking to mentally generate relevant narrative information. Patients produced impoverished descriptions of both past and future events but were unimpaired at producing detailed picture narratives. In addition, future-thinking performance positively correlated with episodic memory performance but did not correlate with picture narrative performance. Finally, future-thinking impairments were present when MTL lesions were restricted to the hippocampus and did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the MTL. These results indicate that the ability to generate and maintain a detailed narrative is preserved in amnesia and suggest that a common MTL mechanism supports both episodic memory and episodic future thinking. PMID:21753003

  11. Comparison of tissue damage caused by various laser systems with tissue tolerable plasma by light and laser scan microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersee, Staffan; Lademann, Jürgen; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) represents a novel therapeutic method with promising capabilities in the field of dermatological interventions, in particular disinfection but also wound antisepsis and regeneration. The energy transfer by plasma into living tissue is not easily educible, as a variety of features such as the medium’s actual molecule-stream, the ions, electrons and free radicals involved, as well as the emission of ultraviolet, visible and infrared light contribute to its increasingly well characterized effects. Thus, relating possible adversary effects, especially of prolonged exposure to a single component of the plasma’s mode of action, is difficult. Until now, severe adverse events connected to plasma exposure have not been reported when conducted according to existing therapeutic protocols. In this study, we have compared the tissue damage-potential of CO 2 and dye lasers with TTP in a porcine model. After exposure of pig ear skin to the three treatment modalities, all specimens were examined histologically and by means of laser scan microscopy (LSM). Light microscopical tissue damage could only be shown in the case of the CO 2 laser, whereas dye laser and plasma treatment resulted in no detectable impairment of the specimens. In the case of TTP, LSM examination revealed only an impairment of the uppermost corneal layers of the skin, thus stressing its safety when used in vivo. (letter)

  12. Oxcarbazepine causes neurocyte apoptosis and developing brain damage by triggering Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway mediated caspase 3 activation in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhong, M; Cai, F-C

    2018-01-01

    Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main methods for treatment of neonatal seizures; however, a few AEDs may cause developing brain damage of neonate. This study aims to investigate effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on developing brain damage of neonatal rats. Both of neonatal and adult rats were divided into 6 groups, including Control, OXC 187.5 mg/kg, OXC 281.25 mg/kg, OXC 375 mg/kg group, LEV and PHT group. Body weight and brain weight were evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Nissl staining were used to observe neurocyte morphology and Nissl bodies, respectively. Apoptosis was examined using TUNEL assay, and caspase 8 activity was evaluated using spectrophotometer method. Cytochrome C-release was evaluated using flow cytometry. Western blot was used to examine Bax and Bcl-2 expression. OXC 375 mg/kg treatment significantly decreased brain weight compared to Control group in neonatal rats (P5 rats) (pOxcarbazepine at a concentration of 281.25 mg/kg or more causes neurocyte apoptosis and developing brain damage by triggering Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway mediated caspase 3 activation in neonatal rats.

  13. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  14. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppedè, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.coppede@med.unipi.it; Migliore, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.migliore@med.unipi.it

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in the neurodegenerative process. • The mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to oxidative attack than the nuclear DNA. • Cytogenetic damage has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease patients. • The question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still open. • Increasing evidence links DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena. - Abstract: Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease

  15. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in the neurodegenerative process. • The mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to oxidative attack than the nuclear DNA. • Cytogenetic damage has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease patients. • The question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still open. • Increasing evidence links DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena. - Abstract: Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease

  16. Cell wall damage and oxidative stress in Candida albicans ATCC10231 and Aspergillus niger caused by palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athie-García, Martha Samira; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda Amelia; Muñoz-Castellanos, Laila Nayzzel; Ulloa-Ogaz, Ana Laura; Martínez-Varela, Perla Ivonne; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Duran, Robert; Murillo-Ramirez, José Guadalupe; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2018-04-01

    In this work the toxic effect of Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) was investigated in two eukaryotic cell models, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. PdNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction method, obtaining spherical NPs with a primary size ranging from 3 to 15 nm. PdNPs showed a hydrodynamic size of 1548 nm in Lee's minimum media. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 200 and 250 ppm for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively, revealing a significant cell growth inhibition (ANOVA and tukey analysis, α = 0.5). Reactive Oxygen Species levels were increased in both microorganisms. Confocal, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed cell wall damage and cellular morphology changes, induced by the interaction of PdNPs, in both microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of DNA damages caused by exposure of bacterial cells and spores to the Mars surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Schuerger, Andrew; Robles-Martinez, Jose; Douki, Thierry; Nicholson, Wayne

    Joint NASA and ESA missions are planned for the next decade to investigate the possibility of present or past life on Mars [1]. Evidence of extraterrestrial life will likely rely on the de-tection of biomarkers, highlighting the importance of preventing forward contamination not only with viable microorganisms, but also with biomolecules that could compromise the valid-ity of life-detection experiments [2-4]. The designation of DNA as a high-priority biomarker makes it necessary to evaluate its persistence in extraterrestrial environments, and the effects of exposure on its biological activity. To accomplish this, we deposited naked DNA, cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 or B. pumilus SAFR-032, or cells of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1 onto spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons. Samples were exposed to a simulated Mars surface environment as described in detail previously [4, 5] for various periods of time, and DNA damage was assessed by a number of measurements. Double-and single-strand breaks were measured by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, and DNA bipyrimidine pho-toproducts were measured by HPLC-mass spectrometry, as described previously [6, 7]. Loss of functionality of DNA to serve as a template for replication by DNA polymerase was measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay [8]. In all cases, DNA damage was directly correlated with time of exposure to simulated martian solar radiation (UV, visible, and infrared wavelengths). Exposure of samples to Mars surface conditions, but shielded from solar radiation, did not result in appreciable damage over the time periods tested, relative to controls. DNA contained within cells or spores was much less susceptible to damage than was naked DNA. Using the qPCR assay, we found that inactivation of naked DNA or DNA extracted from exposed spores of B. subtilis followed a multiphasic dose-response, and that a fraction of DNA molecules retained functionality after

  18. Understanding the distribution of strong motions and the damage caused during the September 19th, 2017 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Leonardo Suárez, M.; Quintanar, L.

    2017-12-01

    On September 19, 2017, a normal fault earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.1 occurred 120 km from Mexico City. The quake generated large accelerations, more than 200 cm/s*s at least in two stations in Mexico City, where there was extensive damage. The damage pattern, which includes more than 40 building collapses, differs from the one induced by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. While the observed accelerations in stations located in the Hill and Transition zones are the largest ever recorded, in the Lake zone the intensities were lower than those recorded in 1985. Even though the proximity of the epicenter could partially explain the accelerations, other factors need to be explored to understand the nuances of the ground motion. Unlike 1985, there is a substantially larger number of acceleration records in Mexico City, operated and maintained by different institutions. In this paper, we present the analysis of acceleration records and 3D numerical simulations to understand if effects such as focusing and directionality participate in the amplified motion. Finally, transfer functions between Lake and Hill zones and response and design spectral values are analyzed in regions where the building code requirements were exceeded. Acknowledgments: Records used in this research are obtained, processed and maintained by the National Autonomous University of Mexico through the Seismic Instrumentation Unit of the Institute of Engineering and the National Seismological Service of the Institute of Geophysics. The Centro de Intrumentacion y Registro Sismico A.C. (CIRES) kindly provided their records. This Project was funded in part by the Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SECITI) of Mexico City. Project SECITI/073/2016.

  19. GIS UTILITY FOR HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION CAUSED BY DAMAGES OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS. APPLICATIONS IN BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU ALEXANDRU MARIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average in the Baia Mare associated with a long duration of failure (several hours may be in the drain area, impact on the local community. Regarding rural settlements, surface drainage allow a quantity of water retention tank underground infiltration but in many cases lack of a sewage system effectively contribute to increased negative consequences related to such damage (flooding farms, roads, crops compromise of flooding or drought in the event of damage to the hot water supply pipe and so on. This paper focuses on the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess the impact of runoff induced by damages in rural areas. The study therefore spatial aspect, through GIS, on the one hand runoff along the flow path with the start point of the network fault location and view previous hydrological conditions of the terrain, and on the other hand the impact of runoff the rural community. Study area Dumbrăviţa settlement located in Baia Mare Depression. This village is part of water supply system to the south and southeast of Baia Mare.

  20. Base excision repair of chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage predominantly causes contractions of expanded GAA repeats associated with Friedreich's ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhao Lai

    Full Text Available Expansion of GAA·TTC repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene is the cause of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. However, no effective treatment for the disease has been developed as yet. In this study, we explored a possibility of shortening expanded GAA repeats associated with FRDA through chemotherapeutically-induced DNA base lesions and subsequent base excision repair (BER. We provide the first evidence that alkylated DNA damage induced by temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic DNA damaging agent can induce massive GAA repeat contractions/deletions, but only limited expansions in FRDA patient lymphoblasts. We showed that temozolomide-induced GAA repeat instability was mediated by BER. Further characterization of BER of an abasic site in the context of (GAA20 repeats indicates that the lesion mainly resulted in a large deletion of 8 repeats along with small expansions. This was because temozolomide-induced single-stranded breaks initially led to DNA slippage and the formation of a small GAA repeat loop in the upstream region of the damaged strand and a small TTC loop on the template strand. This allowed limited pol β DNA synthesis and the formation of a short 5'-GAA repeat flap that was cleaved by FEN1, thereby leading to small repeat expansions. At a later stage of BER, the small template loop expanded into a large template loop that resulted in the formation of a long 5'-GAA repeat flap. Pol β then performed limited DNA synthesis to bypass the loop, and FEN1 removed the long repeat flap ultimately causing a large repeat deletion. Our study indicates that chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage can induce large contractions/deletions of expanded GAA repeats through BER in FRDA patient cells. This further suggests the potential of developing chemotherapeutic alkylating agents to shorten expanded GAA repeats for treatment of FRDA.

  1. Safety study: is there a pathologic IGF-1, PDGF and TGF-ß cytokine expression caused by adjunct BMP-7 in tibial and femoral non-union therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer C

    2018-04-01

    groups were similar. Likewise, PDGF-AB and TGF-β expressions appeared similar in G1 and G2 with peaks in both groups at 2 weeks follow-up. Osseous consolidation was assessed in all operated non-unions. The adjunct application of BMP-7 did not cause any pathologic cytokine expression.Conclusion: Similar expressions of the serum cytokines IGF-1, PDGF-AB and TGF-β were demonstrated in non-union patients treated with ABG and additional application of BMP-7 according to the diamond concept. Our findings indicate that the local application of BMP-7, which imitates the physiologic secretion of growth factors during bone regeneration, is safe and without the risk of abnormal systemic cytokine expression. Studies with higher patient numbers will have to validate these assumptions. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein, cytokine, non-union, safety

  2. Identification Of Damages Of Tribological Associations In Crankshaft And Piston Systems Of Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines Used As Main Propulsion In Sea-Going Vessels And Proposal Of Probabilistic Description Of Loads As Causes Of These Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses damages of essential tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of large power two-stroke engines used as main engines, which take place during transport tasks performed by those ships. Difficulties are named which make preventing those damages impossible, despite the fact that the technical state of engines of this type is identified with the aid of complex diagnostic systems making use of advanced computer technology. It is demonstrated that one of causes of the damages is the lack of research activities oriented on recognising random properties of the loads leading to those damages. A proposal is made for the loads acting at a given time t on tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of internal combustion engines used as main engines to be considered as random variables Qt. At the same time the loads examined within a given time interval tr ≤ t ≤ tz would be considered stochastic processes {Q(t: t ≥ 0}. Essential properties of the loads of the abovementioned tribological associations are named and explained by formulating hypotheses which need empirical verification. Interval estimation is proposed for estimating the expected value E(Qt of the load Qt acting at time t. A relation is indicated between the mechanical load and the thermal load acting on tribological associations in the ship main engine crankshaft and piston system. A suggestion is formulated that a stochastic form of the relation between these types of load is to be searched for, rather than statistic relation, and a proposal is made to measure the intensity (strength of the stochastic relation using the Czuprow’s convergence coefficient.

  3. Systemic agonistic anti-CD40 treatment of tumor bearing mice modulates hepatic myeloid suppressive cells and causes immune-mediated liver damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Ma, Chi; Duffy, Austin; Eggert, Tobias; Hawk, Nga; Kleiner, David E.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immune stimulatory monoclonal antibodies are currently evaluated as anti tumor agents. Although overall toxicity appears to be moderate, liver toxicities have been reported and are not completely understood. We studied the effect of systemic CD40 antibody treatment on myeloid cells in spleen and liver. Naïve and tumor-bearing mice were treated systemically with agonistic anti-CD40 antibody. Immune cell subsets in liver and spleen, serum transaminases and liver histologies were analyzed after antibody administration. Nox2−/−, Cd40−/− as well as bone marrow chimeric mice were used to study the mechanism by which agonistic anti-CD40 mediates its effects in vivo. Suppressor function of murine and human tumor-induced myeloid derived suppressive cells was studied upon CD40 ligation. Agonistic CD40 antibody caused liver damage within 24 hours after injection in two unrelated tumor models and mice strains. Using bone marrow chimeras we demonstrated that CD40 antibody-induced hepatitis in tumor-bearing mice was dependent on the presence of CD40-expressing hematopoietic cells. Agonistic CD40 ligation-dependent liver damage was induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, agonistic CD40 antibody resulted in increased CD80 and CD40 positive liver CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells. CD40 ligation on tumor-induced murine and human CD14+HLA-DRlow PBMC from cancer patients reduced their immune suppressor function. Collectively, agonistic CD40 antibody treatment activated tumor-induced, myeloid cells, caused myeloid dependent hepatotoxicity and ameliorated the suppressor function of murine and human MDSC. Collectively, our data suggests that CD40 may mature immunosuppressive myeloid cells and thereby cause liver damage in mice with an accumulation of tumor-induced hepatic MDSC. PMID:25637366

  4. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. → Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. → More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. → MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA -/- ) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA -/- mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes. MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H 2 O 2 . Corresponding changes in Ca 2+ transients are observed in MsrA -/- cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H 2 O 2 . Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA -/- mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA -/- mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  5. Damage of niobium surfaces caused by bombardment with 4He+ ions of different energies typical for T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, N.

    1979-01-01

    The surface damage of cold worked and annealed polycrystalline Nb irradiated at room temperature with He + ions sequentially at different energies over the range from 0.5 keV to 1.8 MeV has been investigated. The individual energy and the dose of the He + ion was chosen to match the theoretically calculated He + ion spectrum expected in the Tokamak T-20. In one set of irradiations, targets were irradiated at Kurchatov Institute starting with 0.5 keV 4 He + ions and extending up to 90 keV in eleven steps. Subsequently, the same area was irradiated at ANL starting at 150 keV and increased in eight steps up to 1.8 MeV. The irradiations were carried out for a total dose of 5.0 C/cm 2 . In another set of irradiations the sequence was reversed. Scanning electron microscopy results show formation of blisters and exfoliation. For the same dose the broad energy implant (due to sequential irradiation) appears to decrease the blister diameter and density as compared to irradiation with monoenergetic He + ions at a given energy (in the energy range considered). Some estimates of surface erosion yields due to blistering are given

  6. Whole body proton irradiation causes acute damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Pathak, Rupak; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Jones, Tamako; Mao, Xiao Wen; Nelson, Gregory; Boerma, Marjan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure. 1.0 Gy proton-TBI significantly reduced the numbers of peripheral blood cells compared to 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated animals, while the numbers of peripheral blood cell counts were comparable between 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated mice. The frequencies and numbers of LSK cells and CMPs in BM of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice were decreased in comparison to those of normal controls. LSK cells and CMPs and their progeny exhibited a radiation-induced impairment in clonogenic function. Exposure to 1.0 Gy increased cellular apoptosis but not the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CMPs two weeks after irradiation. LSK cells from irradiated mice exhibited an increase in ROS production and apoptosis. Exposure to proton-TBI can induce acute damage to BM progenitors and LSK cells.

  7. Effect of loperamide and delay of bowel motility on bile acid malabsorption caused by late radiation damage and ileal resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R. (Nederlands Kanker Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hartog Jager, F. den; Hoefnagel, C.; Taal, B. (Nederlands Kanker Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1991-05-01

    Selenium-75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine ({sup 75}Se-HCAT) was used during loperamide administration in seven patients suspected of having bile acid malabsorption due to late radiation damage and small-bowel resection in order to document the aetiology of ileal dysfunction and to adjust therapeutic mamagement. In two patients with ileal resection up to 50 cm and in one patient without resection, a reduction of bowel motility by loperamide resulted in marked normalization of the {sup 75}Se-HCAT retention measurements. Sequential scintigraphic {sup 75}Se-HCAT imaging demonstrated a significant improvement in the {sup 75}Se-HCAT reabsorption and recirculation, accompanied in one case by prolongation of colonic retention of the radiopharmaceutical. In four patients with more than 80 cm resection, the {sup 75}Se-HCAT test was abnormal during loperamide administration. In two of these patients for whom baseline values were available, no improvement in the pattern of {sup 75}Se-HCAT absorption was observed. In conclusion, the first results of loperamide {sup 75}Se-HCAT in patients suspected of having bile acid malabsorption and abnormal baseline {sup 75}Se-HCAT are promising. Intervention with loperamide is easy and seems to improve the clinical value of the test with direct therapeutic implications. Sequential {sup 75}Se-HCAT imaging is essential for interpreting changes in the {sup 75}Se-HCAT retention measurements. (orig.).

  8. Comparative study on hematopoietic damage of mice caused by high-dose of gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongying; Wang Yueying; Li Deguan; Wang Xiaochun; Zhang Heng; Lu Lu; Chang Jianhui; Du Liqing; Wang Yan; Men Aimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of high-dose of gamma-ray irradiation on hematopoiesis injury and recovery of IRM-2 and C57BL/6 J mouse. Methods: The experiment was designed to study the effects of radiation (4 Gy) on spleen index, CFU-S and DNA damage on the 9 th day of IRM-2 and ICR mice and the effects of radiation (6 Gy) on WBC change and its absolute value on the 45 th days of IRM-2 and C57BL/6 J mice. Results: The IRM-2 mouse spleen index, CFU-S and DNA were higher than ICR mouse on the 9 th days, and there were significant difference in CFU-S and DNA (P<0.01). The IRM-2 mouse WBC, RMC, HGB and HCT were higher than C57BL/6 J mouse on the 45 th days, and there were significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: IRM-2 mouse hematopoiesis resumes quicker than C57BL/6 J and ICR do after high-dose of gamma-ray irradiation. (authors)

  9. Tissue Damage Caused by Myeloablative, but Not Non-Myeloablative, Conditioning before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Results in Dermal Macrophage Recruitment without Active T-Cell Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Balen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. T-cell-depleted alloSCT with postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI may reduce GVHD, because tissue injury can be restored at the time of DLI. In this study, we investigated the presence of tissue injury and inflammation in skin during the period of hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution after alloSCT.MethodsSkin biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for HLA class II, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, CD54, CD68, CD86, CD206, CD3, and CD8. HLA class II-expressing cells were characterized as activated T-cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs, or tissue repairing macrophages. In sex-mismatched patient and donor couples, origin of cells was determined by multiplex analysis combining XY-FISH and fluorescent immunohistochemistry.ResultsNo inflammatory environment due to pretransplant conditioning was detected at the time of alloSCT, irrespective of the conditioning regimen. An increase in HLA class II-positive macrophages and CD3 T-cells was observed 12–24 weeks after myeloablative alloSCT, but these macrophages did not show signs of interaction with the co-localized T-cells. In contrast, during GVHD, an increase in HLA class II-expressing cells coinciding with T-cell interaction was observed, resulting in an overt inflammatory reaction with the presence of activated APC, activated donor T-cells, and localized upregulation of HLA class II expression on epidermal cells. In the absence of GVHD, patient derived macrophages were gradually replaced by donor-derived macrophages although patient-derived macrophages were detectable even 24 weeks after alloSCT.ConclusionConditioning regimens cause tissue damage in the skin, but this does not result in a local increase of activated APC. In contrast to the inflamed situation in GVHD, when interaction takes place between

  10. EFFICACY OF REMAXOL AND ADEMETHIONINE IN EXPERIMENTAL LIVER DAMAGE CAUSED BY A COMBINATION OF RESERVE-SERIES ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AND ALCOHOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sukhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic and endothelial protective effects of remaxol and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were studied on 24 male rats with liver damage caused by reserve-series antituberculosis drugs in combination with alcohol. The test agents were found to have a unilateral hepatoprotective effect in decreasing the blood levels of triglycerides, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase with a concurrent significant reduction in the manifestations of hyaline-drop and hydropic dystrophy of hepatocytes. Remaxol and ademethionine have the same endothelial protective activity manifested as normalization of an endothelium-dependent vasodilation response and endothelial dysfunction coefficient.

  11. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function wh...

  12. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Salbacak, A; Celik, I; Sivrikaya, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of zinc supplementation on the oxidant damage in lung and liver tissues in rats exposed to a 50-Hz frequency magnetic field for 5 minutes every other day over a period of 6 months. The study included 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the three groups in equal numbers: Group 1, the control group (G1); Group 2, the group exposed to an electromagnetic field (G2); and Group 3, the group, which was exposed to an EMF and supplemented with zinc (G3). At the end of the 6-month procedures, the animals were decapitated to collect lung and liver tissue samples, in which MDA was analyzed using the "TBARS method (nmol/g/protein)", GSH by the "biuret method (mg/g/protein)" and zinc levels by atomic emission (µg/dl). MDA levels in lung and liver tissues in G2 were higher than those in G1 and G3, and the levels in G3 were higher than those in G1 (pelectromagnetic field caused cellular damage in lung and liver tissues and zinc supplementation inhibited the inflicted cellular damage. Another important result of this study that needs emphasis was that exposure to an electromagnetic field led to a significant decrease in zinc levels in lung and liver tissues (Tab. 3, Ref. 23).

  13. Restoration of a historic church in the Rhineland brown coal mining area after damage caused by mining; Bergschadensanierung einer historischen Kirche im rheinischen Braunkohlenrevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koether, M. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Weiper, H. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Jung, H.H. [Ingenieurgesellschaft J.-F. und P. Jung und Partner GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    From the 1960s onwards, the Catholic parish curch of St. Remigius in Bergheim, the oldest parts of which date back to the 12th century, suffered damage caused by ground subsidences induced by mining operations on a tectonic fault. As a result of the effects of damage on the building over decades and the occurrence of a slip of almost 60 mm along the fault line, the damage to this National Trust edifice was so extensive by the late 1980s that the existence of the three-nave churche was seriously endangered in view of the further ground subsidences that were to be expected. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Die katholische Pfarrkirche St. Remigius in Bergheim, deren aelteste Bauabschnitte aus dem 12. Jahrhundert stammen, wurde seit den 60er Jahren durch bergbaulich induzierte Bodenbewegungen an einer tektonischen Stoerung geschaedigt. Aufgrund der jahrzehntelangen Schadenseinwirkungen auf das Bauwerk und eine Absatzbildung an der Stoerungslinie von insgesamt fast 60 mm fuehrten Ende der 80er Jahre an dem denkmalgeschuetzten Bauwerk zu so starken Schaeden, dass der Bestand der dreischiffigen Kirche unter Beruecksichtigung der noch zu erwartenden Bodenbewegungen gefaehrdet war. (orig./HS)

  14. Repeated mild traumatic brain injury can cause acute neurologic impairment without overt structural damage in juvenile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Meconi

    Full Text Available Repeated concussion is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious public health concern around the world. Moreover, there is a greater awareness amongst health professionals of the potential for repeated pediatric concussions to detrimentally alter the structure and function of the developing brain. To better study this issue, we developed an awake closed head injury (ACHI model that enabled repeated concussions to be performed reliably and reproducibly in juvenile rats. A neurological assessment protocol (NAP score was generated immediately after each ACHI to help quantify the cumulative effects of repeated injury on level of consciousness, and basic motor and reflexive capacity. Here we show that we can produce a repeated ACHI (4 impacts in two days in both male and female juvenile rats without significant mortality or pain. We show that both single and repeated injuries produce acute neurological deficits resembling clinical concussion symptoms that can be quantified using the NAP score. Behavioural analyses indicate repeated ACHI acutely impaired spatial memory in the Barnes maze, and an interesting sex effect was revealed as memory impairment correlated moderately with poorer NAP score performance in a subset of females. These cognitive impairments occurred in the absence of motor impairments on the Rotarod, or emotional changes in the open field and elevated plus mazes. Cresyl violet histology and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI indicated that repeated ACHI did not produce significant structural damage. MRI also confirmed there was no volumetric loss in the cortex, hippocampus, or corpus callosum of animals at 1 or 7 days post-ACHI. Together these data indicate that the ACHI model can provide a reliable, high throughput means to study the effects of concussions in juvenile rats.

  15. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  16. Decrease in the damage of powerful turbogenerator stator caused by vibration in the end zones (analysis, hypotheses, experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Shumilov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the turbogenerators’ TВВ-1000-2Y3 failure has shown that the most vulnerable link in the stator is such of their elements as tightening prisms, the teeth of the end packet core, lead-out and connecting buses of the stator winding. The basic reason for the destruction of the elements mentioned is metal fatigue caused by excessive vibration under the influence of variable axial forces of electromagnetic origin. Preventing the destruction of the structural elements may be achieved by vibration monitoring and diagnostics.

  17. Prevention of noise damages causes by shooting fire of Kalashnikov (AK-47) rifle by regulation of suitable distance

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein Pourtaghi; Hamidreza Mokarami; Firouz Valipour; Mohammad Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were control of rifle shooting noise by regulation of suitable distance and investigation of frequency characteristic of the noise caused by single Kalashnikov rifle (AK-47) in an open shooting field. Due to the condition of the trainees and other people in the shooting fields, the measurements were done in 2 stages of individual and groups of 20 individuals and at 1, 30 and 50 meters distance, respectively. At each stage of the experiment the sound pressure level and p...

  18. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  19. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  20. Effect of silicon and nanosilicon on reduction of damage caused by salt stress in maize (Zea mays seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assieh Behdad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity reduced the efficiency of agricultural production like maize as one of the most important cereals for food and oil for humans. Silicon is the second most abundant element in the soil and alleviates the biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of silicon and nanosilicon on improvement of salt stress in maize (Zea mays. For this propose, the interaction between the effects of different levels of salinity (0 and 100 mM, silicon and nanosilicon (50, 100 and 150 mg /mL was studied in completely randomized block design with factorial experiments and with three replications. The results showed that salinity significantly decreased root and shoot growth, amount of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, protein and potassium contents, compared to control. Treating plants with silicon and nanosilicon caused reduction of salinity effects and increase above indices. Salinity stress also caused a significant increase in proline, anthocyanin and soluble carbohydrate contents, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity and treatment with silicon and nanosilicon alleviates effects of salt stress and reduced the amount of above indices. 150 mg/mL of nanosilicon showed the maximum effect on diminishing negative effects of salt stress on all examined parameters. So, the use of this element is proposed as alleviator of salt stress on maize.

  1. Effect of the Plasmid-DNA Vaccination on Macroscopic and Microscopic Damage Caused by the Experimental Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dog is considered the main domestic reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and a suitable experimental animal model to study the pathological changes during the course of Chagas disease (CD. Vaccine development is one of CD prevention methods to protect people at risk. Two plasmids containing genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (TcSP and an amastigote-specific glycoprotein (TcSSP4 were used as DNA vaccines in a canine model. Splenomegaly was not found in either of the recombinant plasmid-immunized groups; however, cardiomegaly was absent in animals immunized only with the plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene. The inflammation of subendocardial and myocardial tissues was prevented only with the immunization with TcSSP4 gene. In conclusion, the vaccination with these genes has a partial protective effect on the enlargement of splenic and cardiac tissues during the chronic CD and on microscopic hearth damage, since both plasmids prevented splenomegaly but only one avoided cardiomegaly, and the lesions in heart tissue of dog immunized with plasmid containing the TcSSP4 gene covered only subepicardial tissue.

  2. Damage of niobium surfaces caused by bombardment with 4He+ ions of different energies typical for T-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gusev, V.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to study surface damage due to blistering of both annealed and cold-worked niobium (a candidate first wall material for keV) irradiated sequentially with 4 He + ions with energies of 0.5 to 1800 keV for a total dose of 5.0 C/cm 2 . A typical surface of cold-worked Nb after irradiations with 4 He + ions with increasing energy from 0.5 to 90 keV is shown. The blister diameters range from 0.1 μm to 3 μm, and most of the blisters have exfoliated. The blisters fall into several size classes, the two most dominant ones having most probable blister diameters of approx. 0.27 μm and approx. 2.0 μm. The skin thickness of the larger blisters was measured to be approx. 0.23 μm. Also shown is the same area after irradiation with 150-1800-keV 4 He + irradiation for a dose of 0.66 C/cm 2 . A few additional blisters can be seen. A cold-worked Nb surface that was irradiated only with 150-1800-keV 4 He + ions is also shown. It is seen that prior irradiation with 0.5-90-keV 4 He + helped in significantly reducing blistering. For a total dose of 0.5 C/cm 2 , the erosion yield due to helium blistering of Nb ranges from (5.4 +- 2.0) x 10 -3 to (1.5 +- 0.7) x 10 -2 atoms/ion. For the cold-worked Nb target the results indicate clearly that the 4 He + implantations for the energy range from 0.5 to 90 keV help to reduce both the density and diameter of blisters formed by subsequent He-implantation for the energy ranging from 150 to 1800 keV. 2 figures

  3. Analysis of the causes and recommendations on elimination of biological damage of structures during the repair and reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. The problems have been considered as for a complex of buildings of the State Biological Museum built in the late nineteenth century which, to the present time, has been operated almost in its original form. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  4. The cancer-germline antigen SSX2 causes cell cycle arrest and DNA damage in cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Katrine Buch Vidén; Lindgreen, Jonas; Terp, Mikkel Green

    2011-01-01

    The SSX family of cancer and germline antigens is mainly expressed in the germ cells of healthy individuals as well as wide range of cancers and is therefore potential targets for immunotherapy. However, little is known about the role of SSX proteins in tumorigenesis and normal cell function. Here......, we show that SSX2 is involved in regulation of cancer cell growth. We found that ectopic expression of SSX2 in melanoma and colon cancer cells strongly reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro. Importantly, in a xenograft mouse model, the growth of tumors derived from SSX2 overexpressing...... melanoma cells was severely reduced compared to those derived from the isogenic parental cell line. Cell cycle analysis showed that SSX2 caused an accumulation of cells arrested in G1. Consistent with this, we observed a marked decrease in cells expressing the proliferation marker Ki67 and concomitantly...

  5. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Finamor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC, and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH. Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway.

  6. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela; Pérez, Salvador; Bressan, Caroline A; Brenner, Carlos E; Rius-Pérez, Sergio; Brittes, Patricia C; Cheiran, Gabriele; Rocha, Maria I; da Veiga, Marcelo; Sastre, Juan; Pavanato, Maria A

    2017-04-01

    No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC), and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH). Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc) and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  8. First estimates of the potential cost and cost saving of protecting childhood hearing from damage caused by congenital CMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Eleri J; Gray, Joanne; Luck, Suzanne; Atkinson, Claire; Embleton, Nicholas D; Kadambari, Seilesh; Davis, Adrian; Griffiths, Paul; Sharland, Mike; Berrington, Janet E; Clark, Julia E

    2015-11-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is an important cause of childhood deafness, which is modifiable if diagnosed within the first month of life. Targeted screening of infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screening tests in England is a feasible approach to identify and treat cases to improve hearing outcome. To conduct a cost analysis of targeted screening and subsequent treatment for cCMV-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in an, otherwise, asymptomatic infant, from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS). Using data from the newborn hearing screening programme (NHSP) in England and a recent study of targeted screening for cCMV using salivary swabs within the NHSP, we estimate the cost (in UK pounds (£)) to the NHS. The cost of screening (time, swabs and PCR), assessing, treating and following up cases is calculated. The cost per case of preventing hearing deterioration secondary to cCMV with targeted screening is calculated. The cost of identifying, assessing and treating a case of cCMV-related SNHL through targeted cCMV screening is estimated to be £6683. The cost of improving hearing outcome for an infant with cCMV-related SNHL through targeted screening and treatment is estimated at £14 202. The costs of targeted screening for cCMV using salivary swabs integrated within NHSP resulted in an estimate of cost per case that compares favourably with other screening programmes. This could be used in future studies to estimate the full economic value in terms of incremental costs and incremental health benefits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Pathological prolongation of action potential duration as a cause of the reduced alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanae, Haruna; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Wakasugi, Yumi; Kusakabe, Taichi; Kato, Keisuke; Namekata, Iyuki; Tanaka, Hikaru

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pathological prolongation of action potential duration on the α-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium. In streptozotocin-treated mouse ventricular myocardium, which had longer duration of action potential than that in control mice, the negative inotropic response induced by phenylephrine was smaller than that in control mice. 4-Aminopyridine prolonged the action potential duration and decreased the negative inotropy in control mice. Cromakalim shortened the action potential duration and increased the negative inotropy in streptozotocin-treated mice. These results suggest that the reduced α-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropy in the diabetic mouse myocardium is partly due to its prolonged action potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinsky, Yael; Iancu, Iulian; Dannon, Pinhas

    2007-10-01

    Gambling behaviour is well-known for many centuries and is growing in popularity and frequency. Its etiology is multi-factorial and in this paper we review new developments in the field of pathological gambling, both regarding etiology and treatment progress. The aim of this review is to increase the physicians' awareness towards this entity.

  11. Curcumin protects against cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of quartz particles but causes oxidative DNA damage in a rat lung epithelial cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Berlo, Damien van; Shi Tingming; Speit, Guenter; Knaapen, Ad M.; Borm, Paul J.A.; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of high concentrations of respirable quartz particles has been implicated in various lung diseases including lung fibrosis and cancer. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism of quartz toxicity. Curcumin, a yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, has been considered as nutraceutical because of its strong anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant properties. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether curcumin can protect lung epithelial cells from the cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory effects associated with quartz (DQ12) exposure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements using the spin-trap DMPO demonstrated that curcumin reduces hydrogen peroxide-dependent hydroxyl-radical formation by quartz. Curcumin was also found to reduce quartz-induced cytotoxicity and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in RLE-6TN rat lung epithelial cells (RLE). Curcumin also inhibited the release of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) from RLE cells as observed upon treatment with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). However, curcumin failed to protect the RLE cells from oxidative DNA damage induced by quartz, as shown by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)-modified comet assay and by immunocytochemistry for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. In contrast, curcumin was found to be a strong inducer of oxidative DNA damage itself at non-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory concentrations. In line with this, curcumin also enhanced the mRNA expression of the oxidative stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1). Curcumin also caused oxidative DNA damage in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages and A549 human lung epithelial cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that one should be cautious in considering the potential use of curcumin in the prevention or treatment of lung diseases associated with quartz exposure

  12. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  13. Pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation alleviates damage to the flag leaf caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Jian, Dong

    2011-01-01

    and enhanced cell membrane peroxidation, as exemplified by increased O2-• production rate and reduction in activities of antioxiditave enzymes. However, under post-anthesis heat stress, plants with pre-anthesis hightemperature acclimation (HH)showedmuchhigher photosynthetic rates than those without pre...... all up-regulated under HH, whereas a gene encoding a major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab) was up-regulated by post-anthesis heat stress at 10 DAA, but was down-regulated at 13 DAA. The changes in the expression levels of the HH plants were more pronounced than those for the CH. Collectively......, the results indicated that pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation could effectively alleviate the photosynthetic and oxidative damage caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat flag leaves, which was partially attributable to modifications in the expression of the photosythesis-responsive and antioxidant...

  14. Estimating the willingness to pay to protect coral reefs from potential damage caused by climate change--The evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, William Wei-Chun; Hsu, Shu-Han; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2015-12-30

    Coral reefs constitute the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystem, and provide various goods and services including those related to fisheries, marine tourism, coastal protection, and medicine. However, they are sensitive to climate change and rising temperatures. Taiwan is located in the central part of the world's distribution of coral reefs and has about one third of the coral species in the world. This study estimates the welfare losses associated with the potential damage to coral reefs in Taiwan caused by climate change. The contingent valuation method adopted includes a pre-survey, a face-to-face formal survey, and photo illustrations used to obtain reliable data. Average annual personal willingness to pay is found to be around US$35.75 resulting in a total annual willingness to pay of around US$0.43 billion. These high values demonstrate that coral reefs in Taiwan deserve to be well preserved, which would require a dedicated agency and ocean reserves.

  15. Patulin causes DNA damage leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through modulation of Bax, p53 and p21/WAF1 proteins in skin of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Neha; Ansari, Kausar M.; Kumar, Rahul; Dhawan, Alok; Dwivedi, Premendra D.; Das, Mukul

    2009-01-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin found in apples, grapes, oranges, pear and peaches, is a potent genotoxic compound. WHO has highlighted the need for the study of cutaneous toxicity of PAT as manual labour is employed during pre and post harvest stages, thereby causing direct exposure to skin. In the present study cutaneous toxicity of PAT was evaluated following topical application to Swiss Albino mice. Dermal exposure of PAT, to mice for 4 h resulted in a dose (40-160 μg/animal) and time (up to 6 h) dependent enhancement of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a marker enzyme of cell proliferation. The ODC activity was found to be normal after 12 and 24 h treatment of patulin. Topical application of PAT (160 μg/100 μl acetone) for 24-72 h caused (a) DNA damage in skin cells showing significant increase (34-63%) in olive tail moment, a parameter of Comet assay (b) significant G 1 and S-phase arrest along with induction of apoptosis (2.8-10 folds) as shown by annexin V and PI staining assay through flow cytometer. Moreover PAT leads to over expression of p 21/WAF1 (3.6-3.9 fold), pro apoptotic protein Bax (1.3-2.6) and tumor suppressor wild type p 53 (2.8-3.9 fold) protein. It was also shown that PAT induced apoptosis was mediated through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway as revealed through the release of cytochrome C protein in cytosol leading to enhancement of caspase-3 activity in skin cells of mice. These results suggest that PAT has a potential to induce DNA damage leading to p 53 mediated cell cycle arrest along with intrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis that may also be correlated with enhanced polyamine production as evident by induction of ODC activity, which may have dermal toxicological implications

  16. Visualisation of γH2AX Foci Caused by Heavy Ion Particle Traversal; Distinction between Core Track versus Non-Track Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Brunton, Holly; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Shrikhande, Amruta; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Fujimori, Akira; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Jeggo, Penny; Shibata, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm) ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci) represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle. PMID:23967070

  17. Impact of the Phoretic Phase on Reproduction and Damage Caused by Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman to Its Host, the European Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Piou

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the honeybee that causes thousands of colony losses worldwide. The parasite cycle is composed of a phoretic and a reproductive phase. During the former, mites stay on adult bees, mostly on nurses, to feed on hemolymph. During the latter, the parasites enter brood cells and reproduce. We investigated if the type of bees on which Varroa stays during the phoretic phase and if the duration of this stay influenced the reproductive success of the parasite and the damage caused to bees. For that purpose, we used an in vitro rearing method developed in our laboratory to assess egg laying rate and the presence and number of fully molted daughters. The expression level of two Varroa vitellogenin genes (VdVg1 and VdVg2, known to vary throughout reproduction, was also quantified. Results showed that the status of the bees or time spent during the phoretic phase impacts neither reproduction parameters nor the Varroa vitellogenin genes levels of expression. However, we correlated these parameters to the gene expression and demonstrated that daughters expressed the vitellogenin genes at lower levels than their mother. Regarding the damage to bees, the data indicated that a longer stay on adult bees during the phoretic phase resulted in more frequent physical deformity in newborn bees. We showed that those mites carry more viral loads of the Deformed Wing Virus and hence trigger more frequently overt infections. This study provides new perspectives towards a better understanding of the Varroa-honeybee interactions.

  18. Quantification of in vivo oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans during aging by endogenous F3-isoprostane measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labuschagne, C.F.; Stigter, E.C.; Hendriks, M.M.; Berger, R.; Rokach, J.; Korswagen, H.C.; Brenkman, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative damage is thought to be a major cause in development of pathologies and aging. However, quantification of oxidative damage is methodologically difficult. Here, we present a robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach for accurate, sensitive, and linear in vivo

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of damage caused by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea on larvae of the Dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schaper

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, whose main biological vector is Aedes aegypti. This mosquito colonizes tropical areas where the disease is endemic. The most obvious action against dengue is attacking its vector. Biological control appears to be an alternative approach, using natural enemies of the mosquitoes, such as predatory copepods. Thus, the morphological study of the damage caused by copepods is important to understand its predatory capacity. Twenty-five A. aegypti larvae were exposed to the copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides and the damage caused by the copepods was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae showed damage mainly at the anal segment, the siphon and the abdomen; only three attacks to the head were observed. The size of the siphon might be of importance in determining whether or not a copepod will attack a mosquito larva. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 843-846. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.El dengue es una enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos, cuyo principal vector es Aedes aegypti. Este mosquito coloniza muchas áreas tropicales donde la enfermedad es endémica. La acción más obvia contra el dengue es el ataque a su vector. El control biológico parece una buena alternativa, empleando enemigos naturales de los mosquitos, como los copépodos. Por lo tanto, es importante el estudio morfológico del daño causado por los copépodos para comprender su capacidad depredadora. Veinticinco larvas de A. aegypti fueron expuestas a la actividad depredadora del copépodo Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. Mediante microscopia electrónica de rastreo se evaluó el daño causado por los copépodos. Éstos atacaron principalmente el segmento anal, el sifón y el abdomen de las larvas; sólo vimos tres ataques a la cabeza. El tamaño del sifón podría ser de importancia para predecir si los copépodos pudiesen atacar larvas de determinado mosquito.

  20. Piper nigrum ethanolic extract rich in piperamides causes ROS overproduction, oxidative damage in DNA leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Santos Mota, Nádia Sandrini Ramos; Ourique, Fabiana; Porfirio Will Castro, Luiza Sheyla Evenni; Andreguetti, Rafaela Rafognato; Gomes Correia, João Francisco; Filho, Danilo Wilhem; Pich, Claus Tröger; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2016-08-02

    Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicine and tribal people use herbal preparations containing Piper nigrum fruits for the treatment of many health disorders like inflammation, fever, asthma and cancer. In Brazil, traditional maroon culture associates the spice Piper nigrum to health recovery and inflammation attenuation. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by Piper nigrum ethanolic extract and its antitumor activity. The plant was macerated in ethanol. Extract constitution was assessed by TLC, UV-vis and ESI-IT-MS/MS spectrometry. The cytotoxicity, proliferation and intracellular ROS generation was evaluated in MCF-7 cells. DNA damage effects were evaluated through intercalation into CT-DNA, plasmid DNA cleavage and oxidative damage in CT-DNA. Tumor growth inhibition, survival time increase, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress were assessed in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. Extraction yielded 64mg/g (36% piperine and 4.2% piperyline). Treatments caused DNA damage and reduced cell viability (EC50=27.1±2.0 and 80.5±6.6µg/ml in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells, respectively), inhibiting cell proliferation by 57% and increased ROS generation in MCF-7 cells (65%). Ehrlich carcinoma was inhibited by the extract, which caused reduction of tumor growth (60%), elevated survival time (76%), cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis. The treatment with extract increased Bax and p53 and inhibited Bcl-xL and cyclin A expression. It also induced an oxidative stress in vivo verified as enhanced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl proteins content and increased activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. GSH concentration was decreased in tumor tissue from mice. The ethanolic extract has cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and antitumor effect in vivo probably due to ROS overproduction

  1. Causes and consequences of the sinkhole at El Trébol of Quito, Ecuador - implications for economic damage and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Rodríguez, Fabián; Arias Jiménez, Nelson; Simón Baile, Débora; Salazar Martínez, Rodolfo; Addison, Aaron; Carreón Freyre, Dora; Mato, Fernando; Díaz Perez, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The so-called El Trébol is a critical road interchange in Quito connecting the north and south regions of the city. In addition, it connects Quito with the highly populated Los Chillos Valley, one of the most traveled zones in the Ecuadorian capital. El Trébol was constructed in the late 1960s in order to resolve the traffic jams of the capital city and for that purpose the Machángara River was rerouted through an underground concrete box tunnel. In March 2008, the tunnel contained a high amount of discarded furniture that had been impacting the top portion of the tunnel, compromising the structural integrity. On 31 March 2008 after a heavy rainfall a sinkhole of great proportions formed in the Trébol traffic hub. In the first few minutes, the sinkhole reached an initial diameter of 30 m. The collapse continued to grow in the following days until the final dimensions of 120 m in diameter and some 40 m of depth, revealing the Machángara River at the base of the sinkhole.A state of emergency was declared. The cause of the sinkhole was a result of the lack of monitoring of the older subterranean infrastructure where trash had accumulated and damaged the concrete tunnel that channelized the Machángara River until it was worn away for a length of some 20 m, leaving behind the sinkhole and the fear of recurrence in populated areas.With the intent to understand the causes and consequences of this sinkhole event, rainfall data are shown together with hydrogeological characteristics and a view back to the recent history of sinkhole lineation or arrangement of the city of Quito. The economic impact is also emphasized, where the direct costs of the damage and the reconstruction are presented and compared to indirect costs associated with this socio-natural disaster. These analyses suggest that the costs of indirect financial damage, like time loss or delay, and subsequent higher expenses for different types of vehicles, are equivalent to many times the costs of the

  2. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  3. Microglial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial ...

  4. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  5. Arima syndrome caused by CEP290 specific variant and accompanied with pathological cilium; clinical comparison with Joubert syndrome and its related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masayuki; Ide, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Yuji; Saito, Takashi; Narita, Keishi; Dai, Hongmei; Yamakura, Shinji; Furue, Takeki; Kitayama, Hirotsugu; Maeda, Keiko; Takahashi, Eihiko; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Takeda, Sen; Arima, Masataka

    2018-04-01

    Arima syndrome (AS) is a rare disease and its clinical features mimic those of Joubert syndrome or Joubert syndrome-related diseases (JSRD). Recently, we clarified the AS diagnostic criteria and its severe phenotype. However, genetic evidence of AS remains unknown. We explored causative genes of AS and compared the clinical and genetic features of AS with the other JSRD. We performed genetic analyses of 4 AS patients of 3 families with combination of whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, we studied cell biology with the cultured fibroblasts of 3 AS patients. All patients had a specific homozygous variant (c.6012-12T>A, p.Arg2004Serfs*7) or compound heterozygous variants (c.1711+1G>A; c.6012-12T>A, p.Gly570Aspfs*19;Arg2004Serfs*7) in centrosomal protein 290 kDa (CEP290) gene. These unique variants lead to abnormal splicing and premature termination. Morphological analysis of cultured fibroblasts from AS patients revealed a marked decrease of the CEP290-positive cell number with significantly longer cilium and naked and protruded ciliary axoneme without ciliary membrane into the cytoplasm. AS resulted in cilia dysfunction from centrosome disruption. The unique variant of CEP290 could be strongly linked to AS pathology. Here, we provided AS specific genetic evidence, which steers the structure and functions of centrosome that is responsible for normal ciliogenesis. This is the first report that has demonstrated the molecular basis of Arima syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of mucoprotective plant-derived therapies on damage to colonic mucosa caused by carprofen and robenacoxib administered to healthy dogs for 21 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Magdalena; Szarek, Józef; Dublan, Krystyna; Męcik-Kronenberg, Tomasz; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Bigoszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause gastrointestinal damage in dogs. To determine the extent to which lansoprazole, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution exhibit protective effects on colonic mucosa when administered to dogs concurrently with the NSAIDs carprofen or robenacoxib. Thirty-five healthy beagle dogs (15 male and 20 female) aged 13-14 weeks and weighing 4.3-5.5 kg at the beginning of the experiment were included. Endoscopy and biopsy of the caudal gastrointestinal tract were performed pretreatment and on the last day of a 21-day treatment period with (1) oral carprofen; (2) carprofen and the proton-pump inhibitor lansoprazole; (3) carprofen, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution that contained extracts of thyme, icelandic lichen, hyssop, and saponariae root; (4) robenacoxib; (5) robenacoxib and lansoprazole; (6) robenacoxib, liquorice extract, and herbal solution; or (7) an empty gelatin capsule. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis, Cochran's Q, and chi-squared test with p carprofen and robenacoxib tested damaged the colonic mucosa with most severe microscopic lesions following administration of robenacoxib with lansoprazole. The risk of histopathological lesions in the colon increased most rapidly in robenacoxib with lansoprazole (absolute risk increase -0.85) similar to robenacoxib only (-0.75), whereas the best result was recorded following the plant remedies together with carprofen (-0.15) and the plant remedies together with robenacoxib (-0.2). Concurrent administration of liquorice extract and an herbal solution with robenacoxib was associated with decreased severity of the NSAID-induced mucosal lesions.

  7. Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Wang

    Full Text Available IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  8. [Three-month rehabilitation of a patient with the III, IV and VI cranial nerve damage caused by a neurosurgery of the left internal carotid artery aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiński, Eliasz; Kikowski, Łukasz; Irzmański, Robert

    Introduction: Oculomotor nerve palsy is an eye condition resulting from damage to the third cranial nerve or a branch thereof. Third nerve damage weakens the muscles innervated by the nerve . Also adversely affect the fourth and sixth nerve , causing impairment of their activity. Rehabilitation third nerve palsy is rarely described in the available literature . The whole process is very difficult , but the effects of physiotherapy is very beneficial for the patient. The aim:The assessment of the influence of the outpatient rehabilitation on the patient's condition after a three-month treatment and the use of physical therapy. Material and methods:Case studies of the 38-yerar-old patient after having operated a big aneurism of the left ICA, which was clipped. After the procedure, the III, IV and VI cranial nerves were deeply impaired and the amnesic aphasia occurred. The patient started the rehabilitation a month after the incident. To assess the process of rehabilitation, the own movement examination of the eyeball was implemented. Active and passive exercises, Tigger Point therapy, kinesiotaping, laser and electrostimulation were inserted. Results: The significant improvement of the eyeball movement has been proved on the basis of the same own examination. A physiotherapy has had a positive influence on the speech disorder, namely amnesic aphasia, and after the month of the rehabilitation it has been completely removed. The positive influence of the rehabilitation, which has been pointed out, is clinically essential. Conclusions: Obtained results have not been described in literature yet, that is why it is essential to widen further research and emphasise the importance of the rehabilitation, which is rarely implemented in an intense way in such medical conditions.

  9. Pathological fractures in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  10. [Effect of oxidative stress-associated damage to the lung tissue caused by different body mass index in the rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Zhang, X J; Zhao, J H; Xu, J Y

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the influence of different diets on serum protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the activities of Trx and TrxR, and to explore the effect of damage to the lung tissue and the underlying mechanisms of different body mass index caused by different diets in the rat models . Method: Healthy clean male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, emaciation group and fat group, which were raised by different diets for 6 months.Then the rats were sacrificed and the serum and lung tissue were prepared. The levels of 4-HNE, Trx and TrxR in peripheral blood were quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of Trx and TrxR were measured by chemical methods. Results: Compared with the normal group, the lung tissue had more apparent emphysema in the emaciation and the fat groups under light microscope, and more inflammatory cell infiltration in alveolar septum was observed in the fat group.The levels of 4-HNE in the fat group[(24.7±8.7)mg/L]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(15.4±4.7)mg/L, P 0.05)in the levels of 4-HNE between the emaciation and the normal groups. The levels of TrxR in the emaciation group[(7.7±1.4)μg/ml]was significantly higher than that in the normal and the fat groups[(6.2±1.1), (4.9±1.4)μg/ml, all P 0.05). The activity of Trx in the emaciation group[(32.4±8.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(19.6±3.3)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]and the fat group[(11.3±7.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 , all P 0.05). Conclusion: Both high BMI and low BMI can affect the oxidative stress of the body, resulting in increased oxidants and decreased antioxidants, and can cause damage to the lung tissue in the rat models.

  11. PATOLOGÍAS, CAUSAS Y SOLUCIONES DEL CONCRETO ARQUITECTÓNICO EN MEDELLÍN PATHOLOGIES, CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS OF ARCHITECTURE CONCRETE IN MEDELLÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Figueroa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los principales resultados de una investigación que abordó el aspecto constructivo del concreto arquitectónico y cuyo producto final fue un manual de construcción con ese material aplicable para la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia. El concreto arquitectónico es aquel que cumple simultáneamente con los requisitos de estabilidad estructural y de acabado definitivo. El estudio empezó por definir los defectos existentes, la forma de medirlos y sus tolerancias. Mediante un análisis estadístico se determinaron los defectos más comunes en las superficies de concreto en Medellín, para los cuales se plantearon las posibles causas y a partir del análisis de éstas se propusieron soluciones generales enfocadas en los materiales, equipos y procesos constructivos. También se presentaron soluciones particulares para cada defecto. Con esta investigación se avanza en el desarrollo de una norma regional que permita la estandarización de los procesos empleados en la construcción del concreto arquitectónicoThis paper discusses the most important results of a research focused on the construction process of architectonical concrete, presenting as a final result a handbook with recommendations on how to build architectonical concrete elements in the city of Medellin (Colombia. Architectonical concrete is a construction material which is able to supply both structural stability and definitive finishing. The research started by the definition of existing defects as well as their measuring techniques and tolerances. A statistical study was made in order to determine the most common defects on concrete surfaces in Medellin city. Possible causes of the most common defects were determined and, as a result of the analysis of each cause, general and particular solutions were given. General solutions focused on materials, equipment and the building process whereas particular solutions were given to each defect. Finally, the results

  12. Microplastics cause neurotoxicity, oxidative damage and energy-related changes and interact with the bioaccumulation of mercury in the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Branco, Vasco; Figueiredo, Neusa; Carvalho, Felix; Carvalho, Cristina; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is a global paradigm that raises concern in relation to environmental and human health. This study investigated toxic effects of microplastics and mercury in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine fish widely used as food for humans. A short-term (96 h) laboratory bioassay was done by exposing juvenile fish to microplastics (0.26 and 0.69 mg/L), mercury (0.010 and 0.016 mg/L) and binary mixtures of the two substances using the same concentrations, through test media. Microplastics alone and mercury alone caused neurotoxicity through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, increased lipid oxidation (LPO) in brain and muscle, and changed the activities of the energy-related enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). All the mixtures caused significant inhibition of brain AChE activity (64-76%), and significant increase of LPO levels in brain (2.9-3.4 fold) and muscle (2.2-2.9 fold) but not in a concentration-dependent manner; mixtures containing low and high concentrations of microplastics caused different effects on IDH and LDH activity. Mercury was found to accumulate in the brain and muscle, with bioaccumulation factors of 4-7 and 25-40, respectively. Moreover, in the analysis of mercury concentrations in both tissues, a significant interaction between mercury and microplastics was found. The decay of mercury in the water increased with microplastics concentration, and was higher in the presence of fish than in their absence. Overall, these results indicate that: microplastics influence the bioaccumulation of mercury by D. labrax juveniles; microplastics, mercury and their mixtures (ppb range concentrations) cause neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and damage, and changes in the activities of energy-related enzymes in juveniles of this species; mixtures with the lowest and highest concentrations of their components induced different effects on some biomarkers. These findings and other published

  13. CT patterns of pleuro-pulmonary damage caused by inhalation of pumice as a model of pneumoconiosis from non-fibrous amorphous silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Chiara; Ascenti, Giorgio; Scribano, Emanuele; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Gaeta, Michele; Fenga, Concettina; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to correlate the radiological features of pleuro-pulmonary damage caused by inhalation of pumice (an extrusive volcanic rock classified as a non-fibrous, amorphous, complex silicate) with exposure conditions. 36 subjects employed in the pumice quarries were evaluated for annual follow-up in a preventive medical surveillance program including spirometry, chest CT lasting from 1999 to 2014. They were only male subjects, mean age 56.92 ± 16.45 years. Subjects had worked in the quarries for an average of 25.03 ± 9.39 years. Domestic or occupational exposure to asbestos or other mineral dusts other than pumice was excluded. Subjects were also classified as smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. Among the 36 workers examined, we identified four CT patterns which resulted to be dependent on exposure duration and intensity, FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, but not on cigarette smoking. The most common symptoms reported by clinical examination were dyspnoea, cough and asthenia. In no case it was proven an evolution of CT findings during follow-up for 10 years. Liparitosis, caused by pumice inhalation, can be considered a representative example of pneumoconiosis derived by amorphous silica compounds, which are extremely widespread for industrial manufacturing as well as for applicative uses, such as nano-materials. Moreover, being pumice free of quartz contamination, it can represent a disease model for exposure to pure non-fibrous silicates.

  14. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  15. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  16. DNA damage and oxidative stress in human liver cell L-02 caused by surface water extracts during drinking water treatment in a waterworks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ai-Lin; Chen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Jin, Bang-Xiong; Lu, Wen-Hong; Li, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2010-04-01

    Because of the daily and life-long exposure to disinfection by-products formed during drinking water treatment, potential adverse human health risk of drinking water disinfection is of great concern. Toxicological studies have shown that drinking water treatment increases the genotoxicity of surface water. Drinking water treatment is comprised of different potabilization steps, which greatly influence the levels of genotoxic products in the surface water and thus may alter the toxicity and genotoxicity of surface water. The aim of the present study was to understand the influence of specific steps on toxicity and genotoxicity during the treatment of surface water in a water treatment plant using liquid chlorine as the disinfectant in China. An integrated approach of the comet and oxidative stress assays was used in the study, and the results showed that both the prechlorination and postchlorination steps increased DNA damage and oxidative stress caused by water extracts in human derived L-02 cells while the tube settling and filtration steps had the opposite effect. This research also highlighted the usefulness of an integrated approach of the comet and oxidative stress assays in evaluating the genotoxicity of surface water during drinking water treatment. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative damage caused by Oebalus poecilus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae to upland rice cultivated in new agricultural frontier of the Amazon rainforest (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oebalus poecilus (Dallas 1851 is one of the stink bug species of great economic importance for rice producers in Brazil of irrigated, flood and upland cropping systems. These pentatomids are known as stink bugs of panicles, because both nymphs and adults feed mainly on panicles. Stink bug attacks result in pecky (spots seeds, lower mass, germinative reduction and deformed grains. Bearing these factors in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative losses in commercial cultivars of upland rice (Cambará variety, submitted to different population levels of stink bugs of panicles, O. poecilus, at different reproductive growth stages. The results show that in upland rice (Cambará variety, the rice grains are susceptible to quantitative (number and weight and qualitative (pecky, atrophy, chalky and broken grains damage during all panicle development. However, when the insects feed during anthesis/caryopsis and milky stage cause significantly greater percentage of empty grains (up to 83% than when they feed of grains during later phases of panicle development. This characteristic was also observed for the reduction in grain weight. This information may benefit producers and other researchers, allowing them to focus on the monitoring efforts of O. poecilus in most susceptible phases of the attack of this insect. This will enable decision-making about what control measures should be taken, and when, in order to control stink bugs of panicles.

  18. [Pathologic gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    1996-01-31

    The author presents a review on pathological gambling. Similarly as in other addictive diseases, early therapeutic intervention is important. The latter may include: 1: Evaluation of the problem 2. Recommendation that the subject should avoid places where the gambling is pursued. He should not have larger financial sums on him. 3. Recommendations pertaining to lifestyle and prevention of excessive stress. 4. Handling of printed material (the author mentions the text issued to his patients). In the paper therapeutic procedures are described, incl. the author's experience such as the foundation of the group of Gamblers anonymous. Prevention is also considered. It is important that gambling should be less readily available and the demand for it should be smaller.

  19. The relation between the change of pathology and the metergasis of immunity after thyroid arterial embolization in treating hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Min; Zhao Wei; Shen Jin; Yu Yongzhong; Yi Genfa; Xiang Shutian; Li Liyuan; Yang Huiying; Li Hong; Lu Guijun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between change of thyroid tissues and thyroid auto- antibody after thyroid arterial embolization in the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease with observation on changes of histopathology and thyroid auto-antibody in 3 years after thyroid arterial embolization, and to understand the foundation of the therapeutic action after arterial embolization. Methods: 1. Thirty-eight patients with Graves' disease treated by transcathter arterial embolization had been tested serum TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, rT3, TSH, TGAb, TPOAb, TRAb and followed up with color Doppler ultrasound respectively at different periods (before arterial embolization and 7 day, 6 month, 3 year after arterial embolization). 2. 23 patients underwent needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland. Results: Volume of thyroid gland instantly dwindled in size after thyroid arterial embolization or within a few days. The changes of histopathology mainly showed acute ischemic necrosis 7 days after thyroid arterial embolization and followed by fibrous hyperplasia mesenchymal proliferation and follicular atrophy occurring 6 months and 3 years afterward. TGAb, TPOAb at the 3rd year after thyroid arterial embolization were higher than those before the thyriod arterial embolization. FT3, FT4, TRAb at 6 month after thyroid arterial embolization were lower than those of the 3 years. Conclusion: Maladjustment of immunity in GD patients would be improved through the treatment of thyroid arterial embolization, synchronously with the promotion in histopathology. The outcomings of the shrinkage of thyroid tissue, decrease of thyroxin secretion and improvement of immunity provide a combination therapy for GD. (authors)

  20. Investigations of nephrotoxicity caused by ionic and non-ionic contrast media in rats with previously damaged and not previously damaged kidneys and special view to urinary enzyme determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeister, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this study ionic (meglumine amidotrizoate) and non-ionic contrast media (SHH 340 AB, Iohexol, Iopromide, Iosimide and Iopamidol) were tested for their nephrotoxicity in rats. During the experiment detections of urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary enzymes as well as histological examinations of the kidneys were carried out for the diagnosis of acute renal damage. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that rats are not very sensitive to non-ionic contrast media with regard to kidney damage and determinations of urinary enzymes are valuable for the diagnosis of contrast media induced acute kidney damage in living animals. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Automatic recognition of damaged town buildings caused by earthquake using remote sensing information: Taking the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake and the 1976 Tangshan, China, earthquake as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Hang; Shan, Xin-Jian; Yin, Jing-Yuan

    2004-11-01

    In the high-resolution images, the undamaged buildings generally show a natural textural feature, while the damaged or semi-damaged buildings always exhibit some low-grayscale blocks because of their coarsely damaged sections. If we use a proper threshold to classify the grayscale of image, some independent holes will appear in the damaged regions. By using such statistical information as the number of holes in every region, or the ratio between the area of holes and that of the region, etc, the damaged buildings can be separated from the undamaged, thus automatic detection of damaged buildings can be realized. Based on these characteristics, a new method to automatically detect the damage buildings by using regional structure and statistical information of texture is presented in the paper. In order to test its validity, 1-m-resolution iKonos merged image of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and grayscale aerial photos of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake are selected as two examples to automatically detect the damaged buildings. Satisfied results are obtained.

  2. Telomeros y reparación de daño genómico: Su implicancia en patología humana Telomeres and genomic damage repair: Their implication in human pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. del R. Perez

    2002-12-01

    which alterations of the telomere metabolism have been demonstrated. Many of them are also associated with hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and cancer susceptibility. Besides the specific proteins belonging to the telomeric complex, other proteins involved in the DNA repair machinery, such as ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, PARP/ tankyrase system, DNA-PK and RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 complexes, are closely related with the telomere. This suggests that the telomere sequesters DNA repair proteins for its own structure maintenance, which could also be released toward damaged sites in the genomic DNA. This communication describes essential aspects of telomere structure and function and their links with homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ, V(DJ system and mismatch-repair (MMR. Several pathological conditions exhibiting alterations in some of these mechanisms are also considered. The cell response to ionizing radiation and its relationship with the telomeric metabolism is particularly taken into account as a model for studying genotoxicity.

  3. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, Jarle W; Jepsen, Jane U; Lovibond, Sarah; Tømmervik, Hans; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun

    2014-01-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32–39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57–64%) or reduced productivity (browning, <4%). Summer drought and wildfires are the best-documented drivers causing browning of continental areas, but factors dampening the greening effect of more maritime regions have remained elusive. Here we show how multiple anomalous weather events severely affected the terrestrial productivity during one water year (October 2011–September 2012) in a maritime region north of the Arctic Circle, the Nordic Arctic Region, and contributed to the lowest mean vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) recorded this century. Procedures for field data sampling were designed during or shortly after the events in order to assess both the variability in effects and the maximum effects of the stressors. Outbreaks of insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000–11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research. (letter)

  4. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  5. The responsibility of the agents responsible for environmental damage caused by oil spilling in Brazil; A responsabilidade dos agentes causadores de dano ambiental por derramamento de oleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This essay talks about the responsibility of the agents that cause damage to the environment, both civil liability, as well as criminal and administrative responsibility. It analyzes the most important brazilian juridical rules, emphasizing the National Environmental Politics Law, the Brazilian Federal Republic Constitution and the Environmental Crimes Law. Specially, due to the amount and importance of the oil and gas activities in Brazil, it talks about the environmental responsibility, in the above mentioned fields, related to damage resulting from the Oil and Gas Industry's activities. It focuses the rules that rule this subject in the brazilian juridical system, emphasizing the cases of environmental damage resulting from oil spills in Brazil and the probable juridical consequences to the agents responsible for this damage. (author)

  6. Study of damages caused by drill fluids in sandstone samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF); Estudo dos danos causados por fluido de perfuracao em amostras de arenito utilizando a fluorescencia de raios X dispersiva em energia (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joao Luiz B.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Leite, Jaques C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Queiroz Neto, Joao C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2002-07-01

    The performance of an X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) system was evaluated for the determination of solids invasion profile. The EDXRF was used to identify the elements, that are present in the rock core after the damage tests. Results are presented of an experimental study of formation permeability damage caused by invasion of the inert and extraneous solids simulated by CaCO{sub 3} particles. Laboratory damage tests were performed using two types of sandstones core. Vila Velha, low permeability (15 mD) and Rio Bonito, high permeability (800 mD). The damage tests were performed with utilization of SIRF-P, which simulates the conditions find in-situ (petroleum well). (author)

  7. Root causes investigation of catastrophic optical bulk damage in high-power InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yongkun; Lingley, Zachary; Ayvazian, Talin; Brodie, Miles; Ives, Neil

    2018-02-01

    High-power single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well (QW) lasers are critical components for both terrestrial and space satellite communications systems. Since these lasers predominantly fail by catastrophic and sudden degradation due to COD, it is especially crucial for space satellite applications to investigate reliability, failure modes, and degradation mechanisms of these lasers. Our group reported a new failure mode in MM and SM InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers in 2009 and 2016, respectively. Our group also reported in 2017 that bulk failure due to catastrophic optical bulk damage (COBD) is the dominant failure mode of both SM and MM lasers that were subject to long-term life-tests. For the present study, we report root causes investigation of COBD by performing long-term lifetests followed by failure mode analysis (FMA) using various micro-analytical techniques including electron beam induced current (EBIC), time-resolved electroluminescence (EL), focused ion beam (FIB), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Our life-tests with accumulated test hours of over 25,000 hours for SM lasers and over 35,000 hours for MM lasers generated a number of COBD failures with various failure times. EBIC techniques were employed to study dark line defects (DLDs) generated in SM COBD failures stressed under different test conditions. FIB and high-resolution TEM were employed to prepare cross sectional and plan view TEM specimens to study DLD areas (dislocations) in post-aged SM lasers. Time-resolved EL techniques were employed to study initiation and progressions of dark spots and dark lines in real time as MM lasers were aged. Lastly, to investigate precursor signatures of failure and degradation mechanisms responsible for COBD in both SM and MM lasers, we employed DLTS techniques to study a role that electron traps (non-radiative recombination centers) play in degradation of these

  8. Dual Pathology Causing Congenital Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ruth; Johal, Navroop S; Upasani, Anand; Paul, Anu; Cuckow, Peter

    2017-12-07

    Anterior urethral syringocele is an uncommon congenital deformity characterised by cystic dilatation of bulbo-urethral gland ducts and is usually asymptomatic. We present a case on 4-day-old male neonate who presented with bilateral antenatal hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment and found to have urethral syringocele and posterior urethral valves (PUV). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajeev; Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Pandit, Shobhana P

    2008-01-01

    Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%). Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9%) or in bronchiectasis (14.6%). Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis). Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

  10. Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Rajeev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%. Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9% or in bronchiectasis (14.6%. Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis. Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

  11. Damage of the Unit 1 reactor building overhead bridge crane at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and its repair works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugamata, Norihiko

    2014-01-01

    The driving shaft bearings of the Unit 1 overhead bridge crane were damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. The situation, investigation and repair works of the bearing failure are introduced in this paper. (author)

  12. Late radiation pathology of mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, S N

    1982-01-01

    The comprehensive monograph on delayed radiation effects in mammals including man comprises 3 main chapters dealing with non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic manifestations of late radiation pathology, with the prophylaxis of delayed radiation effects, and with the therapy of radiation injuries. Alterations induced by whole-body irradiation and delayed radiation effects caused by partial body irradiation are described in detail. The developmental mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-neoplastic pathological changes and of radiation-induced neoplasms are elaborated.

  13. Experimental radiation pathology and oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    The program goal is to provide basic data for evaluating the hazard to man from radioactive materials deposited within the body. The original objective, to obtain dose-response information and to provide data from several species for extrapolating animal data to man, is receiving less attention at present as effort is being put into determining how radiation causes bone cancer and whether viruses play a role. The program began with the very early radiotoxicologic investigations of materials important in the development of the atomic bomb and the necessity to establish maximum permissible levels of exposure to these materials. With the demonstration that bone cancer is the most sensitive indicator of damage from transuranic elements and some of the fission products, bone pathology became the focus of attention. When it became evident that questions of human hazard cannot be answered unequivocally on the basis of dose-response relationships, different approaches were considered, and one based on knowledge of mechanisms of cancer induction seemed most likely to be successful. The detection of viruses in both radiation-induced and spontaneous bone cancer of mice, and the present evidence for a similar virus in bone cancer of man, support the hypothesis that radiation causes cancer by activating endogenous neoplastic information, which can also be expressed as oncornavirus. Present emphases therefore concern understanding the biological, biochemical, and physical attributes of the five murine oncornaviruses that have now been isolated in the course of the program; demonstrating the existence of a comparable human oncornavirus; and discovering how radiation and virus interact in the induction of bone cancer

  14. Damages caused by Bipolaris maydis in Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia Dano causado por Bipolaris maydis em Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Franzener

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the damage caused by Bipolaris maydis in the quantity and quality of the Tanzania grass production. Tanzania grass plants were cultivated in pots of PVC tubes (50 cm of height x 15 cm of diameter containing a mixture of soil and sand (3:1. The plants were inoculated with spore pathogen suspension containing 102, 104 and 106 conidia/mL to obtain different levels of disease. Severity and number of tillers were evaluated weekly. After four weeks, it were evaluated the weight of the fresh matter of leaves (FM, percentage of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The disease reduced significantly the plant tillering and FM after the second evaluation (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o dano causado por Bipolaris maydis (helmintosporiose na quantidade e qualidade da produção do capim Tanzânia. Plantas de capim Tanzânia foram cultivadas em vasos de tubos de PVC (50 cm de altura x 15 cm de diâmetro contendo mistura solo/areia (3:1. As plantas foram inoculadas com suspensões de esporos do patógeno com diferentes concentrações (102, 104 e 106 conídios/mL, visando obter gradiente de severidade de manchas foliares. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais da severidade e do número de perfilhos. Após quatro semanas avaliou-se o peso da matéria fresca de folhas (MF, porcentagem de matéria seca (PMS, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. A doença reduziu significativamente o perfilhamento e MF a partir da segunda avaliação (P < 0,05. Não houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis PMS, FDA e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. No entanto, houve correlação positiva (P < 0,01 e negativa (P < 0 ,05 entre PB e FDN, respectivamente, com a AACPD, como possível resultado da atividade do patógeno. Estes resultados indicam que B. maydis inibe o desenvolvimento do

  15. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  16. [Changes in clinical indices in patients in predisposition for pathological cicatrices formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetikov, D S; Skrypnyk, V M; Pronina, O M; Stavyts'kyĭ, S O; Boĭko, I V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis of ocurrence of pathological cutaneous cicatrices is one of actual problems of plastic surgery of head and neck. Cicatricial changes of tissues, as a consequence of operative interventions and various damaging causes (mechanical, thermal and chemical impact, ionizing irradiation, deep destructive inflammation), were depicted. Propensity for formation of pathological cicatrices we consider as the organism state, in which cicatricial changes occur as an answer for minimal trauma or spontaneously. Detailed analysis of fundamental issues and periodical scientific publications witness the insufficient substantiation of this issue.

  17. Act No. 225 of 17 March 1979 containing regulations on third party liability for damage caused by nuclear incidents; Nuclear Incidents (Third Party Liability) Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Act on nuclear third party liability provides that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a nuclear installation in the Netherlands is set at 100 million guilders in accordance with the Paris Convention; it also implements the Brussels Supplementary Convention's additional compensation mechanism. The new Act further provides that if damage is suffered on the Netherlands' territory as a result of a nuclear incident for which compensation is payable pursuant to the Brussels Convention or to the Act, and that the funds available for this purpose are insufficient to secure compensation of such damage to an amount of one thousand million guilders, the State shall make available the public funds needed to compensate such damage up to that amount. (NEA) [fr

  18. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  19. Evaluation by instrumented indentation of the damage caused by gamma radiation on polymeric materials; Avaliacao por indentacao instrumentada dos danos causados pela radiacao gama em materiais polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.P.; Azevedo, E.C.; Miquelin, C.A.; Soboll, D.S., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAFIS/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Several materials with densities close to water are used as phantoms in dosimetry. Such materials are damaged because they are exposed to radiation, the surface layers suffer the largest changes. This damage can be assessed by instrumented indentation. This paper investigates the variations in hardness and elastic modulus of samples of polymethyl-methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyacetal and polypropylene before and after being irradiated with gamma radiation dose 500 Gy, using a Nanoindeter XP, with applied loads between 1 mN and 400 mN. The results are discussed correlating the variations in the mechanical properties of polymers with their applications. (author)

  20. Optical damage in reduced Z-cut LiNbO{sub 3} crystals caused by longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostritskii, S. M. [RPC Optolink, Sosnovaya al., d. 6 A, str.2, NPL-3-1, Zelenograd, Moscow, 124489 (Russian Federation); Aillerie, M. [LMOPS, University Paul Verlaine of Metz and Supelec, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France)

    2012-01-01

    The marked optical damage was observed in thin Z-cut plates of the deeply reduced nominally pure LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, when a 514.5-nm-laser beam with ordinary polarization was focused on the {+-}Z face. The longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects are shown to be responsible for most of the important peculiarities of the optical damage dynamics. The anisotropy in the behavior between the +Z and -Z faces has been explained by interference of the different kinds of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects to the space-charge field with an altering relative sign.

  1. Radioprotective Effect of Alk(enyl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential.

  2. Protection by neuroglobin expression in brain pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Baez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic and structural functions and, when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactacte, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the CNS, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes.

  3. DNA polymerase I is crucial for the repair of potentially lethal damage caused by the indirect effects of X irradiation in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1985-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in DNA polymerase I was measured in the presence of OH radical scavengers. The extreme X-ray sensitivity of the mutant could be abolished by OH radical scavengers if a sufficiently high level of radioprotector was present. There was a direct correlation between the OH radical scavenging activity of the chemicals tested (NO 2 - , n-butanol, glycerol, t-amyl alcohol, and t-butanol) and their protective ability. The author interprets the data as showing that the indirect actions of X rays (primarily OH radicals) result in major damage to the bacterial DNA which in large part consists of potentially lethal lesions. This potentially lethal damage is repaired through an enzymatic pathway requiring DNA polymerase I. I. In the mutant lacking DNA polymerase I, these potentially lethal lesions are expressed as cell lethality

  4. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  5. Administration of high doses of copper to capuchin monkeys does not cause liver damage but induces transcriptional activation of hepatic proliferative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Magdalena; Núñez, Héctor; Pavez, Leonardo; Arredondo, Miguel; Méndez, Marco; Cisternas, Felipe; Pizarro, Fernando; Sierralta, Walter; Uauy, Ricardo; González, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    Liver cells respond to copper loading upregulating protective mechanisms. However, to date, except for liver content, there are no good indicators that identify individuals with excess liver copper. We hypothesized that administering high doses of copper to young (5.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) and adult (7.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) capuchin monkeys would induce detectable liver damage. Study groups included adult monkeys (2 females, 2 males) 3-3.5 y old at enrollment treated with copper for 36 mo (ACu); age-matched controls (1 female, 3 males) that did not receive additional copper (AC); young monkeys (2 female, 2 males) treated from birth with copper for 36 mo (YCu); and young age-matched controls (2 female, 2 males) that did not receive additional copper (YC). We periodically assessed clinical, blood biochemical, and liver histological indicators and at 36 mo the hepatic mRNA abundance of MT2a, APP, DMT1, CTR1, HGF, TGFβ, and NFκΒ only in adult monkeys. After 36 mo, the liver copper concentration was 4-5 times greater in treated monkeys relative to controls. All monkeys remained healthy with normal routine serum biochemical indices and there was no evidence of liver tissue damage. Relative mRNA abundance of HGF, TGFβ and NFκB was significantly greater in ACu than in AC monkeys. In conclusion, capuchin monkeys exposed to copper at doses up to 50 times the current upper level enhanced expression of genes related to inflammation and injury without clinical, blood biochemical, or histological evidence of liver damage.

  6. Oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by the urban air pollutant 3-NBA and its isomer 2-NBA in human lung cells analyzed with three independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Eszter; Johansson, Clara; Zeisig, Magnus; Möller, Lennart

    2005-11-15

    The air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), emitted in diesel exhaust, is a potent mutagen and genotoxin. 3-NBA can isomerise to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), which can become more than 70-fold higher in concentration in ambient air. In this study, three independent methods have been employed to evaluate the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of 2-NBA compared to 3-NBA in the human A549 lung cell line. HPLC-EC/UV was applied for measurements of oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), (32)P-HPLC for measurements of lipophilic DNA-adducts, and the Comet assay to measure a variety of DNA lesions, including oxidative stress. No significant oxidative damage from either isomer was found regarding formation of 8-oxodG analysed using HPLC-EC/UV. However, the Comet assay (with FPG-treatment), which is more sensitive and detects more types of damages compared to HPLC-EC/UV, showed a significant effect from both 3-NBA and 2-NBA. (32)P-HPLC revealed a strong DNA-adduct formation from both 3-NBA and 2-NBA, and also a significant difference between both isomers compared to negative control. These results clearly show that 2-NBA has a genotoxic potential. Even if the DNA-adduct forming capacity and the amount of DNA lesions measured with the (32)P-HPLC and Comet assay is about one third of 3-NBA, the high abundance of 2-NBA in ambient air calls for further investigation and evaluation of its health hazard.

  7. Oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by the urban air pollutant 3-NBA and its isomer 2-NBA in human lung cells analyzed with three independent methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Eszter; Johansson, Clara; Zeisig, Magnus; Moller, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    The air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), emitted in diesel exhaust, is a potent mutagen and genotoxin. 3-NBA can isomerise to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), which can become more than 70-fold higher in concentration in ambient air. In this study, three independent methods have been employed to evaluate the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of 2-NBA compared to 3-NBA in the human A549 lung cell line. HPLC-EC/UV was applied for measurements of oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyg...

  8. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  9. How laser damage resistance of HfO2/SiO2 optical coatings is affected by embedded contamination caused by pausing the deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Ella; Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon

    2015-07-01

    Reducing contamination is essential for producing optical coatings with high resistance to laser damage. One aspect of this principle is to make every effort to limit long interruptions during the coating's deposition. Otherwise, contamination may accumulate during the pause and become embedded in the coating after the deposition is restarted, leading to a lower laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). However, pausing a deposition is sometimes unavoidable, despite our best efforts. For example, a sudden hardware or software glitch may require hours or even overnight to solve. In order to broaden our understanding of the role of embedded contamination on LIDT, and determine whether a coating deposited under such non-ideal circumstances could still be acceptable, this study explores how halting a deposition overnight impacts the LIDT, and whether ion cleaning can be used to mitigate any negative effects on the LIDT. The coatings investigated are a beam splitter design for high reflection at 1054 nm and high transmission at 527 nm, at 22.5° angle of incidence in S-polarization. LIDT tests were conducted in the nanosecond regime.

  10. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...

  11. Root-Zone Redox Dynamics - In Search for the Cause of Damage to Treated-Wastewater Irrigated Orchards in Clay Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, David; Shenker, Moshe; Schwartz, Amnon; Assouline, Shmuel; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Treated wastewater (TW) has become a common source of water for agriculture. However recent findings raise concern regarding its use: a marked decrease (up to 40%) in yield appeared in orchards irrigated with TW compared with fresh water (FW) irrigated orchards. These detrimental effects appeared predominantly in orchards cultivated in clay soils. The association of the damage with clay soils rather than sandy soils led us to hypothesize that the damage is linked to soil aeration problems. We suspected that in clay soils, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and high levels of organic material, both typical of TW, may jointly lead to an extreme decrease in soil oxygen levels, so as to shift soil reduction-oxidation (redox) state down to levels that are known to damage plants. Two-year continuous measurement of redox potential, pH, water tension, and oxygen were conducted in the root-zone (20-35 cm depth) of avocado trees planted in clay soil and irrigated with either TW or FW. Soil solution composition was sampled periodically in-situ and mineral composition was sampled in tree leaves and woody organs biannually. In dry periods the pe+pH values indicated oxic conditions (pe+pH>14), and the fluctuations in redox values were small in both TW and FW plots. Decreases in soil water tension following irrigation or rain were followed by drops in soil oxygen and pe+pH values. TW irrigated plots had significantly lower minimum pe+pH values compared with FW-irrigated plots, the most significant differences occurred during the irrigation season rather than the rain season. A linear correlation appeared between irrigation volume and reduction severity in TW-irrigated plots, but not in the FW plots, indicating a direct link to the irrigation regime in TW-irrigated plots. The minimum pe+pH values measured in the TW plots are indicative of suboxic conditions (9water tension and oxygen concentration levels. The consequences of our findings to plant health will be discussed, and

  12. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  13. Chronic restraint stress in rats causes sustained increase in urinary corticosterone excretion without affecting cerebral or systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Maigaard, Katrine; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2013-01-01

    acids, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress. To reliably collect 24h urine samples, the full 3-week restraint stress paradigm was performed in metabolism cages. We further determined frontal...... and Tnf). The metabolism cage housing in itself did not significantly influence a range of biological stress markers. In the restraint stress group, there was a sustained 2.5 fold increase in 24h corticosterone excretion from day 2 after stress initiation. However, neither whole-body nor cerebral measures......Increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) may be a common mechanism underlying accelerated aging in psychological stress states and mental disorders. In the present study, we measured the urinary excretion of corticosterone and markers of systemic oxidative stress on nucleic...

  14. Preincubation of macrophages alveolar of rate with vitamin C or E attenuate the damage to the plasmatic membrane caused by exhibition to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The damaging effects of a 60 minute ozone exposure (0.594 ppm) on the cell membrane of rat alveolar macrophages was assessed by measuring specific release of 51 Cr label from the cells. Preincubation of the macrophages in the presence of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) or vitamine E (DL α tocoferol) prior the ozone exposure significantly diminished 51 Cr release. The protective effect of vitamin E was dose dependent. A proposal accounting for the protective effect of vitamins E and C on the cell membrane is presented, and our findings are discussed in relation to recent reports showing that antioxidant supplementation contributes to preserve pulmonary function in ozone-exposed normal and asthmatic volunteers. (Author) [es

  15. Patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus have autoantibodies colocalizing with MYZAP, p0071, desmoplakins 1-2 and ARVCF, causing renal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Velez, A M; Howard, M S; Yi, H; Florez-Vargas, A A

    2018-05-16

    We have previously reported that about 30% of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in El Bagre, Colombia (termed El Bagre-EPF or pemphigus Abreu-Manu) have systemic compromise. In the current study, we focused on studying autoreactivity to the kidney and its pathological correlations. To investigate patients with El Bagre-EPF for renal compromise. We performed a case-control study, enrolling 57 patients with El Bagre-EPF and 57 controls from the endemic area, matched by age, sex, race, work activity, demographics and comorbidities. We took skin and renal biopsies; performed direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry (IHC), confocal microscopy, immunoblotting, direct and indirect immune electron microscopy; and tested kidney function in all living patients. We also used IHC to study seven kidney autopsy samples. Of the 57 patients, 19 had autoantibodies to kidney, with polyclonal reactivity (P EPF have polyclonal autoantibodies to kidney. The kidneys showed a mixed histological pattern resembling lupus nephritis, with a diffuse proliferative Class IV (G) global diffuse pattern in active lesions, and additional interposition of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  17. Cochlear pathology in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, A P; Barrera, A; Schuknecht, H F

    1983-01-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (COM) is reported to cause elevation of bone-conduction thresholds either by damage to cochlear sensorineural structures or by alteration in the mechanics of sound transmission in the ear. A retrospective study was made of the medical records of 87 patients with unilateral uncomplicated COM to document that abnormality in bone conduction does exist. In a separate study the cochlear pathology in 12 pairs of temporal bones with unilateral COM was studied by light microscopy. Infected ears showed higher than normal mean bone-conduction thresholds by amounts ranging from 1 dB at 500 Hz to 9.5 dB at 4,000 Hz. The temporal bones showed no greater loss of specialized sensorineural structures in infected ears than in normal control ears. Because there is no evidence that COM caused destruction of hair cells or cochlear neurons, alteration in the mechanics of sound transmission becomes a more plausible explanation for the hearing losses.

  18. Airborne remote sensing assessment of the damage to cotton caused by spray drift from aerially applied glyphosate through spray deposition measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate can cause plant injury, which is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. To determine the extent of crop injury due to near-field drift, an experiment was conducted with a single aerial application of glyphosate. For identification of the d...

  19. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN'S IEA-R1 research reactor due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Cabral, Eduardo Lobo Lustosa

    2009-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), which is the Brazilian nuclear regulatory commission, imposes safety and licensing standards in order to ensure that the nuclear power plants operate in a safe way. For licensing a nuclear reactor one of the demands of CNEN is the simulation of some accidents and thermalhydraulic transients considered as design base to verify the integrity of the plant when submitted to adverse conditions. The accidents that must be simulated are those that present large probability to occur or those that can cause more serious consequences. According to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) the initiating event that can cause the largest damage in the core, of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, is the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The objective of this paper is estimate the frequency of the IEA-R1 core damage, caused by this initiating event. In this paper we analyze the accident evolution and performance of the systems which should mitigate this event: the Emergency Coolant Core System (ECCS) and the isolated pool system. They will be analyzed by means of the event tree. In this work the reliability of these systems are also quantified using the fault tree. (author)

  20. Can Rotational Atherectomy Cause Thermal Tissue Damage? A Study of the Potential Heating and Thermal Tissue Effects of a Rotational Atherectomy Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehani, Abdurrazzak A.; Rees, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal tissue damage (TTD) is customarily associated with some lasers. The thermal potential of rotational atherectomy (RA) devices is unknown. We investigated the temperature profile and potential TTD as well as the value of fluid flushing of an RA device. Methods: We used a high-resolution infrared imaging system that can detect changes as small as 0.1 deg. C to measure the temperature changes at the tip of a fast RA device with and without fluid flushing. To assess TTD, segments of porcine aorta were subjected to the rotating tip under controlled conditions, stained by a special histochemical stain (picrisirius red) and examined under normal and polarized light microscopy. Results: There was significant heating of the rotating cam. The mean 'peak' temperature rise was 52.8 ± 16.9 deg. C. This was related to rotational speed; thus the 'peak' temperature rise was 88.3 ± 12.6 deg. C at 80,000 rpm and 17.3 ± 3.8 deg. C at 20,000 rpm (p < 0.001, t-test). Fluid flushing at 18 ml/min reduced, but did not abolish, heating of the device (11.8 ± 2.9 deg. C). A crater was observed in all segments exposed to the rotating tip. The following features were most notable: (i) A zone of 'thermal' tissue damage extended radially from the crater reaching adventitia in some sections, especially at high speeds. This zone showed markedly reduced or absent birefringence. (ii) Fluid flushing of the catheter reduced the above changes but increased the incidence and extent of dissections in the media, especially when combined with high atherectomy speeds. (iii) These changes were observed in five of six specimens exposed to RA without flushing, but in only one of six with flushing (p < 0.05). (iv) None of the above changes was seen in control segments. Conclusion: RA is capable of generating significant heat and potential TTD. Fluid flushing reduced heating and TTD. These findings warrant further studies in vivo, and may influence the design of atherectomy devices

  1. Pathological Fire Setting Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fire setting behavior is characterized by various types of fire setting behavior that lasts at least 6 months. This behavior can be observed both during childhood and adolescence and it develops as a result of the complex interaction between individual, social and environmental factors. Sample population based studies show that fire setting behavior occurs in children and adolescents by 5-10%. The studies that have been conducted have yielded to various theories and findings concerning the mechanism of occurrence of pathological fire setting behavior, the factors that affect this behavior and the demographic, individual, family and environmental characteristics of the children and adolescents who engage in such behavior. The objectives of effective treatment strategies are reducing fire setting behavior as well as making significant changes in the causes underlying the psychopathology. Outpatient care is the preferred method. In addition, there are some inpatient treatment programs designed especially for young people who set fires. The two most common approaches in intervention concerning fire setting behavior are firefighting (fire service based training interventions and mental health based psycho-social interventions. Even though numerous studies have been conducted in the world concerning pathological fire setting behavior from the 19th century onwards, no epidemiological data or study on pathological fire setting behavior exists in Turkey. This seems to be the case in our country despite the fact that fire setting behavior at various degrees and even arson occurs in children and adolescents and results in material damage as well as serious injury and even death especially in the context of children who are pushed into crime. Our objective is to discuss pathological fire setting behavior in line with the literature on the subject, to increase the awareness of the fire service institutions and to shed light on further studies to

  2. Residual stresses caused by head-on and 45° foreign object damage for a laser shock peened Ti–6Al–4V alloy aerofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabeen, S.; Preuss, M.; Withers, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect on the residual stresses of foreign object damage (FOD) to a previously laser shock peened (LSP) leading edge (LE). FOD was introduced onto the LE of the aerofoil-shaped specimen through ballistic impacts of a cube edge at angles of 0° and 45° to the leading edge. The residual stress distribution was mapped around the FOD notch by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results suggest that for both impact angles, the FOD event superimposed a significant additional residual stress on top of the pre-existing stress associated with the LSP process. In particular, the compressive stress was found to be largest directly beneath the notch and the tensile region, seen previously for unpeened aerofoils beneath the compressive zone, was absent due to the pre-existing peening stress field. This may help to explain the improved fatigue strength observed previously. It is shown that the FOD notch created by 45° impact was asymmetric in shape and smaller in depth compared to that created at 0°. The residual stresses were somewhat larger for the 0° impact condition than for 45° partly due to the larger notch depth introduced in the former case.

  3. Acquisition and retrieval of conditioned taste aversion is impaired by brain damage caused by two hours of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroubek, J; Hort, J; Komárek, V; Langmeier, M; Brozek, G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Cavalheiro's pilocarpine model of epileptogenesis upon conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an important example of nondeclarative memory, was studied in adult Long Evans rats. Deterioration of CTA was studied during the silent period between pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and delayed spontaneous recurrent seizures. SE was elicited by i.p. injection of pilocarpine (320 mg/kg ) and interrupted after 2 hours by clonazepame (1 mg/kg i.p.). Peripheral cholinergic symptoms were suppressed by methylscopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.), administered together with pilocarpine. CTA was formed against the salty taste of isotonic LiCl. In the experiment of CTA acquisition, the CTA was formed and tested during the silent period after SE. In the experiment of CTA retrieval, the CTA was acquired before SE and the retrieval itself was tested during the silent period. Retrieval of CTA acquired before SE was impaired more than the retrieval of CTA formed during the silent period. Our findings indicate that epileptic seizures can disrupt even non-declarative memory but that CTA formed by the damaged brain can use its better preserved parts for memory trace formation. Ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.) applied 2 min after the onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus protected memory deterioration.

  4. Pathology Assistant (C - Gamechanger Of Pathology Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asel Kudaybergenova

    2016-06-01

    When the competition ended, we received many favor- able reviews and we decided to start another project a little bit similar to the competition. Every month we show three interesting and difficult to diagnose cases provided by the leading Russian pathologists. The participants can look through the clinical data and digitized histological slides, and then discuss what they see among their professional society. There are 400  specialists  from  post  USSR countries.  Moreover, we get a few proposal of partnership to start a similar project in EU. And the last product in line is Pathology Assistant. It is a game changer. Pathology Assistant is a Digital Pathology©technology driven application for pathology diagnostics, tool to innovate pathology diagnostics in more simple, proven by analytical algo- rithm, automatically delivering anticipated support way. The service provides vast and structured database of validated cases, intuitive interface, fast and convenient system of analytical search. Pathology Assistant will streamline and simplify pathologist’s way to the right decision. Pathologists from Memorial Sloan Catering and biggest EU labs are working on preparing the con- tent for the project.  

  5. Point mutation in D8C domain of Tamm-Horsfall protein/uromodulin in transgenic mice causes progressive renal damage and hyperuricemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Ma

    Full Text Available Hereditary mutations in Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP/uromodulin gene cause autosomal dominant kidney diseases characterized by juvenile-onset hyperuricemia, gout and progressive kidney failure, although the disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that targeted expression in transgenic mice of a mutation within the domain of 8 cysteines of THP in kidneys' thick ascending limb (TAL caused unfolded protein response in younger (1-month old mice and apoptosis in older (12-month old mice. While the young mice had urine concentration defects and polyuria, such defects progressively reversed in the older mice to marked oliguria, highly concentrated urine, fibrotic kidneys and reduced creatinine clearance. Both the young and the old transgenic mice had significantly higher serum uric acid and its catabolic product, allantoin, than age-matched wild-type mice. This THP mutation apparently caused primary defects in TAL by compromising the luminal translocation and reabsorptive functions of NKCC2 and ROMK and secondary responses in proximal tubules by upregulating NHE3 and URAT1. Our results strongly suggest that the progressive worsening of kidney functions reflects the accumulation of the deleterious effects of the misfolded mutant THP and the compensatory responses. Transgenic mice recapitulating human THP/uromodulin-associated kidney diseases could be used to elucidate their pathogenesis and test novel therapeutic strategies.

  6. Point mutation in D8C domain of Tamm-Horsfall protein/uromodulin in transgenic mice causes progressive renal damage and hyperuricemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Nichole K.; El-Achkar, Tarek M.; Lieske, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary mutations in Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP/uromodulin) gene cause autosomal dominant kidney diseases characterized by juvenile-onset hyperuricemia, gout and progressive kidney failure, although the disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that targeted expression in transgenic mice of a mutation within the domain of 8 cysteines of THP in kidneys’ thick ascending limb (TAL) caused unfolded protein response in younger (1-month old) mice and apoptosis in older (12-month old) mice. While the young mice had urine concentration defects and polyuria, such defects progressively reversed in the older mice to marked oliguria, highly concentrated urine, fibrotic kidneys and reduced creatinine clearance. Both the young and the old transgenic mice had significantly higher serum uric acid and its catabolic product, allantoin, than age-matched wild-type mice. This THP mutation apparently caused primary defects in TAL by compromising the luminal translocation and reabsorptive functions of NKCC2 and ROMK and secondary responses in proximal tubules by upregulating NHE3 and URAT1. Our results strongly suggest that the progressive worsening of kidney functions reflects the accumulation of the deleterious effects of the misfolded mutant THP and the compensatory responses. Transgenic mice recapitulating human THP/uromodulin-associated kidney diseases could be used to elucidate their pathogenesis and test novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:29145399

  7. Pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung; Gentile, Douglas A; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline; Liau, Albert K

    2010-11-01

    Increase in internet use and video-gaming contributes to public concern on pathological or obsessive play of video games among children and adolescents worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of pathological symptoms in video-gaming among Singaporean youth and the psychometric properties of instruments measuring pathological symptoms in video-gaming. A total of 2998 children and adolescents from 6 primary and 6 secondary schools in Singapore responded to a comprehensive survey questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, video-gaming habits, school performance, somatic symptoms, various psychological traits, social functioning and pathological symptoms of video-gaming. After weighting, the survey data were analysed to determine the prevalence of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth and gender differences in the prevalence. The construct validity of instrument used to measure pathological symptoms of video-gaming was tested. Of all the study participants, 8.7% were classified as pathological players with more boys reporting more pathological symptoms than girls. All variables, including impulse control problem, social competence, hostility, academic performance, and damages to social functioning, tested for construct validity, were significantly associated with pathological status, providing good evidence for the construct validity of the instrument used. The prevalence rate of pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth is comparable with that from other countries studied thus far, and gender differences are also consistent with the findings of prior research. The positive evidence of construct validity supports the potential use of the instrument for future research and clinical screening on Singapore children and adolescents' pathological video-gaming.

  8. A Study on the Effect of Neurogenesis and Regulation of GSK3β/PP2A Expression in Acupuncture Treatment of Neural Functional Damage Caused by Focal Ischemia in MCAO Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 170 SD rats were randomly divided to five groups. Rats in model group, no-acupuncture group, and acupuncture group were subjected to MCAO surgery. Acupuncture group received 3 consecutive acupuncture treatments at a parameter that deep in 2 mm towards apex nasi and thrust/lifted at 3 times per second for 1 minute, while model group and no-acupuncture group were no-intervention control groups. Serious neural functional damage and sharp decrease of cerebral blood flow, obvious infarction volume, increased nestin mRNA expression, and immunopositive cells population (nestin+, BrdU+ and nestin/BrdU+ were found in MCAO rats which had not been observed in normal group and sham-operated group. However, the damage was attenuated by rat’s “self-healing” capacity 3 days after MCAO. And the “self-healing” capacity can be strengthen by acupuncture treatment through increasing cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and regulation of gene transcription or GSK-3β and PP2A expression. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the underlying mechanism of acupuncture treatment on neural functional damage caused by focal ischemia injury is a multiple interaction which may involve improved cerebral blood supply, neurogenesis, and regulation of gene transcription or GSK-3β and PP2A expression in MCAO rats.

  9. Occurrence and damage caused by Pygiopachymerus lineola (Chevrolat, 1971 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae in Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae: Caesalpinioideae fruits in Maceió, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelyne Ketllen Soares Luz da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae: Caesalpinioideae is an ornamental plant popularly known by golden–shower, Indian– laburnum or purging–cassia; in Brazil it is named canafístula, cássia–imperial or cássia–chuva–de–ouro. Native to Asia, it also occurs in the Americas and Africa, being one of the most used in landscaping projects, seedling production and urban forestry in Brazil by the large yellow hanging beauty flowers. It is known that many tree species have their seeds signifi­cantly damaged by several insect groups, especially seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae, that become the seeds unviable and consequently diminishing the seedlings production. The objective of this study was to determine the natural control agents of the C. fistula seeds (seed predators through the determination of species involved in the predation, the ratio of egg viability and description the some biological functions aspects (feeding and reproduction. The work was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory, Natural History Museum, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió. Were collected from each plant of C. fistula 20 fully developed pods and with dried eggs on its surface. The insects were placed in 70% alcohol and identified to the species level. In the sample A, 89% of string beans showed the predation phenomenon; in B, 95%; and C, 88%. The hole numbers / pod in samples A, B and C were respectively: 3–26, 1–19 and 1 to 18. The predator numbers / pod were: in A, 10 to 26; in B, 1–8; and in C, 2 to 14. The three samples showed high positive correlation (r > 0.8, revealing that the number of holes is very close to the number of insects that emerged from the pods. Viable eggs oc­curred in the 84.2% of pods in A, 100% in B, and 83.3% in C.

  10. Experimental exposure to 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol from the pre-puberty causes damage in sperm production and motility in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina Melo Tavares Vieira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD is a food contaminant that can be formed during the thermic processing of various foodstuffs. Studies of reproductive toxicology of 3-MCPD are mainly concentrated in the evaluation of possible insults caused by exposure of adult animals. However, the prepuberty might be a period of different susceptibility to chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on reproductive endpoints of the 3-MCPD-exposure prepubertal male rats. Wistar male rats were assigned to 4 groups: control and exposed to 2.5; 5 or 10 mg kg-1 day-1 of 3-MCPD for 30 days by gavage. Testis and epididymis were used for sperm counts and histology analysis. Sertoli cell number and dynamic of the spermatogenesis were evaluated. Sperm were collected from the vas deferens for evaluation of the sperm motility and morphology. Number of sperm with progressive movement, number of Sertoli cells and germ cells and relative daily sperm production were decreased in the groups exposed to 5 and 10 mg kg-1 day-1 of 3-MCPD. Sperm morphology, testicular and epididymal histology were comparable among groups. Results show that 3-MCPD-exposure of rats from prepuberty might cause alterations in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, similarly to exposure in adulthood.

  11. Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.; Benbough, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6775661

  12. Pharmacological inhibition of Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) does not cause chromosomal damage or result in the formation of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Kent; Bergeron, Marcelle; Willits, Christopher; Bowers, Simeon; Aubele, Danielle L.; Goldbach, Erich; Tonn, George; Ness, Daniel; Olaharski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) phosphorylates α-synuclein and is considered a putative therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that PLK2 is involved with proper centriole duplication and cell cycle regulation, inhibition of which could impact chromosomal integrity during mitosis. The objectives of the series of experiments presented herein were to assess whether specific inhibition of PLK2 is genotoxic and determine if PLK2 could be considered a tractable pharmacological target for Parkinson's disease. Several selective PLK2 inhibitors, ELN 582175 and ELN 582646, and their inactive enantiomers, ELN 582176 and ELN 582647, did not significantly increase the number of micronuclei in the in vitro micronucleus assay. ELN 582646 was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats in an exploratory 14-day study where flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood identified a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated reticulocytes. A follow-up investigative study demonstrated that ELN 582646 administered to PLK2 deficient and wildtype mice significantly increased the number of peripheral micronucleated reticulocytes in both genotypes, suggesting that ELN 582646-induced genotoxicity is not through the inhibition of PLK2. Furthermore, significant reduction of retinal phosphorylated α-synuclein levels was observed at three non-genotoxic doses, additional data to suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 is not the cause of the observed genotoxicity. These data, in aggregate, indicate that PLK2 inhibition is a tractable CNS pharmacological target that does not cause genotoxicity at doses and exposures that engage the target in the sensory retina. - Highlights: • Active and inactive enantiomers test negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day doses. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei in PLK2 knockout mice. • ELN 582646 decreased

  13. Pharmacological inhibition of Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) does not cause chromosomal damage or result in the formation of micronuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Kent, E-mail: Kent.fitzgerald@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Bergeron, Marcelle, E-mail: Marcelle.bergeron@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Willits, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.willits@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Bowers, Simeon, E-mail: Simeon.bowers@elan.com [Chemistry, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Aubele, Danielle L., E-mail: Danielle.aubele@elan.com [Chemistry, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Goldbach, Erich, E-mail: Erich.goldbach@elan.com [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Tonn, George, E-mail: George.tonn@elan.com [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ness, Daniel, E-mail: Dan.ness@elan.com [Nonclinical Safety Evaluation, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Olaharski, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.olaharski@agios.com [Nonclinical Safety Evaluation, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) phosphorylates α-synuclein and is considered a putative therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that PLK2 is involved with proper centriole duplication and cell cycle regulation, inhibition of which could impact chromosomal integrity during mitosis. The objectives of the series of experiments presented herein were to assess whether specific inhibition of PLK2 is genotoxic and determine if PLK2 could be considered a tractable pharmacological target for Parkinson's disease. Several selective PLK2 inhibitors, ELN 582175 and ELN 582646, and their inactive enantiomers, ELN 582176 and ELN 582647, did not significantly increase the number of micronuclei in the in vitro micronucleus assay. ELN 582646 was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats in an exploratory 14-day study where flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood identified a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated reticulocytes. A follow-up investigative study demonstrated that ELN 582646 administered to PLK2 deficient and wildtype mice significantly increased the number of peripheral micronucleated reticulocytes in both genotypes, suggesting that ELN 582646-induced genotoxicity is not through the inhibition of PLK2. Furthermore, significant reduction of retinal phosphorylated α-synuclein levels was observed at three non-genotoxic doses, additional data to suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 is not the cause of the observed genotoxicity. These data, in aggregate, indicate that PLK2 inhibition is a tractable CNS pharmacological target that does not cause genotoxicity at doses and exposures that engage the target in the sensory retina. - Highlights: • Active and inactive enantiomers test negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day doses. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei in PLK2 knockout mice. • ELN 582646

  14. Caring for patientssuffered from cranial nerve damage caused dysphagia%后组颅神经损伤致吞咽障碍的康复护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:对后组颅神经损伤导致吞咽障碍的患者早期进行康复护理的效果观察。方法对35例神经外科手术术后,后组颅神经损伤患者进行吞咽功能康复护理,4周后观察患者吞咽功能的改善情况。结果35例患者中基本痊愈15例,明显好转11例,好转5例,无效4例,总有效率88.6%。结论系统、早期康复护理对患者吞咽功能的恢复有促进作用。%Objective To observe the effects of early rehabilitation nursing for patients suffered from dysphagia caused by the injury of lower cranial nerves .Methods The swallowing rehabilitation care were used on 35 cases of patients who suffered from dysphagia caused by the injury of lower cranial nerves .The improvement degrees in swallowing function of patients were observed and analyzed after 4 weeks of care .Results 15 cases in all the 35 patients were recovery , 11 cases were improved obviously , 5 cases were improved , and the remaining 4 cases were invalid.The total effective rate was 88.6%.Conclusions The systematic and early rehabilitation nursing care could promote swallowing recovery significantly on the patients with dysphagia .

  15. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Influence of shear plane inclination and location as well as buffer properties on the damage caused to the canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Hernelind, Jan [5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg

  16. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Influence of shear plane inclination and location as well as buffer properties on the damage caused to the canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2006-10-01

    The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg

  17. Bisphenol A Causes Liver Damage and Selectively Alters the Neurochemical Coding of Intrahepatic Parasympathetic Nerves in Juvenile Porcine Models under Physiological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thoene

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an extremely common polymer that is used in typical everyday products throughout the world, especially in food and beverage containers. Within the last ten years, it has been found that the BPA monomer tends to leach into foodstuffs, and nanogram concentrations of it may cause a variety of deleterious health effects. These health problems are very evident in developing children and in young adults. The aim of this study was to expose developing pigs to dietary BPA at both legally acceptable and ten-fold higher levels. Livers that had been exposed to BPA showed vacuolar degeneration, sinusoidal dilatation, vascular congestion and glycogen depletion that increased with exposure levels. Furthermore, the livers of these models were then examined for irregularities and double-labeled immunofluorescence was used to check the innervated hepatic samples for varying neuronal expression of selected neuronal markers in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS. It was found that both the PSNS and all of the neuronal markers showed increased expression, with some of them being significant even at recommended safe exposure levels. The implications are quite serious since these effects have been observed at recommended safe levels with expression increasing in-line with exposure levels. The increased neuronal markers studied here have been previously correlated with behavioral/psychological disorders of children and young adults, as well as with childhood obesity and diabetes. However, further research must be performed in order to develop a mechanism for the above-mentioned correlations.

  18. Review and analysis for events of damage of electric circuits for safe shutdown in postulated fires at PWR power plants and countermeasures for preventing loss of inventory water caused by malfunction of valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hiroki [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been collecting reports on events concerning postulated fires from the viewpoint of fire protection for nuclear power plants. First of all, we reviewed these reports on the US nuclear power plants and analyzed (1) location of a fire, (2) part where the fire occurred and (3) the cause of the fire. The results revealed that the postulated fires had often occurred in areas dense with cables, such as central control rooms and cable connecting rooms, and the events caused by ground faults and short circuits resulting from cable fires had been predominant. Then, a comparison was made between PWRs in the United States and those in Japan in terms of the items and details of analysis on fire-caused damage of the electric circuits as described above. The comparison revealed that ''the event of loss of inventory water resulting from malfunction of valves caused by a fire'' was given consideration at the PWRs in the United States but not for those in Japan. Accordingly, countermeasures against this event were proposed. (author)

  19. Fototerapia causa danos ao DNA de leucócitos mononucleares periféricos em recém-nascidos a termo Phototherapy causes DNA damage in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes in term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aycicek

    2008-04-01

    bilirubin, total oxidant status and oxidative stress levels in either phototherapy group (p > 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Both conventional phototherapy and intensive phototherapy cause endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage in jaundiced term infants.

  20. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.