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Sample records for passivated si nanocrystals

  1. Passivation effects in B doped self-assembled Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthen Veettil, B.; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Terry; Johnson, Craig; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Würfl, Ivan; McCamey, Dane

    2014-01-01

    Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals has enabled their widespread technological application in optoelectronics and micro/nano-electronics. In this work, boron-doped self-assembled silicon nanocrystal samples have been grown and characterised using Electron Spin Resonance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The passivation effects of boron on the interface dangling bonds have been investigated. Addition of boron dopants is found to compensate the active dangling bonds at the interface, and this is confirmed by an increase in photoluminescence intensity. Further addition of dopants is found to reduce the photoluminescence intensity by decreasing the minority carrier lifetime as a result of the increased number of non-radiative processes

  2. Improving Passivation Process of Si Nanocrystals Embedded in SiO2 Using Metal Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhovani Bornacelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photoluminescence (PL of Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs embedded in SiO2 obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy. The Si-NCs are formed at high depth (1-2 μm inside the SiO2 achieving a robust and better protected system. After metal ion implantation (Ag or Au, and a subsequent thermal annealing at 600°C under hydrogen-containing atmosphere, the PL signal exhibits a noticeable increase. The ion metal implantation was done at energies such that its distribution inside the silica does not overlap with the previously implanted Si ion . Under proper annealing Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs could be nucleated, and the PL signal from Si-NCs could increase due to plasmonic interactions. However, the ion-metal-implantation-induced damage can enhance the amount of hydrogen, or nitrogen, that diffuses into the SiO2 matrix. As a result, the surface defects on Si-NCs can be better passivated, and consequently, the PL of the system is intensified. We have selected different atmospheres (air, H2/N2 and Ar to study the relevance of these annealing gases on the final PL from Si-NCs after metal ion implantation. Studies of PL and time-resolved PL indicate that passivation process of surface defects on Si-NCs is more effective when it is assisted by ion metal implantation.

  3. Optical luminescence from alkyl-passivated Si nanocrystals under vacuum ultraviolet excitation: Origin and temperature dependence of the blue and orange emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Y; Houlton, A; Horrocks, BR; Hunt, MRC; Poolton, NRJ; Yang, J; Šiller, L

    2006-01-01

    The origin and stability of luminescence are critical issues for Si nanocrystals which are intended for use as biological probes. The optical luminescence of alkyl-monolayer-passivated silicon nanocrystals was studied under excitation with vacuum ultraviolet photons (5.1–23 eV). Blue and orange emission bands were observed simultaneously, but the blue band only appeared at low temperatures (8.7 eV). At 8 K, the peak wavelengths of the emission bands were 430±2 nm (blue) and 600±2 nm (orange)....

  4. Doping effect in Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongke; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Yicheng; Chen, Kunji

    2018-06-01

    Intentional doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue since it can control the conduction type and ability as well as modify the optical and electronic properties. To realize effective doping is the basis for developing semiconductor devices. However, by reducing the size of a semiconductor, like Si, to the nanometer scale, the doping effects become complicated due to the coupling between the quantum confinement effect and the surfaces and/or interfaces effect. In particular, by introducing phosphorus or boron impurities as dopants into material containing Si nanocrystals with a dot size of less than 10 nm, it exhibits different behaviors and influences on the physical properties from its bulk counterpart. Understanding the doping effects in Si nanocrystals is currently a challenge in order to further improve the performance of the next generation of nano-electronic and photonic devices. In this review, we present an overview of the latest theoretical studies and experimental results on dopant distributions and their effects on the electronic and optical properties of Si nanocrystals. In particular, the advanced characterization techniques on dopant distribution, the carrier transport process as well as the linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped Si nanocrystals, are systematically summarized.

  5. Photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals in silica: The effect of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheylan, S.; Elliman, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of H passivation on the PL emission of Si nanocrystals produced in silica by ion-implantion and annealing is shown to depend on the implant fluence. At low fluences, where the nanocrystals are small, passivation causes an enhancement of the emission intensity that is uniform over the full spectral range and therefore appears to be independent of nanocrystal size. For higher fluences, where the average size and size distribution of the nanocrystals are larger, the enhancement occurs preferentially at longer wavelengths, giving rise to a red-shift in the emission spectra. Both the enhancement and the red-shift increase monotonically with increasing fluence. These data are shown to be consistent with a model in which the probability to contain a non-radiative defect increases with nanocrystal size

  6. Grafted SiC nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    ), raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy was used to study optical properties such as optical energy gap (Eg), Urbach's energy (Eu), refractive index (n), real (ε1) and imaginary (ε2) parts of dielectric constant of PVA as well as PVA......Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) grafted SiC (PVA-g-SiC)/PVA nanocomposite was synthesized by incorporating PVA grafted silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals inside PVA matrix. In-depth structural characterization of resulting nanocomposite was carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR...

  7. Model for efficient visible emission from Si nanocrystals ion beam synthesized in SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M. E-mail: mlopez@el.ub.es; Garrido, B.; Bonafos, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Claverie, A

    2001-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) emission of Si nanocrystals ion beam synthesized in SiO{sub 2} is studied in this work as a function of annealing time and initial Si atomic excess (super-saturation). The optical properties of this system have been correlated with the characteristics of the nanocrystal population. The Si nanocrystals show a wide and very intense PL red/infrared emission. This emission peaks at about 1.7 eV for the low super-saturation range between 1% and 10% and shifts to the infrared for higher super-saturation (20% and 30%). Remarkably, there is a linear increase of PL intensity versus super-saturation in the low range. Moreover, the annealing kinetic studies show a typical behavior of PL intensity with annealing time, with a fast transitory increase that bends over to reach asymptotic saturation. The PL intensity saturation is satisfactorily explained by the Ostwald ripening stage of the nanocrystal population while the transient stage is a consequence of both nanocrystal growth and nanocrystal surface passivation mechanisms acting together. Indeed, electron spin resonance measurements demonstrate that the concentration of P{sub b} centers (Si dangling bonds) at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface correlates inversely with PL intensity during most of the transient stage.

  8. Discrete Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Based on Si Nanocrystals with Nitridation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian-Gao, Zhang; Kun-Ji, Chen; Zhong-Hui, Fang; Xin-Ye, Qian; Guang-Yuan, Liu; Xiao-Fan, Jiang; Zhong-Yuan, Ma; Jun, Xu; Xin-Fan, Huang; Jian-Xin, Ji; Fei, He; Kuang-Bao, Song; Jun, Zhang; Hui, Wan; Rong-Hua, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A nonvolatile memory device with nitrided Si nanocrystals embedded in a Boating gate was fabricated. The uniform Si nanocrystals with high density (3 × 10 11 cm −2 ) were deposited on ultra-thin tunnel oxide layer (∼ 3 nm) and followed by a nitridation treatment in ammonia to form a thin silicon nitride layer on the surface of nanocrystals. A memory window of 2.4 V was obtained and it would be larger than 1.3 V after ten years from the extrapolated retention data. The results can be explained by the nitrogen passivation of the surface traps of Si nanocrystals, which slows the charge loss rate. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Adsorption behavior and current-voltage characteristics of CdSe nanocrystals on hydrogen-passivated silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walzer, Karsten; Quaade, Ulrich; Ginger, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we have studied both the geometric distribution and the conduction properties of organic shell capped CdSe nanocrystals adsorbed on hydrogen-passivated Si(100). At submonolayer concentrations, the nanocrystal distribution on the surface was found...... found that the current through the MIS junction is limited by the nanocrystals only in one bias direction, while in the other bias direction the current is limited by the semiconducting substrate. This property may be of relevance for the construction of hybrid electronic devices combining semiconductor...

  10. Fabrication of highly oriented D03-Fe3Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Muneyuki; Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko; Nakao, Motoi; Sudoh, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe 3 Si with a D0 3 structure are fabricated on SiO 2 using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO 2 layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with D0 3 , B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with a D0 3 single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0 3 -Fe 3 Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0 3 structure after post-deposition annealing

  11. On formation of silicon nanocrystals under annealing SiO2 layers implanted with Si ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Yanovskaya, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Lejer, A.F.; Ruault, M.-O.

    2002-01-01

    Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the formation of silicon nanocrystals in SiO 2 implanted with Si ions. Si clusters have been formed at once in the postimplanted layers, providing the excessive Si concentration more ∼ 3 at. %. Si segregation with Si-Si 4 bonds formation is enhanced as following annealing temperature increase, however, the Raman scattering by Si clusters diminishes. The effect is explained by a transformation of the chain-like Si clusters into compact phase nondimensional structures. Segregation of Si nanoprecipitates had ended about 1000 deg C, but the strong photoluminescence typical for Si nanocrystals manifested itself only after 1100 deg C [ru

  12. Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: Optical studies in the vacuum ultraviolet range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, V.; Osinniy, Viktor; Kotlov, A.

    2011-01-01

    done. It is demonstrated that the experimentally determined blueshift of the photoluminescence excitation and absorption spectra is larger than the theoretical predictions. The influence of point defects in the SiO2 matrix on the optical and luminescence properties of the embedded Si nanocrystals...... is discussed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that no energy transfer takes place between the SiO2 and Si nanocrystals when the excitation energy is higher than the band-to-band transition energy in SiO2....

  13. Photoluminescence studies of Li-doped Si nanocrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Eva; Vacík, Jiří; Holý, V.; Pelant, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 14 (2013), s. 1-7 ISSN 1847-9804 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Si nanocrystals * photoluminescence * doping * Li-ion batteries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2013

  14. Laser-controlled stress of Si nanocrystals in a free-standing Si /SiO2 superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Räsänen, Markku; Novikov, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    We report laser manipulations with stress at the nanoscale level. The continuous-wave Ar+ laser radiation melts Si nanocrystals in a free-standing Si /SiO2 superlattice. Silicon crystallization from the liquid phase leads to a compressive stress, which can be accurately tuned in the 3GPa range using laser annealing below the Si melting temperature and then recovered by laser annealing above the melting temperature. This allows investigations of various phenomena as a function of stress and makes a case of Si-nanocrystal memory with very long retention time, which can be written, erased, and read by optical means.

  15. Laser-controlled stress of Si nanocrystals in a free-standing Si/SiO2 superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Raesaenen, Markku; Novikov, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    We report laser manipulations with stress at the nanoscale level. The continuous-wave Ar + laser radiation melts Si nanocrystals in a free-standing Si/SiO 2 superlattice. Silicon crystallization from the liquid phase leads to a compressive stress, which can be accurately tuned in the 3 GPa range using laser annealing below the Si melting temperature and then recovered by laser annealing above the melting temperature. This allows investigations of various phenomena as a function of stress and makes a case of Si-nanocrystal memory with very long retention time, which can be written, erased, and read by optical means

  16. Structural and thermal characterization of polyvinylalcohol grafted SiC nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    introduced in the characteristic TO and LO mode of vibration of SiC nanocrystals after grafting procedure.XRD analysis confirmed that the grafting procedure did not alter the crystalline geometry of SiC nanocrystals. TEM and SEM images further support the FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results and confirm...... of semiconducting SiC nanocrystals using a novel method. FTIR spectroscopy reveals the introduction of new peaks corresponding to various functional groups of PVA alongwith the presence of characteristic Si-C vibrational peak in the spectra of grafted SiC nanocrystals. Raman spectra depict the presence of changes...... the presence of PVA layer around SiC nanocrystals. Thermal degradation behavior of PVA-g-SiC nanocrystals has been studied using TGA analysis....

  17. 3C-SiC nanocrystal growth on 10° miscut Si(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deokar, Geetanjali, E-mail: gitudeo@gmail.com [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); D' Angelo, Marie; Demaille, Dominique [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Cavellin, Catherine Deville [INSP, UPMC, CNRS UMR 7588, 4 place Jussieu, Paris F-75005 (France); Faculté des Sciences et Technologie UPEC, 61 av. De Gaulle, Créteil F-94010 (France)

    2014-04-01

    The growth of 3C-SiC nano-crystal (NC) on 10° miscut Si(001) substrate by CO{sub 2} thermal treatment is investigated by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopies. The vicinal Si(001) surface was thermally oxidized prior to the annealing at 1100 °C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere. The influence of the atomic steps at the vicinal SiO{sub 2}/Si interface on the SiC NC growth is studied by comparison with the results obtained for fundamental Si(001) substrates in the same conditions. For Si miscut substrate, a substantial enhancement in the density of the SiC NCs and a tendency of preferential alignment of them along the atomic step edges is observed. The SiC/Si interface is abrupt, without any steps and epitaxial growth with full relaxation of 3C-SiC occurs by domain matching epitaxy. The CO{sub 2} pressure and annealing time effect on NC growth is analyzed. The as-prepared SiC NCs can be engineered further for potential application in optoelectronic devices and/or as a seed for homoepitaxial SiC or heteroepitaxial GaN film growth. - Highlights: • Synthesis of 3C-SiC nanocrystals epitaxied on miscut-Si using a simple technique • Evidence of domain matching epitaxy at the SiC/Si interface • SiC growth proceeds along the (001) plane of host Si. • Substantial enhancement of the SiC nanocrystal density due to the miscut • Effect of the process parameters (CO{sub 2} pressure and annealing duration)

  18. Semiconductor nanocrystals formed in SiO2 by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.G.; White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Withrow, S.P.; Chen, Y.

    1994-11-01

    Nanocrystals of group IV (Si, Ge and SiGe), III-V (GaAs), and II-VI (CdSe) semiconductor materials have been fabricated inside SiO 2 by ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing. The microstructure of these nanocrystalline semiconductor materials has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocrystals form in near-spherical shape with random crystal orientations in amorphous SiO 2 . Extensive studies on the nanocrystal size distributions have been carried out for the Ge nanocrystals by changing the implantation doses and the annealing temperatures. Remarkable roughening of the nanocrystals occurs when the annealing temperature is raised over the melting temperature of the implanted semiconductor material. Strong red photoluminescence peaked around 1.67 eV has been achieved in samples with Si nanocrystals in SiO 2

  19. Phosphorus doping of Si nanocrystals: Interface defects and charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegner, A.R.; Pereira, R.N.; Klein, K.; Wiggers, H.; Brandt, M.S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier-transform infrared absorption (FTIR) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), we have investigated the doping of silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) and the interaction between intrinsic defects and dopants. Si-ncs were produced in a low-pressure microwave plasma reactor using silane as precursor gas. Phosphorus doping was achieved by addition of phosphine to the precursor gas. The low temperature EPR spectra of all P-doped samples display a line at g=1.998, which is the fingerprint of substitutional P in crystalline silicon for [P]>10 18 cm -3 . In addition, the characteristic hyperfine signature of P in Si is also observed for samples with nominal P doping levels below 10 19 cm -3 . Two more features are observed in our EPR spectra: a broad band located at g=2.0056, due to isotropic Si dangling bonds (Si-dbs), and an axially symmetric powder pattern (g perpendicular =2.0087,g parallel =2.0020) arising from Si-dbs at the interface between the crystalline Si core and a native oxide shell. The formation of this oxide layer and the presence of different H-termination configurations are revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. The density of Si-dbs is reduced in P-doped samples, indicating a sizable compensation of the doping by Si-dbs. This compensation effect was verified by H desorption, which enhances the density of Si-dbs, in combination with TPD and FTIR

  20. Microscopic and macroscopic characterization of the charging effects in SiC/Si nanocrystals/SiC sandwiched structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Yunqing; Li, Wei; Yu, Linwei; Chen, Kunji

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic charge injection into the SiC/Si nanocrystals/SiC sandwiched structures through a biased conductive AFM tip is subsequently characterized by both electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The charge injection and retention characteristics are found to be affected by not only the band offset at the Si nanocrystals/SiC interface but also the doping type of the Si substrate. On the other hand, capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements investigate the macroscopic charging effect of the sandwiched structures with a thicker SiC capping layer, where the charges are injected from the Si substrates. The calculated macroscopic charging density is 3–4 times that of the microscopic one, and the possible reason is the underestimation of the microscopic charging density caused by the averaging effect and detection delay in the KPFM measurements. (paper)

  1. Temporal correlation of blinking events in CdSe/ZnS and Si/SiO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, Benjamin, E-mail: b.bruhn@uva.nl [Materials and Nanophysics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Qejvanaj, Fatjon [Materials and Nanophysics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Gregorkiewicz, Tom [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Linnros, Jan [Materials and Nanophysics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    Well passivated single Si/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles obey mono-exponential blinking statistics, whereas CdSe/ZnS quantum dots follow an apparent (truncated) power-law. Log-normal distributions are found to describe the interval length histograms at least as well as power-laws, while at the same time being more physically feasible and significantly easing the determination of the exponential cutoff in the ON-time distribution. The correlation of an ON- (OFF-)interval with its temporally displaced ON (OFF) neighbors, as well as that of intermixed intervals (ON with OFF and OFF with ON neighbors) has been studied. As expected from purely random processes, the correlation coefficients for events in silicon nanocrystals equal zero, whereas positive correlations between the pure and negative correlations between the mixed states in CdSe quantum dots hint at a switching process between two distinct blinking regimes that are slower than the blinking itself.

  2. Fabrication of multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiOxGeNy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Green, Martin A.; Conibeer, Gavin; Cho, Eun-Chel; Huang Yidan; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO x GeN y films have been fabricated on Si substrate by a (Ge + SiO 2 )/SiO x GeN y superlattice approach, using a rf magnetron sputtering technique with a Ge + SiO 2 composite target and subsequent thermal annealing in N 2 ambient at 750 deg. C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicated the formation of Ge nanocrystals with an average size estimated to be 5.4 nm. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of the Ge-Ge vibrational mode downward shifted to 299.4 cm -1 , which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ge nanocrystals were confined in (Ge + SiO 2 ) layers. This superlattice approach significantly improved both the size uniformity of Ge nanocrystals and their uniformity of spacing on the 'Z' growth direction

  3. Strong white and blue photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals in SiNx grown by remote PECVD using SiCl4/NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benami, A; Santana, G; Ortiz, A; Ponce, A; Romeu, D; Aguilar-Hernandez, J; Contreras-Puente, G; Alonso, J C

    2007-01-01

    Strong white and blue photoluminescence (PL) from as-grown silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) in SiN x films prepared by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition using SiCl 4 /NH 3 mixtures is reported. The colour and intensity of the PL could be controlled by adjusting the NH 3 flow rate. Samples with white emission were annealed at 1000 deg. C, obtaining a strong improvement of the PL intensity with a blue colour. The PL can be attributed to quantum confinement effect in nc-Si embedded in SiN x matrix, which is improved when a better passivation of nc-Si surface with chlorine and nitrogen atoms is obtained. The size, density and structure of the nc-Si in the as-grown and annealed films were confirmed and measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

  4. InAs nanocrystals on SiO2/Si by molecular beam epitaxy for memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocevar, Moiera; Regreny, Philippe; Descamps, Armel; Albertini, David; Saint-Girons, Guillaume; Souifi, Abdelkader; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    We studied a memory structure based on InAs nanocrystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy directly on thermal SiO 2 on silicon. Both nanocrystal diameter and density can be controlled by growth parameters. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows high crystallinity and low size dispersion. In an electrical test structure with a 3.5 nm tunnel oxide, we observed that 80% of the initial injected electrons remain stored in the InAs nanocrystals after 3 months and that the retention time for electrons in InAs nanocrystals is four orders of magnitude higher than in silicon nanocrystals

  5. Coupling between Ge-nanocrystals and defects in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skov Jensen, J.; Franzo, G.; Leervad Petersen, T.P.; Pereira, R.; Chevallier, J.; Christian Petersen, M.; Bech Nielsen, B.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) at around 600 nm from magnetron-sputtered SiO 2 films co-doped with Ge is reported. The PL signal is observed in pure SiO 2 , however, its intensity increases significantly in the presence of Ge-nanocrystals (Ge-nc). The PL intensity has been optimized by varying the temperature of heat treatment, type of gas during heat treatment, concentration of Ge in the SiO 2 films, and gas pressure during deposition. Maximum intensity occurs when Ge-nc of around 3.5 nm are present in large concentration in SiO 2 layers deposited at fairly high gas pressure. Based on time resolved PL, and PL measurements after α-particle irradiation or H passivation, we attribute the origin of the PL to a defect in SiO 2 (probably an O deficiency) that is excited through an energy transfer from Ge-nc. There is no direct PL from the Ge-nc; however, there is a strong coupling between excitons created in the Ge-nc and the SiO 2 defect

  6. Ge nanocrystals embedded in ultrathin Si3N4 multilayers with SiO2 barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahariqushchi, R.; Gundogdu, Sinan; Aydinli, A.

    2017-04-01

    Multilayers of germanium nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in thin films of silicon nitride matrix separated with SiO2 barriers have been fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SiGeN/SiO2 alternating bilayers have been grown on quartz and Si substrates followed by post annealing in Ar ambient from 600 to 900 °C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as well as Raman spectroscopy show good crystallinity of Ge confined to SiGeN layers in samples annealed at 900 °C. Strong compressive stress for SiGeN/SiO2 structures were observed through Raman spectroscopy. Size, as well as NC-NC distance were controlled along the growth direction for multilayer samples by varying the thickness of bilayers. Visible photoluminescence (PL) at 2.3 and 3.1 eV with NC size dependent intensity is observed and possible origin of PL is discussed.

  7. Pulsed ion-beam induced nucleation and growth of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Kesler, V. G.; Novikov, P. L.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Kirienko, V. V.; Smagina, Zh. V.; Groetzschel, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed low-energy (200 eV) ion-beam induced nucleation during Ge deposition on thin SiO 2 film was used to form dense homogeneous arrays of Ge nanocrystals. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge nanocrystals when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Temperature and flux variation was used to optimize the nanocrystal size and array density required for memory device. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation shows that ion impacts open an additional channel of atom displacement from a nanocrystal onto SiO 2 surface. This results both in a decrease in the average nanocrystal size and in an increase in nanocrystal density

  8. Fabrication of highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Muneyuki, E-mail: naito22@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakao, Motoi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Sudoh, Koichi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2013-07-31

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe{sub 3}Si with a D0{sub 3} structure are fabricated on SiO{sub 2} using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO{sub 2} layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with D0{sub 3}, B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with a D0{sub 3} single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0{sub 3} structure after post-deposition annealing.

  9. Optical and electrical properties of Si-nanocrystals ion beam synthesized in SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, B. E-mail: blas@el.ub.es; Lopez, M.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Garcia, C.; Pellegrino, P.; Ferre, R.; Moreno, J.A.; Morante, J.R.; Bonafos, C.; Carrada, M.; Claverie, A.; Torre, J. de la; Souifi, A

    2004-02-01

    We review in this paper our recent results on the correlation between the structural and the optoelectronic properties of Si nano crystals (Si-nc) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. We describe as well the development of both materials and technology approaches that have allowed us to successfully produce efficient and reliable LEDs by using only CMOS processes. Si-nc were synthesised in SiO{sub 2} by ion implantation plus annealing and display average diameters from 2.5 to 6 nm, as measured by electron microscopy. By varying the annealing time in a large scale we have been able to track the nucleation, pure growth and Ostwald ripening stages of the nanocrystal population. The most efficient structures have Si-ncs with average size of 3 nm and densities of about 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. We have estimated band-gap energies, lifetimes (20-200 {mu}s) and absorption cross-sections (10{sup -15}-10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}) as a function of size and surface passivation. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism for exciton recombination based on the strong coupling of excitons with the heterointerfaces. From highly luminescent Si-nc, LEDs consisting of MOS capacitors were fabricated. Stable red electroluminescence has been obtained at room temperature and the I-V characteristics prove that the current is related to a pure tunnelling process. Fowler-Nordheim injection is not observed during light emission for electric fields below 5 MV/cm. Thus, hot carrier injection is avoided and efficient and reliable devices are obtained.

  10. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on photoluminescence spectra from structures with Si nanocrystals fabricated in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, K.S.; Tyschenko, I.E.; Vandyshev, E.N.; Bulytova, N.V.; Misiuk, A.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure applied at high temperature on photoluminescence of Si-implanted SiO 2 films was studied. A 'blue'-shift of PL spectrum from the SiO 2 films implanted with Si + ions to total dose of 1.2x10 17 cm -2 with increase in hydrostatic pressure was observed. For the films implanted with Si + ions to a total dose of 4.8x10 16 cm -2 high temperature annealing under high hydrostatic pressure (12 kbar) causes a 'red'-shift of photoluminescence spectrum. The 'red' photoluminescence bands are attributed to Si nanocrystals while the 'blue' ones are related to Si nanocrystals of reduced size or chains of silicon atoms or Si-Si defects. A decrease in size of Si nanocluster occurs in result of the pressure-induced decrease in the diffusion of silicon atoms. (author)

  11. Electrical resistivity of nanocrystals in Fe-Al-Ga-P-B-Si-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekala, K.; Jaskiewicz, P.; Nowinski, J.L.; Pekala, M.

    2003-01-01

    In new supercooled Fe 74 Al 4 Ga 2 P 11 B 4 Si 4 Cu 1 alloy the 10 nm size α-Fe(Si) nanocrystals are precipitated. Thermal stability is analyzed by the electron transport and magnetization measurements. Temperature variation of electrical resistivity of nanocrystals is determined and discussed for alloys with different initial crystalline fraction. Possible mechanism inhibiting the grain growth is presented

  12. Implantation of P ions in SiO{sub 2} layers with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G.A. E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru; Cherkova, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovsky, A.K.; Cherkov, A.G.; Bublikov, A.V.; Tetelbaum, D.I

    2004-08-01

    The effect of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} P ions implantation and of subsequent annealing on Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs), formed preliminarily in SiO{sub 2} layers by the ion-beam synthesis, has been studied. Photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution electron microscopy (HREM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and optical absorption were used for characterizations. The low fluence implantations have shown even individual displacements in Si-ncs quench their PL. Restoration of PL from partly damaged Si-ncs proceeds at annealing less than 1000 deg. C. In the low fluence implanted and annealed samples an increased Si-ncs PL has been found and ascribed to the radiation-induced shock crystallization of stressed Si nanoprecipitates. Annealing at temperatures under 1000 deg. C are inefficient when P ion fluences exceed 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, thus becoming capable to amorphize Si-ncs. High crystallization temperature of the amorphized Si-ncs is attributed to a counteraction of their shell layers. After implantation of the highest P fluences an enhanced recovery of PL was found from P concentration over 0.1 at.%. Raman spectroscopy and HREM showed an increased Si-ncs number in such layers. The effect resembles the impurity-enhanced crystallization, known for heavily doped bulk Si. This effect, along with the data obtained by XPS, is considered as an indication P atoms are really present inside the Si-ncs. However, no evidence of free electrons appearance has been observed. The fact is explained by an increased interaction of electrons with the donor nuclei in Si-ncs.

  13. Implantation of P ions in SiO2 layers with embedded Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Cherkova, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovsky, A.K.; Cherkov, A.G.; Bublikov, A.V.; Tetelbaum, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 10 13 -10 16 cm -2 P ions implantation and of subsequent annealing on Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs), formed preliminarily in SiO 2 layers by the ion-beam synthesis, has been studied. Photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution electron microscopy (HREM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and optical absorption were used for characterizations. The low fluence implantations have shown even individual displacements in Si-ncs quench their PL. Restoration of PL from partly damaged Si-ncs proceeds at annealing less than 1000 deg. C. In the low fluence implanted and annealed samples an increased Si-ncs PL has been found and ascribed to the radiation-induced shock crystallization of stressed Si nanoprecipitates. Annealing at temperatures under 1000 deg. C are inefficient when P ion fluences exceed 10 14 cm -2 , thus becoming capable to amorphize Si-ncs. High crystallization temperature of the amorphized Si-ncs is attributed to a counteraction of their shell layers. After implantation of the highest P fluences an enhanced recovery of PL was found from P concentration over 0.1 at.%. Raman spectroscopy and HREM showed an increased Si-ncs number in such layers. The effect resembles the impurity-enhanced crystallization, known for heavily doped bulk Si. This effect, along with the data obtained by XPS, is considered as an indication P atoms are really present inside the Si-ncs. However, no evidence of free electrons appearance has been observed. The fact is explained by an increased interaction of electrons with the donor nuclei in Si-ncs

  14. Formation of SiNx:H by PECVD: optimization of the optical, bulk passivation and structural properties for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, J.F.

    2007-04-01

    The hydrogenated silicon nitride SiNx:H is widely used as antireflection coating and passivation layer in the manufacture of silicon photovoltaic cells. The aim of this work was to implement a low frequency (440 kHz) PECVD reactor and to characterize the obtained SiN layers. After having determined the parameters of the optimal deposition, the physico-chemical structure of the layers has been studied. The optical properties have been studied with the aim to improve the antireflection coating of the photovoltaic cells. The surface and bulk passivation properties, induced by the SiN layer in terms of its stoichiometry, have been analyzed and have revealed the excellent passivating efficiency of this material. At last, have been studied the formation conditions of the silicon nano-crystals in the SiN matrix. (O.M.)

  15. Functionalized SiC nanocrystals for tuning of optical, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

     MPa for PVA to 45 MPa for PVA-SiC nanocomposite film containing 0.023 wt% f-SiC nanocrystals at an applied load of 9.8 mN indicating improved interfacial interaction. Current-voltage analysis indicated an increase in conductivity of PVA with the introduction of f-SiC nanocrystals. The conduction......Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-SiC nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporating functionalized Silicon Carbide (f-SiC) nanocrystals in PVA matrix. Structural characterization of SiC nanocrystals before and after the functionalization was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...... (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to study the morphology and size distribution of f-SiC nanocrystals in PVA-SiC nanocomposite films. TEM and SEM images depict an improved...

  16. Silicon nanocrystals as light sources: stable, efficient and fast photoluminescence with suitable passivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůsová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, 8/9 (2012), s. 717-731 ISSN 1475-7435 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120804; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KJB100100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * surface passivation * photoluminescence * lasing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2012

  17. Trapping time of excitons in Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, E. M. L. D.; de Boer, W. D. A. M.; Yassievich, I. N.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) are of great interest for many applications, ranging from photovoltaics to optoelectonics. The photoluminescence quantum yield of Si NCs dispersed in SiO2 is limited, suggesting the existence of very efficient processes of nonradiative recombination, among which the formation of a self-trapped exciton state on the surface of the NC. In order to improve the external quantum efficiency of these systems, the carrier relaxation and recombination need to be understood more thoroughly. For that purpose, we perform transient-induced absorption spectroscopy on Si NCs embedded in a SiO2 matrix over a broad probe range for NCs of average sizes from 2.5 to 5.5 nm. The self-trapping of free excitons on surface-related states is experimentally and theoretically discussed and found to be dependent on the NC size. These results offer more insight into the self-trapped exciton state and are important to increase the optical performance of Si NCs.

  18. Study of temperature-dependent charge conduction in silicon-nanocrystal/SiO_2 multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavilla, Narasimha Rao; Chavan, Vinayak; Solanki, Chetan Singh; Vasi, Juzer

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) realized by SiO_x _ 8 MV/cm; independent of temperature), while for lower electric fields (5–8 MV/cm) at higher temperatures, the trap-related Generalized Poole–Frenkel (GPF) is dominant. This signified the role of traps in modifying the conduction in bulk ICPCVD SiO_2 films. We then present the conduction in ML samples. For multilayer samples with SiO_2 sublayer thickness of 1.5 nm and 2.5 nm, Direct Tunneling (DT) is observed to be dominant, while for SiO_2 sublayer thickness of 3.5 nm, Space Charge Limited Conduction (SCLC) with exponential trap distribution is found to be the dominant conduction mechanism. This signifies the role of traps in modifying the conduction in Si-NC multilayer samples and SiO_2 sublayer thickness dependence. - Highlights: • Electrical conduction in SiO_2 film & Si-nanocrystal layers (Si-NCs) is reported. • SiO_2/SiO_x multilayer based Si-NCs were realized by Inductively Coupled plasma CVD. • For SiO_2 film, Fowler–Nordheim tunneling & Generalized Poole–Frenkel are observed. • For Si-NCs with thin SiO_2 sublayers (< 2.5 nm) Direct Tunneling is dominant. • For Si-NCs with 3.5 nm SiO_2 sublayers Space Charge Limited Conduction is dominant.

  19. Synthesis and charge storage properties of double-layered NiSi nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jong-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Based on bidirectional diffusion of Ni atoms, double-layered nickel silicide (NiSi) nanocrystals (NCs) for multilevel charge storage were fabricated, and their charge storage properties were examined. The double layer was produced by long-term thermal annealing (for 4 h at 900 o C) of a sandwich structure comprised of a thin Ni film of 0.3 nm sandwiched between two silicon-rich oxide (SiO 1.36 ) layers. Transmission electron microscopic image clearly exhibits a distinct NiSi nanocrystal double layer with a gap of about 7 nm between the mean positions of particle distribution in each NC layer. Capacitance-voltage measurements on the metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with the double-layered NiSi nanocrystals are shown to have the apparent two plateaus of charge storage, the large memory window of about 9 V and the improved charge retention stability.

  20. Memory properties and charge effect study in Si nanocrystals by scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassani Franck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this letter, isolated Si nanocrystal has been formed by dewetting process with a thin silicon dioxide layer on top. Scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy were used to study the memory properties and charge effect in the Si nanocrystal in ambient temperature. The retention time of trapped charges injected by different direct current (DC bias were evaluated and compared. By ramp process, strong hysteresis window was observed. The DC spectra curve shift direction and distance was observed differently for quantitative measurements. Holes or electrons can be separately injected into these Si-ncs and the capacitance changes caused by these trapped charges can be easily detected by scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy at the nanometer scale. This study is very useful for nanocrystal charge trap memory application.

  1. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V OC of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V brk of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V brk . Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V OC corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V OC was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range (≤400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V OC to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V OC , which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T dep =200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V OC measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration of 2.5.10 16 cm -3 after passivation was

  2. Formation Mechanism of Ge Nanocrystals Embedded in SiO2 Studied by Fluorescence X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wensheng; Li Zhongrui; Sun Zhihu; Wei Shiqiang; Kolobov, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The formation mechanism of Ge nanocrystals for Ge (60 mol%) embedded in a SiO2 matrix grown on Si(001) and quartz-glass substrates was studied by fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). It was found that the formation of Ge nanocrystals strongly depends on the properties of the substrate materials. In the as-prepared samples, Ge atoms exist in amorphous Ge and GeO2 phases. At the annealing temperature of 1073 K, on the quartz-glass substrate, Ge nanocrystals are only formed predominantly from the amorphous Ge phase in the as-prepared sample. However, on the Si(100) substrate the Ge nanocrystals are generated partly from amorphous Ge, and partly from GeO2 phases through the permutation reaction with Si substrate. Quantitative analysis revealed that about 10% of GeO2 in as-prepared sample permutated with Si in the wafer and formed Ge nanocrystals

  3. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  4. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychto, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.bychto@tu.koszalin.pl; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia, E-mail: eumat@upvnet.upv.e [Technical University of Valencia, Nanophotonics Technology Center (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 {Omega}cm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  5. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-12-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  6. Electrochemical passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline Fe80Si20 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline coating (Fe80Si20) obtained by in situ mechanical alloying route .... is controlled by the iron oxide film in case of alloys with ..... the surface is covered, thus, producing effective protection of.

  7. Emission Mechanisms of Si Nanocrystals and Defects in SiO2 Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the necessity to have all silicon optoelectronic circuits, researchers around the world are working with light emitting silicon materials. Such materials are silicon dielectric compounds with silicon content altered, such as silicon oxide or nitride, enriched in different ways with Silicon. Silicon Rich Oxide or silicon dioxide enriched with silicon, and silicon rich nitride are without a doubt the most promising materials to reach this goal. Even though they are subjected to countless studies, the light emission phenomenon has not been completely clarified. So, a review of different proposals presented to understand the light emission phenomenon including emissions related to nanocrystals and to point defects in SiO2 is presented.

  8. Electrochemical passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline Fe 80 Si ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline coating (Fe80Si20) obtained by in situ mechanical alloying route is studied and compared with that of the commercial pure iron and cast Fe80Si20 in sodium borate buffer solution at two different pH values (7.7 and 8.4). The coating reveals single passivation at a pH of 7.7 and ...

  9. Corroboration of Raman and AFM mapping to study Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Ekta, E-mail: ades.ekta@gmail.com [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Ingale, Alka A. [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Chaturvedi, A. [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Joshi, M.P.; Kukreja, L.M. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2016-07-05

    Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM) mapping on the same selected area are used to get unique information about the morphology of Si nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in SiO{sub 2}, which is difficult to obtain by any other conventional technique. The sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to surface/interface and confinement effects in NCs is effectively used to correlate the Raman intensity profile in Raman mapping with the topography obtained from AFM to understand that Si NCs are clustered in i) smaller clusters (∼100 nm) organized closely in two dimensions (2D) and ii) big (∼2 μm) three dimensional (3D) isolated clusters, although the growth is carried out to be multilayer (Si/SiO{sub 2}). Raman mapping performed by varying the focal spot along the depth shows stacking of larger (>∼60 Å) to smaller sizes (<∼40 Å) Si NCs from bottom to top for some clusters. To understand the observed morphologies, further study of specially grown Si–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is performed, which suggest formation of smaller Si NCs at the top due to annealing at 800 °C in Si rich SiO{sub 2} and possible existence of thermal gradient in an insulating matrix of SiO{sub 2.} Larger Si NCs are formed in the laser induced plume (plasma) itself. - Graphical abstract: a) Schematic showing the expected stacking of Si NCs obtained from Raman mapping, performed by changing focal spot along the depth, b) top, c) middle and d) bottom region of the cluster. - Highlights: • Methodology is developed to obtain Raman and AFM mapping at same selected area. • To get unique information, difficult to obtain using other conventional techniques. • Clusters (∼100 nm–2 μm) of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix are formed. • Stacking of Si nanocrystals from bottom to top (10–1 nm) is observed in some clusters. • Stacking of Si nanocrystals is understood as due to annealing and thermal gradient.

  10. Influence of the crystallization process on the luminescence of multilayers of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, M.; Prieto, A.C.; Jimenez, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Sangrador, J.; Rodriguez, T.; Ortiz, M.I.; Ballesteros, C.

    2008-01-01

    Multilayers of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in an oxide matrix have been fabricated by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of SiGe and SiO 2 onto Si wafers (in a single run at 390 deg. C and 50 mTorr, using GeH 4 , Si 2 H 6 and O 2 ) followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment to crystallize the SiGe nanoparticles. The main emission band is located at 400 nm in both cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence experiments at 80 K and also at room temperature. The annealing conditions (temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 deg. C and for times of 30 and 60 s) have been investigated in samples with different diameter of the nanoparticles (from ∼3 to ≥5 nm) and oxide interlayer thickness (15 and 35 nm) in order to establish a correlation between the crystallization of the nanoparticles, the degradation of their composition by Ge diffusion and the intensity of the luminescence emission band. Structures with small nanoparticles (3-4.5 nm) separated by thick oxide barriers (∼35 nm) annealed at 900 deg. C for 60 s yield the maximum intensity of the luminescence. An additional treatment at 450 deg. C in forming gas for dangling-bond passivation increases the intensity of the luminescence band by 25-30%

  11. An Isotope Study of Hydrogenation of poly-Si/SiOx Passivated Contacts for Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Manuel; Nemeth, William; van de Loo, Bas, W.H.; Macco, Bart; Kessels, Wilhelmus, M.M.; Stradins, Paul; Young, David, L.

    2017-06-26

    For many years, the record Si solar cell efficiency stood at 25.0%. Only recently have several companies and institutes managed to produce more efficient cells, using passivated contacts of made doped poly-Si or a-Si:H and a passivating intrinsic interlayer in all cases. Common to these designs is the need to passivate the layer stack with hydrogen. In this contribution, we perform a systematic study of passivated contact passivation by hydrogen, using poly-Si/SiOx passivated contacts on n-Cz-Si, and ALD Al2O3 followed by a forming gas anneal (FGA) as the hydrogen source. We study p-type and n-type passivated contacts with implied Voc exceeding 690 and 720 mV, respectively, and perform either the ALD step or the FGA with deuterium instead of hydrogen in order to separate the two processes via SIMS. By examining the deuterium concentration at the SiOx in both types of samples, we demonstrate that the FGA supplies negligible hydrogen species to the SiOx, regardless of whether the FGA is hydrogenated or deuterated. Instead, it supplies the thermal energy needed for hydrogen species in the Al2O3 to diffuse there. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen species at the SiOx can saturate while implied Voc continues to increase, showing that the energy from the FGA is also required for hydrogen species already at the SiOx to find recombination-active defects to passivate.

  12. Effects of phosphorus doping on structural and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals in a SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.J.; Cho, E.-C.; Scardera, G.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bellet, D.; Shen, Y.S.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Promise of Si nanocrystals highly depends on tailoring their behaviour through doping. Phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix have been realized by a co-sputtering process. The effects of phosphorus-doping on the properties of Si nanocrystals are investigated. Phosphorus diffuses from P-P and/or P-Si to P-O upon high temperature annealing. The dominant X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy P 2p signal attributable to Si-P and/or P-P (130 eV) at 1100 o C indicates that the phosphorus may exist inside Si nanocrystals. It is found that existence of phosphorus enhances phase separation of silicon rich oxide and thereby Si crystallization. In addition, phosphorus has a considerable effect on the optical absorption and photoluminescence properties as a function of annealing temperature.

  13. Effect of Si implantation on the microstructure of silicon nanocrystals and surrounding SiO2 layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.; Smirani, R.; Levitcharsky, V.; Wang, Y.Q.; Veilleux, G.; Saint-Jacques, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) embedded in a SiO 2 layer have been characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For local Si concentration in excess 8 x 10 21 Si + /cm 3 , the size of the Si-nc was found to be ∼3 nm and comparatively homogeneous throughout the whole implanted layer. For local Si concentration in excess of ∼2.4 x 10 22 Si + /cm 3 , the Si-nc diameter ranges from ∼2 to ∼12 nm in the sample, the Si-nc in the middle region of the implanted layer being bigger than those near the surface and the bottom of the layer. Also, Si-nc are visible deeper than the implanted depth. Characterization by XPS shows that a large quantity of oxygen was depleted from the first ∼25 nm in this sample (also visible on TEM image) and most of the SiO 2 bonds have been replaced by Si-O bonds. Experimental and simulation results suggest that a local Si concentration in excess of ∼3 x 10 21 Si/cm 3 is required for the production of Si-nc

  14. Structural and electronic properties of Si/SiO2 MOS structures with aligned 3C-SiC nanocrystals in the oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongracz, A.; Battistig, G.; Duecso, Cs.; Josepovits, K.V.; Deak, P.

    2007-01-01

    Our group previously proved that a simple reactive annealing in CO containing gas produces 3C-SiC nanocrystals, which are epitaxially and void-free aligned in the Si substrate. By a further thermal oxidation step, these nanocrystals can be lifted from the Si and incorporated into the SiO 2 matrix, thereby creating a promising structure for charge storage. In this work the structural and electrical properties of such systems with nanocrystalline SiC will be presented. Prototype MOS structures with 3C-SiC nanocrystals were produced for current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. The results indicate that the high-temperature annealing did not damage the MOS structure, despite the fact that the CO annealing changed the electrical properties of the system. There was a positive charge accumulation and a reversible carrier injection observed in the structure. We assume that the positive charges originated from oxygen vacancies and the charge injection is related to the presence of SiC nanocrystals

  15. Study of temperature-dependent charge conduction in silicon-nanocrystal/SiO{sub 2} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavilla, Narasimha Rao; Chavan, Vinayak [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Solanki, Chetan Singh [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Vasi, Juzer [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2016-08-01

    Silicon-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) realized by SiO{sub x} {sub <} {sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer (ML) approach have shown promise for realizing tightly-controlled dimensions, thus efficiently exploiting the size-dependent quantum effects for device applications. Unfortunately, the confining insulating barriers (SiO{sub 2} sublayers), instrumental for realizing quantum size effects in Si-NC MLs, can also hinder the charge conduction which is crucial for device applications including Si-NC based tandem solar cells and multi-exciton solar cells. Owing to this, a comprehensive study of conduction mechanisms has been carried out using a thorough analysis of temperature-dependent dark I-V measurements of SiO{sub 2} thin film and Si-NC multilayer samples fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma CVD (ICPCVD). As the ML samples consisted of interleaved SiO{sub 2} sublayers, current in SiO{sub 2} thin film has initially been studied to understand the conduction properties of bulk ICPCVD SiO{sub 2}. For 21 nm thick SiO{sub 2} film, conduction is observed to be dominated by Fowler–Nordheim (FN) tunneling for higher electric fields (> 8 MV/cm; independent of temperature), while for lower electric fields (5–8 MV/cm) at higher temperatures, the trap-related Generalized Poole–Frenkel (GPF) is dominant. This signified the role of traps in modifying the conduction in bulk ICPCVD SiO{sub 2} films. We then present the conduction in ML samples. For multilayer samples with SiO{sub 2} sublayer thickness of 1.5 nm and 2.5 nm, Direct Tunneling (DT) is observed to be dominant, while for SiO{sub 2} sublayer thickness of 3.5 nm, Space Charge Limited Conduction (SCLC) with exponential trap distribution is found to be the dominant conduction mechanism. This signifies the role of traps in modifying the conduction in Si-NC multilayer samples and SiO{sub 2} sublayer thickness dependence. - Highlights: • Electrical conduction in SiO{sub 2} film & Si-nanocrystal layers (Si-NCs) is reported. • Si

  16. Nonvolatile memory characteristics influenced by the different crystallization of Ni-Si and Ni-N nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-R.; Yeh, J.-L.; Chang, C.-Y.; Chang, T.-C.; Chen, S.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The formation of Ni-Si and Ni-N nanocrystals by sputtering a Ni 0.3 Si 0.7 target in argon and nitrogen environment were proposed in this paper. A transmission electron microscope analysis shows the nanocrystals embedded in the nitride layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction also offer the chemical material analysis of nanocrystals with surrounding dielectric and the crystallization of nanocrystals for different thermal annealing treatments. Nonvolatile Ni-Si nanocrystal memories reveal superior electrical characteristics for charge storage capacity and reliability due to the improvement of thermal annealing treatment. In addition, we used energy band diagrams to explain the significance of surrounding dielectric for reliability

  17. Enhanced formation of Ge nanocrystals in Ge : SiO2 layers by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I V; Volodin, V A; Marin, D M; Skuratov, V A; Smagulova, S A; Janse van Vuuren, A; Neethling, J; Jedrzejewski, J; Balberg, I

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the ability of swift heavy Xe ions with an energy of 480 MeV and a fluence of 10 12 cm -2 to enhance the formation of Ge nanocrystals within SiO 2 layers with variable Ge contents. These Ge-SiO 2 films were fabricated by the co-sputtering of Ge and quartz sources which followed various annealing procedures. In particular, we found that the irradiation of the Ge : SiO 2 films with subsequent annealing at 500 °C leads to the formation of a high concentration of nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 2-5 nm, whereas without irradiation only amorphous inclusions were observed. This effect, as evidenced by Raman spectra, is enhanced by pre-irradiation at 550 °C and post-irradiation annealing at 600 °C, which also leads to the observation of room temperature visible photoluminescence. (paper)

  18. SiC nanocrystals as Pt catalyst supports for fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Morgen, Per; Skou, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust catalyst support is pivotal to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) to overcome challenges such as catalyst support corrosion, low catalyst utilization and overall capital cost. SiC is a promising candidate material which could be applied as a catalyst support in PEMFCs. Si...... on the nanocrystals of SiC-SPR and SiC-NS by the polyol method. The SiC substrates are subjected to an acid treatment to introduce the surface groups, which help to anchor the Pt nano-catalysts. These SiC based catalysts have been found to have a higher electrochemical activity than commercially available Vulcan...... based catalysts (BASF & HISPEC). These promising results signal a new era of SiC based catalysts for fuel cell applications....

  19. Plasmon-assisted photoluminescence enhancement of SiC nanocrystals by proximal silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, N.; Dai, D.J.; Fan, J.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied metal surface plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence in SiC nanocrystals. ► The integrated emission intensity can be enhanced by 17 times. ► The coupling between SiC emission and Ag plasmon oscillation induces the enhancement. ► The enhancement is tunable with varied spacing thickness of electrolytes. - Abstract: Plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence has wide application potential in many areas, whereas the underlying mechanism is still in debate. We report the photoluminescence enhancement in SiC nanocrystal–Ag nanoparticle coupled system spaced by the poly(styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polyelectrolyte bilayers. The integrated luminescence intensity can be improved by up to 17 times. Our analysis indicates that the strong coupling between the SiC nanocrystals and the surface plasmon oscillation of the silver nanoparticles is the major cause of the luminescence enhancement. These findings will help to understand the photoluminescence enhancement mechanism as well as widen the applications of the SiC nanocrystals in photonics and life sciences.

  20. Superheating and supercooling of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q; Sharp, I D; Yuan, C W; Yi, D O; Liao, C Y; Glaeser, A M; Minor, A M; Beeman, J W; Ridgway, M C; Kluth, P; Iii, J W Ager; Chrzan, D C; Haller, E E

    2007-01-01

    Free-standing nanocrystals exhibit a size-dependant thermodynamic melting point reduction relative to the bulk melting point that is governed by the surface free energy. The presence of an encapsulating matrix, however, alters the interface free energy of nanocrystals and their thermodynamic melting point can either increase or decrease relative to bulk. Furthermore, kinetic contributions can significantly alter the melting behaviours of embedded nanoscale materials. To study the effect of an encapsulating matrix on the melting behaviour of nanocrystals, we performed in situ electron diffraction measurements on Ge nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix. Ge nanocrystals were formed by multi-energy ion implantation into a 500 nm thick silica thin film on a silicon substrate followed by thermal annealing at 900 deg. C for 1 h. We present results demonstrating that Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 exhibit a 470 K melting/solidification hysteresis that is approximately symmetric about the bulk melting point. This unique behaviour, which is thought to be impossible for bulk materials, is well described using a classical thermodynamic model that predicts both kinetic supercooling and kinetic superheating. The presence of the silica matrix suppresses surface pre-melting of nanocrystals. Therefore, heterogeneous nucleation of both the liquid phase and the solid phase are required during the heating and cooling cycle. The magnitude of melting hysteresis is governed primarily by the value of the liquid Ge/solid Ge interface free energy, whereas the relative values of the solid Ge/matrix and liquid Ge/matrix interface free energies govern the position of the hysteresis loop in absolute temperature

  1. Effect of hydrogen on passivation quality of SiNx/Si-rich SiNx stacked layers deposited by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on c-Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen content and fixed charges of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers on the quality of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Calculated density of fixed charges is on the order of 10 12 cm −2 , which is high enough for effective field effect passivation. Hydrogen content in the films is also found to contribute significantly to improvement in passivation quality of the stacked layers. Furthermore, Si-rich SiN x films deposited with H 2 dilution show better passivation quality of SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers than those prepared without H 2 dilution. Effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ) in c-Si passivated by SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers is as high as 5.1 ms when H 2 is added during Si-rich SiN x deposition, which is much higher than the case of using Si-rich SiN x films prepared without H 2 dilution showing τ eff of 3.3 ms. - Highlights: • Passivation mechanism of Si-rich SiN x /SiN x stacked layers is investigated. • H atoms play important role in passivation quality of the stacked layer. • Addition of H 2 gas during Si-rich SiN x film deposition greatly enhances effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ). • For a Si-rich SiN x film with refractive index of 2.92, τ eff improves from 3.3 to 5.1 ms by H 2 addition

  2. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V{sub OC} of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V{sub brk} of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V{sub brk}. Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V{sub OC} corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V{sub OC} was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range ({<=}400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V{sub OC} to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V{sub OC}, which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T{sub dep}=200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V{sub OC} measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration

  3. Growth and relaxation processes in Ge nanocrystals on free-standing Si(001) nanopillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, G; Zaumseil, P; Schubert, M A; Yamamoto, Y; Bauer, J; Schülli, T U; Tillack, B; Schroeder, T

    2012-03-23

    We study the growth and relaxation processes of Ge crystals selectively grown by chemical vapour deposition on free-standing 90 nm wide Si(001) nanopillars. Epi-Ge with thickness ranging from 4 to 80 nm was characterized by synchrotron based x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. We found that the strain in Ge nanostructures is plastically released by nucleation of misfit dislocations, leading to degrees of relaxation ranging from 50 to 100%. The growth of Ge nanocrystals follows the equilibrium crystal shape terminated by low surface energy (001) and {113} facets. Although the volumes of Ge nanocrystals are homogeneous, their shape is not uniform and the crystal quality is limited by volume defects on {111} planes. This is not the case for the Ge/Si nanostructures subjected to thermal treatment. Here, improved structure quality together with high levels of uniformity of the size and shape is observed.

  4. Inhibitive formation of nanocavities by introduction of Si atoms in Ge nanocrystals produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, R. S.; Shang, L.; Liu, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J. [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang, Y. Q., E-mail: yqwang@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Physics Science, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Ross, G. G.; Barba, D., E-mail: yqwang@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca [INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-05-28

    Germanium nanocrystals (Ge-nc) were successfully synthesized by co-implantation of Si and Ge ions into a SiO{sub 2} film thermally grown on (100) Si substrate and fused silica (pure SiO{sub 2}), respectively, followed by subsequent annealing at 1150 °C for 1 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations show that nanocavities only exist in the fused silica sample but not in the SiO{sub 2} film on a Si substrate. From the analysis of the high-resolution TEM images and electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra, it is revealed that the absence of nanocavities in the SiO{sub 2} film/Si substrate is attributed to the presence of Si atoms inside the formed Ge-nc. Because the energy of Si-Ge bonds (301 kJ·mol{sup −1}) are greater than that of Ge-Ge bonds (264 kJ·mol{sup −1}), the introduction of the Si-Ge bonds inside the Ge-nc can inhibit the diffusion of Ge from the Ge-nc during the annealing process. However, for the fused silica sample, no crystalline Si-Ge bonds are detected within the Ge-nc, where strong Ge outdiffusion effects produce a great number of nanocavities. Our results can shed light on the formation mechanism of nanocavities and provide a good way to avoid nanocavities during the process of ion implantation.

  5. ZnO nanocrystals on SiO2/Si surfaces thermally cleaned in ultrahigh vacuum and characterized using spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Leif K. E.; Magnusson, Kjell O.; Zakharov, Alexei A.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal cleaning in ultrahigh vacuum of ZnO nanocrystals distributed on SiO 2 /Si surfaces has been studied using spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy (SPELEEM). This study thus concern weakly bound ZnO nanocrystals covering only 5%-10% of the substrate. Chemical properties, crystallinity, and distribution of nanocrystals are used to correlate images acquired with the different techniques showing excellent correspondence. The nanocrystals are shown to be clean enough after thermal cleaning at 650 deg. C to be imaged by LEEM and x-ray PEEM as well as chemically analyzed by site selective x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (μ-XPS). μ-XPS shows a sharp Zn 3d peak and resolve differences in O 1s states in oxides. The strong LEEM reflections together with the obtained chemical information indicates that the ZnO nanocrystals were thermally cleaned, but do not indicate any decomposition of the nanocrystals. μ-XPS was also used to determine the thickness of SiO 2 on Si. This article is the first to our knowledge where the versatile technique SPELEEM has been used to characterize ZnO nanocrystals.

  6. Role of the interface region on the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldosso, N.; Dalba, G.; Fornasini, P.; Grisenti, R.; Pavesi, L.; Luppi, M.; Magri, R.; Ossicini, S.; Degoli, E.; Rocca, F.; Boninelli, S.; Priolo, F.; Spinella, C.; Iacona, F.

    2003-01-01

    Light-emitting silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 have been investigated by x-ray absorption measurements in total electron and photoluminescence yields, by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and by ab initio total energy calculations. Both experimental and theoretical results show that the interface between the silicon nanocrystals and the surrounding SiO 2 is not sharp: an intermediate region of amorphous nature and variable composition links the crystalline Si with the amorphous stoichiometric SiO 2 . This region plays an active role in the light-emission process

  7. Depth profiling of hydrogen passivation of boron in Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L. J.; Lau, W. M.; Simpson, P. J.; Schultz, P. J.

    1992-08-01

    The properties of SiO2/p-Si were studied using variable-energy positron-annihilation spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide film was formed by ozone oxidation in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at room temperature. Both the positron-annihilation and Raman analyses show that chemical cleaning of boron-doped p-type Si(100) using concentrated hydrofluoric acid prior to the oxide formation leads to hydrogen incorporation in the semiconductor. The incorporated hydrogen passivates the boron dopant by forming a B-H complex, the presence of which increases the broadening of the line shape in the positron-annihilation analysis, and narrows the linewidth of the Raman peak. Annealing of the SiO2/Si sample at a moderate temperature of 220 °C in vacuum was found sufficient to dissociate the complex and reactivate the boron dopant.

  8. Structure and chemistry of passivated SiC/SiO{sub 2} interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston Dycus, J.; Xu, Weizong; LeBeau, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907 (United States); Lichtenwalner, Daniel J.; Hull, Brett; Palmour, John W. [Power Devices R& D, Wolfspeed, A Cree Company, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Here, we report on the chemistry and structure of 4H-SiC/SiO{sub 2} interfaces passivated either by nitric oxide annealing or Ba deposition. Using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy, we find that Ba and N remain localized at SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface after processing. Further, we find that the passivating species can introduce significant changes to the near-interface atomic structure of SiC. Specifically, we quantify significant strain for nitric oxide annealed sample where Si dangling bonds are capped by N. In contrast, strain is not observed at the interface of the Ba treated samples. Finally, we place these results in the context of field effect mobility.

  9. Identification of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from photoluminescence spectra of 3C-SiC nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fen; Guo, Jun-Hong; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Gu, Jian-Sen; Feng, Li-Ren; Liu, Li-Zhe

    2017-09-01

    The identification of intracellular pH (pHi) during carcinogenesis progression plays a crucial role in the studies of biochemistry, cytology, and clinical medicine. In this work, 3C-SiC nanocrystals (NCs), which can effectively monitor the pH environment by using the linear relation between photoluminescence intensity and surface OH- and H+ concentration, are adapted as fluorescent probes for monitoring carcinogenesis progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our results demonstrated that 3C-SiC NCs are compatible with living cells and have low cytotoxicity. The pHi measurements in different carcinogenesis environments indicate the validity and sensitivity of this technology in identifying nasopharyngeal carcinoma in application.

  10. Bond length contraction in Au nanocrystals formed by ion implantation into thin SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giraud, V.; Cheung, A.; Glover, C.J.; Azevedo, G. de M; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Au nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by ion implantation into thin SiO 2 and annealing were investigated by means of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A bond length contraction was observed and can be explained by surface tension effects in a simple liquid-drop model. Such results are consistent with previous reports on nonembedded NCs implying a negligible influence of the SiO 2 matrix. Cumulant analysis of the EXAFS data suggests surface reconstruction or relaxation involving a further shortened bond length. A deviation from the octahedral closed shell structure is apparent for NCs of size 25 A

  11. Effect of PECVD SiNx/SiOy Nx –Si interface property on surface passivation of silicon wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiao-Jie; Zhou Chun-Lan; Zhou Su; Wang Wen-Jing; Zhu Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    It is studied in this paper that the electrical characteristics of the interface between SiO y N x /SiN x stack and silicon wafer affect silicon surface passivation. The effects of precursor flow ratio and deposition temperature of the SiO y N x layer on interface parameters, such as interface state density Di t and fixed charge Q f , and the surface passivation quality of silicon are observed. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal that inserting a thin SiO y N x layer between the SiN x and the silicon wafer can suppress Q f in the film and D it at the interface. The positive Q f and D it and a high surface recombination velocity in stacks are observed to increase with the introduced oxygen and minimal hydrogen in the SiO y N x film increasing. Prepared by deposition at a low temperature and a low ratio of N 2 O/SiH 4 flow rate, the SiO y N x /SiN x stacks result in a low effective surface recombination velocity (S eff ) of 6 cm/s on a p-type 1 Ω·cm–5 Ω·cm FZ silicon wafer. The positive relationship between S eff and D it suggests that the saturation of the interface defect is the main passivation mechanism although the field-effect passivation provided by the fixed charges also make a contribution to it. (paper)

  12. Supercritical synthesis and in situ deposition of PbS nanocrystals with oleic acid passivation for quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakoli, M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aashuri, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have recently attracted significant attention due to their low-processing cost and surging photovoltaic performance. In this paper, a novel, reproducible, and simple solution-based process based on supercritical fluid toluene is presented for in situ growth and deposition PbS nanocrystals with oleic-acid passivation. A lead precursor containing sulfur was mixed with oleic acid in toluene and processed in a supercritical fluid condition at different temperatures of 140, 270 and 330 °C for 20 min. The quantum dots were deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate inside the supercritical reactor. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and dynamic light scattering showed that the nanocrystals processed at the supercritical condition (330 °C) are fully crystalline with a narrow size distribution of ∼3 nm with an absorption wavelength of 915 nm (bandgap of 1.3 eV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the PbS quantum dots are passivated by oleic acid molecules during the growth. Photovoltaic characteristics of Schottky junction solar cells showed an improvement over devices prepared by spin-coating. - Highlights: • Supercritical fluid processing and in situ deposition of PbS QDs are presented. • The prepared nanocrystals are mono-dispersed with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV. • Photovoltaic performance of the in situ deposited nanocrystals is reported. • An improved PV performance compared to spin coated Schottky solar cells is shown.

  13. Migration of CrSi2 nanocrystals through nanopipes in the silicon cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, N.G.; Dozsa, L.; Chusovitin, E.A.; Pecz, B.; Dobos, L.

    2010-01-01

    CrSi 2 nanocrystals (NC) were grown by reactive deposition epitaxy of Cr at 550 deg. C. After deposition the Cr is localized in about 20-30 nm dots on the Si surface. The NCs were covered by silicon cap grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 700 deg. C. The redistribution of NCs in the silicon cap was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The NCs are partly localized at the deposition depth, and partly migrate near the surface. A new migration mechanism of the CrSi 2 NCs is observed, they are transferred from the bulk toward the surface through nanopipes formed in the silicon cap. The redistribution of CrSi 2 NCs strongly depends on Cr deposition rate and on the cap growth temperature.

  14. Structural and optical characterization of Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals elaborated by ion implantation in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafos, C.; Garrido, B.; Lopez, M.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Gonzalez-Varona, O.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Rodriguez, R.

    1999-01-01

    Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals have been formed in SiO 2 layers by ion implantation and thermal annealing. The structural analysis of the processed samples has been performed mainly by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The data show the precipitation of ZnS nanocrystals self-organized into two layers parallel to the free surface. First results of the optical analysis of samples co-implanted with Mn show the presence of a yellow-green photoluminescence depending on the Mn concentration and the size of the nanocrystals, suggesting the doping with Mn of some precipitates

  15. Generating ordered Si nanocrystals via atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verveniotis, Elisseos; Šípek, Emil; Stuchlík, Jiří; Kočka, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 358, č. 17 (2012), 2118–2121 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : AFM * CS-AFM * a-Si:H * electric crystallization * nickel Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2012

  16. Ultra-low-energy ion-beam synthesis of nanometer-separated Si nanoparticles and Ag nanocrystals 2D layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrada, M.; Haj Salem, A.; Pecassou, B.; Paillard, V.; Ben Assayag, G.

    2018-03-01

    2D networks of Si and Ag nanocrystals have been fabricated in the same SiO2 matrix by Ultra-Low-Energy Ion-Beam-Synthesis. Our synthesis scheme differs from a simple sequential ion implantation and its key point is the control of the matrix integrity through an appropriate intermediate thermal annealing. Si nanocrystal layer is synthesised first due to high thermal budget required for nucleation, while the second Ag nanocrystal plane is formed during a subsequent implantation due to the high diffusivity of Ag in silica. The aim of this work is to show how it is possible to overcome the limitation related to ion mixing and implantation damage to obtain double layers of Si-NCs and Ag-NCs with controlled characteristics. For this, we take advantage of annealing under slight oxidizing ambient to control the oxidation of Si-NCs and the Si excess in the matrix. The nanocrystal characteristics and in particular their position and size can be adjusted thanks to a compromise between the implantation energy, the implanted dose for both Si and Ag ions and the intermediate annealing conditions (atmosphere, temperature and duration).

  17. Enhancing optical gains in Si nanocrystals via hydrogenation and cerium ion doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong-Chen; Li, Yan-Li; Song, Sheng-Chi; Guo, Wen-Ping; Lu, Ming; Chen, Jia-Rong

    2014-01-01

    We report optical gain enhancements in Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) via hydrogenation and Ce 3+ ion doping. Variable stripe length technique was used to obtain gains. At 0.3 W/cm 2 pumping power density of pulsed laser, net gains were observed together with gain enhancements after hydrogenation and/or Ce 3+ ion doping; gains after loss corrections were between 89.52 and 341.95 cm −1 ; and the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime was found to decrease with the increasing gain enhancement. At 0.04 W/cm 2 power density, however, no net gain was found and the PL lifetime increased with the increasing PL enhancement. The results were discussed according to stimulated and spontaneous excitation and de-excitation mechanisms of Si-NCs.

  18. Effect of hydrogen ion beam treatment on Si nanocrystal/SiO_2 superlattice-based memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chuang, Bing-Ru; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Memory window and retention properties are improved employing HIBAS technique. • The O/Si ratio and radiative recombination are changed by HIBAS. • Memory properties are affected not only by Si NCs and O/Si ratio but also the RDCs. • The mechanism of hydrogen ion beam alters the memory properties is investigated. - Abstract: This study presents a novel route for synthesizing silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO_2 superlattice-based memory devices with an improved memory window and retention properties. The SiO_2 and SRO superlattices are deposited by reactive sputtering. Specifically, the hydrogen ion beam is used to irradiate the SRO layer immediately after its deposition in the vacuum chamber. The use of the hydrogen ion beam was determined to increase oxygen content and the density of the Si nanocrystals. The memory window increased from 16 to 25.6 V, and the leakage current decreased significantly by two orders, to under ±20 V, for the hydrogen ion beam-prepared devices. This study investigates the mechanism into how hydrogen ion beam treatment alters SRO films and influences memory properties.

  19. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Nupur, E-mail: n1saxena@gmail.com; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO{sub 2} is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters.

  20. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Nupur; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO 2 matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO 2 is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters

  1. Observation of spin-selective tunneling in SiGe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, G; Golovach, V N; Spathis, P; Ares, N; Stoffel, M; Fournel, F; Schmidt, O G; Glazman, L I; De Franceschi, S

    2011-12-09

    Spin-selective tunneling of holes in SiGe nanocrystals contacted by normal-metal leads is reported. The spin selectivity arises from an interplay of the orbital effect of the magnetic field with the strong spin-orbit interaction present in the valence band of the semiconductor. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that spin-selective tunneling in semiconductor nanostructures can be achieved without the use of ferromagnetic contacts. The reported effect, which relies on mixing the light and heavy holes, should be observable in a broad class of quantum-dot systems formed in semiconductors with a degenerate valence band.

  2. Vertically aligned Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous Si matrix prepared by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogay, G. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Saleh, Z.M., E-mail: zaki.saleh@aauj.edu [Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Physics, Arab American University–Jenin (AAUJ), Jenin, Palestine (Country Unknown); Özkol, E. [Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Turan, R. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Inductively-coupled plasma is used for nanostructured silicon at room temperature. • Low temperature deposition allows device processing on various substrates. • Deposition pressure is the most effective parameter in controlling nanostructure. • Films consist of quantum dots in a-Si matrix and exhibit columnar vertical growth. • Films are porous to oxygen infusion along columnar grain boundaries. - Abstract: Vertically-aligned nanostructured silicon films are deposited at room temperature on p-type silicon wafers and glass substrates by inductively-coupled, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICPCVD). The nanocrystalline phase is achieved by reducing pressure and increasing RF power. The crystalline volume fraction (X{sub c}) and the size of the nanocrystals increase with decreasing pressure at constant power. Columnar growth of nc-Si:H films is observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films exhibit cauliflower-like structures with high porosity that leads to slow but uniform oxidation after exposure to air at room temperature. Films deposited at low pressures exhibit photoluminescence (PL) signals that may be deconvoluted into three distinct Gaussian components: 760–810, 920–935, and 990–1000 nm attributable to the quantum confinement and interface defect states. Hydrogen dilution is manifested in significant enhancement of the PL, but it has little effect on the nanocrystal size and X{sub c}.

  3. Surface Defect Passivation and Reaction of c-Si in H2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Das, Ujjwal K; Birkmire, Robert W

    2017-12-26

    A unique passivation process of Si surface dangling bonds through reaction with hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is demonstrated in this paper. A high-level passivation quality with an effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ) of >2000 μs corresponding to a surface recombination velocity of passivation by monolayer coverage of S on the Si surface. However, S passivation of the Si surface is highly unstable because of thermodynamically favorable reaction with atmospheric H 2 O and O 2 . This instability can be eliminated by capping the S-passivated Si surface with a protective thin film such as low-temperature-deposited amorphous silicon nitride.

  4. Slow positron studies of hydrogen activation/passivation on SiO2/Si(100) interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Asoka-Kumar, P.

    1991-01-01

    The hydrogen atoms are one of the most common impurity species found in semiconductor systems owing to its large diffusivity, and are easily incorporated either in a controlled process like in ion implantation or in an uncontrolled process like the one at the fabrication stage. Hydrogen can passivate dangling bonds and dislocations in these systems and hence can be used to enhance the electrical properties. In a SiO 2 /Si system, hydrogen can passivate electronic states at the interface and can alter the fixed or mobile charges in the oxide layer. Since hydrogen is present in almost all of the environments of SiO 2 /Si wafer fabrication, the activation energy of hydrogen atoms is of paramount importance to a proper understanding of SiO 2 /Si based devices and has not been measured on the technologically most important Si(100) face. There are no direct, nondestructive methods available to observe hydrogen injection into the oxide layer and subsequent diffusion. This study uses the positrons as a ''sensitive'', nondestructive probe to observe hydrogen interaction in the oxide layer and the interface region. We also describe a new way of characterizing the changes in the density of the interface states under a low-temperature annealing using positrons. 9 refs., 6 figs

  5. Slow positron studies of hydrogen activation/passivation on SiO2/Si(100) interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, K. G.; Asoka-Kumar, P.

    The hydrogen atoms are one of the most common impurity species found in semiconductor systems owing to its large diffusivity, and are easily incorporated either in a controlled process like in ion implantation or in an uncontrolled process like the one at the fabrication stage. Hydrogen can passivate dangling bonds and dislocations in these systems and hence can be used to enhance the electrical properties. In a SiO2/Si system, hydrogen can passivate electronic states at the interface and can alter the fixed or mobile charges in the oxide layer. Since hydrogen is present in almost all of the environments of SiO2/Si wafer fabrication, the activation energy of hydrogen atoms is of paramount importance to a proper understanding of SiO2/Si based devices and has not been measured on the technologically most important Si(100) face. There are no direct, nondestructive methods available to observe hydrogen injection into the oxide layer and subsequent diffusion. The positrons are used as a 'sensitive', nondestructive probe to observe hydrogen interaction in the oxide layer and the interface region. A new way is described of characterizing the changes in the density of the interface states under a low temperature annealing using positrons.

  6. Origins of visible-light emissions in hydrogen-coated silicon nanocrystals: Role of passivating coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, Nacir; Yamani, Z.H.; Graham, J.; Ayesh, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the electronic and optical properties of hydrogen-coated silicon nanocrystals (Si:H NCs). On one hand, the density-functional theory (DFT) is used to both calculate the total energy and relax the NCs. On a second hand, the tight-binding method, which includes the minimal sp 3 -basis set within the second-nearest-neighbor interaction scheme, is applied to calculate the electronic structures, oscillator strength (OS) and recombination rate (RR) versus the NC size, coating and atomic relaxation. Three main findings are reported: (i) The quantum confinement in these NCs do follow similar rule to the case of a single-particle in a box, where the confinement energy decays in power-law with the increasing NC's size. (ii) The coating is shown to play the essential role in creation of large band-gap energy lying within the visible-light energy spectrum. (iii) The surface atomic relaxation is found to reduce the band-gap energy by about 150 meV and enhance both OS and RR. Our claims are corroborated by the available experimental data.

  7. Passivation layer of Si/Li ionizing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidra, M.; Reznicek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed passivating layer of Si/Li ionizing radiation detectors ensures a good long-time stability of their volt-ampere characteristics and noise properties. The layer can be applied to protect the detector junction surface in systems cyclically cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, and in preamplifier feedback optoelectronics to prevent light from entering into the detector. The passivating layer is obtained by evaporating solvent from a cured suspension of boron nitride or aluminium oxide powder in a solution containing piceine and a nonpolar solvent such as toluene. The weight proportions are 1 to 8 parts of piceine, 3 to 9 parts of boron nitride or aluminium oxide, and 1 to 10 parts of the nonpolar solvent. (Z.S.)

  8. Strained interface defects in silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Benjamin G.; Stradins, Paul [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Hiller, Daniel; Zacharias, Margit [IMTEK - Faculty of Engineering, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg (Germany); Luo, Jun-Wei; Beard, Matthew C. [Chemical and Materials Science, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Semonin, Octavi E. [Chemical and Materials Science, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-07

    The surface of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an oxide matrix can contain numerous interface defects. These defects strongly affect the nanocrystals' photoluminescence efficiency and optical absorption. Dangling-bond defects are nearly eliminated by H{sub 2} passivation, thus decreasing absorption below the quantum-confined bandgap and enhancing PL efficiency by an order of magnitude. However, there remain numerous other defects seen in absorption by photothermal deflection spectroscopy; these defects cause non-radiative recombination that limits the PL efficiency to <15%. Using atomistic pseudopotential simulations, we attribute these defects to two specific types of distorted bonds: Si-Si and bridging Si-O-Si bonds between two Si atoms at the nanocrystal surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Diffusion limited Cu and Au nanocrystal formation in thin film SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, B.; Kluth, P.; Glover, C.J.; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Elemental Cu and Au nanocrystals (NCs) were produced by high-energy ion-implantations into amorphous silica (SiO 2 ) and subsequent thermal annealing. By a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) we confirm both NC species to have the bulk face-centered cubic phase and estimate their average diameter. We concentrate on the investigation of the concentration and size-dependent coordination number (China) of these matrix embedded NCs utilising extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The CN is found to be suppressed compared to that of a bulk standard. The CN in Au NCs is found to be lower than that of Cu NCs in agreement with smaller average Au NC sizes. We explain this difference by the difference in diffusivity for the two atomic species in SiO 2

  10. IBC c-Si solar cells based on ion-implanted poly-silicon passivating contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-implanted poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si), in combination with a tunnel oxide layer, is investigated as a carrier-selective passivating contact in c-Si solar cells based on an interdigitated back contact (IBC) architecture. The optimized poly-Si passivating contacts enable low interface

  11. Colloidal PbS nanocrystals integrated to Si-based photonics for applications at telecom wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, M.; Guider, R.; Jantsch, W.; Fromherz, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the last decade, Si based photonics has made major advances in terms of design, fabrication, and device implementation. But due to Silicon's indirect bandgap, it still remains a challenge to create efficient Si-based light emitting devices. In order to overcome this problem, an approach is to develop hybrid systems integrating light-emitting materials into Si. A promising class of materials for this purpose is the class of semiconducting nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) that are synthesized by colloidal chemistry. As their absorption and emission wavelength depends on the dot size, which can easily be controlled during synthesis, they are extremely attractive as building blocks for nanophotonic applications. For applications in telecom wavelength, Lead chalcogenide colloidal NCs are optimum materials due to their unique optical, electronic and nonlinear properties. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the integration of PbS nanocrystals into Si-based photonic structures like slot waveguides and ring resonators as optically pumped emitters for room temperature applications. In order to create such hybrid structures, the NCs were dissolved into polymer resists and drop cast on top of the device. Upon optical pumping, intense photoluminescence emission from the resonating modes is recorded at the output of the waveguide with transmission quality factors up to 14000. The polymer host material was investigated with respect to its ability to stabilize the NC's photoluminescence emission against degradation under ambient conditions. The waveguide-ring coupling efficiency was also investigated as function of the NCs concentrations blended into the polymer matrix. The integration of colloidal quantum dots into Silicon photonic structures as demonstrated in this work is a very versatile technique and thus opens a large range of applications utilizing the linear and nonlinear optical properties of PbS NCs at telecom wavelengths.

  12. Passivation of hexagonal SiC surfaces by hydrogen termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyller, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Surface hydrogenation is a well established technique in silicon technology. It is easily accomplished by wet-chemical procedures and results in clean and unreconstructed surfaces, which are extremely low in charged surface states and stable against oxidation in air, thus constituting an ideal surface preparation. As a consequence, methods for hydrogenation have been sought for preparing silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces with similar well defined properties. It was soon recognized, however, that due to different surface chemistry new ground had to be broken in order to find a method leading to the desired monatomic hydrogen saturation. In this paper the results of H passivation of SiC surfaces by high-temperature hydrogen annealing will be discussed, thereby placing emphasis on chemical, structural and electronic properties of the resulting surfaces. In addition to their unique properties, hydrogenated hexagonal SiC {0001} surfaces offer the interesting possibility of gaining insight into the formation of silicon- and carbon-rich reconstructions as well. This is due to the fact that to date hydrogenation is the only method providing oxygen-free surfaces with a C to Si ratio of 1:1. Last but not least, the electronic properties of hydrogen-free SiC {0001} surfaces will be alluded to. SiC {0001} surfaces are the only known semiconductor surfaces that can be prepared in their unreconstructed (1 x 1) state with one dangling bond per unit cell by photon induced hydrogen desorption. These surfaces give indications of a Mott-Hubbard surface band structure

  13. Si surface passivation by SiOx:H films deposited by a low-frequency ICP for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H P; Wei, D Y; Xu, S; Xiao, S Q; Xu, L X; Huang, S Y; Guo, Y N; Khan, S; Xu, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated silicon suboxide (SiO x :H) thin films are fabricated by a low-frequency inductively coupled plasma of hydrogen-diluted SiH 4 + CO 2 at a low temperature (100 °C). Introduction of a small amount of oxygen into the film results in a predominantly amorphous structure, wider optical bandgap, increased H content, lower conductivity and higher activation energy. The minority carrier lifetime in the SiO x :H-passivated p-type Si substrate is up to 428 µs with a reduced incubation layer at the interface. The associated surface recombination velocity is as low as 70 cm s -1 . The passivation behaviour dominantly originates from the H-related chemical passivation. The passivation effect is also demonstrated by the excellent photovoltaic performance of the heterojunction solar cell with the SiO x :H-based passivation and emitter layers.

  14. Nanocrystal Growth in Thermally Treated Fe75Ni2Si8B13C2 Amorphous Alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minić, Dragica M.; Blagojević, V.; Minić, Dušan M.; David, Bohumil; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Žák, Tomáš

    43A, č. 9 (2012), s. 3062-3069 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nanocrystal growth * Fe75Ni2Si8B13C2 * Amorphous alloy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.627, year: 2012

  15. Surface passivation of mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 nanocrystals by selective etching for improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Qiang; Zhang, Mian; Huang, Xiang; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhenda

    2017-06-08

    In recent years, there has been an unprecedented rise in the research of halide perovskites because of their important optoelectronic applications, including photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and lasers. The most pressing question concerns the stability of these materials. Here faster degradation and PL quenching are observed at higher iodine content for mixed-halide perovskite CsPb(Br x I 1-x ) 3 nanocrystals, and a simple yet effective method is reported to significantly enhance their stability. After selective etching with acetone, surface iodine is partially etched away to form a bromine-rich surface passivation layer on mixed-halide perovskite nanocrystals. This passivation layer remarkably stabilizes the nanocrystals, making their PL intensity improved by almost three orders of magnitude. It is expected that a similar passivation layer can also be applied to various other kinds of perovskite materials with poor stability issues.

  16. Optimization of the luminescence emission of Si nanocrystals synthesized from non-stoichiometric Si oxides using a Central Composite Design of the deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morana, B.; Sande, J.C.G. de; Rodriguez, A.; Sangrador, J.; Rodriguez, T.; Avella, M.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Si oxide films with a controlled excess of Si were deposited on Si wafers by LPCVD using Si 2 H 6 and O 2 , thermally annealed to 1100 deg. C for 1 h to form Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 and subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C in forming gas. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The excess of Si in the as-deposited samples, ranging from 0 to 70% in volume, was obtained from the ellipsometry data analysis. After annealing at 1100 deg. C, the samples show a luminescence band (peaking at 665 nm) at 80 K and at room temperature which is associated to the presence of Si nanocrystals. The growth rate, the excess of Si incorporated to the films and the intensity of the luminescence band were modelled using a Face-Centered Central Composite Design as a function of the main deposition variables (pressure, 185-300 mTorr; temperature, 250-400 deg. C; Si 2 H 6 /O 2 flow ratio, 2-5) aiming to control the growth process and the incorporation of Si in excess as well as to determine the experimental conditions that yield the samples with the maximum intensity of the luminescence emission

  17. Photoluminescence of CdTe nanocrystals grown by pulsed laser ablation on a template of Si nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen-Cervantes, A.; Silva-Lopez, H.; Becerril-Silva, M.; Arias-Ceron, J.S.; Campos-Gonzalez, E.; Zelaya-Angel, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Physics Department, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico (Mexico); Medina-Torres, A.C. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-11-12

    CdTe nanocrystals were grown on eroded Si (111) substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser ablation. Before growth, Si substrates were subjected to different erosion time in order to investigate the effect on the CdTe samples. The erosion process consists of exposition to a pulsed high-voltage electric arc. The surface consequence of the erosion process consists of Si nanoparticles which acted as a template for the growth of CdTe nanocrystals. CdTe samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), room temperature photoluminescence (RT PL) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). CdTe nanocrystals grew in the stable cubic phase, according to XRD spectra. A strong visible emission was detected in photoluminescence (PL) experiments. The PL signal was centered at 540 nm (∝2.34 eV). With the effective mass approximation, the size of the CdTe crystals was estimated around 3.5 nm. HRTEM images corroborated the physical characteristics of CdTe nanocrystals. These results could be useful for the development of CdTe optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  18. Ion-beam synthesis and photoluminescence of SiC nanocrystals assisted by MeV-heavy-ion-beam annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamsuwan, J.; Intarasiri, S.; Kirkby, K.; Chu, P.K.; Singkarat, S.; Yu, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    This work explored a novel way to synthesize silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals for photoluminescence. Carbon ions at 90 keV were implanted in single crystalline silicon wafers at elevated temperature, followed by irradiation using xenon ion beams at an energy of 4 MeV with two low fluences of 5 × 10 13 and 1 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 at elevated temperatures for annealing. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the formation of nanocrystalline SiC. Photoluminescence was measured from the samples. The results demonstrated that MeV-heavy-ion-beam annealing could indeed induce crystallization of SiC nanocrystals and enhance emission of photoluminescence with violet bands dominance due to the quantum confinement effect.

  19. Scaling dependence of memory windows and different carrier charging behaviors in Si nanocrystal nonvolatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Chen, Kun-ji; Ma, Zhong-yuan; Zhang, Xin-xin; Jiang, Xiao-fan; Wu, Yang-qing; Huang, Xin-fan; Oda, Shunri

    2016-09-01

    Based on the charge storage mode, it is important to investigate the scaling dependence of memory performance in silicon nanocrystal (Si-NC) nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices for its scaling down limit. In this work, we made eight kinds of test key cells with different gate widths and lengths by 0.13-μm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It is found that the memory windows of eight kinds of test key cells are almost the same of about 1.64 V @ ± 7 V/1 ms, which are independent of the gate area, but mainly determined by the average size (12 nm) and areal density (1.8 × 1011/cm2) of Si-NCs. The program/erase (P/E) speed characteristics are almost independent of gate widths and lengths. However, the erase speed is faster than the program speed of test key cells, which is due to the different charging behaviors between electrons and holes during the operation processes. Furthermore, the data retention characteristic is also independent of the gate area. Our findings are useful for further scaling down of Si-NC NVM devices to improve the performance and on-chip integration. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2010CB934402) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374153, 61571221, and 61071008).

  20. Effect of Ultrasonic Nano-Crystal Surface Modification (UNSM) on the Passivation Behavior of Aged 316L Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Young-Sik

    2017-06-27

    Stainless steels have good corrosion resistance in many environments but welding or aging can decrease their resistance. This work focused on the effect of aging time and ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification on the passivation behavior of 316L stainless steel. In the case of slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel, increasing the aging time drastically decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film, even though aging did not form chromium carbide and a chromium depletion zone. This behavior is due to the micro-galvanic corrosion between the matrix and carbon segregated area, and this shows the importance of carbon segregation in grain boundaries to the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steel, in addition to the formation of the chromium depletion zone. UNSM (Ultrasonic Nano Crystal Surface Modification)-treatment to the slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel increased the pitting potential, decreased the passive current density, and increased the resistance of the passive film. However, in the case of heavily sensitized 316L stainless steel, UNSM-treatment decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film. This behavior is due to the dual effects of the UNSM-treatment. That is, the UNSM-treatment reduced the carbon segregation, regardless of whether the stainless steel 316L was slightly or heavily sensitized. However, since this treatment made mechanical flaws in the outer surface in the case of the heavily sensitized stainless steel, UNSM-treatment may eliminate chromium carbide, and this flaw can be a pitting initiation site, and therefore decrease the pitting corrosion resistance.

  1. Fundamentals of Passive Oxidation In SiC and Si3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    1998-01-01

    The very slow oxidation kinetics of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, which derive from their adherent and passivating oxide films, has been explored at length in a broad series of studies utilizing thermogravimetric analysis, electron and optical micrography, energy dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffractometry, micro-analytical depth profiling, etc. Some interesting microstructural phenomena accompanying the process of oxidation in the two materials will be presented. In Si3N4 the oxide is stratified, with an SiO2 topscale (which is relatively impervious to O2)underlain by a coherent subscale of silicon oxynitride which is even less permeable to O2- Such "defence in depth" endows Si3N4 with what is perhaps the highest oxidation resistance of any material, and results in a unique set of oxidation processes. In SiC the oxidation reactions are much simpler, yet new issues still emerge; for instance, studies involving controlled devitrification of the amorphous silica scale confirmed that the oxidation rate of SiC drops by more than an order of magnitude when the oxide scale fully crystallizes.

  2. Controlled fabrication of Si nanocrystal delta-layers in thin SiO{sub 2} layers by plasma immersion ion implantation for nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonafos, C.; Ben-Assayag, G.; Groenen, J.; Carrada, M. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F. [IBS, Rue G Imbert Prolongée, ZI Peynier-Rousset, 13790 Peynier (France); Normand, P.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetanakis, E. [NCSRD, Terma Patriarchou Gregoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Sahu, B. S.; Slaoui, A. [ICube, 23 Rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-12-16

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to beam line implantation to produce a single layer of nanocrystals (NCs) in the gate insulator of metal-oxide semiconductor devices. We report herein the fabrication of two-dimensional Si-NCs arrays in thin SiO{sub 2} films using PIII and rapid thermal annealing. The effect of plasma and implantation conditions on the structural properties of the NC layers is examined by transmission electron microscopy. A fine tuning of the NCs characteristics is possible by optimizing the oxide thickness, implantation energy, and dose. Electrical characterization revealed that the PIII-produced-Si NC structures are appealing for nonvolatile memories.

  3. Controlled fabrication of Si nanocrystal delta-layers in thin SiO2 layers by plasma immersion ion implantation for nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafos, C.; Ben-Assayag, G.; Groenen, J.; Carrada, M.; Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F.; Normand, P.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetanakis, E.; Sahu, B. S.; Slaoui, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to beam line implantation to produce a single layer of nanocrystals (NCs) in the gate insulator of metal-oxide semiconductor devices. We report herein the fabrication of two-dimensional Si-NCs arrays in thin SiO 2 films using PIII and rapid thermal annealing. The effect of plasma and implantation conditions on the structural properties of the NC layers is examined by transmission electron microscopy. A fine tuning of the NCs characteristics is possible by optimizing the oxide thickness, implantation energy, and dose. Electrical characterization revealed that the PIII-produced-Si NC structures are appealing for nonvolatile memories

  4. Probing the formation of silicon nano-crystals (Si-ncs) using variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, A. P.; Bradley, J. D. B.; Hulko, O.; Stevanovic, D. V.; Edwards, C. J.; Kallis, A.; Coleman, P. G.; Crowe, I. F.; Halsall, M. P.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary results from studies of the formation of silicon nano-crystals (Si-ncs) embedded in stoichiometric, thermally grown SiO2 using Variable Energy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (VEPAS). We show that the VEPAS technique is able to monitor the introduction of structural damage. In SiO2 through the high dose Si+ ion implantation required to introduce excess silicon as a precursor to Si-nc formation. VEPAS is also able to characterize the rate of the removal of this damage with high temperature annealing, showing strong correlation with photoluminescence. Finally, VEPAS is shown to be able to selectively probe the interface between Si-ncs and the host oxide. Introduction of hydrogen at these interfaces suppresses the trapping of positrons at the interfaces.

  5. Formation of SiN{sub x}:H by PECVD: optimization of the optical, bulk passivation and structural properties for photovoltaic applications; Elaboration de SiN{sub x}:H par PECVD: optimisation des proprietes optiques, passivantes et structurales pour applications photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, J.F

    2007-04-15

    The hydrogenated silicon nitride SiNx:H is widely used as antireflection coating and passivation layer in the manufacture of silicon photovoltaic cells. The aim of this work was to implement a low frequency (440 kHz) PECVD reactor and to characterize the obtained SiN layers. After having determined the parameters of the optimal deposition, the physico-chemical structure of the layers has been studied. The optical properties have been studied with the aim to improve the antireflection coating of the photovoltaic cells. The surface and bulk passivation properties, induced by the SiN layer in terms of its stoichiometry, have been analyzed and have revealed the excellent passivating efficiency of this material. At last, have been studied the formation conditions of the silicon nano-crystals in the SiN matrix. (O.M.)

  6. Atomistic simulation of the thermal conductivity in amorphous SiO2 matrix/Ge nanocrystal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryliuk, Vasyl V.; Korotchenkov, Oleg A.

    2017-04-01

    We use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations with the Tersoff potential aiming to provide a comprehensive picture of the thermal conductivity of amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) matrix with embedded Ge nanocrystals (nc-Ge). The modelling predicts the a-SiO2 matrix thermal conductivity in a temperature range of 50 fair agreement with experiment at around room temperature. It is worth noticing that the predicted room-temperature thermal conductivity in a-SiO2 is in very good agreement with the experimental result, which is in marked contrast with the thermal conductivity calculated employing the widely used van Beest-Kramer-van Santen (BKS) potential. We show that the thermal conductivity of composite nc-Ge/a-SiO2 systems decreases steadily with increasing the volume fraction of Ge inclusions, indicative of enhanced interface scattering of phonons imposed by embedded Ge nanocrystals. We also observe that increasing the volume fractions above a certain threshold value results in a progressively increased thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite, which can be explained by increasing volume fraction of a better thermally conducting Ge. Finally, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with the Tersoff potential are promising for computing the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites based on amorphous SiO2 and can be readily scaled to more complex composite structures with embedded nanoparticles, which thus help design nanocomposites with desired thermal properties.

  7. Behind the Nature of Titanium Oxide Excellent Surface Passivation and Carrier Selectivity of c-Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    We present an expanded study of the passivation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si). We report a low surface recombination velocity (16 cm/s) for TiO2 passivation layers with a thin tunnelling oxide interlayer (SiO2 or Al2O3) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si......), and post-deposition annealing temperature were investigated. We have observed that that SiO2 and Al2O3 interlayers enhance the TiO2 passivation of c-Si. TiO2 thin film passivation layers alone result in lower effective carrier lifetime. Further annealing at 200  ̊C in N2 gas enhances the surface...

  8. Metastability of a-SiO{sub x}:H thin films for c-Si surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serenelli, L., E-mail: luca.serenelli@enea.it [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Martini, L. [DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Imbimbo, L. [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Asquini, R. [DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F.; Izzi, M.; Tucci, M. [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • a-SiO{sub x}:H film deposition by RF-PECVD is optimized from SiH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gas mixture. • Metastability of a-SiO{sub x}:H/c-Si passivation is investigated under thermal annealing and UV exposure. • A correlation between passivation metastability and Si−H bonds is found by FTIR spectra. • A metastability model is proposed. - Abstract: The adoption of a-SiO{sub x}:H films obtained by PECVD in heterojunction solar cells is a key to further increase their efficiency, because of its transparency in the UV with respect to the commonly used a-Si:H. At the same time this layer must guarantee high surface passivation of the c-Si to be suitable in high efficiency solar cell manufacturing. On the other hand the application of amorphous materials like a-Si:H and SiN{sub x} on the cell frontside expose them to the mostly energetic part of the sun spectrum, leading to a metastability of their passivation properties. Moreover as for amorphous silicon, thermal annealing procedures are considered as valuable steps to enhance and stabilize thin film properties, when performed at opportune temperature. In this work we explored the reliability of a-SiO{sub x}:H thin film layers surface passivation on c-Si substrates under UV exposition, in combination with thermal annealing steps. Both p- and n-type doped c-Si substrates were considered. To understand the effect of UV light soaking we monitored the minority carriers lifetime and Si−H and Si−O bonding, by FTIR spectra, after different exposure times to light coming from a deuterium lamp, filtered to UV-A region, and focused on the sample to obtain a power density of 50 μW/cm{sup 2}. We found a certain lifetime decrease after UV light soaking in both p- and n-type c-Si passivated wafers according to a a-SiO{sub x}:H/c-Si/a-SiO{sub x}:H structure. The role of a thermal annealing, which usually enhances the as-deposited SiO{sub x} passivation properties, was furthermore considered. In

  9. Self-aligned indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors with SiNx/SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 passivation layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-01-01

    Self-aligned top-gate amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiN x /SiO 2 /SiN x /SiO 2 passivation layers are developed in this paper. The resulting a-IGZO TFT exhibits high reliability against bias stress and good electrical performance including field-effect mobility of 5 cm 2 /Vs, threshold voltage of 2.5 V, subthreshold swing of 0.63 V/decade, and on/off current ratio of 5 × 10 6 . With scaling down of the channel length, good characteristics are also obtained with a small shift of the threshold voltage and no degradation of subthreshold swing. The proposed a-IGZO TFTs in this paper can act as driving devices in the next generation flat panel displays. - Highlights: • Self-aligned top-gate indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistor is proposed. • SiN x /SiO 2 /SiN x /SiO 2 passivation layers are developed. • The source/drain areas are hydrogen-doped by CHF3 plasma. • The devices show good electrical performance and high reliability against bias stress

  10. Chemical and electrical passivation of Si(1 1 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Fangyuan; Yang Dan; Opila, Robert L.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si(1 1 1) single crystalline surfaces prepared by two main chemical preparation procedures. The modified RCA cleaning is commonly used to prepare atomically flat stable surfaces that are easily identifiable spectroscopically and are the standard for chemical functionalization of silicon. On the other hand electronic properties of these surfaces are sometimes difficult to control. A much simpler silicon surface preparation procedure includes HF dipping for a short period of time. This procedure yields an atomically rough surface, whose chemical identity is not well-defined. However, the surfaces prepared by this approach often exhibit exceptionally attractive electronic properties as determined by long charge carrier lifetimes. This work utilizes infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate chemical modification of the surfaces prepared by these two different procedures with PCl 5 (leading to surface chlorination) and with short- and long-alkyl-chain alkenes (1-decene and 1-octodecene, respectively) and follows the electronic properties of the starting surfaces produced by measuring charge-carrier lifetimes.

  11. Chemical and electrical passivation of Si(1 1 1) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fangyuan; Yang, Dan; Opila, Robert L.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen-passivated Si(1 1 1) single crystalline surfaces prepared by two main chemical preparation procedures. The modified RCA cleaning is commonly used to prepare atomically flat stable surfaces that are easily identifiable spectroscopically and are the standard for chemical functionalization of silicon. On the other hand electronic properties of these surfaces are sometimes difficult to control. A much simpler silicon surface preparation procedure includes HF dipping for a short period of time. This procedure yields an atomically rough surface, whose chemical identity is not well-defined. However, the surfaces prepared by this approach often exhibit exceptionally attractive electronic properties as determined by long charge carrier lifetimes. This work utilizes infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate chemical modification of the surfaces prepared by these two different procedures with PCl5 (leading to surface chlorination) and with short- and long-alkyl-chain alkenes (1-decene and 1-octodecene, respectively) and follows the electronic properties of the starting surfaces produced by measuring charge-carrier lifetimes.

  12. In situ EC-AFM study of the effect of nanocrystals on the passivation and pit initiation in an Al-based metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.D.; Liu, Z.W.; Wang, Z.M.; Wang, J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanoscale corrosion on Al-rich glass was characterised by in situ EC-AFM. • The nanocrystals were identified from amorphous matrix by tapping mode AFM. • The formation of corrosion products is associated with the galvanic coupling. • The nanocrystals changed the local structure and component of the passive film. - Abstract: The effect of nanocrystals on pit initiation in metallic glasses is an unresolved issue. The passive film formation and pit initiation in the Al–Ni–Ce metallic glass were investigated using in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM). The α-Al nanophases were identified from the amorphous matrix based upon the phase imaging in the tapping mode AFM. In the early stage of the passive film formation, the corrosion products Al(OH) 3 formed on the α-Al nanoparticles due to the galvanic coupling. The corrosion products incorporated into the passive film changed the local structure and component of the passive film, lowering its stability

  13. CVD-Based Valence-Mending Passivation for Crystalline-Si Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Meng [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate a new surface passivation technique, valence-mending passivation, for its applications in crystalline-Si solar cells to achieve significant efficiency improvement and cost reduction. As the enabling technique, the project includes the development of chemical vapor deposition recipes to passivate textured Si(100) and multicrystalline-Si surfaces by sulfur and the characterization of the passivated Si surfaces, including thermal stability, Schottky barrier height, contact resistance and surface recombination. One important application is to replace the Ag finger electrode in Si cells with Al to reduce cost, by ~$0.1/Wp, and allow terawatt-scale deployment of crystalline-Si solar cells. These all-Al Si cells require a low-temperature metallization process for the Al electrode, to be compatible with valence-mending passivation and to prevent Al diffusion into n-type Si. Another application is to explore valence-mending passivation of grain boundaries in multicrystalline Si by diffusing sulfur into grain boundaries, to reduce the efficiency gas between monocrystalline-Si solar cells and multicrystalline-Si cells. The major accomplishments of this project include: 1) Demonstration of chemical vapor deposition processes for valence-mending passivation of both monocrystalline Si(100) and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Record Schottky barriers have been demonstrated, with the new record-low barrier of less than 0.08 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated n-type Si(100) and the new record-high barrier of 1.14 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated p-type Si(100). On the textured p-type monocrystalline Si(100) surface, the highest barrier with Al is 0.85 eV by valence-mending passivation. 2) Demonstration of a low-temperature metallization process for Al in crystalline-Si solar cells. The new metallization process is based on electroplating of Al in a room-temperature ionic liquid. The resistivity of the electroplated Al is ~7×10–6

  14. Spectroscopic investigations of dark Si nanocrystals in SiO2 and their role in external quantum efficiency quenching"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, R.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of dark silicon nanocrystals, i.e., the nanocrystals that are not able to radiatively recombine after absorption of a photon, is investigated by combining measurements of external and internal quantum efficiencies. The study is conducted on samples prepared by co-sputtering and

  15. Ge nanocrystals formed by furnace annealing of Ge(x)[SiO2](1-x) films: structure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. A.; Cherkov, A. G.; Antonenko, A. Kh; Stoffel, M.; Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M.

    2017-07-01

    Ge(x)[SiO2](1-x) (0.1  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.4) films were deposited onto Si(0 0 1) or fused quartz substrates using co-evaporation of both Ge and SiO2 in high vacuum. Germanium nanocrystals were synthesized in the SiO2 matrix by furnace annealing of Ge x [SiO2](1-x) films with x  ⩾  0.2. According to electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy data, the average size of the nanocrystals depends weakly on the annealing temperature (700, 800, or 900 °C) and on the Ge concentration in the films. Neither amorphous Ge clusters nor Ge nanocrystals were observed in as-deposited and annealed Ge0.1[SiO2]0.9 films. Infrared absorption spectroscopy measurements show that the studied films do not contain a noticeable amount of GeO x clusters. After annealing at 900 °C intermixing of germanium and silicon atoms was still negligible thus preventing the formation of GeSi nanocrystals. For annealed samples, we report the observation of infrared photoluminescence at low temperatures, which can be explained by exciton recombination in Ge nanocrystals. Moreover, we report strong photoluminescence in the visible range at room temperature, which is certainly due to Ge-related defect-induced radiative transitions.

  16. Structural, spectroscopic and cytotoxicity studies of TbF3@CeF3 and TbF3@CeF3@SiO2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzyb, Tomasz; Runowski, Marcin; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Giersig, Michael; Lis, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Terbium fluoride nanocrystals, covered by a shell, composed of cerium fluoride were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Their complex structure was formed spontaneously during the synthesis. The surface of these core/shell nanocrystals was additionally modified by silica. The properties of TbF 3 @CeF 3 and TbF 3 @CeF 3 @SiO 2 nanocrystals, formed in this way, were investigated. Spectroscopic studies showed that the differences between these two groups of products resulted from the presence of the SiO 2 shell. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the trigonal crystal structure of TbF 3 @CeF 3 nanocrystals. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in connection with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a complex structure of the formed nanocrystals. Crystallized as small discs, ‘the products’, with an average diameter around 10 nm, showed an increase in the concentration of Tb 3+ ions from surface to the core of nanocrystals. In addition to photo-physical analyses, cytotoxicity studies were performed on HSkMEC (Human Skin Microvascular Endothelial Cells) and B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of the nanomaterials was neutral for the investigated cells with no toxic or antiproliferative effect in the cell cultures, either for normal or for cancer cells. This fact makes the obtained nanocrystals good candidates for biological applications and further modifications of the SiO 2 shell.Graphical Abstract

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ion-implanted Pt nanocrystals in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giulian, R.; Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Araujo, L.L.; Llewellyn, D.J.; Cookson, D.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Pt nanocrystals (NCs) produced by ion implantation in SiO 2 films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The implantations were performed at liquid nitrogen temperature using energies between 3.4 and 5.6 MeV and an ion fluence range of 2-30 x 10 16 cm -2 and were followed by annealing in forming gas (95% N 2 , 5% H 2 ) for one hour at temperatures between 500 and 1100 deg. C. TEM analysis revealed that the NCs are spherical in shape. The mean size of the NCs annealed at 1100 deg. C varied between 2.8 and 3.6 nm for the highest and lowest fluences, respectively, as determined with both TEM and SAXS. In contrast to previous studies on ion implanted metal NCs, larger Pt NCs are located far beyond the Pt peak concentration, potentially the result of a strongly defect mediated NC nucleation

  18. Improving Passivation Process of Si Nano crystals Embedded in SiO2 Using Metal Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornacelli, J.; Esqueda, J.A.R.; Fernandez, L.R.; Oliver, A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the photoluminescence (PL) of Si nano crystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiO 2 obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy. The Si-NCs are formed at high depth (1-2 μm) inside the SiO 2 achieving a robust and better protected system. After metal ion implantation (Ag or Au), and a subsequent thermal annealing at 600°C under hydrogen-containing atmosphere, the PL signal exhibits a noticeable increase. The ion metal implantation was done at energies such that its distribution inside the silica does not overlap with the previously implanted Si ion . Under proper annealing Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs) could be nucleated, and the PL signal from Si-NCs could increase due to plasmonic interactions. However, the ion-metal-implantation-induced damage can enhance the amount of hydrogen, or nitrogen, that diffuses into the SiO 2 matrix. As a result, the surface defects on Si-NCs can be better passivated, and consequently, the PL of the system is intensified. We have selected different atmospheres (air, H 2 /N 2 and Ar) to study the relevance of these annealing gases on the final PL from Si-NCs after metal ion implantation. Studies of PL and time-resolved PL indicate that passivation process of surface defects on Si-NCs is more effective when it is assisted by ion metal implantation.

  19. Assembly of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2 via a stress-induced dewetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, E; Sutter, P

    2006-01-01

    We use epitaxial Ge islands on silicon-on-insulator (001) to initiate and drive the dewetting of the ultrathin ( 2 layer and transforms the Ge islands into oxide-supported, electrically isolated, Ge-rich nanocrystals. We investigate the process of dewetting and demonstrate that it can be used for the controlled assembly of nanocrystals-from isolated single ones to dense arrays

  20. Changes of the absorption cross section of Si nanocrystals with temperature and distance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greben, M.; Khoroshyy, Petro; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.; Valenta, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Nov 6 (2017), s. 2315-2323 ISSN 2190-4286 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : absorption cross section * average lifetime * nanocrystal distance * photoluminescence decay * silicon nanocrystals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016 https://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjnano/articles/8/231

  1. Effect of Passivation on Microwave Power Performances of AlGaN/GaN/Si HEMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. MOSBAHI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the use of plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs grown on silicon substrate. Surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were studied using SiO2/SiN dielectric layers grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The direct current measurement, pulsed characteristics and microwave small-signal characteristics were studied before and after passivation. An improvement of drain-source current density and the extrinsic transconductance was observed on the passivated HEMTs when compared with the unpassivated HEMTs. An enhancement of cut-off frequency (ft and maximum power gain (fmax was also observed for the devices with full SiO2/SiN passivation. A good correlation is found between pulsed and power measurements.

  2. Formation of the distributed NiSiGe nanocrystals nonvolatile memory formed by rapidly annealing in N2 and O2 ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tu, Chun-Hao; Chiang, Cheng-Neng; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Min-Chen; Chang, Chun-Yen; Sze, Simon M.; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    In this work, electrical characteristics of the Ge-incorporated Nickel silicide (NiSiGe) nanocrystals memory device formed by the rapidly thermal annealing in N 2 and O 2 ambient have been studied. The trapping layer was deposited by co-sputtering the NiSi 2 and Ge, simultaneously. Transmission electron microscope results indicate that the NiSiGe nanocrystals were formed obviously in both the samples. The memory devices show obvious charge-storage ability under capacitance-voltage measurement. However, it is found that the NiSiGe nanocrystals device formed by annealing in N 2 ambient has smaller memory window and better retention characteristics than in O 2 ambient. Then, related material analyses were used to confirm that the oxidized Ge elements affect the charge-storage sites and the electrical performance of the NCs memory.

  3. The structure and properties of vacancies in Si nano-crystals calculated by real space pseudopotential methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, S.P.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and properties of vacancies in a 2 nm Si nano-crystal are studied using a real space density functional theory/pseudopotential method. It is observed that a vacancy's electronic properties and energy of formation are directly related to the local symmetry of the vacancy site. The formation energy for vacancies and Frenkel pair are calculated. It is found that both defects have lower energy in smaller crystals. In a 2 nm nano-crystal the energy to form a Frenkel pair is 1.7 eV and the energy to form a vacancy is no larger than 2.3 eV. The energy barrier for vacancy diffusion is examined via a nudged elastic band algorithm

  4. A Passive X-Band Double Balanced Mixer Utilizing Diode Connected SiGe HBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a passive double balanced mixer in SiGe HBT technology is presented. Due to lack of suitable passive mixing elements in the technology, the mixing elements are formed by diode connected HBTs. The mixer is optimized for use in doppler radars and is highly linear with 1 dB compressio...

  5. Atomic-layer deposited passivation schemes for c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Loo, B.W.H.; Macco, B.; Melskens, J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kessels, W.M.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of passivation of c-Si surfaces is presented, with a particular focus on materials that can be prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Besides Al2O3, various other novel passivation schemes have recently been developed, such as Ga2O3, Ta2O5,

  6. Structural and optical characterization of Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals elaborated by ion implantation in SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonafos, C. E-mail: bonafos@el.ub.es; Garrido, B.; Lopez, M.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Gonzalez-Varona, O.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Rodriguez, R

    1999-01-01

    Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals have been formed in SiO{sub 2} layers by ion implantation and thermal annealing. The structural analysis of the processed samples has been performed mainly by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The data show the precipitation of ZnS nanocrystals self-organized into two layers parallel to the free surface. First results of the optical analysis of samples co-implanted with Mn show the presence of a yellow-green photoluminescence depending on the Mn concentration and the size of the nanocrystals, suggesting the doping with Mn of some precipitates.

  7. Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, A; Ortiz, M I; Sangrador, J; RodrIguez, T; Avella, M; Prieto, A C; Torres, A; Jimenez, J; Kling, A; Ballesteros, C

    2007-01-01

    The luminescence emission of structures containing Ge nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric matrix obtained by dry and wet oxidation of polycrystalline SiGe layers has been studied as a function of the oxidation time and initial SiGe layer thickness. A clear relationship between the intensity of the luminescence, the structure of the sample, the formation of Ge nanocrystals and the oxidation process parameters that allows us to select the appropriate process conditions to get the most efficient emission has been established. The evolution of the composition and thickness of the growing oxides and the remaining SiGe layer during the oxidation processes has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. For dry oxidation, the luminescence appears suddenly, regardless of the initial SiGe layer thickness, when all the Si of the SiGe has been oxidized and the remaining layer of the segregated Ge starts to be oxidized forming Ge nanocrystals. Luminescence is observed as long as Ge nanocrystals are present. For wet oxidation, the luminescence appears from the first stages of the oxidation, and is related to the formation of Ge-rich nanoclusters trapped in the mixed (Si and Ge) growing oxide. A sharp increase of the luminescence intensity for long oxidation times is also observed, due to the formation of Ge nanocrystals by the oxidation of the layer of segregated Ge. For both processes the luminescence is quenched when the oxidation time is long enough to cause the full oxidation of the Ge nanocrystals. The intensity of the luminescence in the dry oxidized samples is about ten times higher than in the wet oxidized ones for equal initial thickness of the SiGe layer

  8. High luminescent fibers with hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe nanocrystals fabricated by electrospinning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yongqiang; Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping; Shi, Ruixia; Ma, Qian; Zhang, Aiyu; Zhu, Yuanna; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hybrid luminescent micro-/nanofibers doped with the novel hybrid SiO 2 -coated CdTe nanocrystals (HS-CdTe NCs) have been fabricated for the first time via the electrospinning technique. The morphologies and photoluminescence (PL) emissions of HS-CdTe/PVP micro-/nanofibers prepared by doping the HS-CdTe NCs with the different PL peak wavelength (571, 616, and 643 nm) in PVP fibers were investigated by optical and PL microscope. The results revealed that all the HS-CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers showed an ultralong length for several hundreds of micrometers and a relatively uniform diameter of 1000 ∼ 1200 nm. The hybrid fibers displayed a wavelength-tunable PL emission, determining by the PL of doped HS-CdTe NCs. Moreover, similar to the original PL properties of HS-CdTe NCs before the electrospinning, the HS-CdTe/PVP fibers also showed a series of superior PL properties, such as narrow and symmetry PL spectrum, high, and uniform brightness. For comparison purpose, we also prepared three CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers by doping the 553 nm, 600 nm, and 633 nm PL-emitting CdTe NCs respectively in PVP electrospinning fibers. The characterization results showed that, the obtained three CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers had a basically satisfactory micro-/nanofiber morphology with a long length and relatively uniform diameter, but all the fibers exhibited very weak PL emissions. The enormous contrast in PL properties between HS-CdTe/PVP and CdTe/PVP fibers should mainly be ascribed to the different connection modes of ligands with the NCs and the passivation effect of inert hybrid silica shell on HS-CdTe. It is hopeful that the high luminescent HS-CdTe/PVP micro-/nanofibers with the tunable PL peak wavelength would be a good candidate in the optical sensor, light-emitting devices (LEDs), nanometer-scale waveguides, and the other related photonic materials. - Highlights: • The HS-CdTe/PVP electrospun hybrid fibers were fabricated for the first time. • The

  9. Dielectric passivation schemes for high efficiency n-type c-si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saynova, D.S.; Romijn, I.G.; Cesar, I.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Gutjahr, A. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dingemans, G. [ASM, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Knoops, H.C.M.; Van de Loo, B.W.H.; Kessels, W.M.M. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Appl. Physics, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Siarheyeva, O.; Granneman, E. [Levitech BV, Versterkerstraat 10, 1322AP Almere (Netherlands); Venema, P.R.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G. [Tempress Systems BV, Radeweg 31, 8171 Vaassen (Netherlands); Gautero, L.; Borsa, D.M.

    2013-10-15

    We investigate the impact of different dielectric layers and stacks on the passivation properties of boron doped p{sup ++}-emitters and phosphorous doped n{sup +}-BSFs which are relevant for competitive n-type cell conversion efficiencies. The applied passivation schemes are associated with specific properties at c-Si/dielectric interface and functional mechanisms. In this way we aim to gain a deeper understanding of the passivation mechanism of the differently doped fields within the n-type cells and identify options to further improve the efficiency. The deposition technologies in our study comprise industrial PECVD systems and/or ALD both in industrial and lab scale configurations. In case of p{sup ++}-emitters the best results were achieved by combining field effect and chemical passivation using stacks of low temperature wet chemical oxide and thin ALD-AlOx capped with PECVD-SiNx. The corresponding Implied Voc values were of about (673{+-}2) mV and J{sub 0} of (68{+-}2) fA/cm{sup 2}. For the n{sup +}-BSF passivation the passivation scheme based on SiOx with or without additional AlOx film deposited by a lab scale temporal ALD processes and capped with PECVD-SiNx layer yielded a comparable Implied Voc of (673{+-}2) mV, but then corresponding to J{sub 0} value of (80{+-}15) fA/cm{sup 2}. This passivation scheme is mainly based on the chemical passivation and was also suitable for p{sup ++} surface. This means that we have demonstrated that for n-Pasha cells both the emitter and BSF can be passivated with the same type of passivation that should lead to > 20% cell efficiency. This offers the possibility for transfer this passivation scheme to advanced cell architectures, such as IBC.

  10. Radicals and ions controlling by adjusting the antenna-substrate distance in a-Si:H deposition using a planar ICP for c-Si surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.P., E-mail: haipzhou@uestc.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2006 Xiyuan Ave., West High-Tech Zone, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611731 (China); Plasma Sources and Application Center, NIE, and Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 (Singapore); Xu, S., E-mail: shuyan.xu@nie.edu.sg [Plasma Sources and Application Center, NIE, and Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 (Singapore); Xu, M. [Key Laboratory of Information Materials of Sichuan Province & School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Xu, L.X.; Wei, D.Y. [Plasma Sources and Application Center, NIE, and Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 (Singapore); Xiang, Y. [School of Energy Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2006 Xiyuan Ave., West High-Tech Zone, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611731 (China); Xiao, S.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Process Control for Light Industry (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A planar ICP was used to grow a-Si:H films for c-Si surface passivation. • The direct- and remote-plasma was compared for high-quality c-Si surface passivation. • The remote ICP with controlled plasma species and ion bombardments is preferable for the surface passivation of c-Si. - Abstract: Being a key issue in the research and fabrication of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation is theoretically and technologically intricate due to its complicate dependence on plasma characteristics, material properties, and plasma-material interactions. Here amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) grown by a planar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor working under different antenna-substrate distances of d was used for the surface passivation of low-resistivity p-type c-Si. It is found that the microstructures (i.e., the crystallinity, Si-H bonding configuration etc.) and passivation function on c-Si of the deposited a-Si:H were profoundly influenced by the parameter of d, which primarily determines the types of growing precursors of SiH{sub n}/H contributing to the film growth and the interaction between the plasma and growing surface. c-Si surface passivation is analyzed in terms of the d-dependent a-Si:H properties and plasma characteristics. The controlling of radical types and ion bombardment on the growing surface through adjusting parameter d is emphasized.

  11. Encapsulated Silicon Nanocrystals Formed in Silica by Ion Beam Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Han Woo; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon; Kim, Gi Dong; Hong, Wan; Ji, Young Yong

    2004-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) emission of Si nanocrystals synthesized by 400 keV Si ion implanted in SiO 2 is studied as a function of ion dose and annealing time. The formation of nanocrystals at around 600 nm from the surface was confirmed by RBS and HRTEM, and the Si nanocrystals showed a wide and very intense PL emission at 700-900 nm. The intensity of this emission showed a typical behaviour with a fast transitory increase to reach a saturation with the annealing time, however, the red shift increased continuously because of the Ostwald ripening. The oversaturation of dose derived a decrease of PL intensity because of the diminishment of quantum confinement. A strong enhancement of PL intensity by H passivation was confirmed also, and the possible mechanism is discussed

  12. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi- insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2002-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction dep...

  13. Effect of SiO2 passivation overlayers on hillock formation in Al thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deok-kee

    2012-01-01

    Hillock formation in Al thin films with varying thicknesses of SiO 2 as a passivation layer was investigated during thermal cycling. Based on the stress measurements and the number of hillocks, 250 nm thick SiO 2 was thick enough to suppress the hillock formation and the suppression of hillock at 250 nm passivation and the lack of suppression at thinner passivation is related to the presence/absence of protection against the diffusive flow of atoms from the surrounding area to the surface due to the biaxial compressive stresses present in the film through the weak spots in the passivation layer. The stress state of Al films measured during annealing (the driving force for hillock formation) did not vary much with SiO 2 thickness. A small number of hillocks formed during the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 overlayers at 300 °C. - Highlights: ► We examined the effect of SiO 2 overlayers on hillock formation in Al thin films. ► Thin overlayers were not effective in suppressing diffusive flow to the surface. ► A thick overlayer suppressed the diffusive flow from the interior to the surface. ► The stress state of Al films did not vary much with SiO 2 passivation thickness. ► High mechanical strength provided a large driving force for the large grain growth.

  14. Growth Mechanism and Surface Structure of Ge Nanocrystals Prepared by Thermal Annealing of Cosputtered GeSiO Ternary Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs embedded in a SiO2 superlattice structure were prepared by magnetron cosputtering and postdeposition annealing. The formation of spherical nanocrystals was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and their growth process was studied by a combination of spectroscopic techniques. The crystallinity volume fraction of Ge component was found to increase with crystallite size, but its overall low values indicated a coexistence of crystalline and noncrystalline phases. A reduction of Ge-O species was observed in the superlattice during thermal annealing, accompanied by a transition from oxygen-deficient silicon oxide to silicon dioxide. A growth mechanism involving phase separation of Ge suboxides (GeOx was then proposed to explain these findings and supplement the existing growth models for Ge-ncs in SiO2 films. Further analysis of the bonding structure of Ge atoms suggested that Ge-ncs are likely to have a core-shell structure with an amorphous-like surface layer, which is composed of GeSiO ternary complex. The surface layer thickness was extracted to be a few angstroms and equivalent to several atomic layer thicknesses.

  15. Co-Au core-shell nanocrystals formed by sequential ion implantation into SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, P.; Hoy, B.; Johannessen, B.; Dunn, S. G.; Foran, G. J.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Co-Au core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were formed by sequential ion implantation of Au and Co into thin SiO 2 . The NCs were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The latter reveals a bond length expansion in the Co core compared to monatomic Co NCs. Concomitantly, a significant contraction of the bond length and a significant reduction of the effective Au-Au coordination number were observed in the Au shells. Increased Debye-Waller factors indicate significant strain in the NCs. These experimental results verify recent theoretical predictions

  16. First-principle study on optical properties of spherical and cylindrical hydrogen-passivated Si nanoparticles with different sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yinglong; Chen, Chao; Wu, Zhuanhua; Liang, Weihua; Wang, Xiuli; Ding, Xuecheng; Chu, Lizhi; Deng, Zechao; Chen, Jinzhong; Fu, Guangsheng

    To investigate the size dependence of the optical properties of the hydrogen-passivated Si nanoparticles (Hp-SiNPs), the energy bands and optical dielectric functions for two types of nanostructures, that is, the spherical Hp-SiNPs (SHp-SiNPs) with various diameters and the cylindrical Hp-SiNPs

  17. Bidentate Ligand-passivated CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals for Stable Near-unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield and Efficient Red Light-emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2017-12-17

    Although halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for optoelectronic devices, they suffer severely from chemical and phase instabilities. Moreover, the common capping ligands like oleic acid and oleylamine that encapsulate the NCs will form an insulating layer, precluding their utility in optoelectronic devices. To overcome these limitations, we develop a post-synthesis passivation process for CsPbI3 NCs by using a bidentate ligand, namely 2,2’-Iminodibenzoic acid. Our passivated NCs exhibit narrow red photoluminescence with exceptional quantum yield (close to unity) and substantially improved stability. The passivated NCs enabled us to realize red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with 5.02% external quantum efficiency and 748 cd/m2 luminance, surpassing by far LEDs made from the non-passivated NCs.

  18. Bidentate Ligand-passivated CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals for Stable Near-unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield and Efficient Red Light-emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Shang, Yuequn; Yin, Jun; de Bastiani, Michele; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Sinatra, Lutfan; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Ning, Zhijun; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Although halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising materials for optoelectronic devices, they suffer severely from chemical and phase instabilities. Moreover, the common capping ligands like oleic acid and oleylamine that encapsulate the NCs will form an insulating layer, precluding their utility in optoelectronic devices. To overcome these limitations, we develop a post-synthesis passivation process for CsPbI3 NCs by using a bidentate ligand, namely 2,2’-Iminodibenzoic acid. Our passivated NCs exhibit narrow red photoluminescence with exceptional quantum yield (close to unity) and substantially improved stability. The passivated NCs enabled us to realize red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with 5.02% external quantum efficiency and 748 cd/m2 luminance, surpassing by far LEDs made from the non-passivated NCs.

  19. The role of ion exchange in the passivation of In(Zn)P nanocrystals with ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Deok-Yong; Xi, Lifei; Boothroyd, Chris; Kardynal, Beata; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the chemical state of In(Zn)P/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) for color conversion applications using hard X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE). Analyses of the edge energies as well as the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) reveal that the Zn2+ ions from ZnS remain in the shell while the S2- ions penetrate into the core at an early stage of the ZnS deposition. It is further demonstrated that for short growth times, the ZnS shell coverage on the core was incomplete, whereas the coverage improved gradually as the shell deposition time increased. Together with evidence from PLE spectra, where there is a strong indication of the presence of P vacancies, this suggests that the core-shell interface in the In(Zn)P/ZnS NCs are subject to substantial atomic exchanges and detailed models for the shell structure beyond simple layer coverage are needed. This substantial atomic exchange is very likely to be the reason for the improved photoluminescence behavior of the core-shell particles compare to In(Zn)P-only NCs as S can passivate the NCs surfaces.

  20. Annealing temperature and environment effects on ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: a photoluminescence and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Kantisara; Baudin, Pierre; Vu, Quang Vinh; Aad, Roy; Couteau, Christophe; Lérondel, Gilles

    2013-12-06

    We report on efficient ZnO nanocrystal (ZnO-NC) emission in the near-UV region. We show that luminescence from ZnO nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix can vary significantly as a function of the annealing temperature from 450°C to 700°C. We manage to correlate the emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films with transmission electron microscopy images in order to optimize the fabrication process. Emission can be explained using two main contributions, near-band-edge emission (UV range) and defect-related emissions (visible). Both contributions over 500°C are found to be size dependent in intensity due to a decrease of the absorption cross section. For the smallest-size nanocrystals, UV emission can only be accounted for using a blueshifted UV contribution as compared to the ZnO band gap. In order to further optimize the emission properties, we have studied different annealing atmospheres under oxygen and under argon gas. We conclude that a softer annealing temperature at 450°C but with longer annealing time under oxygen is the most preferable scenario in order to improve near-UV emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in an SiO2 matrix.

  1. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-03-30

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers.

  2. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of ultrathin Si solar cells via semiconductor nanocrystal sensitization: energy transfer vs. optical coupling effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Son; Ashraf, Ahsan; Eisaman, Matthew D; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Nam, Chang-Yong

    2016-03-21

    Excitonic energy transfer (ET) offers exciting opportunities for advances in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. While recent experimental attempts have demonstrated its potential in both organic and inorganic photovoltaics (PVs), what remains to be addressed is quantitative understanding of how different ET modes contribute to PV performance and how ET contribution is differentiated from the classical optical coupling (OC) effects. In this study, we implement an ET scheme using a PV device platform, comprising CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal energy donor and 500 nm-thick ultrathin Si acceptor layers, and present the quantitative mechanistic description of how different ET modes, distinguished from the OC effects, increase the light absorption and PV efficiency. We find that nanocrystal sensitization enhances the short circuit current of ultrathin Si solar cells by up to 35%, of which the efficient ET, primarily driven by a long-range radiative mode, contributes to 38% of the total current enhancement. These results not only confirm the positive impact of ET but also provide a guideline for rationally combining the ET and OC effects for improved light harvesting in PV and other optoelectronic devices.

  3. Nanocrystal in Er3+-doped SiO2-ZrO2 Planar Waveguide with Yb3+ Sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaki, N. Iznie; Jais, U. Sarah; Abd-Rahman, M. Kamil; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Chiasera, A.; Ferrari, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher doping of Er 3+ in glass ceramic waveguides would cause concentration and pair-induced quenching which lead to inhomogeneous line-width of luminescence spectrum thus reduce output intensity. Concentration quenching can be overcome by introducing ZrO 2 in the glass matrix while co-doping with Yb 3+ which acts as sensitizer would improve the excitation efficiency of Er 3+ . In this study, SiO 2 -ZrO 2 planar waveguides having composition in mol percent of 70SiO 2 -30ZrO 2 doped with Er 3+ and co-doped with Yb 3+ , were prepared via sol-gel route. Narrower and shaper peaks of PL and XRD shows the formation of nanocrystals. Intensity is increase with addition amount of Yb 3+ shows sensitizing effect on Er 3+ .

  4. Enhanced interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with lanthanum silicate passivation interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Xinhong; Zheng, Li; Ye, Peiyi; Li, Menglu; Shen, Lingyan; Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue; Yu, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with an untra-thin LaSiO_x passivation layer and Al_2O_3 gate dielectric was fabricated. • The detrimental SiO_x interfacial layer could be effectively restrained by the LaSiO_x passivation layer. • The passivation mechanism of LaSiO_x was analyzed by HRTEM, XPS and electrical measurements. • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with a LaSiO_x passivation layer shows excellent device characteristics. • This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications. - Abstract: The detrimental sub-oxide (SiO_x) interfacial layer formed during the 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor fabrication will drastically damage its device performance. In this work, an ultrathin lanthanum silicate (LaSiO_x) passivation layer was introduced to enhance the interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with Al_2O_3 gate dielectric. The interfacial LaSiO_x formation was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with ultrathin LaSiO_x passivation interlayer shows excellent interfacial and electrical characteristics, including lower leakage current density, higher dielectric breakdown electric field, smaller C–V hysteresis, and lower interface states density and border traps density. The involved mechanism implies that the LaSiO_x passivation interlayer can effectively restrain SiO_x formation and improve the Al_2O_3/4H-SiC interface quality. This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications.

  5. Memory characteristics and tunneling mechanism of Ag nanocrystal embedded HfAlOx films on Si83Ge17/Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.Y.; Zhou, G.D.; Li, J.; Chen, Y.; Wang, X.H.; Dai, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    A nano-floating gate memory capacitor consisting of a stack of 3 nm-thick HfAlO x tunneling layer, self-organized Ag nanocrystals (NCs), and a 6 nm-thick HfAlO x control layer, has been fabricated on compressively strained p-type Si 83 Ge 17 /Si(100) substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The Ag-NCs with a size of 5–8 nm and a density of 5.7 × 10 12 /cm 2 are well dispersed in the amorphous HfAlO x matrix. Counterclockwise hysteresis capacitance–voltage curve with a memory window of ∼ 2 V, corresponding to a charge storage density of about 1.3 × 10 13 electrons/cm 2 , is observed in this memory capacitor. The accumulation capacitance of this memory capacitor has no obvious decrease during electrical stressing process within a period of 10 4 s, but the memory window gradually becomes narrower, and only 54% stored charges are retained in the Ag-NCs after 10 5 s stressing. Defect-enhanced Poole–Frenkel tunneling is found to be responsible for the degradation of memory properties. - Highlights: • Dispersed Ag nanocrystals act as memory nodes. • Realize a 2 V memory window • Illustrate the memory degradation process • Identify a defect-enhanced tunneling mechanism

  6. Passivating ligand and solvent contribution to the electronics properties of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crotty, Angela [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fischer, Sean [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kilina, Svetlana [NON LANL

    2010-10-04

    Expanding on previous work, we examine in detail the impact passivating ligands have on the electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We also explore the importance of the inclusion of solvent in simulating passivated QDs. Most ligand states are found well removed from the band edges, with pyridine being the exception and contributing states that sit right on the conduction band edge. Localized trap states are found for trimethylphosphine and pyridine capped QDs, with solvent helping to eliminate these. The effect of losing a ligand on the electronic properties of the system is observed to vary in proportion with the binding energy and steric bulk of the ligand. More disruption of the electronic properties is seen for tight-binding, sterically large ligands. We also look at the validity of using the single-particle Kohn-Sham (KS) representation to approximate optical absorption spectra. Besides a systematic blue-shift relative to the time-dependent density functional theory spectra, the KS spectra are in very good agreement with the more accurate method for these systems. Such agreement here justifies the use of the KS approach for calculating absorption spectra of QD systems.

  7. Nitridation of SiO2 for surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. K. C.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to relate the electrical properties of silicon dioxide film to the process history. A model is proposed to explain some of the observed results. It is shown that with our present knowledge of the dielectric, silicon dioxide film shows a lot of promise for its use in surface passivation, both for its resistance to impurity diffusion and for its resistance to radiation damage effects.

  8. Influence of a-Si:H deposition power on surface passivation property and thermal stability of a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H layers for passivating crystalline silicon surfaces has been well documented in the literature for well over a decade. One limitation of such layers however has arisen from their inability to withstand temperatures much above their deposition temperature without significant degradation. This limitation is of importance particularly with multicrystalline silicon materials where temperatures of at least 400°C are needed for effective hydrogenation of the crystallographic defects such as grain boundaries. To address this limitation, in this work the surface passivation quality and thermal stability of a stack passivating system, combining a layer of intrinsic a-Si:H and a capping layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H, on p-type crystalline silicon wafers is studied and optimized. In particular the sensitivity of different microwave (MW power levels for underlying a-Si:H layer deposition are examined. Both effective minority carrier lifetime (ζeff measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry were employed to study the bonding configurations, passivating quality and thermal stability of the a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks. It is established that the higher MW power could result in increased as-deposited ζeff and implied Voc (iVoc values, indicating likely improved surface passivation quality, but that this combination degrades more quickly when exposed to prolonged thermal treatments. The more dihydride-rich film composition corresponding to the higher MW power appears to be beneficial for bond restructuring by hydrogen interchanges when exposed to short term annealing, however it also appears more susceptible to providing channels for hydrogen out-effusion which is the likely cause of the poorer thermal stability for prolonged high temperature exposure compared with stacks with underlying a-Si:H deposited with lower MW power.

  9. Physical and electrical characteristics of Si/SiC quantum dot superlattice solar cells with passivation layer of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chia; Li, Yiming; Samukawa, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we numerically simulate the silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) quantum dot superlattice solar cell (SiC-QDSL) with aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 -QDSL) passivation. By exploiting the passivation layer of Al 2 O 3 , the high photocurrent and the conversion efficiency can be achieved without losing the effective bandgap. Based on the two-photon transition mechanism in an AM1.5 and a one sun illumination, the simulated short-circuit current (J sc ) of 4.77 mA cm -2 is very close to the experimentally measured 4.75 mA cm -2 , which is higher than those of conventional SiC-QDSLs. Moreover, the efficiency fluctuation caused by the structural variation is less sensitive by using the passivation layer. A high conversion efficiency of 17.4% is thus estimated by adopting the QD's geometry used in the experiment; and, it can be further boosted by applying a hexagonal QD formation with an inter-dot spacing of 0.3 nm.

  10. Physical and electrical characteristics of Si/SiC quantum dot superlattice solar cells with passivation layer of aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chia; Li, Yiming; Samukawa, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we numerically simulate the silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) quantum dot superlattice solar cell (SiC-QDSL) with aluminum oxide (Al2O3-QDSL) passivation. By exploiting the passivation layer of Al2O3, the high photocurrent and the conversion efficiency can be achieved without losing the effective bandgap. Based on the two-photon transition mechanism in an AM1.5 and a one sun illumination, the simulated short-circuit current (J sc) of 4.77 mA cm-2 is very close to the experimentally measured 4.75 mA cm-2, which is higher than those of conventional SiC-QDSLs. Moreover, the efficiency fluctuation caused by the structural variation is less sensitive by using the passivation layer. A high conversion efficiency of 17.4% is thus estimated by adopting the QD’s geometry used in the experiment; and, it can be further boosted by applying a hexagonal QD formation with an inter-dot spacing of 0.3 nm.

  11. SiN sub x passivation of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to perform surface characterization of high efficiency n+/p and p+/n silicon cells, to relate surface density to substrate dopant concentration, and to identify dominant current loss mechanisms in high efficiency cells. The approach was to measure density of states on homogeneously doped substrates with high frequency C-V and Al/SiN sub x/Si structures; to investigate density of states and photoresponse of high efficiency N+/P and P+/N cells; and to conduct I-V-T studies to identify current loss nechanisms in high efficiency cells. Results are given in tables and graphs.

  12. Passivation of defect states in Si and Si/SiO2 interface states by cyanide treatment: improvement of characteristics of pin-junction amorphous Si and crystalline Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Fujinaga, T.; Niinobe, D.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Defect states in Si can be passivated by cyanide treatment which simply involves immersion of Si materials in KCN solutions, followed by rinse. When the cyanide treatment is applied to pin-junction amorphous Si [a-Si] solar cells, the initial conversion efficiency increases. When the crown-ether cyanide treatment using a KCN solution of xylene containing 18-crown-6 is performed on i-a-Si films, decreases in the photo- and dark current densities with the irradiation time are prevented. The cyanide treatment can also passivate interface states present at Si/SiO 2 interfaces, leading to an increase in the conversion efficiency of 2 / Si (100)> solar cells.. Si-CN bonds formed by the reaction of defect states with cyanide ions have a high bond energy of about 4.5 eV and hence heat treatment at 800 0 C does not rupture the bonds, making thermal stability of the cyanide treatment.. When the cyanide treatment is applied to ultrathin SiO 2 /Si structure, the leakage current density is markedly decreased (Authors)

  13. A room-temperature-operated Si LED with β-FeSi2 nanocrystals in the active layer: μW emission power at 1.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlyagin, A. V.; Goroshko, D. L.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Balagan, S. A.; Dotsenko, S. A.; Galkin, K. N.; Galkin, N. G.; Shamirzaev, T. S.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Latyshev, A. V.; Iinuma, M.; Terai, Y.

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the development of an Si-based light-emitting diode with β-FeSi2 nanocrystals embedded in the active layer. Favorable epitaxial conditions allow us to obtain a direct band gap type-I band alignment Si/β-FeSi2 nanocrystals/Si heterostructure with optical transition at a wavelength range of 1500-1550 nm at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy data reveal strained, defect-free β-FeSi2 nanocrystals of diameter 6 and 25 nm embedded in the Si matrix. Intense electroluminescence was observed at a pumping current density as low as 0.7 A/cm2. The device reached an optical emission power of up to 25 μW at 9 A/cm2 with an external quantum efficiency of 0.009%. Watt-Ampere characteristic linearity suggests that the optical power margin of the light-emitting diode has not been exhausted. Band structure calculations explain the luminescence as being mainly due to radiative recombination in the large β-FeSi2 nanocrystals resulting from the realization of an indirect-to-direct band gap electronic configuration transformation arising from a favorable deformation of nanocrystals. The direct band gap structure and the measured short decay time of the luminescence of several tens of ns give rise to a fast operation speed for the device. Thus a method for developing a silicon-based photonic integrated circuit, combining complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology functionality and near-infrared light emission, is reported here.

  14. Pulsed ion-beam assisted deposition of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2 for non-volatile memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, N.P.; Dvurechenskii, A.V.; Armbrister, V.A.; Kirienko, V.V.; Novikov, P.L.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovskii, A.K.; Smagina, Z.V.; Spesivtzev, E.V.

    2008-01-01

    A floating gate memory structure, utilizing Ge nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on tunnel SiO 2 , have been fabricated using pulsed low energy ion-beam induced molecular-beam deposition (MBD) in ultra-high vacuum. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge NCs when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Growth conditions for independent change of NCs size and array density were established allowing to optimize the structure parameters required for memory device. Activation energy E = 0.25 eV was determined from the temperature dependence of NCs array density. Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the process, determining NCs array density, is the surface diffusion. Embedding of the crystalline Ge dots into silicon oxide was carried out by selective oxidation of Si(100)/SiO 2 /Ge(NCs)/poly-Si structure. MOS-capacitor obtained after oxidation showed a hysteresis in its C-V curves attributed to charge retention in the Ge dots

  15. Passivation of surface-nanostructured f-SiC and porous SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu

    The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper.......The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper....

  16. Modification of cellulose nanocrystal via SI-ATRP of styrene and the mechanism of its reinforcement of polymethylmethacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Tian, X; Jiang, X; Wang, H; Gao, W

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is a promising strengthener but is used limitedly since its poor compatibility with organic materials. The graft polymerization of styrene via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of cellulose nanocrystal is adopted to modify its thermo-stability and compatibility. The modified crystals have been dosed into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites by the solution casting. The polymeric layer on the surface of CNCs should improve the thermal stability of CNCs, and provide significant dispersibility and compatibilization for the nanocomposites. Thermogravimetry analysis proved that the initial degrade temperature of CNC was increased 50 °C with the modification. The scanning electronic microscope showed that the modified CNCs homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. Breaking strength and elongation at break of the composites were improved, which was attributed to the reinforcement of CNCs modified with styrene. Transmittance of nanocomposite films measurement showed that the transmittance of PMMA/1%CNC was almost close to that of pure PMMA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Passivation of Si(111) surfaces with electrochemically grafted thin organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodenko, K.; Yang, F.; Hunger, R.; Esser, N.; Hinrichs, K.; Rappich, J.

    2010-09-01

    Ultra thin organic films (about 5 nm thick) of nitrobenzene and 4-methoxydiphenylamine were deposited electrochemically on p-Si(111) surfaces from benzene diazonium compounds. Studies based on atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that upon exposure to atmospheric conditions the oxidation of the silicon interface proceed slower on organically modified surfaces than on unmodified hydrogen passivated p-Si(111) surfaces. Effects of HF treatment on the oxidized organic/Si interface and on the organic layer itself are discussed.

  18. Surface passivation at low temperature of p- and n-type silicon wafers using a double layer a-Si:H/SiNx:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focsa, A.; Slaoui, A.; Charifi, H.; Stoquert, J.P.; Roques, S.

    2009-01-01

    Surface passivation of bare silicon or emitter region is of great importance towards high efficiency solar cells. Nowadays, this is usually accomplished by depositing an hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) layer on n + p structures that serves also as an excellent antireflection layer. On the other hand, surface passivation of p-type silicon is better assured by an hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer but suffers from optical properties. In this paper, we reported the surface passivation of p-type and n-type silicon wafers by using an a-Si:H/SiNx:H double layer formed at low temperature (50-400 deg. C) with ECR-PECVD technique. We first investigated the optical properties (refraction index, reflectance, and absorbance) and structural properties by FTIR (bonds Si-H, N-H) of the deposited films. The hydrogen content in the layers was determined by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The passivation effect was monitored by measuring the minority carrier effective lifetime vs. different parameters such as deposition temperature and amorphous silicon layer thickness. We have found that a 10-15 nm a-Si film with an 86 nm thick SiN layer provides an optimum of the minority carriers' lifetime. It increases from an initial value of about 50-70 μs for a-Si:H to about 760 and 800 μs for a-Si:H/SiNx:H on Cz-pSi and FZ-nSi, respectively, at an injection level 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . The effective surface recombination velocity, S eff , for passivated double layer on n-type FZ Si reached 11 cm/s and for FZ-pSi-14 cm/s, and for Cz-pSi-16-20 cm/s. Effect of hydrogen in the passivation process is discussed.

  19. Enhanced stability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors with SiO₂ passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bensong; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Junying; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong

    2015-10-30

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has attracted much attention due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential applic5ations in optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability under ambient conditions limits its practical applications. Our investigations indicate that by passivation of the mechanically exfoliated BP flakes with a SiO2 layer, the fabricated BP field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit greatly enhanced environmental stability. Compared to the unpassivated BP devices, which show a fast drop of on/off current ratio by a factor of 10 after one week of ambient exposure, the SiO2-passivated BP devices display a high retained on/off current ratio of over 600 after one week of exposure, just a little lower than the initial value of 810. Our investigations provide an effective route to passivate the few-layer BPs for enhancement of their environmental stability.

  20. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Ran [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Reinhard, Björn M. [Department of Chemistry and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Physics, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  1. Designing new biocompatible glass-forming Ti75-x Zr10 Nbx Si15 (x = 0, 15) alloys: corrosion, passivity, and apatite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Somayeh; Oswald, Steffen; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Helth, Arne; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Calin, Mariana; Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Gebert, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single β-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and β-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr  alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass  = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the β-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2014-01-01

    passive decay heat removal. A heat pipe was coated with SiC nanoparticles to enhance its heat removal capacity. The following results were obtained: 1. The evaporation thermal resistance of a SiC-coated heat pipe is reduced compared to that of an uncoated heat pipe because the SiC coating layer on the wick structure provides more nucleation sites. 2. The condensation thermal resistance of a SiC-coated heat pipe is increased compared to that of an uncoated heat pipe because SiC deposition results in film-wise condensation. 3. The SiC coating layer on the wick structure was observed using SEM images. The images support the reasons for the enhanced heat transfer of the SiC-coated heat pipe

  3. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    passive decay heat removal. A heat pipe was coated with SiC nanoparticles to enhance its heat removal capacity. The following results were obtained: 1. The evaporation thermal resistance of a SiC-coated heat pipe is reduced compared to that of an uncoated heat pipe because the SiC coating layer on the wick structure provides more nucleation sites. 2. The condensation thermal resistance of a SiC-coated heat pipe is increased compared to that of an uncoated heat pipe because SiC deposition results in film-wise condensation. 3. The SiC coating layer on the wick structure was observed using SEM images. The images support the reasons for the enhanced heat transfer of the SiC-coated heat pipe.

  4. Growth of Si nanocrystals on alumina and integration in memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, T.; Fernandes, A.; Damlencourt, J. F.; De Salvo, B.; Martin, F.; Mazen, F.; Haukka, S.

    2003-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the growth of Si quantum dots (Si QDs) by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on alumina dielectric deposited by atomic layer deposition. The Si QDs density is very high, 1012 cm-2, for a mean diameter between 5 and 10 nm. Al2O3/Si QD stacks have been integrated in memory devices as granular floating gate. The devices demonstrate good charge storage and data retention characteristics.

  5. Correlating the silicon surface passivation to the nanostructure of low-temperature a-Si:H after rapid thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; Melskens, J.; Podraza, N.J.; Arts, K.; Pugh, C.; Thomas, O.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Using an inductively coupled plasma, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been prepared at very low temperatures (<50 °C) to provide crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Despite the limited nanostructural quality of the a-Si:H bulk, a surprisingly high minority carrier

  6. Surface passivation by Al2O3 and a-SiNx: H films deposited on wet-chemically conditioned Si surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordihn, S.; Mertens, V.; Engelhart, P.; Kersten, K.; Mandoc, M.M.; Müller, J.W.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The surface passivation of p- and n-type silicon by different chemically grown SiO2 films (prepared by HNO3, H2SO4/H2O2 and HCl/H2O2 treatments) was investigated after PECVD of a-SiNx:H and ALD of Al2O3 capping films. The wet chemically grown SiO2 films were compared to thermally grown SiO2 and the

  7. Offset-gated poly-Si TFTs using in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer laser doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Cheon Hong; Yoo, Juhn Suk; Han, Min Koo

    2000-01-01

    A new low-temperature poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) fabrication method employing in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer-laser doping is proposed to fabricate offset-gated poly-Si TFTs. In the new process, the crystallization, the in-situ fluorine passivation of the active layer, and the doping of the source/drain region are performed simultaneously with only one step of excimer laser annealing while the conventional fabrication method requires two laser annealing steps. Employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films as a diffusion source, we successfully accomplished excimer laser doping. The subthreshold and the on-state characteristics of the device with in-situ fluorine passivation were considerably improved. This improvement was due to the fluorine passivation effects, which cured dangling bonds and strained bonds in the poly-Si channel, the offset region, and the SiO 2 /poly-Si interface

  8. Offset-gated poly-Si TFTs using in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer laser doping

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Yoo, J S; Han, M K

    2000-01-01

    A new low-temperature poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) fabrication method employing in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer-laser doping is proposed to fabricate offset-gated poly-Si TFTs. In the new process, the crystallization, the in-situ fluorine passivation of the active layer, and the doping of the source/drain region are performed simultaneously with only one step of excimer laser annealing while the conventional fabrication method requires two laser annealing steps. Employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films as a diffusion source, we successfully accomplished excimer laser doping. The subthreshold and the on-state characteristics of the device with in-situ fluorine passivation were considerably improved. This improvement was due to the fluorine passivation effects, which cured dangling bonds and strained bonds in the poly-Si channel, the offset region, and the SiO sub 2 /poly-Si interface.

  9. Nanoindentation Analysis of Elastic/Mechanical Behaviour of Surface of Transparent Glass Ceramics with Fresnoite Ba2TiSi2O8 Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, K; Honma, T; Komatsu, T

    2011-01-01

    Transparent glass-ceramics containing Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 (BTS) nanocrystals with sizes of ∼200 nm were obtained by heat treatment of 40BaO-20TiO 2 -40SiO 2 glass. Their elastic/mechanical properties were evaluated using the cube-resonance method and the Berkovich nanoindentation technique under standard and 'continuous stiffness measurement' (CSM) modes, and the relation between these properties and the volume fraction (f) of BTS nanocrystals was clarified. The glass-ceramics were obtained by 1-h heat treatments at 760-790 deg. C of the precursor glass, resulting in the formation of BTS nanocrystals with f=2.7-54.5%, with a corresponding Young's modulus of 84-107 GPa. The CSM nanoindentation measurements gave an indentation modulus of 90 GPa for the glass and 110 GPa for the glass-ceramic heat-treated at 790 deg. C, for indentation depths of 200-1500 nm. The results suggest that the BTS nanocrystals confer a high resistance to deformation during indenter loading.

  10. Effective Passivation and Tunneling Hybrid a-SiOx(In) Layer in ITO/n-Si Heterojunction Photovoltaic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Li, Yong; Han, Baichao; Song, Wenlei; Xu, Fei; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Zhongquan

    2017-05-24

    In this article, using controllable magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) materials on single crystal silicon at 100 °C, the optoelectronic heterojunction frame of ITO/a-SiO x (In)/n-Si is simply fabricated for the purpose of realizing passivation contact and hole tunneling. It is found that the gradation profile of indium (In) element together with silicon oxide (SiO x /In) within the ultrathin boundary zone between ITO and n-Si occurs and is characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with the ion milling technique. The atomistic morphology and physical phase of the interfacial layer has been observed with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. X-ray diffraction, Hall effect measurement, and optical transmittance with Tauc plot have been applied to the microstructure and property analyses of ITO thin films, respectively. The polycrystalline and amorphous phases have been verified for ITO films and SiO x (In) hybrid layer, respectively. For the quantum transport, both direct and defect-assisted tunneling of photogenerated holes through the a-SiO x (In) layer is confirmed. Besides, there is a gap state correlative to the indium composition and located at E v + 4.60 eV in the ternary hybrid a-SiO x (In) layer that is predicted by density functional theory of first-principles calculation, which acts as an "extended delocalized state" for direct tunneling of the photogenerated holes. The reasonable built-in potential (V bi = 0.66 V) and optimally controlled ternary hybrid a-SiO x (In) layer (about 1.4 nm) result in that the device exhibits excellent PV performance, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.540 V, a short-circuit current density of 30.5 mA/cm 2 , a high fill factor of 74.2%, and a conversion efficiency of 12.2%, under the AM 1.5 illumination. The work function difference between ITO (5.06 eV) and n-Si (4.31 eV) is determined by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and ascribed to the essence of the built-in-field of the PV device

  11. Wireless passive polymer-derived SiCN ceramic sensor with integrated resonator/antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yu, Yuxi; San, Haisheng; Wang, Yansong; An, Linan

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic sensor based on cavity radio frequency resonator together with integrated slot antenna. The effect of the cavity sensor dimensions on the Q-factor and resonant frequency is investigated by numerical simulation. A sensor with optimal dimensions is designed and fabricated. It is demonstrated that the sensor signal can be wirelessly detected at distances up to 20 mm. Given the high-temperature stability of the SiCN, the sensor is very promising for high-temperature wireless sensing applications.

  12. Design and application of ion-implanted polySi passivating contacts for interdigitated back contact c-Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangtao; Ingenito, Andrea; Hameren, Nienke van; Isabella, Olindo; Zeman, Miro

    2016-01-01

    Ion-implanted passivating contacts based on poly-crystalline silicon (polySi) are enabled by tunneling oxide, optimized, and used to fabricate interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells. Both n-type (phosphorous doped) and p-type (boron doped) passivating contacts are fabricated by ion-implantation of intrinsic polySi layers deposited via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and subsequently annealed. The impact of doping profile on the passivation quality of the polySi doped contacts is studied for both polarities. It was found that an excellent surface passivation could be obtained by confining as much as possible the implanted-and-activated dopants within the polySi layers. The doping profile in the polySi was controlled by modifying the polySi thickness, the energy and dose of ion-implantation, and the temperature and time of annealing. An implied open-circuit voltage of 721 mV for n-type and 692 mV for p-type passivating contacts was achieved. Besides the high passivating quality, the developed passivating contacts exhibit reasonable high conductivity (R sh n-type  = 95 Ω/□ and R sh p-type  = 120 Ω/□). An efficiency of 19.2% (V oc  = 673 mV, J sc  = 38.0 mA/cm 2 , FF = 75.2%, and pseudo-FF = 83.2%) was achieved on a front-textured IBC solar cell with polySi passivating contacts as both back surface field and emitter. By improving the front-side passivation, a V OC of 696 mV was also measured

  13. Electronic structure of Bi lines on clean and H-passivated Si(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javorsky, Jakub; SetvIn, Martin; Miki, Kazushi; Owen, James Hugh Gervase

    2010-01-01

    By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we have investigated the electronic structure of Bi nanolines on clean and H-passivated Si(100) surfaces. Maps of the local density of states (LDOS) images of the Bi nanolines are presented for the first time. The spectra obtained for nanolines on a clean Si surface and the LDOS images agree with ab initio predicted spectra for the Haiku structure. For nanolines on a H-passivated surface, the spectra obtained suggest that the Bi nanoline may locally pin the surface Fermi level, and the LDOS images taken at low bias show a distribution of states different to what was expected at the Bi nanolines. The results are discussed with respect to use of the nanolines as atomic wire interconnections.

  14. Enhanced PEC performance of nanoporous Si photoelectrodes by covering HfO2 and TiO2 passivation layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhuo; Ren, Feng; Wu, Hengyi; Wu, Liang; Wang, Xuening; Wang, Jingli; Wan, Da; Zhang, Guozhen; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-03-02

    Nanostructured Si as the high efficiency photoelectrode material is hard to keep stable in aqueous for water splitting. Capping a passivation layer on the surface of Si is an effective way of protecting from oxidation. However, it is still not clear in the different mechanisms and effects between insulating oxide materials and oxide semiconductor materials as passivation layers. Here, we compare the passivation effects, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties, and the corresponding mechanisms between the HfO 2 /nanoporous-Si and the TiO 2 /nanoporous-Si by I-V curves, Motte-schottky (MS) curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Although the saturated photocurrent densities of the TiO 2 /nanoporous Si are lower than that of the HfO 2 /nanoporous Si, the former is more stable than the later.

  15. Enhanced PEC performance of nanoporous Si photoelectrodes by covering HfO2 and TiO2 passivation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhuo; Ren, Feng; Wu, Hengyi; Wu, Liang; Wang, Xuening; Wang, Jingli; Wan, Da; Zhang, Guozhen; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructured Si as the high efficiency photoelectrode material is hard to keep stable in aqueous for water splitting. Capping a passivation layer on the surface of Si is an effective way of protecting from oxidation. However, it is still not clear in the different mechanisms and effects between insulating oxide materials and oxide semiconductor materials as passivation layers. Here, we compare the passivation effects, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties, and the corresponding mechanisms between the HfO2/nanoporous-Si and the TiO2/nanoporous-Si by I-V curves, Motte-schottky (MS) curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Although the saturated photocurrent densities of the TiO2/nanoporous Si are lower than that of the HfO2/nanoporous Si, the former is more stable than the later.

  16. Potassium ions in SiO2: electrets for silicon surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ruy S.; Wilshaw, Peter R.

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reports an experimental and theoretical study of the transport of potassium ions in thin silicon dioxide films. While alkali contamination was largely researched in the context of MOSFET instability, recent reports indicate that potassium ions can be embedded into oxide films to produce dielectric materials with permanent electric charge, also known as electrets. These electrets are integral to a number of applications, including the passivation of silicon surfaces for optoelectronic devices. In this work, electric field assisted migration of ions is used to rapidly drive K+ into SiO2 and produce effective passivation of silicon surfaces. Charge concentrations of up to ~5  ×  1012 e cm-2 have been achieved. This charge was seen to be stable for over 1500 d, with decay time constants as high as 17 000 d, producing an effectively passivated oxide-silicon interface with SRV  industrial manufacture of silicon optoelectronic devices.

  17. Enhanced interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with lanthanum silicate passivation interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh_cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zheng, Li, E-mail: zhengli@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ye, Peiyi; Li, Menglu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Lingyan; Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with an untra-thin LaSiO{sub x} passivation layer and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric was fabricated. • The detrimental SiO{sub x} interfacial layer could be effectively restrained by the LaSiO{sub x} passivation layer. • The passivation mechanism of LaSiO{sub x} was analyzed by HRTEM, XPS and electrical measurements. • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with a LaSiO{sub x} passivation layer shows excellent device characteristics. • This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications. - Abstract: The detrimental sub-oxide (SiO{sub x}) interfacial layer formed during the 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor fabrication will drastically damage its device performance. In this work, an ultrathin lanthanum silicate (LaSiO{sub x}) passivation layer was introduced to enhance the interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The interfacial LaSiO{sub x} formation was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with ultrathin LaSiO{sub x} passivation interlayer shows excellent interfacial and electrical characteristics, including lower leakage current density, higher dielectric breakdown electric field, smaller C–V hysteresis, and lower interface states density and border traps density. The involved mechanism implies that the LaSiO{sub x} passivation interlayer can effectively restrain SiO{sub x} formation and improve the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/4H-SiC interface quality. This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications.

  18. Advanced passivation techniques for Si solar cells with high-κ dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Huijuan; Lin, Tingjui; Letha, Ayra Jagadhamma; Hwang, Huey-Liang; Kyznetsov, Fedor A.; Smirnova, Tamara P.; Saraev, Andrey A.; Kaichev, Vasily V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic recombination losses at the wafer surface significantly reduce the efficiency of Si solar cells. Surface passivation using a suitable thin dielectric layer can minimize the recombination losses. Herein, advanced passivation using simple materials (Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 ) and their compounds H (Hf) A (Al) O deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated. The chemical composition of Hf and Al oxide films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS depth profiles exhibit continuous uniform dense layers. The ALD-Al 2 O 3 film has been found to provide negative fixed charge (−6.4 × 10 11  cm −2 ), whereas HfO 2 film provides positive fixed charge (3.2 × 10 12  cm −2 ). The effective lifetimes can be improved after oxygen gas annealing for 1 min. I-V characteristics of Si solar cells with high-κ dielectric materials as passivation layers indicate that the performance is significantly improved, and ALD-HfO 2 film would provide better passivation properties than that of the ALD-Al 2 O 3 film in this research work.

  19. Dy3+-doped nano-glass ceramics comprising NaAlSiO4 and NaY9Si6O26 nanocrystals for white light generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Ruchika; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, José M.F.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Davinder Paul; Falconieri, Mauro; Sharma, Gopi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environment safe glass ceramics were fabricated via heat treatment. ► Optical and structural properties were studied before and after heat treatment. ► White light generation with single RE 3+ ion-doping was observed under UV excitation. ► Emission color temperature was between fluorescent tube and daylight values. - Abstract: The radiative emission properties of the Dy 3+ ions in oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics have been investigated for the generation of white light. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the glass ceramics reveals the presence of NaAlSiO 4 nanocrystals along with secondary phase of NaY 9 Si 6 O 26 in the glass matrix after a suitable thermal treatment of the pristine glasses. Intense white light emission has been observed when the samples are excited with 350 nm light. Yellow to blue emission intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates have been determined from the visible luminescence spectra. All color coordinates are found to lie in the white region of the chromaticity color diagram proposing the suitability of the present studied materials for color display devices.

  20. Li4SiO4-Based Artificial Passivation Thin Film for Improving Interfacial Stability of Li Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, A-Young; Liu, Guicheng; Woo, Jae-Young; Kim, Hansung; Lee, Joong Kee

    2018-03-14

    An amorphous SiO 2 (a-SiO 2 ) thin film was developed as an artificial passivation layer to stabilize Li metal anodes during electrochemical reactions. The thin film was prepared using an electron cyclotron resonance-chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The obtained passivation layer has a hierarchical structure, which is composed of lithium silicide, lithiated silicon oxide, and a-SiO 2 . The thickness of the a-SiO 2 passivation layer could be varied by changing the processing time, whereas that of the lithium silicide and lithiated silicon oxide layers was almost constant. During cycling, the surface of the a-SiO 2 passivation layer is converted into lithium silicate (Li 4 SiO 4 ), and the portion of Li 4 SiO 4 depends on the thickness of a-SiO 2 . A minimum overpotential of 21.7 mV was observed at the Li metal electrode at a current density of 3 mA cm -2 with flat voltage profiles, when an a-SiO 2 passivation layer of 92.5 nm was used. The Li metal with this optimized thin passivation layer also showed the lowest charge-transfer resistance (3.948 Ω cm) and the highest Li ion diffusivity (7.06 × 10 -14 cm 2 s -1 ) after cycling in a Li-S battery. The existence of the Li 4 SiO 4 artificial passivation layer prevents the corrosion of Li metal by suppressing Li dendritic growth and improving the ionic conductivity, which contribute to the low charge-transfer resistance and high Li ion diffusivity of the electrode.

  1. Nitride passivation of the interface between high-k dielectrics and SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardashti, Kasra [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Hu, Kai-Ting [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Madisetti, Shailesh; Oktyabrsky, Serge [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan [TD Research, GLOBALFOUNDRIES US, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Yoshida, Naomi; Kachian, Jessica; Dong, Lin [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Fruhberger, Bernd [California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0436 (United States); Kummel, Andrew C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    In-situ direct ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma nitridation has been used to passivate the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interfaces with Si nitride and oxynitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the buried Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interface shows that NH{sub 3} plasma pre-treatment should be performed at high temperatures (300 °C) to fully prevent Ge nitride and oxynitride formation at the interface and Ge out-diffusion into the oxide. C-V and I-V spectroscopy results show a lower density of interface traps and smaller gate leakage for samples with plasma nitridation at 300 °C.

  2. Optical properties and ensemble characteristics of size purified Silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph Bradley

    Nanotechnology is at the forefront of current scientific research and nanocrystals are being hailed as the 'artificial' atoms of the 21st century. Semiconducting silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are prime candidates for potential commercial applications because of silicon's already ubiquitous presence in the semiconductor industry, nontoxicity and abundance in nature. For realization of these potential applications, the properties and behavior of SiNCs need to be understood and enhanced. In this report, some of the main SiNC synthesis schemes are discussed, including those we are currently experimenting with to create our own SiNCs and the one utilized to create the SiNCs used in this study. The underlying physics that governs the unique behavior of SiNCs is then presented. The properties of the as-produced SiNCs are determined to depend strongly on surface passivation and environment. Size purification, an important aspect of nanomaterial utilization, was successfully performed on our SiNCs though density gradient ultracentrifugation. We demonstrate that the size-purified fractions exhibit an enhanced ability for colloidal self-assembly, with better aligned nanocrystal energy levels which promotes greater photostability in close-packed films and produces a slight increase in photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield. The qualities displayed by the fractions are exploited to form SiNC clusters that exhibit photostable PL. An analysis of SiNC cluster (from individual nanocrystals to collections of more than one thousand) blinking and PL shows an improvement in their PL emitting 'on' times. Pure SiNC films and SiNC-polymer nanocomposites are created and the dependence of their PL on temperature is measured. For such nanocomposites, the coupling between the 'coffee-ring' effect and liquid-liquid phase separation is also examined for ternary mixtures of solvent, polymer and semiconducting nanocrystal. We discover that with the right SiNC-polymer concentration and polymer

  3. Atomic-layer deposited Nb2O5 as transparent passivating electron contact for c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, Bart; Black, Lachlan E.; Melskens, Jimmy; van de Loo, Bas W.H.; Berghuis, Willem Jan H.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kessels, Wilhelmus M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Passivating contacts based on metal oxides have proven to enable high energy conversion efficiencies for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells at low processing complexity. In this work, the potential of atomic-layer deposited (ALD) Nb2O5 as novel electron-selective passivating contact is explored

  4. Elucidation of the enhanced ferromagnetic origin in Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals embedded into a SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sejoon; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Mn) nanocrystals is investigated. ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, which were fabricated by using a laser irradiation method with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser, exhibited two-times increase in the spontaneous magnetization (∼0.4 emu/cm 3 at 300 K) compared to the ZnO:Mn thin film (∼0.2 emu/cm 3 at 300 K). The increased exchange integral of J 1 /k B = 51.6 K in ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, in comparison with the ZnO:Mn thin film (J 1 /k B = 46.9 K), is indicative of the enhanced ferromagnetic exchange interaction. This is attributed to the large number of acceptor defects in the SiO 2 -capped ZnO:Mn nanocrystals. Namely, the holes bound to the acceptor defects form microscopic bound-magnetic-polarons with Mn ions; hence, long-range ferromagnetic coupling is enhanced. The results suggest that ferromagnetism in ZnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductors can be controlled by modulating the density of native point defects, which can be chemically and thermodynamically modified during the material synthesis or preparation.

  5. Elucidation of the enhanced ferromagnetic origin in Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals embedded into a SiO₂ matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sejoon; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Mn) nanocrystals is investigated. ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, which were fabricated by using a laser irradiation method with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser, exhibited two-times increase in the spontaneous magnetization (∼0.4 emu/cm³ at 300 K) compared to the ZnO:Mn thin film (∼0.2 emu/cm³ at 300 K). The increased exchange integral of J₁/k{sub B} = 51.6 K in ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, in comparison with the ZnO:Mn thin film (J₁/k{sub B} = 46.9 K), is indicative of the enhanced ferromagnetic exchange interaction. This is attributed to the large number of acceptor defects in the SiO₂-capped ZnO:Mn nanocrystals. Namely, the holes bound to the acceptor defects form microscopic bound-magnetic-polarons with Mn ions; hence, long-range ferromagnetic coupling is enhanced. The results suggest that ferromagnetism in ZnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductors can be controlled by modulating the density of native point defects, which can be chemically and thermodynamically modified during the material synthesis or preparation.

  6. Transparent SiON/Ag/SiON multilayer passivation grown on a flexible polyethersulfone substrate using a continuous roll-to-roll sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of a silicon oxynitride/silver/silicon oxynitride [SiON/Ag/SiON] multilayer passivation grown using a specially designed roll-to-roll [R2R] sputtering system on a flexible polyethersulfone substrate. Optical, structural, and surface properties of the R2R grown SiON/Ag/SiON multilayer were investigated as a function of the SiON thickness at a constant Ag thickness of 12 nm. The flexible SiON/Ag/SiON multilayer has a high optical transmittance of 87.7% at optimized conditions due to the antireflection and surface plasmon effects in the oxide-metal-oxide structure. The water vapor transmission rate of the SiON/Ag/SiON multilayer is 0.031 g/m2 day at an optimized SiON thickness of 110 nm. This indicates that R2R grown SiON/Ag/SiON is a promising thin-film passivation for flexible organic light-emitting diodes and flexible organic photovoltaics due to its simple and low-temperature process. PMID:22221400

  7. Effects of surface passivation on α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Li; Dai, Jianhong; Song, Yan; Wen, Guangwu; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The stability and electronic properties of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts are theoretically studied. • The surface of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts are passivated with H, OH, F and Cl atoms. • The structural stability of nanobelts decreases in the order of OH, F, Cl, and H passivations. • The surface passivation greatly changes the electronic structures of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts. - Abstract: The energetic stability and electronic structures of H, OH, F, or Cl passivated α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts orientating along various directions are systematically investigated via first-principles calculations. The results show that the stability of nanobelts is more sensitive to the surface passivation than growth direction. It decreases in the order of (100% OH), (50% H, 50% OH), (50% H, 50% F), (100% F), (50% H, 50% Cl), (100% Cl), (100% H), and unpassivation. H atoms prefer to bond with surface N atoms of nanobelts, while OH, F and Cl prefer to bond with Si atoms of nanobelts. In addition, the surface passivation greatly changes the electronic structures of nanobelts. The OH and F passivations result in the larger band gaps than the Cl passivation. While the coverage of OH, F or Cl increases to 100%, their band gaps decrease significantly, indicating an improvement of electrical properties, which is good agreement with the experimental findings. The 100% Cl-passivated nanobelt orientating along the [011] direction possesses the smallest band gap of 1.038 eV. The band gaps are found to be affected by a competition between quantum confinement effect and the role of the surface passivated groups or atoms at the band-gap edges.

  8. Effect of surface passivation by SiN/SiO2 of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrate by deep level transient spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassoumi, Malek; Mosbahi, Hana; Zaidi, Mohamed Ali; Gaquiere, Christophe; Maaref, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Device performance and defects in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors have been correlated. The effect of SiN/SiO 2 passivation of the surface of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrates is reported on DC characteristics. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on the device after the passivation by a (50/100 nm) SiN/SiO 2 film. The DLTS spectra from these measurements showed the existence of the same electron trap on the surface of the device

  9. Formation of silicon nanocrystals in multilayer nanoperiodic a-SiO{sub x}/insulator structures from the results of synchrotron investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turishchev, S. Yu., E-mail: tsu@phys.vsu.ru; Terekhov, V. A.; Koyuda, D. A. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Ershov, A. V.; Mashin, A. I. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Parinova, E. V.; Nesterov, D. N. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Grachev, D. A.; Karabanova, I. A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Domashevskaya, E. P. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The problem of the efficiency of the controllable formation of arrays of silicon nanoparticles is studied on the basis of detailed investigations of the electronic structure of multilayer nanoperiodic a-SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}, a-SiO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a-SiO{sub x}/ZrO{sub 2} compounds. Using synchrotron radiation and the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy technique, a modification is revealed for the investigated structures under the effect of high-temperature annealing at the highest temperature of 1100°C; this modification is attributed to the formation of silicon nanocrystals in the layers of photoluminescent multilayer structures.

  10. Blistering in ALD Al2O3 passivation layers as rear contacting for local Al BSF Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermang, B.; Goverde, J.C.; Uruena, A.; Lorenz, A.; Cornagliotti, E.; Rothschild, A.; John, J.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R.

    2012-01-01

    Random Al back surface field (BSF) p-type Si solar cells are presented, where a stack of Al2O3 and SiNx is used as rear surface passivation layer containing blisters. It is shown that no additional contact opening step is needed, since during co-firing local Al BSFs are induced at the location of

  11. On the c-Si surface passivation mechanism by the negative-charge-dielectric Al2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoex, B.; Gielis, J.J.H.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Al2 O3 is a versatile high- ¿ dielectric that has excellent surface passivation properties on crystalline Si (c-Si), which are of vital importance for devices such as light emitting diodes and high-efficiency solar cells. We demonstrate both experimentally and by simulations that the surface

  12. SiC formation for a solar cell passivation layer using an RF magnetron co-sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of amorphous silicon carbide film formation for a solar cell passivation layer. The film was deposited on p-type silicon (100) and glass substrates by an RF magnetron co-sputtering system using a Si target and a C target at a room-temperature condition. Several different SiC [Si1-xCx] film compositions were achieved by controlling the Si target power with a fixed C target power at 150 W. Then, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Si1-xCx films were studied. The structural properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The optical properties were achieved by UV-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The performance of Si1-xCx passivation was explored by carrier lifetime measurement. PMID:22221730

  13. Limits on passivating defects in semiconductors: the case of Si edge dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tzu-Liang; West, D; Zhang, S B

    2011-07-15

    By minimizing the free energy while constraining dopant density, we derive a universal curve that relates the formation energy (E(form)) of doping and the efficiency of defect passivation in terms of segregation of dopants at defect sites. The universal curve takes the simple form of a Fermi-Dirac distribution. Our imposed constraint defines a chemical potential that assumes the role of "Fermi energy," which sets the thermodynamic limit on the E(form) required to overcome the effect of entropy such that dopant segregation at defects in semiconductors can occur. Using Si edge dislocation as an example, we show by first-principles calculations how to map the experimentally measurable passivation efficiency to our calculated E(form) by using the universal curve for typical n- and p-type substitutional dopants. We show that n-type dopants are ineffective. Among p-type dopants, B can satisfy the thermodynamic limit while improving electronic properties.

  14. Excellent Passivation of p-Type Si Surface by Sol-Gel Al2O3 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Qing, Xiao; Chun-Lan, Zhou; Xiao-Ning, Cao; Wen-Jing, Wang; Lei, Zhao; Hai-Ling, Li; Hong-Wei, Diao

    2009-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 films with a thickness of about 100 nm synthesized by spin coating and thermally treated are applied for field-induced surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance. An effective surface recombination velocity below 100 cm/s is obtained on 10Ω ·cm p-type c-Si wafers (Cz Si). A high density of negative fixed charges in the order of 10 12 cm −2 is detected in the Al 2 O 3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a comparison between the surface passivation achieved for thermal SiO 2 and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiN x :H films on the same c-Si is presented. The high negative fixed charge density explains the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si by Al 2 O 3 . (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-12-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage (V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  16. Solar cells based upon multicrystalline Si with DLC antireflection and passivating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyui, N.; Litovchenko, V.; Neselevska, L.; Kostylyov, V.; Sarikov, A.; Taraschenko, N.; Kittler, M.; Seifert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of multicrystalline Si solar cells covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC) antireflection coatings been experimentally studied. It has been shown that this kind of coating provides a significant increase of the efficiency of solar cells mainly due to the increase of the short-circuit current density. The effects of antireflection and of the surface and bulk passivation on the SC current-voltage characteristics due to the DLC deposition have been investigated theoretically. Physical mechanisms underlying the observed effects have been proposed

  17. Robustness up to 400°C of the passivation of c-Si by p-type a-Si:H thanks to ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defresne, A.; Plantevin, O.; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2016-12-01

    Heterojunction solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are one of the most promising architectures for high energy conversion efficiency. Indeed, a-Si:H thin films can passivate both p-type and n-type wafers and can be deposited at low temperature (layers, in particular p-type a-Si:H, show a dramatic degradation in passivation quality above 200°C. Yet, annealing at 300 - 400°C the TCO layer and metallic contacts is highly desirable to reduce the contact resistance as well as the TCO optical absorption. In this work, we show that as expected, ion implantation (5 - 30 keV) introduces defects at the c-Si/a-Si:H interface which strongly degrade the effective lifetime, down to a few micro-seconds. However, the passivation quality can be restored and lifetime values can be improved up to 2 ms over the initial value with annealing. We show here that effective lifetimes above 1 ms can be maintained up to 380°C, opening up the possibility for higher process temperatures in silicon heterojunction device fabrication.

  18. Effects of substrate temperature on structural and electrical properties of SiO2-matrix boron-doped silicon nanocrystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Junjun; Zeng, Yuheng; Tan, Ruiqin; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Ye; Dai, Ning; Song, Weijie

    2013-01-01

    In this work, silicon-rich SiO 2 (SRSO) thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures (T s ) and then annealed by rapid thermal annealing to form SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped silicon-nanocrystals (Si-NCs). The effects of T s on the micro-structure and electrical properties of the SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. Results showed that the crystalline fraction and dark conductivity of the SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films both increased significantly when the T s was increased from room temperature to 373 K. When the T s was further increased from 373 K to 676 K, the crystalline fraction of 1373 K-annealed thin films decreased from 52.2% to 38.1%, and the dark conductivity reduced from 8 × 10 −3 S/cm to 5.5 × 10 −5 S/cm. The changes in micro-structure and dark conductivity of the SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films were most possibly due to the different amount of Si-O 4 bond in the as-deposited SRSO thin films. Our work indicated that there was an optimal T s , which could significantly increase the crystallization and conductivity of Si-NC thin films. Also, it was illumined that the low-resistivity SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films can be achieved under the optimal substrate temperatures, T s .

  19. Corrosion study of the passive film of amorphous Fe-Cr-Ni-(Si, P, B alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, M. F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous Fe62Cr10Ni8X20 (X = P, B, Si alloys in 0.01M HCl solution have been investigated by means of standard electrochemical measurements in order to evaluate their corrosion resistance. The study reveals that the best corrosion behaviour is given by the Si containing amorphous alloy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Auger electron spectroscopy (AJES have been employed to study the composition of the passive layers, formed on the surface of the different amorphous alloys. The results on Fe62Cr10Ni8X20 show that a protective passive film, mainly consisting of oxidized chromium, greatly enhances its corrosion resistance.

    La resistencia a la corrosión de las aleaciones amorfas Fe62Cr10Ni8X20 (X = P, B, Si inmersas en HCl 0,01M se evaluó usando técnicas electroquímicas. Las técnicas de espectroscopia de fotoemisión de rayos X y espectroscopia Auger se emplearon para estudiar la composición de las capas pasivas, formadas en aire sobre la superficie de las aleaciones amorfas. Del estudio realizado se concluye que el mejor comportamiento frente a la corrosión viene dado por la aleación amorfa que contiene como metaloide Si. Esto es debido a que la capa pasiva de dicha aleación está formada principalmente de óxido de cromo, lo cual confiere una alta resistencia a la corrosión.

  20. Ab initio study on the effect of structural relaxation on the electronic and optical properties of P-doped Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, Xiaodong; Ni, Zhenyi; Yang, Deren; Delerue, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the conventional doping of bulk silicon (Si), the doping of Si nanocrystals (NCs) that are often smaller than 5 nm in diameter may lead to serious structural changes. Since the electronic and optical properties of Si NCs are intimately associated with their structures, it is critical to understand how doping impacts the structures of Si NCs. By means of ab initio calculation we now compare 1.4 nm phosphorus (P)-doped Si NCs without structural relaxation and those with structural relaxation. Structural changes induced by structural relaxation are manifested by the stretching and compressing of bonds and apparent variations in bond angles. With the increase of the concentration of P structural changes induced by structural relaxation become more serious. It is found that structural relaxation makes differences in the energy-level schemes of P-doped Si NCs. Structural relaxation also causes the binding energy of an electron in a P-doped Si NC to more significantly increase as the concentration of P increases. With the increase of the concentration of P structural relaxation leads to more pronounced changes in the optical absorption of P-doped Si NCs

  1. Self-aligned indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors with SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} passivation layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rongsheng, E-mail: rschen@ust.hk; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-08-01

    Self-aligned top-gate amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} passivation layers are developed in this paper. The resulting a-IGZO TFT exhibits high reliability against bias stress and good electrical performance including field-effect mobility of 5 cm{sup 2}/Vs, threshold voltage of 2.5 V, subthreshold swing of 0.63 V/decade, and on/off current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 6}. With scaling down of the channel length, good characteristics are also obtained with a small shift of the threshold voltage and no degradation of subthreshold swing. The proposed a-IGZO TFTs in this paper can act as driving devices in the next generation flat panel displays. - Highlights: • Self-aligned top-gate indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistor is proposed. • SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} passivation layers are developed. • The source/drain areas are hydrogen-doped by CHF3 plasma. • The devices show good electrical performance and high reliability against bias stress.

  2. Modified Wagner model for the active-to-passive transition in the oxidation of Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junjie; Zhang Litong; Zeng Qingfeng; Cheng Laifei; Xu Yongdong

    2008-01-01

    Si 3 N 4 is used as the coating material of space shuttle structures which receive very high thermal fluxes during the atmospheric re-entry phase. Two main regimes govern the oxidation of Si 3 N 4 : the passive oxidation, with the formation of a protective silica layer leading generally to a mass gain, and the active oxidation, with vaporization of SiO leading to a mass loss of the sample. To ensure that silicon nitride will efficiently protect a material in given oxidizing environments, its own oxidation behaviour must be previously known. Therefore, the active-to-passive transition of Si 3 N 4 oxidation is a problem of deep scientific importance and of wide technological relevance. In this paper, a modified Wager model for the active-to-passive transition in the oxidation of Si 3 N 4 is presented, which includes the non-equilibrium effects caused by the mass transfer. The present theoretical calculations satisfactorily explained the reported experimental and theoretical data. The influence of flow rate on the active-to-passive transition boundary has been explained using our model. The rate controlling mechanism of the oxidation at the active-to-passive transition point is proposed

  3. Sulfur passivation for the formation of Si-terminated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3/}SiGe(0 0 1) interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardashti, Kasra [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hu, Kai-Ting [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Tang, Kechao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States); Park, Sangwook; Kim, Hyonwoong [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Madisetti, Shailesh [Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany—State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States); McIntyre, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States); Oktyabrsky, Serge [Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany—State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan [TD Research, GLOBALFOUNDRIES USA, Inc., Albany, NY (United States); Yoshida, Noami; Kachian, Jessica [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Kummel, Andrew, E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effect of wet sulfur passivation on the electrical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe(0 0 1) interfaces has been determined. • EOT of 2.1 nm has been achieved for ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited directly on SiGe(0 0 1) surfaces. • Sulfur passivation has been found to passivate the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface with Si−O−Al bonds. • Sulfur passivation is found to significantly reduce the GeO{sub x} or Ge−O−Al content at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interface therefore improving the reliability. • Sulfur passivation extends the surface stability prior to oxide ALD to up to an hour with no dramatic change in D{sub it}, C{sub ox} or V{sub FB} of the resulting devices. - Abstract: Sulfur passivation is used to electrically and chemically passivate the silicon–germanium (SiGe) surfaces before and during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The electrical properties of the interfaces were examined by variable frequency capacitance–voltage (C–V) spectroscopy. Interface compositions were determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The sulfur adsorbs to a large fraction of surface sites on the SiGe(0 0 1) surface, protecting the surface from deleterious surface reactions during processing. Sulfur passivation (a) improved the air stability of the cleaned surfaces prior to ALD, (b) increased the stability of the surface during high-temperature deposition, and (c) increased the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD nucleation density on SiGe, thereby lowering the leakage current. S passivation suppressed formation of Ge−O bonds at the interface, leaving the majority of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiGe interface terminated with direct Si−O−Al bonding.

  4. Local Schottky contacts of embedded Ag nanoparticles in Al2O3/SiNx:H stacks on Si: a design to enhance field effect passivation of Si junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim Elmi, Omar; Cristini-Robbe, Odile; Chen, Minyu; Wei, Bin; Bernard, Rémy; Okada, Etienne; Yarekha, Dmitri A; Ouendi, Saliha; Portier, Xavier; Gourbilleau, Fabrice; Xu, Tao; Stievenard, Didier

    2018-04-26

    This paper describes an original design leading to the field effect passivation of Si n+-p junctions. Ordered Ag nanoparticle (Ag-NP) arrays with optimal size and coverage fabricated by means of nanosphere lithography and thermal evaporation, were embedded in ultrathin-Al2O3/SiNx:H stacks on the top of implanted Si n+-p junctions, to achieve effective surface passivation. One way to characterize surface passivation is to use photocurrent, sensitive to recombination centers. We evidenced an improvement of photocurrent by a factor of 5 with the presence of Ag nanoparticles. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations combining with semi-quantitative calculations demonstrated that such gain was mainly due to the enhanced field effect passivation through the depleted region associated with the Ag-NPs/Si Schottky contacts. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Liquid phase epitaxy of binary III–V nanocrystals in thin Si layers triggered by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wutzler, Rene, E-mail: r.wutzler@hzdr.de; Rebohle, Lars; Prucnal, Slawomir; Bregolin, Felipe L.; Hübner, Rene; Voelskow, Matthias; Helm, Manfred; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-07

    The integration of III–V compound semiconductors in Si is a crucial step towards faster and smaller devices in future technologies. In this work, we investigate the formation process of III–V compound semiconductor nanocrystals, namely, GaAs, GaSb, and InP, by ion implantation and sub-second flash lamp annealing in a SiO{sub 2}/Si/SiO{sub 2} layer stack on Si grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to identify the structural and optical properties of these structures. Raman spectra of the nanocomposites show typical phonon modes of the compound semiconductors. The formation process of the III–V compounds is found to be based on liquid phase epitaxy, and the model is extended to the case of an amorphous matrix without an epitaxial template from a Si substrate. It is shown that the particular segregation and diffusion coefficients of the implanted group-III and group-V ions in molten Si significantly determine the final appearance of the nanostructure and thus their suitability for potential applications.

  6. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  7. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  8. Doped and codoped silicon nanocrystals: The role of surfaces and interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Ivan; Degoli, Elena; Ossicini, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Si nanocrystals have been extensively studied because of their novel properties and their potential applications in electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, thermoelectric and biological devices. These new properties are achieved through the combination of the quantum confinement of carriers and the strong influence of surface chemistry. As in the case of bulk Si the tuning of the electronic, optical and transport properties is related to the possibility of doping, in a controlled way, the nanocrystals. This is a big challenge since several studies have revealed that doping in Si nanocrystals differs from the one of the bulk. Theory and experiments have underlined that doping and codoping are influenced by a large number of parameters such as size, shape, passivation and chemical environment of the silicon nanocrystals. However, the connection between these parameters and dopant localization as well as the occurrence of self-purification effects are still not clear. In this review we summarize the latest progress in this fascinating research field considering free-standing and matrix-embedded Si nanocrystals both from the theoretical and experimental point of view, with special attention given to the results obtained by ab-initio calculations and to size-, surface- and interface-induced effects.

  9. Influence of PECVD deposited SiNx passivation layer thickness on In0.18Al0.82N/GaN/Si HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sarab Preet; Liu, Yi; Ngoo, Yi Jie; Kyaw, Lwin Min; Bera, Milan Kumar; Chor, Eng Fong; Dolmanan, S B; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride (SiN x ) passivation film thickness on In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/GaN/Si heterostructures and HEMTs has been investigated. The formation of Si 3 N 4 was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements reveal that both the density and roughness of the SiN x film increase with increasing film thickness. With an increase in SiN x film thickness, a significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density, drain current, extrinsic transconductance and negative threshold voltage shift of the In 0.18 Al 0.82 /GaN/Si HEMTs are observed. An optimal thickness of SiN x is ∼100 nm and it yields a substantial increase in 2DEG density (∼30%) with a minimum sheet resistance for In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/GaN/Si heterostructures. Furthermore, we correlate the observed SiN x film thickness-dependent electrical characteristics of In 0.18 Al 0.82 /GaN/Si HEMTs with the density of the SiN x film. (paper)

  10. Study of the interface in n{sup +}{mu}c-Si/p-type c-Si heterojunctions: role of the fluorine chemistry in the interface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M.; Grimaldi, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Capezzuto, P.; Ambrico, M.; Bruno, G.; Roca, Francesco

    2003-03-03

    Investigation of n-p heterojunction solar cells obtained by depositing a n-type thin silicon films either amorphous or microcrystalline on p-type c-Si is carried out. The study is focused on the improvement of the c-Si surface and emitter layer/c-Si substrate interface. The peculiarity is the use of SiF{sub 4}-based plasmas for the in situ dry cleaning and passivation of the c-Si surface and for the PECVD deposition of the emitter layer that can be either amorphous (a-Si:H,F) or microcrystalline ({mu}c-Si). The use of SiF{sub 4} instead of the conventional SiH{sub 4} results in a lower hydrogen content in the film and in a reduction of the interaction of the c-Si surface with hydrogen atoms. Furthermore, the dependence of the heterojunction solar cell photovoltaic parameters on the insertion of an intrinsic buffer layer between the n-type thin silicon layer and the p-type c-Si substrate is discussed.

  11. Microscopic study of electrical properties of CrSi2 nanocrystals in silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lányi Štefan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Semiconducting CrSi2 nanocrystallites (NCs were grown by reactive deposition epitaxy of Cr onto n-type silicon and covered with a 50-nm epitaxial silicon cap. Two types of samples were investigated: in one of them, the NCs were localized near the deposition depth, and in the other they migrated near the surface. The electrical characteristics were investigated in Schottky junctions by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM, conductive AFM and scanning probe capacitance microscopy (SCM were applied to reveal morphology and local electrical properties. The scanning probe methods yielded specific information, and tapping-mode AFM has shown up to 13-nm-high large-area protrusions not seen in the contact-mode AFM. The electrical interaction of the vibrating scanning tip results in virtual deformation of the surface. SCM has revealed NCs deep below the surface not seen by AFM. The electrically active probe yielded significantly better spatial resolution than AFM. The conductive AFM measurements have shown that the Cr-related point defects near the surface are responsible for the leakage of the macroscopic Schottky junctions, and also that NCs near the surface are sensitive to the mechanical and electrical stress induced by the scanning probe.

  12. Photoluminescence enhancement in porous SiC passivated by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Iwasa, Yoshimi; Ou, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    Porous SiC co-doped with B and N was passivated by atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films to enhance the photoluminescence. After optimizing the deposition conditions, as high as 14.9 times photoluminescence enhancement has been achieved.......Porous SiC co-doped with B and N was passivated by atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films to enhance the photoluminescence. After optimizing the deposition conditions, as high as 14.9 times photoluminescence enhancement has been achieved....

  13. Lateral electrical transport, optical properties and photocurrent measurements in two-dimensional arrays of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardelis Spiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we investigate the electronic transport, the optical properties, and photocurrent in two-dimensional arrays of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs embedded in silicon dioxide, grown on quartz and having sizes in the range between less than 2 and 20 nm. Electronic transport is determined by the collective effect of Coulomb blockade gaps in the Si NCs. Absorption spectra show the well-known upshift of the energy bandgap with decreasing NC size. Photocurrent follows the absorption spectra confirming that it is composed of photo-generated carriers within the Si NCs. In films containing Si NCs with sizes less than 2 nm, strong quantum confinement and exciton localization are observed, resulting in light emission and absence of photocurrent. Our results show that Si NCs are useful building blocks of photovoltaic devices for use as better absorbers than bulk Si in the visible and ultraviolet spectral range. However, when strong quantum confinement effects come into play, carrier transport is significantly reduced due to strong exciton localization and Coulomb blockade effects, thus leading to limited photocurrent.

  14. Influence of transparent conductive oxides on passivation of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunctions as studied by atomic layer deposited Al-doped ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; Deligiannis, D.; Smit, S.; Swaaij, van R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In silicon heterojunction solar cells, the main opportunities for efficiency gain lie in improvements of the front-contact layers. Therefore, the effect of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) on the a-Si:H passivation performance has been investigated for Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) layers made by

  15. Spin transport in dangling-bond wires on doped H-passivated Si(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Lorente, Nicolás; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    New advances in single-atom manipulation are leading to the creation of atomic structures on H-passivated Si surfaces with functionalities important for the development of atomic and molecular based technologies. We perform total-energy and electron-transport calculations to reveal the properties and understand the features of atomic wires crafted by H removal from the surface. The presence of dopants radically change the wire properties. Our calculations show that dopants have a tendency to approach the dangling-bond wires, and in these conditions, transport is enhanced and spin selective. These results have important implications in the development of atomic-scale spintronics showing that boron, and to a lesser extent phosphorous, convert the wires in high-quality spin filters. (paper)

  16. Structural, spectroscopic and cytotoxicity studies of TbF{sub 3}@CeF{sub 3} and TbF{sub 3}@CeF{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzyb, Tomasz; Runowski, Marcin [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Dabrowska, Krystyna [Polish Academy of Sciences, Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland); Giersig, Michael; Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-10-15

    Terbium fluoride nanocrystals, covered by a shell, composed of cerium fluoride were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Their complex structure was formed spontaneously during the synthesis. The surface of these core/shell nanocrystals was additionally modified by silica. The properties of TbF{sub 3}@CeF{sub 3} and TbF{sub 3}@CeF{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, formed in this way, were investigated. Spectroscopic studies showed that the differences between these two groups of products resulted from the presence of the SiO{sub 2} shell. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the trigonal crystal structure of TbF{sub 3}@CeF{sub 3} nanocrystals. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in connection with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a complex structure of the formed nanocrystals. Crystallized as small discs, 'the products', with an average diameter around 10 nm, showed an increase in the concentration of Tb{sup 3+} ions from surface to the core of nanocrystals. In addition to photo-physical analyses, cytotoxicity studies were performed on HSkMEC (Human Skin Microvascular Endothelial Cells) and B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of the nanomaterials was neutral for the investigated cells with no toxic or antiproliferative effect in the cell cultures, either for normal or for cancer cells. This fact makes the obtained nanocrystals good candidates for biological applications and further modifications of the SiO{sub 2} shell.Graphical Abstract.

  17. Surface passivation of n-type doped black silicon by atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Loo, B. W. H.; Ingenito, A.; Verheijen, M. A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2017-06-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) nanotextures can significantly enhance the light absorption of crystalline silicon solar cells. Nevertheless, for a successful application of b-Si textures in industrially relevant solar cell architectures, it is imperative that charge-carrier recombination at particularly highly n-type doped black Si surfaces is further suppressed. In this work, this issue is addressed through systematically studying lowly and highly doped b-Si surfaces, which are passivated by atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films or SiO2/Al2O3 stacks. In lowly doped b-Si textures, a very low surface recombination prefactor of 16 fA/cm2 was found after surface passivation by Al2O3. The excellent passivation was achieved after a dedicated wet-chemical treatment prior to surface passivation, which removed structural defects which resided below the b-Si surface. On highly n-type doped b-Si, the SiO2/Al2O3 stacks result in a considerable improvement in surface passivation compared to the Al2O3 single layers. The atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks therefore provide a low-temperature, industrially viable passivation method, enabling the application of highly n- type doped b-Si nanotextures in industrial silicon solar cells.

  18. Electric-stress reliability and current collapse of different thickness SiNx passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yang; Gui-Zhou, Hu; Yue, Hao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Si, Quan; Li-Yuan, Yang; Shou-Gao, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of electrical degradation and current collapse on different thickness SiN x passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. It finds that higher thickness SiN x passivation can significantly improve the high-electric-field reliability of a device. The degradation mechanism of the SiN x passivation layer under ON-state stress has also been discussed in detail. Under the ON-state stress, the strong electric-field led to degradation of SiN x passivation located in the gate-drain region. As the thickness of SiN x passivation increases, the density of the surface state will be increased to some extent. Meanwhile, it is found that the high NH 3 flow in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process could reduce the surface state and suppress the current collapse. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Drastic reduction in the surface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon passivated with catalytic chemical vapor deposited SiNx films by introducing phosphorous catalytic-doped layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    We improve the passivation property of n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivated with a catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) Si nitride (SiN x ) film by inserting a phosphorous (P)-doped layer formed by exposing c-Si surface to P radicals generated by the catalytic cracking of PH 3 molecules (Cat-doping). An extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) of 2 cm/s can be achieved for 2.5 Ω cm n-type (100) floating-zone Si wafers passivated with SiN x /P Cat-doped layers, both prepared in Cat-CVD systems. Compared with the case of only SiN x passivated layers, SRV decreases from 5 cm/s to 2 cm/s. The decrease in SRV is the result of field effect created by activated P atoms (donors) in a shallow P Cat-doped layer. Annealing process plays an important role in improving the passivation quality of SiN x films. The outstanding results obtained imply that SiN x /P Cat-doped layers can be used as promising passivation layers in high-efficiency n-type c-Si solar cells.

  20. Structural, optical and electrical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SixC1−x/SiC multilayer systems for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Vidrier, J.; Hernández, S.; Samà, J.; Canino, M.; Allegrezza, M.; Bellettato, M.; Shukla, R.; Schnabel, M.; Löper, P.; López-Conesa, L.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Janz, S.; Garrido, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the structural, optical and electrical properties of Si x C 1−x /SiC multilayers with different Si excess. ► Multilayer structure is destroyed after annealing at 1100 °C. ► Energy filtered TEM confirmed the Si NC formation. ► Sample thickness values from optical simulations are in agreement with TEM observations. ► The crystallization degree of the NCs was evaluated by Raman scattering and R and T techniques. ► The system conductivity depends on the NC size. ► The presence of a defective oxycarbide layer on top did not allow for obtaining useful electrical information. -- Abstract: In this work we present a structural, optical and electrical characterization of Si x C 1−x /SiC multilayer systems with different silicon content. After the deposition process, an annealing treatment was carried out in order to induce the silicon nanocrystals formation. By means of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) we observed the structural morphology of the multilayers and the presence of crystallized silicon nanoprecipitates for samples annealed up to 1100 °C. We discuss the suitability of optical techniques such as Raman scattering and reflectance and transmittance (R and T) for the evaluation of the crystalline fraction of our samples at different silicon excess ranges. In addition, the combination of R and T measurements with simulation has proved to be a useful instrument to confirm the structural properties observed by EFTEM. Finally, we explore the origin of the extremely high current density revealed by electrical measurements, probably due to the presence of an undesired defective SiC y O z ternary compound layer, already supported by the structural and optical results. Nevertheless, the variation of the electrical measurements with the silicon amount indicates a small but significant contribution from the multilayers

  1. Correlation between SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals and optical properties of Eu{sup 3+} ions in SiO{sub 2} matrix: Relation of crystallinity, composition, and photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Bui Quang [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, Ngo Ngoc, E-mail: hann@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khiem, Tran Ngoc, E-mail: khiem@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Chien, Nguyen Duc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); School of Engineering Physics (SEP), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-07-15

    We report characteristics and optical properties of Eu{sup 3+}-doped SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals dispersed in SiO{sub 2} matrix. Samples are prepared by the sol–gel method. Crystallinity of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals is examined by X-ray diffraction experiments. At annealing temperatures from 900 to 1200 °C, we observe the formation of single tetragonal rutile structure of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals. Average sizes of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals within 3–7 nm are estimated by Debye–Scherrer equation. Intense photoluminescent spectra of Eu{sup 3+} ions consist of a series of resolved emission bands within 570–645 nm, which are varied with different sample-preparation conditions. We show the efficient excitation process of Eu{sup 3+} ions through SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals in the materials. Microscopic structure of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and optical properties of Eu{sup 3+} ions are also presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Thin layers of Eu{sup 3+} doped SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals dispersed in SiO{sub 2} were prepared by sol-gel method and spin-coating process. • Formation of single-phase tetragonal rutile structure of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals and highly efficient optical excitation of the Eu{sup 3+} dopants were exhibited. • Relations of the crystallinity and composition of SnO{sub 2} and optical properties of Eu{sup 3+} dopants were comprehensively investigated and presented. • Allocations of major optically-active Eu{sup 3+} ions in the materials were deduced from their emission bands.

  2. Pulsed ion-beam assisted deposition of Ge nanocrystals on SiO{sub 2} for non-volatile memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepina, N.P. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: nstepina@mail.ru; Dvurechenskii, A.V.; Armbrister, V.A.; Kirienko, V.V.; Novikov, P.L.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovskii, A.K.; Smagina, Z.V.; Spesivtzev, E.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-03

    A floating gate memory structure, utilizing Ge nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on tunnel SiO{sub 2}, have been fabricated using pulsed low energy ion-beam induced molecular-beam deposition (MBD) in ultra-high vacuum. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge NCs when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Growth conditions for independent change of NCs size and array density were established allowing to optimize the structure parameters required for memory device. Activation energy E = 0.25 eV was determined from the temperature dependence of NCs array density. Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the process, determining NCs array density, is the surface diffusion. Embedding of the crystalline Ge dots into silicon oxide was carried out by selective oxidation of Si(100)/SiO{sub 2} /Ge(NCs)/poly-Si structure. MOS-capacitor obtained after oxidation showed a hysteresis in its C-V curves attributed to charge retention in the Ge dots.

  3. Study of SiNx:Hy passivant layers for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Gago, R.; Romero, M.F.; Gonzalez-Posada, F.; Brana, A.F.; Munoz, E.; Jimenez, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x :H y ) grown by chemical vapour deposition as passivant layers for high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) have been studied. The film composition and bonding structure were determined by ion beam analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The effects of gas precursors (SiH 4 /N 2 and SiH 4 /NH 3 ) and film/substrate interface on the film growth have been addressed. The growth on different substrates (Si, GaN, AlGaN), and the effects of plasma pre-treatments have been studied before the growth and the film growth evolution. Results yield no significant differences in all the analysed samples. This points out the relevant role of SiHn radicals as growth precursor species and that intrinsic characteristics of the SiNx:Hy layers are not affected by the film/substrate interface. Hence, improved performance of HEMT with surface plasma pre-treatments before passivation should be related to extrinsic mechanisms (such as creation of defects in AlGaN surface, removal of the surface contamination or ion-induced roughness). (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Ab-initio modeling of oxygen on the surface passivation of 3C-SiC nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, J.L.; Trejo, A.; Calvino, M.; Carvajal, E.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the effect of OH on the electronic states of H-passivated 3C-SiC nanostructures, was studied by means of Density Functional Theory. We compare the electronic band structure for a [1 1 1]-oriented nanowire with total H, OH passivation and a combination of both. Also the electronic states of a porous silicon carbide case (PSiC) a C-rich pore surface in which the dangling bonds on the surface are saturated with H and OH was studied. The calculations show that the surface replacement of H with OH radicals is always energetically favorable and more stable. In all cases the OH passivation produced a similar effect than the H passivation, with electronic band gap of lower energy value than the H-terminated phase. When the OH groups are attached to C atoms, the band gap feature is changed from direct to indirect. The results indicate the possibility of band gap engineering on SiC nanostructures through the surface passivation species.

  5. Study of gaseous interactions in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors through selective Si3N4 passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Ning; Zhang Qing; Tan, O K; Marzari, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with Si 3 N 4 passivated source and drain contacts and exposed carbon nanotube channel show n-type characteristics in air. In contrast, by passivating only the source contact, a diode-like behavior with a maximum current rectification ratio of 4.6 x 10 3 is observed. The rectifying characteristic vanishes in a vacuum but recovers once the devices are exposed to air. From our experiments, key parameters, such as critical gas pressure, adsorption energy of oxygen molecules and the contact barrier height modulation, can be obtained for studying the gaseous interaction in the carbon nanotube devices.

  6. Determination of absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals by two independent methods based on either absorption or luminescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valenta, J.; Greben, M.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 023102. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photoluminescence * absorption spectroscopy * photothermal spectroscopy * semiconductors * nanocrystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  7. Optical properties of transparent Li2O-Ga2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics embedding Ni-doped nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Murugan, Ganapathy Senthil; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2005-01-01

    Transparent Li 2 O-Ga 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (LGS) glass-ceramics embedding Ni:LiGa 5 O 8 nanocrystals were fabricated. An intense emission centered around 1300 nm with the width of more than 300 nm was observed by 976 nm photoexcitation of the glass-ceramics. The lifetime was more than 900 μs at 5 K and 500 μs at 300 K. The emission could be attributed to the 3 T 2g ( 3 F)→ 3 A 2g ( 3 F) transition of Ni 2+ in distorted octahedral sites in LiGa 5 O 8 . The product of stimulated emission cross section and lifetime for the emission was about 3.7x10 -24 cm 2 s and was a sufficiently practical value

  8. Surface correlation behaviors of metal-organic Langmuir-Blodgett films on differently passivated Si(001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, J. K.; Kundu, Sarathi

    2013-03-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett films of standard amphiphilic molecules like nickel arachidate and cadmium arachidate are grown on wet chemically passivated hydrophilic (OH-Si), hydrophobic (H-Si), and hydrophilic plus hydrophobic (Br-Si) Si(001) surfaces. Top surface morphologies and height-difference correlation functions g(r) with in-plane separation (r) are obtained from the atomic force microscopy studies. Our studies show that deposited bilayer and trilayer films have self-affine correlation behavior irrespective of different passivations and different types of amphiphilic molecules, however, liquid like correlation coexists only for a small part of r, which is located near the cutoff length (1/κ) or little below the correlation length ξ obtained from the liquid like and self-affine fitting, respectively. Thus, length scale dependent surface correlation behavior is observed for both types of Langmuir-Blodgett films. Metal ion specific interactions (ionic, covalent, etc.,) in the headgroup and the nature of the terminated bond (polar, nonpolar, etc.,) of Si surface are mainly responsible for having different correlation parameters.

  9. Passivation of pigment-grade TiO2 particles by nanothick atomic layer deposited SiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David M; Liang Xinhua; Weimer, Alan W; Burton, Beau B; Akhtar, M Kamal

    2008-01-01

    Pigment-grade TiO 2 particles were passivated using nanothick insulating films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Conformal SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers were coated onto anatase and rutile powders in a fluidized bed reactor. SiO 2 films were deposited using tris-dimethylaminosilane (TDMAS) and H 2 O 2 at 500 deg. C. Trimethylaluminum and water were used as precursors for Al 2 O 3 ALD at 177 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of anatase pigment-grade TiO 2 was decreased by 98% after the deposition of 2 nm SiO 2 films. H 2 SO 4 digest tests were performed to exhibit the pinhole-free nature of the coatings and the TiO 2 digest rate was 40 times faster for uncoated TiO 2 than SiO 2 coated over a 24 h period. Mass spectrometry was used to monitor reaction progress and allowed for dosing time optimization. These results demonstrate that the TDMAS-H 2 O 2 chemistry can deposit high quality, fully dense SiO 2 films on high radius of curvature substrates. Particle ALD is a viable passivation method for pigment-grade TiO 2 particles

  10. Intensely emitting CdTe nanocrystals retained initial photoluminescence efficiency in sol-gel derived Si1-xZrxO2 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Murase, N.

    2007-01-01

    Emitting CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in pure glass matrices (Si 1-x Zr x O 2 , x≤0.15) using a controlled sol-gel method, where the pre-hydrolyzed condition, the molar ratio of Zr/Si, the gelation time, the pH, and the amount of alcohol were judiciously optimized considering the surface condition of the NCs and the mechanism of the glass formation. As a result, the prepared glass phosphor exhibited high photoluminescence efficiencies (40% for green and 60% for red when Zr/Si was 5-10%) by retaining their initial values as in CdTe colloidal solution. To our knowledge, these values are the highest among those ever obtained for any solid matrices containing NCs. Because of the existence of Zr, the prepared glasses exhibit much better resistance against the ambient atmosphere, heat-treatment, and boiling water compared with pure silica glass (x=0) or the glass prepared from our other methods using a silane coupling agent. Thus, the obtained glass is promising for applications such as optical devices. (orig.)

  11. Surface donor states distribution post SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin@unik.no [Carinthian Tech Research CTR AG, Europastraße 4/1, Technologiepark Villach, A- 9524 Villach/St. Magdalen (Austria); Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway); Fjeldly, Tor A. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway)

    2014-07-21

    In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model to describe the effect of SiN passivation on two-dimensional electron gas density and surface barrier height in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The model is based on an extraction technique to calculate surface donor density and surface donor level at the SiN/AlGaN interface. The model is in good agreement with the experimental results and promises to become a useful tool in advanced design and characterization of GaN based heterostructures.

  12. High-Pressure Water-Vapor Annealing for Enhancement of a-Si:H Film Passivation of Silicon Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chun-Lin; Wang Lei; Zhang Yan-Rong; Zhou Hai-Feng; Liang Feng; Yang Zhen-Hui; Yang De-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) films passivated on silicon surfaces based on high-pressure water-vapor annealing (HWA). The effective carrier lifetime of samples reaches the maximum value after 210°C, 90min HWA. Capacitance-voltage measurement reveals that the HWA not only greatly reduces the density of interface states (D it ), but also decreases the fixed charges (Q fixed ) mainly caused by bulk defects. The change of hydrogen and oxygen in the film is measured by a spectroscopic ellipsometer and a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. All these results show that HWA is a useful method to improve the passivation effect of a-Si:H films deposited on silicon surfaces

  13. Photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincik, E.; Kobayashi, H.; Takahashi, M.; Fujiwara, N.; Brunner, R.; Gleskova, H.; Jergel, M.; Muellerova, J.; Kucera, M.; Falcony, C.; Ortega, L.; Rusnak, J.; Mikula, M.; Zahoran, M.; Jurani, R.; Kral, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of chemically passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding thin film solar cells. The structures were chemically passivated in three types of KCN and HCN solutions containing MeOH and/or with water. The photoluminescence measurements were performed at 6 K using Ar laser and lock-in signal recording device containing Ge and Si photodetectors. Optically determined band gap related photoluminescence signals were observed between 1.1 and 1.7 eV. The electrical properties were measured by a high-sensitive charge version of deep level transient spectroscopy (Q-DLTS). The evolution of three basic groups of defects was observed. The structural studies were realized by the standard X-ray diffraction analysis. The cyanide treatment improved significantly the electrical characteristics of both corresponding MOS structures and solar cells due to the passivation of some parts of the dangling bonds by CN group. Particularly, the passivation of the defects at interfaces in MOS or solar cell multilayer structures was achieved which is of primary practical importance

  14. Effect of ion implantation energy for the synthesis of Ge nanocrystals in SiN films with HfO2/SiO2 stack tunnel dielectrics for memory application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloux Florence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs embedded in SiN dielectrics with HfO2/SiO2 stack tunnel dielectrics were synthesized by utilizing low-energy (≤5 keV ion implantation method followed by conventional thermal annealing at 800°C, the key variable being Ge+ ion implantation energy. Two different energies (3 and 5 keV have been chosen for the evolution of Ge-NCs, which have been found to possess significant changes in structural and chemical properties of the Ge+-implanted dielectric films, and well reflected in the charge storage properties of the Al/SiN/Ge-NC + SiN/HfO2/SiO2/Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS memory structures. No Ge-NC was detected with a lower implantation energy of 3 keV at a dose of 1.5 × 1016 cm-2, whereas a well-defined 2D-array of nearly spherical and well-separated Ge-NCs within the SiN matrix was observed for the higher-energy-implanted (5 keV sample for the same implanted dose. The MIS memory structures implanted with 5 keV exhibits better charge storage and retention characteristics compared to the low-energy-implanted sample, indicating that the charge storage is predominantly in Ge-NCs in the memory capacitor. A significant memory window of 3.95 V has been observed under the low operating voltage of ± 6 V with good retention properties, indicating the feasibility of these stack structures for low operating voltage, non-volatile memory devices.

  15. n-MoS2/p-Si Solar Cells with Al2O3 Passivation for Enhanced Photogeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Atteq Ur; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Hussain, Sajjad; Bhopal, Muhammad Fahad; Lee, Sang Hee; Eom, Jonghwa; Seo, Yongho; Jung, Jongwan; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-11-02

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) has recently emerged as a promising candidate for fabricating ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices. These devices exhibit excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, and low production cost. Layered MoS 2 deposited on p-Si establishes a built-in electric field at MoS 2 /Si interface that helps in photogenerated carrier separation for photovoltaic operation. We propose an Al 2 O 3 -based passivation at the MoS 2 surface to improve the photovoltaic performance of bulklike MoS 2 /Si solar cells. Interestingly, it was observed that Al 2 O 3 passivation enhances the built-in field by reduction of interface trap density at surface. Our device exhibits an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.6%, which to our knowledge is the highest efficiency among all bulklike MoS 2 -based photovoltaic cells. The demonstrated results hold the promise for integration of bulklike MoS 2 films with Si-based electronics to develop highly efficient photovoltaic cells.

  16. Effect of La doping on interface barrier between Si-passivated Ge and insulating HfO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomiiets, Nadiia M.; Afanas' ev, Valery V.; Madia, Oreste; Stesmans, Andre [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cott, Daire J.; Collaert, Nadine [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Thean, Aaron [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    By analyzing internal photoemission of electrons from Si/SiO{sub x}-passivated Ge into insulating HfO{sub 2} we found that insertion of additional La interlayer between SiO{sub x} and HfO{sub 2} leads to dramatic increase (more than by factor of 20) of the barrier transparency. However, no measurable variation of the interface barrier height is observed suggesting that La induces intermixing of near-interface oxide stack resulting in development of additional density of states corresponding to conduction band of LaO{sub x} and HfO{sub x} sub-networks. At the same time, photoemission results indicate the presence of discrete positive charges in the near-interface oxide layer which may explain the observed ∝1 V shift of capacitance-voltage curves. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The effect of oxide shell thickness on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of Si-SiO{sub 2} core-shell nano-crystals: A (time dependent)density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazemi, Sanaz, E-mail: s.nazemi@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir; Soleimani, Ebrahim Asl [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: s.nazemi@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Microelectronics, Technische Universität Wien, Wien A-1040 (Austria); Kosina, Hans [Institute for Microelectronics, Technische Universität Wien, Wien A-1040 (Austria)

    2016-04-14

    Due to their tunable properties, silicon nano-crystals (NC) are currently being investigated. Quantum confinement can generally be employed for size-dependent band-gap tuning at dimensions smaller than the Bohr radius (∼5 nm for silicon). At the nano-meter scale, however, increased surface-to-volume ratio makes the surface effects dominant. Specifically, in Si-SiO{sub 2} core-shell semiconductor NCs the interfacial transition layer causes peculiar electronic and optical properties, because of the co-existence of intermediate oxidation states of silicon (Si{sup n+}, n = 0–4). Due to the presence of the many factors involved, a comprehensive understanding of the optical properties of these NCs has not yet been achieved. In this work, Si-SiO{sub 2} NCs with a diameter of 1.1 nm and covered by amorphous oxide shells with thicknesses between 2.5 and 4.75 Å are comprehensively studied, employing density functional theory calculations. It is shown that with increased oxide shell thickness, the low-energy part of the optical transition spectrum of the NC is red shifted and attenuated. Moreover, the absorption coefficient is increased in the high-energy part of the spectrum which corresponds to SiO{sub 2} transitions. Structural examinations indicate a larger compressive stress on the central silicon cluster with a thicker oxide shell. Examination of the local density of states reveals the migration of frontier molecular orbitals from the oxide shell into the silicon core with the increase of silica shell thickness. The optical and electrical properties are explained through the analysis of the density of states and the spatial distribution of silicon sub-oxide species.

  18. Photoemission studies of semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.S.; Roth, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals have been the focus of much attention in the last ten years due predominantly to their size dependent optical properties. Namely, the band gap of nanocrystals exhibits a shift to higher energy with decreasing size due to quantum confinement effects. Research in this field has employed primarily optical techniques to study nanocrystals, and in this respect this system has been investigated extensively. In addition, one is able to synthesize monodisperse, crystalline particles of CdS, CdSe, Si, InP, InAs, as well as CdS/HgS/CdS and CdSe/CdS composites. However, optical spectroscopies have proven ambiguous in determining the degree to which electronic excitations are interior or surface admixtures or giving a complete picture of the density of states. Photoemission is a useful technique for understanding the electronic structure of nanocrystals and the effects of quantum confinement, chemical environments of the nanocrystals, and surface coverages. Of particular interest to the authors is the surface composition and structure of these particles, for they have found that much of the behavior of nanocrystals is governed by their surface. Previously, the authors had performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on CdSe nanocrystals. XPS has proven to be a powerful tool in that it allows one to determine the composition of the nanocrystal surface

  19. Role of field-effect on c-Si surface passivation by ultrathin (2-20 nm) atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlinden, N.M.; Dingemans, G.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Al2O3 synthesized by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition yields excellent surface passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) for films down to ~ 5 nm in thickness. Optical second-harmonic generation was employed to distinguish between the influence of field-effect passivation and chemical

  20. Impact of the homogeneous junction breakdown in IBC solar cells on the passivation quality of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 : degradation and regeneration behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Mü ller, Ralph; Reichel, Christian; Yang, Xinbo; Richter, Armin; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    on the degradation but also on the regeneration behavior of the cells. It was found that cells with AlO passivation on the back side degrade during reverse breakdown whereas sister cells with SiO passivation were rather unaffected. Consequently, the degradation seems

  1. Colloidal GdVO4:Eu3+@SiO2 nanocrystals for highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanjie; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Park, Sung Heum; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, in view of health and safety demands, the controlled design of selective and sensitive sensors for Cu2+ detection is of considerable importance. Therefore, we construct herein core-shell colloidal GdVO4:Eu3+@SiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) as optical sensor for the detection of Cu2+, which were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction and encapsulated with a uniform layer of ultrathin silica through a sol-gel strategy. The NCs present strong red emission due to energy transfer from VO43- groups to Eu3+ when exciting with ultraviolet (UV) light. This intense red emission from Eu3+ could be selectively quenched in the presence of Cu2+ in comparison to other metal ions and the limit of detection is as low as 80 nM in aqueous solution. It is revealed that the spectral overlap between the emission band of NCs and the absorption of Cu2+ accounts for this intriguing luminescence behavior. The detection ability is highly reversible by the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with the recovery of almost 100% of the original luminescence. The luminescence quenching and recovery processes can be performed repeatedly with good sensing ability. These remarkable performances allow the colloidal GdVO4:Eu3+@SiO2 NCs a promising fluorescence chemosensor for detecting Cu2+ ions in aqueous solution.

  2. Chemically etched sharpened tip of transparent crystallized glass fibers with nonlinear optical Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Itaru; Benino, Yasuhiko; Komatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2007-01-01

    Glass fibers with a diameter of ∼100 μm are drawn by just pulling up melts of 40BaO·20TiO 2 ·40SiO 2 glass, and transparent crystallized glass fibers consisting of nonlinear optical fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals (particle size: ∼100-200 nm) are fabricated by crystallization of glass fibers. Precursor glass fibers and nanocrystallized glass fibers are etched chemically using a meniscus method, in which an etching solution of 0.1wt%-HF/hexane is used. Glass fibers with sharpened tips (e.g., the taper length is ∼L=200 μm and the tip angle is ∼θ=23deg) are obtained. It is found that etched nanocrystallized glass fibers also have sharpened tips (L=50 μm, θ=80deg). Compared with precursor glass fibers, nanocrystallized glass fibers show a high resistance against chemical etching in a 0.1 wt%HF solution. Although sharpened tips in nanocrystallized glass fibers do not have nanoscaled apertures, the present study suggests that nanocrystallized glass fibers showing second harmonic generations would have a potential for fiber-type light control optical devices. (author)

  3. UV and air stability of high-efficiency photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jihua, E-mail: yangj@umn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Liptak, Richard [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Ave, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States); Rowe, David; Wu, Jeslin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Casey, James; Witker, David [Dow Corning Corporation, 2200 W. Salzburg Road, Midland, MI 48686 (United States); Campbell, Stephen A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kortshagen, Uwe, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    The effects of UV light and air exposure on the photoluminescent properties of nonthermal plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) were investigated. Si NCs with high-efficiency photoluminescence (PL) have been achieved via a post-synthesis hydrosilylation process. Photobleaching is observed within the first few hours of ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. Equilibrium is reached after ∼4 h of UV exposure wherein the Si NCs are able to retain 52% of the initially measured PL quantum yield (PLQY). UV-treated Si NCs showed recovery of PL with time. Gas-phase passivation of Si NCs by hydrogen afterglow injection improves PLQY and PL stability against UV and air exposure. Additionally, phosphorous doping can also improve UV stability of photoluminescent Si NCs.

  4. Influence of LaSiOx passivation interlayer on band alignment between PEALD-Al2O3 and 4H-SiC determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Xinhong; Zheng, Li; Shen, Lingyan; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue; Qian, Ru; Cao, Duo; Yu, Yuehui

    2018-01-01

    The influence of lanthanum silicate (LaSiOx) passivation interlayer on the band alignment between plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD)-Al2O3 films and 4H-SiC was investigated by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An ultrathin in situ LaSiOx interfacial passivation layer (IPL) was introduced between the Al2O3 gate dielectric and the 4H-SiC substrate to enhance the interfacial characteristics. The valence band offset (VBO) and corresponding conduction band offset (CBO) for the Al2O3/4H-SiC interface without any passivation were extracted to be 2.16 eV and 1.49 eV, respectively. With a LaSiOx IPL, a VBO of 1.79 eV and a CBO of 1.86 eV could be obtained across the Al2O3/4H-SiC interface. The difference in the band alignments was dominated by the band bending or band shift in the 4H-SiC substrate as a result of different interfacial layers (ILs) formed at the interface. This understanding of the physical details of the band alignment could be a good foundation for Al2O3/LaSiOx/4H-SiC heterojunctions applied in the 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  5. Investigation of passivity and its breakdown on Fe3Al–Si and Fe3Al–Ge intermetallics in chloride-containing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosalbino, F.; Carlini, R.; Parodi, R.; Zanicchi, G.; Scavino, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Passivity and its breakdown on Fe 3 Al–Si and Fe 3 Al–Ge iron aluminides was investigated. • Investigation was performed in borate buffer solution with and without 100 mM KCl. • Polarization, potentiostatic transients and impedance measurements have been employed. • Results have been compared with those obtained on Fe 3 Al intermetallic. • Si and Ge improve the resistance to localized corrosion of Fe 3 Al. - Abstract: The passivity and passivity breakdown of Fe 3 Al–Si and Fe 3 Al–Ge iron aluminides were studied in borate buffer solution (pH 8.4) in the absence and presence of 100 mM KCl, performing potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic transients and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements complemented with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the absence of chloride ions Si and Ge exercise a beneficial role in the passivating characteristics of Fe 3 Al intermetallic. Addition of Si or Ge significantly modifies the electrochemical response of iron aluminide Fe 3 Al resulting in a more stable passive film. In the presence of chloride ions all the intermetallic compounds experience localized corrosion (pitting). However, Si and Ge alloying additions increase the breakdown potential and the extent of passivation domain, indicating improved resistance to initiation of pitting corrosion. Furthermore, EIS measurements performed at the breakdown state evidenced higher R ct and lower depression angle values for Fe 3 Al–Si and Fe 3 Al–Ge iron aluminides compared to Fe 3 Al intermetallic, confirming their better localized corrosion behavior. The improved resistance to pitting corrosion results from the enhanced protective function of passive film due to the presence of Si or Ge that inhibit pit initiation by hindering the adsorption of Cl − ions at the metal surface

  6. Surface Passivation Mechanism of Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Films on c-Si Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielis, J.J.H.; Verlaan, V.; Dingemans, G.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Terlinden, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that Al2O3 thin films synthesized by (plasmaassisted) atomic layer deposition (ALD) provide excellent surface passivation of n, p and p+ type c-Si as highly relevant for c-Si photovoltaics. It was found that a large negative fixed charge density (up to 1013 cm-2) in the Al2O3

  7. In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of Si interlayer based surface passivation process for AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wire transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Masamichi; Hasegawa, Hideki; Jia, Rui [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics and Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Detailed properties of the Si interface control layer (Si ICL)-based surface passivation structure are characterized by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in an ultra-high vacuum multi-chamber system. Si ICLs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs and AlGaAs(001) and (111)B surfaces, and were partially converted to SiN{sub x} by nitrogen radical beam. Freshly MBE-grown clean GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces showed strong Fermi level pinning. Large shifts of the surface Fermi level position corresponding to reduction of pinning took place after Si ICL growth, particularly on (111)B surface (around 500 meV). However, subsequent surface nitridation increased pinning again. Then, a significant reduction of pinning was obtained by changing SiN{sub x} to silicon oxynitride by intentional air-exposure and subsequent annealing. This has led to realization of a stable passivation structure with an ultrathin oxynitride/Si ICL structure which prevented subcutaneous oxidation during further device processing under air-exposure. The Si-ICL-based passivation process was applied to surface passivation of quantum wire (QWR) transistors where anomalously large side-gating phenomenon was completely eliminated. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Dislocation-free Ge Nano-crystals via Pattern Independent Selective Ge Heteroepitaxy on Si Nano-Tip Wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Capellini, Giovanni; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Niermann, Tore; Zaumseil, Peter; Katzer, Jens; Krause, Hans-Michael; Skibitzki, Oliver; Lehmann, Michael; Xie, Ya-Hong; von Känel, Hans; Schroeder, Thomas

    2016-03-04

    The integration of dislocation-free Ge nano-islands was realized via selective molecular beam epitaxy on Si nano-tip patterned substrates. The Si-tip wafers feature a rectangular array of nanometer sized Si tips with (001) facet exposed among a SiO2 matrix. These wafers were fabricated by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible nanotechnology. Calculations based on nucleation theory predict that the selective growth occurs close to thermodynamic equilibrium, where condensation of Ge adatoms on SiO2 is disfavored due to the extremely short re-evaporation time and diffusion length. The growth selectivity is ensured by the desorption-limited growth regime leading to the observed pattern independence, i.e. the absence of loading effect commonly encountered in chemical vapor deposition. The growth condition of high temperature and low deposition rate is responsible for the observed high crystalline quality of the Ge islands which is also associated with negligible Si-Ge intermixing owing to geometric hindrance by the Si nano-tip approach. Single island as well as area-averaged characterization methods demonstrate that Ge islands are dislocation-free and heteroepitaxial strain is fully relaxed. Such well-ordered high quality Ge islands present a step towards the achievement of materials suitable for optical applications.

  9. Characterization of the effects of nitrogen and hydrogen passivation on SiO2/4H-SiC interface by low temperature conductance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiyu; Peng Zhaoyang; Shen Huajun; Tang Yachao; Liu Xinyu; Li Chengzhan; Wu Jia; Zhao Yanli; Chen Ximing; Liu Kean

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of NO annealing and forming gas (FG) annealing on the electrical properties of a SiO 2 /SiC interface by low-temperature conductance measurements. With nitrogen passivation, the density of interface states (D IT ) is significantly reduced in the entire energy range, and the shift of flatband voltage, ΔV FB , is effectively suppressed to less than 0.4 V. However, very fast states are observed after NO annealing and the response frequencies are higher than 1 MHz at room temperature. After additional FG annealing, the D IT and ΔV FB are further reduced. The values of the D IT decrease to less than 10 11 cm −2 eV −1 for the energy range of E C − E T > 0.4 eV. It is suggested that the fast states in shallow energy levels originated from the N atoms accumulating at the interface by NO annealing. Though FG annealing has a limited effect on these shallow traps, hydrogen can terminate the residual Si and C dangling bonds corresponding to traps at deep energy levels and improve the interface quality further. It is indicated that NO annealing in conjunction with FG annealing will be a better post-oxidation process method for high performance SiC MOSFETs. (paper)

  10. Interface characteristics of spin-on-dielectric SiO{sub x}-buffered passivation layers for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Pil-Seok; Park, Kyoung-Seok; Yoon, Yeo-Chang [Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, 100-715 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Mi-Hyang [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam-Dong, E-mail: samdong@dongguk.edu [Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, 100-715 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    To reveal the cause for significant enhancement of dc current performance of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with the spin-on-dielectric (SOD) SiO{sub x}-buffered passivation structure compared to the conventional Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation deposited by plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD), we characterized the passivation interfaces using the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, capacitance–voltage (C–V) characterizations, and Hall-effect measurements. The interface state density of PECVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation was in the range of 10{sup 12}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, which is one-order higher than that of the SOD (10{sup 11}–10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}) as measured by C–V measurements from the metal–insulator–semiconductor capacitors. Higher density of effective oxide charge density (especially dominant contribution of ionic mobile charge) was also derived from the PECVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation. A well-resolved reduction of the electron Hall mobility of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation compared to that of the perhydropolysilazane SOD passivation, which can be due to the higher-density interface states and trap charges, can answer the relative dc current collapse of our HEMT devices. - Highlights: • Spin-on-dielectric (SOD)-buffered passivation for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs • Characterize the charge density and interface states using the C–V measurements • SOD-buffered passivation minimizes surface states at the interface. • DC performance of SOD-buffered structure is due to the interface characteristics.

  11. Discrimination Voltage and Overdrive Bias Dependent Performance Evaluation of Passively Quenched SiC Single-Photon-Counting Avalanche Photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fei; Yang Sen; Zhou Dong; Lu Hai; Zhang Rong; Zheng You-Dou

    2015-01-01

    In many critical civil and emerging military applications, low-level UV detection, sometimes at single photon level, is highly desired. In this work, a mesa-type 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiode (APD) is designed and fabricated, which exhibits low leakage current and high avalanche gain. When studied by using a passive quenching circuit, the APD exhibits self-quenching characteristics due to its high differential resistance in the avalanche region. The single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate of the APD are evaluated as functions of discrimination voltage and over-drive voltage. The optimized operation conditions of the single photon counting APD are discussed. (paper)

  12. GaN-based FETs using Cat-CVD SiN passivation for millimeter-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Mimura, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    We have found that SiN passivation by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) can significantly increase an electron density of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET). This effect enables thin-barrier HFET structures to have a high-density two-dimensional electron gas and leads to suppression of short-channel effects. We fabricated 30-nm-gate Al 0.4 Ga 0.6 N(8 nm)/GaN HFETs using Cat-CVD SiN. The maximum drain current density and extrinsic transconductance were 1.49 A/mm and 402 mS/mm, respectively. Current-gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency of the HFETs were 181 and 186 GHz, respectively. These high-frequency device characteristics are sufficiently high enough for millimeter-wave applications

  13. Energy Transfer Efficiency from ZnO-Nanocrystals to Eu3+ Ions Embedded in SiO₂ Film for Emission at 614 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Vivek; Pita, Kantisara

    2017-08-10

    In this work, we study the energy transfer mechanism from ZnO nanocrystals (ZnO-nc) to Eu 3+ ions by fabricating thin-film samples of ZnO-nc and Eu 3+ ions embedded in a SiO₂ matrix using the low-cost sol-gel technique. The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements from the samples were analyzed to understand the contribution of energy transfer from the various ZnO-nc emission centers to Eu 3+ ions. The decay time obtained from the TRPL measurements was used to calculate the energy transfer efficiencies from the ZnO-nc emission centers, and these results were compared with the energy transfer efficiencies calculated from steady-state photoluminescence emission results. The results in this work show that high transfer efficiencies from the excitonic and Zn defect emission centers is mostly due to the energy transfer from ZnO-nc to Eu 3+ ions which results in the radiative emission from the Eu 3+ ions at 614 nm, while the energy transfer from the oxygen defect emissions is most probably due to the energy transfer from ZnO-nc to the new defects created due to the incorporation of the Eu 3+ ions.

  14. Enhanced Visible Transmittance of Thermochromic VO2 Thin Films by SiO2 Passivation Layer and Their Optical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hoon Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of high-quality vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with enhanced visible transmittance (Tvis via radio frequency (RF sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. VO2 thin films with high Tvis and excellent optical switching efficiency (Eos were successfully prepared by employing SiO2 as a passivation layer. After SiO2 deposition, the roughness of the films was decreased 2-fold and a denser structure was formed. These morphological changes corresponded to the results of optical characterization including the haze, reflectance and absorption spectra. In spite of SiO2 coating, the phase transition temperature (Tc of the prepared films was not affected. Compared with pristine VO2, the total layer thickness after SiO2 coating was 160 nm, which is an increase of 80 nm. Despite the thickness change, the VO2 thin films showed a higher Tvis value (λ 650 nm, 58% compared with the pristine samples (λ 650 nm, 43%. This enhancement of Tvis while maintaining high Eos is meaningful for VO2-based smart window applications.

  15. Various Recipes of SiNx Passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors in Correlation with Current Slump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yang; Yue, Hao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Si, Quan; Gui-Zhou, Hu; Shou-Gao, Jiang; Li-Yuan, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The current slump of different recipes of SiN x passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is investigated. The dc and pulsed current-voltage curves of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using different recipes are analyzed. It is found that passivation leakage has a strong relationship with NH 3 flow in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition process, which has impacted on the current collapse of SiN x passivated devices. We analyze the pulsed I DS – V DS characteristics of different recipes of SiN x passivation devices for different combinations of gate and drain quiescent biases (V GS0 , V DS0 ) of (0, 0), (−6, 0), (−6, 15) and (0, 15)V. The possible mechanisms are the traps in SiN x passivation capturing the electrons and the surface states at the SiN x /AlGaN interface, which can affect the channel of two-dimensional electron gas and cause the current collapse. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Communication: Visualization and spectroscopy of defects induced by dehydrogenation in individual silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislitsyn, Dmitry A.; Mills, Jon M.; Kocevski, Vancho; Chiu, Sheng-Kuei; DeBenedetti, William J. I.; Gervasi, Christian F.; Taber, Benjamen N.; Rosenfield, Ariel E.; Eriksson, Olle; Rusz, Ján; Goforth, Andrea M.; Nazin, George V.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of a scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) study of the impact of dehydrogenation on the electronic structures of hydrogen-passivated silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) supported on the Au(111) surface. Gradual dehydrogenation is achieved by injecting high-energy electrons into individual SiNCs, which results, initially, in reduction of the electronic bandgap, and eventually produces midgap electronic states. We use theoretical calculations to show that the STS spectra of midgap states are consistent with the presence of silicon dangling bonds, which are found in different charge states. Our calculations also suggest that the observed initial reduction of the electronic bandgap is attributable to the SiNC surface reconstruction induced by conversion of surface dihydrides to monohydrides due to hydrogen desorption. Our results thus provide the first visualization of the SiNC electronic structure evolution induced by dehydrogenation and provide direct evidence for the existence of diverse dangling bond states on the SiNC surfaces.

  17. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of High Aspect Ratio SiC Microstructures using a Time-Multiplexed Etch-Passivate Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Laura J.; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2006-01-01

    High aspect ratio silicon carbide (SiC) microstructures are needed for microengines and other harsh environment micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Previously, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of low aspect ratio (AR less than or = 1) deep (greater than 100 micron) trenches in SiC has been reported. However, existing DRIE processes for SiC are not well-suited for definition of high aspect ratio features because such simple etch-only processes provide insufficient control over sidewall roughness and slope. Therefore, we have investigated the use of a time-multiplexed etch-passivate (TMEP) process, which alternates etching with polymer passivation of the etch sidewalls. An optimized TMEP process was used to etch high aspect ratio (AR greater than 5) deep (less than 100 micron) trenches in 6H-SiC. Power MEMS structures (micro turbine blades) in 6H-SiC were also fabricated.

  18. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 10(12) to 1 × 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1), the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 10(12) cm(-2) for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study.

  19. Fabrication and surface passivation of porous 6H-SiC by atomic layer deposited films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    Porous 6H-SiC samples with different thicknesses were fabricated through anodic etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron microscope images show that the dendritic pore formation in 6HSiC is anisotropic, which has different lateral and vertical formation rates. Strong photoluminesce...... above the 6H-SiC crystal band gap, which suggests that the strong photoluminescence is ascribed to surface state produced during the anodic etching....

  20. Passivation of Si solar cells by hetero-epitaxial compound semiconductor coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S. M.; Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.; Haven, V. E.; Sekula, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    A development status evaluation is made for high efficiency Si solar cells, with emphasis on the suppression of the deleterious effects of surface recombination. ZnS(0.9)Se(0.1) and GaP are identified as candidates for the reduction of surface recombination. Attention is given to methods developed for the deposition of heteroepitaxial compounds designed to block minority carrier transport to the Si solar cell surface without interfering with the majority carrier flow.

  1. Industrially relevant Al2O3 deposition techniques for the surface passivation of Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, J.; Werner, F.; Veith, B.; Zielke, D.; Bock, R.; Tiba, M.V.; Poodt, P.; Roozeboom, F.; Li, A.; Cuevas, A.; Brendel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present independently confirmed efficiencies of 21.4% for PERC cells with plasma-assisted atom-ic-layer-deposited (plasma ALD) Al2O3 rear passivation and 20.7% for cells with thermal ALD-Al2O3. Additionally, we evaluate three different industrially relevant techniques for the deposition of

  2. Impacts of Thermal Atomic Layer-Deposited AlN Passivation Layer on GaN-on-Si High Electron Mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng-Xun; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Lin-Qing; Huang, Hong-Fan; Shi, Jin-Shan; Wang, Peng-Fei

    2016-12-01

    Thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD)-grown AlN passivation layer is applied on AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMT, and the impacts on drive current and leakage current are investigated. The thermal ALD-grown 30-nm amorphous AlN results in a suppressed off-state leakage; however, its drive current is unchanged. It was also observed by nano-beam diffraction method that thermal ALD-amorphous AlN layer barely enhanced the polarization. On the other hand, the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)-deposited SiN layer enhanced the polarization and resulted in an improved drive current. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement also indicates that thermal ALD passivation results in a better interface quality compared with the SiN passivation.

  3. Synthesis of nanocrystals in KNb(Ge,Si)O5 glasses and chemical etching of nanocrystallized glass fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Itaru; Benino, Yasuhiko; Fujiwara, Takumi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    The nanocrystallization behavior of 25K 2 O-25Nb 2 O 5 -(50-x)GeO 2 -xSiO 2 glasses with x=0,25,and50 (i.e., KNb(Ge,Si)O 5 glasses) and the chemical etching behavior of transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers have been examined. All glasses show nanocrystallization, and the degree of transparency of the glasses studied depends on the heat treatment temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glasses can be obtained if the glasses are heat treated at the first crystallization peak temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers with a diameter of about 100μm in 25K 2 O-25Nb 2 O 5 -50GeO 2 are fabricated, and fibers with sharpened tips (e.g., the taper length is about 450μm and the tip angle is about 12 o ) are obtained using a meniscus chemical etching method, in which etching solutions of 10wt%-HF/hexane and 10M-NaOH/hexane are used. Although the tip (aperture size) has not a nanoscaled size, the present study suggests that KNb(Ge,Si)O 5 nanocrystallized glass fibers have a potential for new near-field optical fiber probes with high refractive indices of around n=1.8 and high dielectric constants of around ε=58 (1kHz, room temperature)

  4. Organization of silicon nanocrystals by localized electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayari-Kanoun, Asma; Drouin, Dominique; Beauvais, Jacques; Lysenko, Vladimir; Nychyporuk, Tetyana; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    An approach to form a monolayer of organized silicon nanocrystals on a monocrystalline Si wafer is reported. Ordered arrays of nanoholes in a silicon nitride layer were obtained by combining electron beam lithography and plasma etching. Then, a short electrochemical etching current pulse led to formation of a single Si nanocrystal per each nanohole. As a result, high quality silicon nanocrystal arrays were formed with well controlled and reproducible morphologies. In future, this approach can be used to fabricate single electron devices.

  5. The Reduced Recombination and the Enhanced Lifetime of Excited Electron in QDSSCs Based on Different ZnS and SiO2 Passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thanh Tung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on the enhanced absorption and reduced recombination of quantum dot solar cells based on photoanodes which were coated by different ZnS or SiO2 passivations using the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction methods. The quantum dot solar cells based on photoanode multilayers, which were coated with a ZnS or SiO2 passivation, increased dramatic absorption in the visible light region as compared with other photoanodes and reduced rapid recombination proccesses in photovoltaic. As a result, the performance efficiency of TiO2/CdS/CdSe photoanode with SiO2 passivation increased by 150% and 375% compared with TiO2/CdS/CdSe with ZnS passivation and TiO2/CdSe photoanode, respectively. For this reason, we note that the tandem multilayers can absorb more wavelengths in the visible light region to increase a large amount of excited electrons, which are transferred into the TiO2 conduction band, and decrease number of electrons returned to the polysulfide electrolyte from QDs when a ZnS or SiO2 passivation is consumed. Moreover, it is obvious that there was a far shift towards long waves in UV-Vis spectra and a sharp drop of intensity in photoluminescence spectra. In addition, the dynamic process in solar cells was carried out by electrochemical impedance spectra.

  6. Nanotribological properties of precision-controlled regular nanotexture on H-passivated Si surface by current-induced local anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo Yufei; Zhao Wenjie; Huang Deming; Zhao Fei [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Bai Mingwu [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: mwbai@LZB.ac.cn

    2009-02-15

    Nano-sized textures resulted from localized electrochemical oxidation by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were fabricated on H-passivated Si surface. In this paper, the fabrication and nanotribological properties of nanotexture by local anodic oxidation (LAO) on H-passivated Si surface are presented. A special attention is paid to find the relation between the size of oxide nanotexture and operational parameters such as tip-sample pulsed bias voltage, pulsewidth, and relative humidity to fabricate oxide nanotexture. The nanotribological properties were investigated by a colloidal probe. The results indicate that the nanotextures exhibited low adhesion and greatly reduced friction force at nanometer scale.

  7. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  8. Preparation and thermal performance of paraffin/Nano-SiO2 nanocomposite for passive thermal protection of electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaqin; Gao, Xuenong; Chen, Peng; Huang, Zhaowen; Xu, Tao; Fang, Yutang; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three types of paraffin/nano-SiO 2 nanocomposites were prepared and characterized. • Thermo-physical properties of these composites were determined and compared. • One composite with lower thermal conductivity showed better thermal insulation properties. • This composite was identified as thermal insulation material for electronic components. - Abstract: In this paper, three grades of nano silicon dioxide (nano-SiO 2 ), NS1, NS2 and NS3, were mixed into paraffin to prepare nanocomposites as novel insulation materials for electronic passive thermal protection applications. The optimal mass percentages of paraffin for the three composites, NS1P, NS2P and NS3P, were determined to be 75%, 70% and 65%, respectively. Investigations by means of scanning electron micrographs (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), hot disk analyzer and thermal protection performance tests were devoted to the morphology, thermal properties and thermal protection performance analysis of composites. Experimental results showed that paraffin uniformly distributed into the pores and on the surface of nano-SiO 2 . Melting points of composites declined and experimental latent heat became lower than the calculated values with the decrease of nano-SiO 2 pore size. The NS1P composite had larger thermal storage capacity, better reliability and stability compared with NS2P and NS3P. In addition, compared with 90% wt.% paraffin/EG composite, the incorporation of NS1 (25 wt.%) into paraffin caused not only 63.2% reduction in thermal conductivity, but also 21.8% increase in thermal protection time affected by the ambient temperature. Thus those good properties confirmed that NS1P (75 wt.%) composite was a viable candidate for protecting electronic devices under high temperature environment.

  9. Memory characteristics of an MOS capacitor structure with double-layer semiconductor and metal heterogeneous nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Henan; Wu Liangcai; Song Zhitang; Hui Chun

    2009-01-01

    An MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) capacitor structure with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals consisting of semiconductor and metal embedded in a gate oxide for nonvolatile memory applications has been fabricated and characterized. By combining vacuum electron-beam co-evaporated Si nanocrystals and self-assembled Ni nanocrystals in a SiO 2 matrix, an MOS capacitor with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals can have larger charge storage capacity and improved retention characteristics compared to one with single-layer nanocrystals. The upper metal nanocrystals as an additional charge trap layer enable the direct tunneling mechanism to enhance the flat voltage shift and prolong the retention time. (semiconductor devices)

  10. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O3-based atomic layer deposited Al2O3-based films and stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordihn, Stefan; Mertens, Verena; Müller, Jörg W.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH 3 ) 3 and O 3 as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T Dep ) between 200 °C and 500 °C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H] = 3 at. % at 200 °C to [H]  2 O 3 /SiN x stacks complemented the work and revealed similar levels of surface passivation as single-layer Al 2 O 3 films, both for the chemical and field-effect passivation. The fixed charge density in the Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks, reflecting the field-effect passivation, was reduced by one order of magnitude from 3·10 12  cm −2 to 3·10 11  cm −2 when T Dep was increased from 300 °C to 500 °C. The level of the chemical passivation changed as well, but the total level of the surface passivation was hardly affected by the value of T Dep . When firing films prepared at of low T Dep , blistering of the films occurred and this strongly reduced the surface passivation. These results presented in this work demonstrate that a high level of surface passivation can be achieved for Al 2 O 3 -based films and stacks over a wide range of conditions when the combination of deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen

  11. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by thermal atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide after industrial firing activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, B; Stangl, R; Ma, F; Mueller, T; Lin, F; Aberle, A G; Bhatia, C S; Hoex, B

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that by using a water (H 2 O)-based thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) film, excellent surface passivation can be attained on planar low-resistivity silicon wafers. Effective carrier lifetime values of up to 12 ms and surface recombination velocities as low as 0.33 cm s −1 are achieved on float-zone wafers after a post-deposition thermal activation of the Al 2 O 3 passivation layer. This post-deposition activation is achieved using an industrial high-temperature firing process which is commonly used for contact formation of standard screen-printed silicon solar cells. Neither a low-temperature post-deposition anneal nor a silicon nitride capping layer is required in this case. Deposition temperatures in the 100–400 °C range and peak firing temperatures of about 800 °C (set temperature) are investigated. Photoluminescence imaging shows that the surface passivation is laterally uniform. Corona charging and capacitance–voltage measurements reveal that the negative fixed charge density near the AlO x /c-Si interface increases from 1.4 × 10 12 to 3.3 × 10 12 cm −2 due to firing, while the midgap interface defect density reduces from 3.3 × 10 11 to 0.8 × 10 11 cm −2 eV −1 . This work demonstrates that direct firing activation of thermal ALD Al 2 O 3 is feasible, which could be beneficial for solar cell manufacturing. (paper)

  12. Passivation effect of water vapour on thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Müller, Martin; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 7 (2016), s. 1969-1975 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-27 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation, * plasma hydrogenation * silicon * solar cells * thin films * water vapour Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  13. Sensitization of erbium in silicon-rich silica : the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.R.; Forcales, M.; Elliman, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation on the excitation cross-section and photoluminescence of erbium in silicon-rich silica. Samples were prepared by co-implantation of Si and Er into SiO 2 followed by a single thermal anneal at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 degrees C, and with or without hydrogen passivation performed at 500 degrees C. Using time-resolved photoluminescence, the effective erbium excitation cross-section is shown to increase by a factor 3, while the number of optically active erbium ions decreases by a factor of 4 with increasing annealing temperature. Hydrogen passivation is shown to increase the luminescence intensity and to shorten the luminescence lifetime at 1.54 μm only in the presence of Si nanocrystals. The implications fo these results for realizing a silicon-based optical amplifier are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  14. Optical characterization of luminescent silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debieu, Olivier

    2008-12-16

    Interstellar dust in nebulae and in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium (DISM) of galaxies contains a component which exhibits efficient visible-near infrared luminescence ranging from 500 to 1000 nm, known as Extended Red Emission (ERE). Silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) are discussed as possible carriers of the ERE. We employed the accelerator facilities of the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Jena to implant Si ions into fused silica windows. An excess concentration of silicon atoms is thus produced in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix which, by applying an annealing at 1100 C, condensates to silicon nanoparticles and crystallizes. Although the condensation and crystallization occur after an annealing of one minute,10, 15 the samples were annealed during one hour in order to well-passivate the nc-Si, that means, to reduce effectively the number of Si-dangling bonds at the nc-Si surface that are efficient non-radiative recombination centers. 10, 16 Upon excitation with UV light, most of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} samples revealed strong PL. We implanted into our luminescent nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems other atomic elements, as for instance magnesium and calcium, which form silicates if their oxide is combined with SiO{sub 2}. The purpose is to simulate the conditions for silicates containing nc-Si. In order to understand the effect of the incorporation of foreign atoms on the PL properties of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems, we proceeded to similar experiments with Er and Ge. As has been demonstrated by several authors, 17, 18 the presence of nc-Si in a glass matrix enhances considerably the emission of Er{sup 3+} ions at 1.536{mu}m. At the same time, the PL of nc-Si is considerably quenched. Since the solubility of Er in crystalline silicon is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than in SiO{sub 2}, the optically active Er{sup 3+} ions are believed to be localized outside the nc-Si core, demonstrating that ions present in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix influence the PL

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on H-Passivated GeSi: Initial Surface Reaction Pathways with H/GeSi(100)-2 × 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shi; Qing-Qing, Sun; Lin, Dong; Han, Liu; Shi-Jin, Ding; Wei, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Al(CH 3 ) 3 (TMA) adsorption on H-passivated GeSi(100)-2 × 1 surface are investigated with density functional theory. The Si–Ge and Ge–Ge one-dimer cluster models are employed to represent the GeSi(100)-2 × 1 surface with different Ge compositions. For a Si-Ge dimer of a H-passivated SiGe surface, TMA adsorption on both Si–H * and Ge–H * sites is considered. The activation barrier of TMA with the Si–H * site (1.2eV) is higher than that of TMA with the Ge-H * site (0.91 eV), which indicates that the reaction proceeds more slowly on the Si-H * site than on the Ge-H * site. In addition, adsorption of TMA is more energetically favorable on the Ge–Ge dimer than on the Si–Ge dimer of H-passivated SiGe. (atomic and molecular physics)

  16. The impedance of anodic pro-cesses on passive NiSi-electrode in sulfuric fluoride containing electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Panteleeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism and kinetics of anodic oxidation of the Ni-Si electrode in solutions of 0.5 M H2SO4 + (0,005 – 0,05M NaF in the passive state were investigated by methods of polarization and impedance measurements.Theimpedance spectra are interpreted on the assumption about the formation of the bilayer oxide film on the surface of the silicide nickel, the outer layer which has a porous structure.The growth of the porous layer with the increase of the electrode potential in the investigated solutions is linearly (constant anodizing is 2.2 nm/V.The increase in NaF concentration leads to a decrease in the thickness of the porous layer. The growth of the barrier layer of the oxide film was described in the framework of the model of point defects.The diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies inside the barrier layer of the film is 8.5∙10-16 cm2/s and varies weakly with the potential and the content of sodium fluoride in solution. Microscopic and profilometric studies show the development of the surface of the NiSi electrode during anodic etching.

  17. Teflon/SiO2 Bilayer Passivation for Improving the Electrical Reliability of Oxide TFTs Fabricated Using a New Two-Photomask Self-Alignment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Shang, Ming-Chi; Li, Bo-Jyun; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Wang, Shea-Jue; Lee, Win-Der; Hung, Bohr-Ran

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a two-photomask process for fabricating amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that exhibit a self-aligned structure. The fabricated TFTs, which lack etching-stop (ES) layers, have undamaged a-IGZO active layers that facilitate superior performance. In addition, we demonstrate a bilayer passivation method that uses a polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) and SiO2 combination layer for improving the electrical reliability of the fabricated TFTs. Teflon was deposited as a buffer layer through thermal evaporation. The Teflon layer exhibited favorable compatibility with the underlying IGZO channel layer and effectively protected the a-IGZO TFTs from plasma damage during SiO2 deposition, resulting in a negligible initial performance drop in the a-IGZO TFTs. Compared with passivation-free a-IGZO TFTs, passivated TFTs exhibited superior stability even after 168 h of aging under ambient air at 95% relative humidity. PMID:28788026

  18. Teflon/SiO₂ Bilayer Passivation for Improving the Electrical Reliability of Oxide TFTs Fabricated Using a New Two-Photomask Self-Alignment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Shang, Ming-Chi; Li, Bo-Jyun; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Wang, Shea-Jue; Lee, Win-Der; Hung, Bohr-Ran

    2015-04-13

    This study proposes a two-photomask process for fabricating amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that exhibit a self-aligned structure. The fabricated TFTs, which lack etching-stop (ES) layers, have undamaged a-IGZO active layers that facilitate superior performance. In addition, we demonstrate a bilayer passivation method that uses a polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) and SiO₂ combination layer for improving the electrical reliability of the fabricated TFTs. Teflon was deposited as a buffer layer through thermal evaporation. The Teflon layer exhibited favorable compatibility with the underlying IGZO channel layer and effectively protected the a-IGZO TFTs from plasma damage during SiO₂ deposition, resulting in a negligible initial performance drop in the a-IGZO TFTs. Compared with passivation-free a-IGZO TFTs, passivated TFTs exhibited superior stability even after 168 h of aging under ambient air at 95% relative humidity.

  19. Teflon/SiO2 Bilayer Passivation for Improving the Electrical Reliability of Oxide TFTs Fabricated Using a New Two-Photomask Self-Alignment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a two-photomask process for fabricating amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs that exhibit a self-aligned structure. The fabricated TFTs, which lack etching-stop (ES layers, have undamaged a-IGZO active layers that facilitate superior performance. In addition, we demonstrate a bilayer passivation method that uses a polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon and SiO2 combination layer for improving the electrical reliability of the fabricated TFTs. Teflon was deposited as a buffer layer through thermal evaporation. The Teflon layer exhibited favorable compatibility with the underlying IGZO channel layer and effectively protected the a-IGZO TFTs from plasma damage during SiO2 deposition, resulting in a negligible initial performance drop in the a-IGZO TFTs. Compared with passivation-free a-IGZO TFTs, passivated TFTs exhibited superior stability even after 168 h of aging under ambient air at 95% relative humidity.

  20. Self-Passivation by Fluorine Plasma Treatment and Low-Temperature Annealing in SiGe Nano wires for Biochemical Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Chen, C.; Kuo, P.; Chen, Y.; Chang, T.; Lai, C.; Whang, A. J.; Lai, Y.; Chen, H.; Hsieh, I.

    2014-01-01

    Nano wires are widely used as highly sensitive sensors for electrical detection of biological and chemical species. Modifying the band structure of strained-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by applying the in-plane tensile strain reportedly improves electron and hole mobility. The oxidation-induced Ge condensation increases the Ge fraction in a SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) and substantially increases hole mobility. However, oxidation increases the number of surface states, resulting in hole mobility degradation. In this work, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used as a biochemical reagent. The hydroxyl molecule on the oxide surface was replaced by the methoxy groups of the APTMS molecule. We proposed a surface plasma treatment to improve the electrical properties of SiGe nano wires. Fluorine plasma treatment can result in enhanced rates of thermal oxidation and speed up the formation of a self-passivation oxide layer. Like a capping oxide layer, the self-passivation oxide layer reduces the rate of follow-up oxidation. Pre oxidation treatment also improved the sensitivity of SiGe nano wires because the Si-F binding was held at a more stable interface state compared to bare nano wire on the SiGe surface. Additionally, the sensitivity can be further improved by either the N 2 plasma posttreatment or the low-temperature post annealing due to the suppression of out diffusion of Ge and F atoms from the SiGe nano wire surface.

  1. Self organized formation of Ge nanocrystals in multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Zschintzsch-Dias, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to create a process which allows the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals for use in photovoltic applications. The multilayer systems used here provide a reliable method to control the Ge nanocrystal size after phase separation. In this thesis, the deposition of GeOx/SiO2 and Ge:SiOx~ 2/SiO2 multilayers via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and the self-ordered Ge nanocrystal formation within the GeOx and Ge:SiOx~ 2 sublayers during subsequent annealing is investigated...

  2. Radical Initiated Hydrosilylation on Silicon Nanocrystal Surfaces: An Evaluation of Functional Group Tolerance and Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Gonzalez, Christina M; Purkait, Tapas K; Iqbal, Muhammad; Meldrum, Al; Veinot, Jonathan G C

    2015-09-29

    Hydrosilylation is among the most common methods used for modifying silicon surface chemistry. It provides a wide range of surface functionalities and effective passivation of surface sites. Herein, we report a systematic study of radical initiated hydrosilylation of silicon nanocrystal (SiNC) surfaces using two common radical initiators (i.e., 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) and benzoyl peroxide). Compared to other widely applied hydrosilylation methods (e.g., thermal, photochemical, and catalytic), the radical initiator based approach is particle size independent, requires comparatively low reaction temperatures, and yields monolayer surface passivation after short reaction times. The effects of differing functional groups (i.e., alkene, alkyne, carboxylic acid, and ester) on the radical initiated hydrosilylation are also explored. The results indicate functionalization occurs and results in the formation of monolayer passivated surfaces.

  3. Synthesis and green up-conversion fluorescence of colloidal La0.78Yb0.20Er0.02F3/SiO2 core/shell nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Qin Weiping; Zhang Jisen; Cao Chunyan; Zhang Jishuang; Jin Ye; Zhu Peifen; Wei Guodong; Wang Guofeng; Wang Lili

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble PVP-stabilized hexagonal-phase La 0.78 Yb 0.20 Er 0.02 F 3 nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The NCs were coated with a very thin silica shell, and amino groups were introduced to the surface of silica shells by copolymerization of 3-aminopropyl(triethoxy)silane. The core/shell NCs can be dispersed in ethanol and water to form stable colloidal solution. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the core/shell materials. In addition, the green up-conversion fluorescence mechanism of La 0.78 Yb 0.20 Er 0.02 F 3 /SiO 2 NCs was studied with a 980-nm diode laser as excitation source. The water solubility, small core/shell particles size, and well colloidal stability mean the green up-conversion fluorescence NCs have potential applications in bioassay. - Graphical abstract: Colloidal La 0.78 Yb 0.20 Er 0.02 F 3 /SiO 2 Core/Shell nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized and the free amino groups were introduced to the surface of silica shells by copolymerization 3-aminopropyl(triethoxy)silane. The NCs can be dispersed in ethanol and water to form stable colloidal solution. In addition, the NCs exhibit green up-conversion fluorescence under 980-nm excitation

  4. Alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 films coated on soda-lime-silica glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A; Matsuno, Y; Katayama, S; Tsuno, T [Nippon Steel Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Toge, N; Minami, T [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1992-09-01

    TiO2-SiO2 films prepared by the sol-gel method serves as an effective alkali passivation layer on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate and the film is superior to a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film from the view point of weathering resistance improvement. To clarify the reason, alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 glass films with different TiO2 contents coated on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate was studied by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses, and compared with the results of a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: An increase in TiO2 content in the TiO2 SiO2 film increases the sodium concentration in the film, which was induced by sodium migration from the glass substrate during the heat-treatment. Because of the presence of sodium the TiO2 -SiO2 films serve not as a barrier but as an effective getter of alkali ions and thereby effectively improve the weathering resistance Of the glass substrate. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Study of SiN{sub x}:H{sub y} passivant layers for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Cubero, A. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia and Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gago, R. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.F.; Gonzalez-Posada, F.; Brana, A.F.; Munoz, E. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia and Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia and Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Electronica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, 28805 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}:H{sub y}) grown by chemical vapour deposition as passivant layers for high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) have been studied. The film composition and bonding structure were determined by ion beam analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The effects of gas precursors (SiH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} and SiH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}) and film/substrate interface on the film growth have been addressed. The growth on different substrates (Si, GaN, AlGaN), and the effects of plasma pre-treatments have been studied before the growth and the film growth evolution. Results yield no significant differences in all the analysed samples. This points out the relevant role of SiHn radicals as growth precursor species and that intrinsic characteristics of the SiNx:Hy layers are not affected by the film/substrate interface. Hence, improved performance of HEMT with surface plasma pre-treatments before passivation should be related to extrinsic mechanisms (such as creation of defects in AlGaN surface, removal of the surface contamination or ion-induced roughness). (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Sequential coating upconversion NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with SiO{sub 2} and ZnO layers for NIR-driven photocatalytic and antibacterial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tou, Meijie; Luo, Zhenguo; Bai, Song; Liu, Fangying; Chai, Qunxia; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhengquan, E-mail: zqli@zjnu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    ZnO is one of the most promising materials for both photocatalytic and antibacterial applications, but its wide bandgap requires the excitation of UV light which limits their applications under visible and NIR bands. Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize core-shell-shell hybrid nanoparticles consisting of hexagonal NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm, amorphous SiO{sub 2} and wurtzite ZnO. The upconversion nanocrystals are used as the core seeds and sequentially coated with an insulting shell and a semiconductor layer. Such hybrid nanoparticles can efficiently utilize the NIR light through the upconverting process, and display notable photocatalytic performance and antibacterial activity under NIR irradiation. The developed NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@ZnO nanoparticles are characterized with TEM, XRD, EDS, XPS and PL spectra, and their working mechanism is also elucidated. - Highlights: • Core-shell NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} NPs were synthesized via a sequential coating method. • Hybrid NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} NPs show NIR-light enhanced photocatalytic activity. • NIR-driven antibacterial performance has been realized with NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} NPs. • Working mechanism of the hybrid photocatalysts as antibacterial agents was proposed.

  7. Impact of the homogeneous junction breakdown in IBC solar cells on the passivation quality of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 : degradation and regeneration behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Ralph

    2017-09-22

    Within the last years, many different approaches for the simplified fabrication of interdigitated back-contact (IBC) solar cells have been developed. Most of those concepts result in emitter and back-surface field (BSF) regions that are in direct contact to each other which leads to a controlled breakdown under reverse bias at the pn junction. In this work, the influence of the reverse breakdown on the passivation quality of AlO and SiO at the pn junction is investigated, not only shedding light on the degradation but also on the regeneration behavior of the cells. It was found that cells with AlO passivation on the back side degrade during reverse breakdown whereas sister cells with SiO passivation were rather unaffected. Consequently, the degradation seems to be related to the passivation layer. However, it is shown that the passivation can be regenerated even under normal operation condition. A possible explanation is the discharging of interface traps, which are getting recharged already at room temperature.

  8. Passivation of Flexible YBCO Superconducting Current Lead With Amorphous SiO2 Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Daniel; Webber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR) are operated in space to cool detectors of cosmic radiation to a few 10s of mK. A key element of the ADR is a superconducting magnet operating at about 0.3 K that is continually energized and de-energized in synchronism with a thermal switch, such that a piece of paramagnetic salt is alternately warm in a high magnetic field and cold in zero magnetic field. This causes the salt pill or refrigerant to cool, and it is able to suck heat from an object, e.g., the sensor, to be cooled. Current has to be fed into and out of the magnets from a dissipative power supply at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft. The current leads that link the magnets to the power supply inevitably conduct a significant amount of heat into the colder regions of the supporting cryostat, resulting in the need for larger, heavier, and more powerful supporting refrigerators. The aim of this project was to design and construct high-temperature superconductor (HTS) leads from YBCO (yttrium barium copper oxide) composite conductors to reduce the heat load significantly in the temperature regime below the critical temperature of YBCO. The magnet lead does not have to support current in the event that the YBCO ceases to be superconducting. Cus - tomarily, a normal metal conductor in parallel with the YBCO is a necessary part of the lead structure to allow for this upset condition; however, for this application, the normal metal can be dispensed with. Amorphous silicon dioxide is deposited directly onto the surface of YBCO, which resides on a flexible substrate. The silicon dioxide protects the YBCO from chemically reacting with atmospheric water and carbon dioxide, thus preserving the superconducting properties of the YBCO. The customary protective coating for flexible YBCO conductors is silver or a silver/gold alloy, which conducts heat many orders of magnitude better than SiO2 and so limits the use of such a composite conductor for passing current

  9. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  10. Growth of fullerene on Ag and hydrogen-passivated Si substrates: Effect of electron beam exposure on growth modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundhe, M.V.; Dev, B.N.

    2008-01-01

    We have used Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to investigate the effect of electron beam exposure on growth modes of fullerene (C 60 ) on substrates like Ag and hydrogen-passivated Si(1 1 1). The electron beam comprises of 3.4 keV electrons, which are used in the AES study. To investigate the effect, Auger signal (AS) vs. deposition time (t) measurements were conducted in a sequential mode, i.e., alternating deposition of C 60 and analysis using the electron beam. Duration of AES data collection after each deposition was the duration of exposure to electron beam in this experiment. For the growth study of C 60 on Ag, three AS-t plots were recorded for three different durations of exposure to electron beam. Changes in the AS-t plot, depending on the duration of exposure to the electron beam, reflect the electron beam-induced damage. Electron beam-induced damages of C 60 produce carbon materials of different densities and consequently transmission coefficient (α) of Auger electron through this material changes. In order to fit the AES (AS vs. t) data a model has been used which simultaneously provides the growth mode and the transmission coefficient. Observation of an increasing transmission coefficient with the increasing duration of exposure to the electron beam from α=0.34 to 0.60 indicates the change of the nature of the carbon material due to the partial damage of C 60

  11. Origin of blue photoluminescence from colloidal silicon nanocrystals fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H L; Wu, W S; Zhang, Y; Wu, L K; Shen, W Z

    2016-08-12

    We present a detailed investigation into the origin of blue emission from colloidal silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation of Si powder in 1-hexene. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations confirm that Si NCs with average size 2.7 nm are produced and well dispersed in 1-hexene. Fourier transform infrared spectrum and x-ray photoelectron spectra have been employed to reveal the passivation of Si NCs surfaces with organic molecules. On the basis of the structural characterization, UV-visible absorption, temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and PL excitation spectra investigations, we deduce that room-temperature blue luminescence from colloidal Si NCs originates from the following two processes: (i) under illumination, excitons first form within colloidal Si NCs by direct transition at the X or Γ (Γ25 → Γ'2) point; (ii) and then some trapped excitons migrate to the surfaces of colloidal Si NCs and further recombine via the surface states associated with the Si-C or Si-C-H2 bonds.

  12. Wet chemical treatment of boron doped emitters on n-type (100) c-Si prior to amorphous silicon passivation

    OpenAIRE

    Meddeb, H.; Bearda, Twan; Payo, M. Recaman; Abdelwahab, I.; Abdulraheem, Yaser; Ezzaouia, H.; Gordon, I.; Szlufcik, J.; POORTMANS, Jef

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the cleaning process on the amorphous silicon passivation of homojunction emitters is investigated. A significant variation in the passivation quality following different cleaning sequences is not observed, even though differences in cleaning performance are evident. These results point out the effectiveness of our cleaning treatment and provide a hydrogen termination for intrinsic amorphous silicon passivation. A post-deposition treatment improves the passivation level yield...

  13. Increase in electron mobility of InGaAs/InP composite channel high electron mobility transistor structure due to SiN passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuwei; Wang Hong; Radhakrishnan, K.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of silicon nitride passivation on electron mobility of InGaAs/InP composite channel high electron mobility transistor structure has been studied. Different from the structures with single InGaAs channel, an increase in effective mobility μ e with a negligible change of sheet carrier density n s after SiN deposition is clearly observed in the composite channel structures. The enhancement of μ e could be explained under the framework of electrons transferring from the InP sub-channel into InGaAs channel region due to the energy band bending at the surface region caused by SiN passivation, which is further confirmed by low temperature photoluminescence measurements

  14. High-electric-field-stress-induced degradation of SiN passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen-Ping, Gu; Huan-Tao, Duan; Jin-Yu, Ni; Yue, Hao; Jin-Cheng, Zhang; Qian, Feng; Xiao-Hua, Ma

    2009-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are fabricated by employing SiN passivation, this paper investigates the degradation due to the high-electric-field stress. After the stress, a recoverable degradation has been found, consisting of the decrease of saturation drain current I Dsat , maximal transconductance g m , and the positive shift of threshold voltage V TH at high drain-source voltage V DS . The high-electric-field stress degrades the electric characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs because the high field increases the electron trapping at the surface and in AlGaN barrier layer. The SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs decreases the surface trapping and 2DEG depletion a little during the high-electric-field stress. After the hot carrier stress with V DS = 20 V and V GS = 0 V applied to the device for 10 4 sec, the SiN passivation decreases the stress-induced degradation of I Dsat from 36% to 30%. Both on-state and pulse-state stresses produce comparative decrease of I Dsat , which shows that although the passivation is effective in suppressing electron trapping in surface states, it does not protect the device from high-electric-field degradation in nature. So passivation in conjunction with other technological solutions like cap layer, prepassivation surface treatments, or field-plate gate to weaken high-electric-field degradation should be adopted. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Preparation of NiFe binary alloy nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work,an idea which applies binary alloy nanocrystal floating gate to nonvolatile memory application was introduced.The relationship between binary alloy’s work function and its composition was discussed theoretically.A nanocrystal floating gate structure with NiFe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 dielectric layers was fabricated by magnetron sputtering.The micro-structure and composition deviation of the prepared NiFe nanocrystals were also investigated by TEM and EDS.

  16. Investigation into CdS nanocrystal growth regularities in silicate glass and in the thin films SiO{sub 2} at the initial stages of solid solution phase decomposi8tion; Issledovanie zakonomernostej rosta nanokristalov CdS v silikatnom stekle i v tonkikh plenkakh SiO{sub 2} na nachal`nykh stadiyakh fazovogo raspada tverdogo rastvora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, S A; Ekimov, A I; Kudryavtsev, I A [AN SSSR, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1994-05-01

    Regularities of CdS semiconductor hanocrystal growth in amorphous media (silicate glasses and SiO{sub 2} thin films) are investigated. Dependences of crystal mean dimension on the annealing time show that in accordance with the theory of phase decomposition the crystal growth has the successive stages of nuclei formation and diffusion growth. By means of the nuclei mean radius dependences on the annealing temperature are determined the temperatures of CdS solubility in the matrix material. Effect of the annealing atmosphere composition on the growth and optical properties of CdS nanocrystals is shown.

  17. Plasma diagnostics and device properties of AlGaN/GaN HEMT passivated with SiN deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M F; Sanz, M M; Munoz, E [ISOM-Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM). ETSIT, Madrid (Spain); Tanarro, I [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A, E-mail: itanarro@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Departamento Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In this work, silicon nitride thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on both silicon samples and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) grown on sapphire substrates. Commercial parallel-plate RF plasma equipment has been used. During depositions, the dissociation rates of SiH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} precursors and the formation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} have been analysed by mass spectrometry as a function of the NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} flow ratio and the RF power applied to the plasma reactor. Afterwards, the properties of the films and the HEMT electrical characteristics have been studied. Plasma composition has been correlated with the SiN deposition rate, refractive index, H content and the final electric characteristics of the passivated transistors.

  18. Intensely emitting CdTe nanocrystals retained initial photoluminescence efficiency in sol-gel derived Si{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P.; Murase, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Photonics Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Emitting CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in pure glass matrices (Si{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2}, x{<=}0.15) using a controlled sol-gel method, where the pre-hydrolyzed condition, the molar ratio of Zr/Si, the gelation time, the pH, and the amount of alcohol were judiciously optimized considering the surface condition of the NCs and the mechanism of the glass formation. As a result, the prepared glass phosphor exhibited high photoluminescence efficiencies (40% for green and 60% for red when Zr/Si was 5-10%) by retaining their initial values as in CdTe colloidal solution. To our knowledge, these values are the highest among those ever obtained for any solid matrices containing NCs. Because of the existence of Zr, the prepared glasses exhibit much better resistance against the ambient atmosphere, heat-treatment, and boiling water compared with pure silica glass (x=0) or the glass prepared from our other methods using a silane coupling agent. Thus, the obtained glass is promising for applications such as optical devices. (orig.)

  19. High performance GaN-based LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate with patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and TiO2/Al2O3 DBR backside reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Peiyuan; Liu, Honggang; Chang, Hudong; Zhao, Wei; Liao, Qinghua; Cui, Yiping

    2013-09-09

    GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) backside reflector have been proposed and fabricated. Highly passivated Al(2)O(3) layer deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layer with excellent uniformity and quality has been achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. With a 60 mA current injection, an enhancement of 21.6%, 59.7%, and 63.4% in the light output power (LOP) at 460 nm wavelength was realized for the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers, the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and Ag mirror + 3-pair TiO(2)/SiO(2) DBR backside reflector, and the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layer and Ag mirror + 3-pair ALD-grown TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) DBR backside reflector as compared with the conventional LED only with a single SiO(2) passivation layer, respectively.

  20. Effects of Si3N4 passivation on the dc and RF characteristics of metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistors depending on the gate-recess structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, J H; Han, M; Baek, Y H; Moon, S W; Rhee, J K; Kim, S D

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the Si 3 N 4 passivation on the dc and RF characteristics of a 0.1 µm metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) are investigated for narrow and wide gate-recess structures. Maximum drain-source saturation current (I dss,max ) and maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m,max ) are reduced by ∼14.8 and ∼11.6%, respectively, in the wide gate-recess structure after the passivation; on the other hand, only ∼5.7 and ∼4.9% reductions are measured from I dss,max and g m,max , respectively, in the narrow gate-recess structure. We examine the passivation-induced degradation by using a modified charge control model assuming the charged surface states on the Si 3 N 4 interface and a comparative study of the hydrodynamic device simulation with the experimental measurement. From the analysis, it is proposed that the difference of degradation in two different gate structures is due to an approximately three times higher charged surface state density of ∼4.5 × 10 11 cm −2 in the wide gate-recess structure than ∼1.6 × 10 11 cm −2 in the narrow gate-recess structure. The cut-off frequency (f T ) of the wide gate-recess structure also exhibits a greater reduction of ∼14.5%, while the f T of the narrow gate-recess structure is reduced by only ∼6.6% after the passivation. This is mainly due to the passivation-induced surface states of a higher density in the wide gate-recess structure. A great increase of the gate-to-drain parasitic capacitance in the wide gate-recess structure makes a major contribution to ∼13.5% degradation of the maximum frequency of oscillation

  1. Formation of 2-D arrays of semiconductor nanocrystals or semiconductor-rich nanolayers by very low-energy Si or Ge ion implantation in silicon oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, P. E-mail: p.normand@imel.demokritos.gr; Beltsios, K.; Kapetanakis, E.; Tsoukalas, D.; Travlos, T.; Stoemenos, J.; Berg, J. van den; Zhang, S.; Vieu, C.; Launois, H.; Gautier, J.; Jourdan, F.; Palun, L

    2001-05-01

    The structure evolution of annealed low-energy Si- or Ge-implanted thin and thick SiO{sub 2} layers is studied. The majority of Si (or Ge) species is restricted within a 3-4 nm thick layer. Si is able to separate and crystallize more easily than Ge. The glass transition temperature of the as-implanted structure has a significant effect on the progress of phase transformations accompanying annealing.

  2. Formation of 2-D arrays of semiconductor nanocrystals or semiconductor-rich nanolayers by very low-energy Si or Ge ion implantation in silicon oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, P.; Beltsios, K.; Kapetanakis, E.; Tsoukalas, D.; Travlos, T.; Stoemenos, J.; Berg, J. van den; Zhang, S.; Vieu, C.; Launois, H.; Gautier, J.; Jourdan, F.; Palun, L.

    2001-01-01

    The structure evolution of annealed low-energy Si- or Ge-implanted thin and thick SiO 2 layers is studied. The majority of Si (or Ge) species is restricted within a 3-4 nm thick layer. Si is able to separate and crystallize more easily than Ge. The glass transition temperature of the as-implanted structure has a significant effect on the progress of phase transformations accompanying annealing

  3. Characterization of Silicon Nanocrystal Surfaces by Multidimensional Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, Michael P.; Fought, Ellie L.; Windus, Theresa L.; Wheeler, Lance M.; Anderson, Nicholas C.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical and photophysical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are strongly dependent on the chemical composition and structure of their surfaces. Here we use fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and proton detection to enable the rapid acquisition of dipolar and scalar 2D 1 H– 29 Si heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) solid-state NMR spectra and reveal a molecular picture of hydride-terminated and alkyl-functionalized surfaces of Si NCs produced in a nonthermal plasma. 2D 1 H– 29 Si HETCOR and dipolar 2D 1 H– 1 H multiple-quantum correlation spectra illustrate that resonances from surface mono-, di-, and trihydride groups cannot be resolved, contrary to previous literature assignments. Instead the 2D NMR spectra illustrate that there is large distribution of 1 H and 29 Si chemical shifts for the surface hydride species in both the as-synthesized and functionalized Si NCs. However, proton-detected 1 H– 29 Si refocused INEPT experiments can be used to unambiguously differentiate NMR signals from the different surface hydrides. Varying the 29 Si evolution time in refocused INEPT experiments and fitting the oscillation of the NMR signals allows for the relative populations of the different surface hydrides to be estimated. This analysis confirms that monohydride species are the predominant surface species on the as-synthesized Si NCs. A reduction in the populations of the di- and trihydrides is observed upon functionalization with alkyl groups, consistent with our previous hypothesis that the trihydride, or silyl (*SiH 3 ), group is primarily responsible for initiating surface functionalization reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to obtain quantum chemical structural models of the Si NC surface and reproduce the observed 1 H and 29 Si chemical shifts. Furthermore, the approaches outlined here will be useful to obtain a more detailed picture of surface structures for Si NCs and other hydride-passivated nanomaterials.

  4. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  5. Hole-Collection Mechanism in Passivating Metal-Oxide Contacts on Si Solar Cells: Insights From Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayan, Ramachandran Ammapet; Essig, Stephanie; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ramanathan, Bairava Ganesh; Loper, Philipp; Ballif, Christophe; Varadharajaperumal, Muthubalan

    2018-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells enable high conversion efficiencies, thanks to their passivating contacts which consist of layered stacks of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon. However, such contacts may reduce the photo current, when present

  6. Enhancing Hydrogen Diffusion in Silica Matrix by Using Metal Ion Implantation to Improve the Emission Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bornacelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient silicon-based light emitters continue to be a challenge. A great effort has been made in photonics to modify silicon in order to enhance its light emission properties. In this aspect silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs have become the main building block of silicon photonic (modulators, waveguide, source, and detectors. In this work, we present an approach based on implantation of Ag (or Au ions and a proper thermal annealing in order to improve the photoluminescence (PL emission of Si-NCs embedded in SiO2. The Si-NCs are obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy and nucleated at high depth into the silica matrix (1-2 μm under surface. Once Si-NCs are formed inside the SiO2 we implant metal ions at energies that do not damage the Si-NCs. We have observed by, PL and time-resolved PL, that ion metal implantation and a subsequent thermal annealing in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere could significantly increase the emission properties of Si-NCs. Elastic Recoil Detection measurements show that the samples with an enhanced luminescence emission present a higher hydrogen concentration. This suggests that ion metal implantation enhances the hydrogen diffusion into silica matrix allowing a better passivation of surface defects on Si NCs.

  7. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D'Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.

  8. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D'Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-05-01

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.

  9. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D' Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo, E-mail: nikolap@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-27

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.

  10. Investigation of the fabrication processes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs with in situ Si3N4 passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomosh, K. N.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, V. Yu.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Arutyunyan, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    The optimum mode of the in situ plasma-chemical etching of a Si 3 N 4 passivating layer in C 3 F 8 /O 2 medium is chosen for the case of fabricating AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that a bias of 40–50 V at a high-frequency electrode provides anisotropic etching of the insulator through a resist mask and introduces no appreciable radiation-induced defects upon overetching of the insulator films in the region of gate-metallization formation. To estimate the effect of in situ Si 3 N 4 growth together with the heterostructure in one process on the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT characteristics, transistors with gates without the insulator and with gates through Si 3 N 4 slits are fabricated. The highest drain current of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT at 0 V at the gate is shown to be 1.5 times higher in the presence of Si 3 N 4 than without it.

  11. Investigation of the fabrication processes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs with in situ Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomosh, K. N., E-mail: sky77781@mail.ru; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, V. Yu.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Arutyunyan, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra-High-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The optimum mode of the in situ plasma-chemical etching of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivating layer in C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/O{sub 2} medium is chosen for the case of fabricating AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that a bias of 40–50 V at a high-frequency electrode provides anisotropic etching of the insulator through a resist mask and introduces no appreciable radiation-induced defects upon overetching of the insulator films in the region of gate-metallization formation. To estimate the effect of in situ Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} growth together with the heterostructure in one process on the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT characteristics, transistors with gates without the insulator and with gates through Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slits are fabricated. The highest drain current of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT at 0 V at the gate is shown to be 1.5 times higher in the presence of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} than without it.

  12. A radiation-tolerant, low-power non-volatile memory based on silicon nanocrystal quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, L. D.; Boer, E.; Ostraat, M.; Brongersma, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Atwater, H. A.; De Blauwe, J.; Green, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystal nonvolatile floating-gate memories are a good candidate for space applications - initial results suggest they are fast, more reliable and consume less power than conventional floating gate memories. In the nanocrystal based NVM device, charge is not stored on a continuous polysilicon layer (so-called floating gate), but instead on a layer of discrete nanocrystals. Charge injection and storage in dense arrays of silicon nanocrystals in SiO_2 is a critical aspect of the performance ...

  13. Evaluation of stress stabilities in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors: Effect of passivation with Si-based resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Mototaka; Hino, Aya; Goto, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kazushi; Fujii, Mami N.; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Kugimiya, Toshihiro

    2018-02-01

    Fabrication process conditions of a passivation (PV) layer correlated with stress stabilities of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). In etch-stop layer (ESL)-TFTs, by inserting a Si-based resin between SiN x and SiO x PV layers, the peak intensity in the photoinduced transient spectroscopy (PITS) spectrum was notably reduced. This suggested the suppression of hydrogen incorporation into a-IGZO, which led to the improvement of stability under negative bias thermal illumination stress (NBTIS). In contrast, the hydrogen-related defects in the a-IGZO were easily formed by the back-channel etch (BCE) process. Furthermore, it was found that, under NBTIS, the transfer curves of the BCE-TFTs shifted in parallel owing to the positive fixed charge located in the back channel of the a-IGZO TFTs. The hump-shaped shift increased with stress time. This is because hydrogen atoms located at the back-channel surfaces of the a-IGZO and/or PV layers were incorporated into the channel region of the BCE-TFTs and induced the hydrogen-related defects.

  14. Adsorption of metal-phthalocyanine molecules onto the Si(111) surface passivated by δ doping: Ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, R. G. A.; Miwa, R. H.; McLean, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    We report first-principles calculations of the energetic stability and electronic properties of metal-phthalocyanine (MPc) molecules (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) adsorbed on the δ -doped Si(111)-B (√{3 }×√{3 }) reconstructed surface. (i) It can be seen that CrPc, MnPc, FePc, and CoPc are chemically anchored to the topmost Si atom. (ii) Contrastingly, the binding of the NiPc, CuPc, and ZnPc molecules to the Si (111 ) -B (√{3 }×√{3 }) surface is exclusively ruled by van der Waals interactions, the main implication being that these molecules may diffuse and rearrange to form clusters and/or self-organized structures on this surface. The electronic structure calculations reveal that in point (i), owing to the formation of the metal-Si covalent bond, the net magnetic moment of the molecule is quenched by 1 μB , remaining unchanged in point (ii). In particular, the magnetic moment of CuPc (1 μB ) is preserved after adsorption. Finally, we verify that the formation of ZnPc, CuPc, and NiPc molecular (self-assembled) arrangements on the Si(111)-B (√{3 }×√{3 } ) surface is energetically favorable, in good agreement with recent experimental findings.

  15. Antireflection/Passivation Step For Silicon Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Gerald T.; Kachare, Akaram H.; Daud, Taher

    1988-01-01

    New process excludes usual silicon oxide passivation. Changes in principal electrical parameters during two kinds of processing suggest antireflection treatment almost as effective as oxide treatment in passivating cells. Does so without disadvantages of SiOx passivation.

  16. Low Temperature Growth of In2O3and InN Nanocrystals on Si(111 via Chemical Vapour Deposition Based on the Sublimation of NH4Cl in In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokkou Demetra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Indium oxide (In2O3 nanocrystals (NCs have been obtained via atmospheric pressure, chemical vapour deposition (APCVD on Si(111 via the direct oxidation of In with Ar:10% O2at 1000 °C but also at temperatures as low as 500 °C by the sublimation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl which is incorporated into the In under a gas flow of nitrogen (N2. Similarly InN NCs have also been obtained using sublimation of NH4Cl in a gas flow of NH3. During oxidation of In under a flow of O2the transfer of In into the gas stream is inhibited by the formation of In2O3around the In powder which breaks up only at high temperatures, i.e.T > 900 °C, thereby releasing In into the gas stream which can then react with O2leading to a high yield formation of isolated 500 nm In2O3octahedrons but also chains of these nanostructures. No such NCs were obtained by direct oxidation forT G < 900 °C. The incorporation of NH4Cl in the In leads to the sublimation of NH4Cl into NH3and HCl at around 338 °C which in turn produces an efficient dispersion and transfer of the whole In into the gas stream of N2where it reacts with HCl forming primarily InCl. The latter adsorbs onto the Si(111 where it reacts with H2O and O2leading to the formation of In2O3nanopyramids on Si(111. The rest of the InCl is carried downstream, where it solidifies at lower temperatures, and rapidly breaks down into metallic In upon exposure to H2O in the air. Upon carrying out the reaction of In with NH4Cl at 600 °C under NH3as opposed to N2, we obtain InN nanoparticles on Si(111 with an average diameter of 300 nm.

  17. Surface passivation of nano-textured fluorescent SiC by atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2016-01-01

    Nano-textured surfaces have played a key role in optoelectronic materials to enhance the light extraction efficiency. In this work, morphology and optical properties of nano-textured SiC covered with atomic layer deposited (ALD) TiO2 were investigated. In order to obtain a high quality surface fo...

  18. Study on the electrical degradation of AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by residual stress of SiNx passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyuan; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Yong; Xin, Qi; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report a new phenomenon in C-V measurement of different gate length MIS-HEMTs, which can be associated with traps character of the AlGaN/GaN interface. The analysis of DC measurement, frequency dependent capacitance-voltage measurements and simulation show that the stress from passivation layer may induce a decrease of drain output current Ids, an increase of on-resistance, serious nonlinearity of transconductance gm, and a new peak of C-V curve. The value of the peak is reduced to zero while the gate length and measure frequency are increasing to 21 μm and 1 MHz, respectively. By using conductance method, the SiNx/GaN interface traps with energy level of EC-0.42 eV to EC-0.45 eV and density of 3.2 × 1012 ∼ 5.0 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2 is obtained after passivation. According to the experimental and simulation results, formation of the acceptor-like traps with concentration of 3 × 1011 cm-2 and energy level of EC-0.37 eV under the gate on AlGaN barrier side of AlGaN/GaN interface is the main reason for the degradation after the passivation. He is currently an Associate Professor with State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, UESTC. He is the author of over 30 peer-reviewed journal papers and more than 20 conference papers. He has also hold over 20 patents. His research interests include Gallium Nitride based high-voltage power switching devices, microwave and millimeter-wave power devices and integrated technologies. Dr. Yu was a recipient of the prestigious Award of Science and Technology of China

  19. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  20. Determination of optimum Si excess concentration in Er-doped Si-rich SiO2 for optical amplification at 1.54 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchyn, Oleksandr; Coffey, Kevin R.; Kik, Pieter G.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of indirect Er 3+ excitation in Si-rich SiO 2 is demonstrated for Si-excess concentrations in the range of 2.5-37 at. %. The Si excess concentration providing the highest density of sensitized Er 3+ ions is demonstrated to be relatively insensitive to the presence of Si nanocrystals and is found to be ∼14.5 at. % for samples without Si nanocrystals (annealed at 600 deg. C) and ∼11.5 at. % for samples with Si nanocrystals (annealed at 1100 deg. C). The observed optimum is attributed to an increase in the density of Si-related sensitizers as the Si concentration is increased, with subsequent deactivation and removal of these sensitizers at high Si concentrations. The optimized Si excess concentration is predicted to generate maximum Er-related gain at 1.54 μm in devices based on Er-doped Si-rich SiO 2 .

  1. Mega-electron-volt ion beam induced anisotropic plasmon resonance of silver nanocrystals in glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninkhof, JJ; Polman, A; Sweatlock, LA; Maier, SA; Atwater, HA; Vredenberg, AM; Kooi, BJ; Sweatlock, Luke A.; Maier, Stefan A.

    2003-01-01

    30 MeV Si ion beam irradiation of silica glass containing Ag nanocrystals causes alignment of Ag nanocrystals in arrays along the ion tracks. Optical transmission measurements show a large splitting of the surface plasmon resonance bands for polarizations longitudinal and transversal to the arrays.

  2. Silicon nanocrystal films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Robert W.

    2009-02-06

    Whether nanoparticles of silicon are really suited for such applications, whether layers fabricated from this exhibit semiconducting properties, whether they can be doped, and whether for instance via the doping the conductivity can be tuned, was studied in the present thesis. Starting material for this were on the one hand spherical silicon nanocrystals with a sharp size distribution and mean diameters in the range from 4-50 nm. Furthermore silicon particle were available, which are with 50-500 nm distinctly larger and exhibit a broad distribution of the mean size and a polycrystalline fine structure with strongly bifurcated external morphology. The small conductivities and tje low mobility values of the charge carriers in the layers of silicon nanocrystals suggest to apply suited thermal after-treatment procedures. So was found that the aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE) also can be transferred to the porous layers of nanocrystals. With the deuteron passivation a method was available to change the charge-carrier concentration in the polycrystalline layers. Additionally to ALILE laser crystallization as alternative after-treatment procedure of the nanocrystal layers was studied.

  3. Thermal stability and in situ SiN passivation of InAlN/GaN high electron mobility heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugani, L.; Carlin, J.-F.; Py, M. A.; Grandjean, N. [ICMP, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the thermal stability of nearly lattice-matched InAlN layers under metal organic vapor phase epitaxy conditions for temperatures >800 °C and show that they are not fully stable. In particular, InAlN top layers undergo degradation during high temperature annealing due to a surface related process, which causes the loss of crystal quality. This strongly impacts the transport properties of InAlN/GaN HEMT heterostructures; in particular, the mobility is significantly reduced. However, we demonstrate that high thermal stability can be achieved by capping with a GaN layer as thin as 0.5 nm. Those findings enabled us to realize in situ passivated HEMT heterostructures with state of the art transport properties.

  4. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals covalently bound to GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walzer, K.; Marx, E.; Greenham, N.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of CdSe nanocrystals covalently attached to doped GaAs substrates using monolayers of 1,6-hexanedithiol. STM measurements showed the formation of stable, densely packed, homogeneous monolayers...... of nanocrystals. STS measurements showed rectifying behaviour, with high currents at the opposite sample bias to that previously observed for CdSe nanocrystals adsorbed on Si substrates. We explain the rectifying behaviour by considering the interaction between the electronic states of the nanocrystals...

  5. Simultaneous control of nanocrystal size and nanocrystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    applications such as a photo-sensor [11]. Thus, it is desirable to have, not only a control on the size of the nanocrystals, but also an independent tunability of the ... 1-thioglycerol) in 25 ml methanol under inert atmosphere. 10 ml of 0.2 M sodium sulfide solution is then added to the reaction mixture dropwise and the reaction.

  6. Hole-Collection Mechanism in Passivating Metal-Oxide Contacts on Si Solar Cells: Insights From Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayan, Ramachandran Ammapet

    2018-02-14

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells enable high conversion efficiencies, thanks to their passivating contacts which consist of layered stacks of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon. However, such contacts may reduce the photo current, when present on the illuminated side of the cell. This motivates the search for wider bandgap contacting materials, such as metal oxides. In this paper, we elucidate the precise impact of the material parameters of MoO$_{x}$ on device characteristics, based on numerical simulations. The simulation results allow us to propose design principles for hole-collecting induced junctions. We find that if MoO$_{x}$ has a sufficiently high electron affinity ($\\\\ge\\\\! \\\\text{{5.7 eV}}$), direct band-to-band tunneling is the dominant transport mechanism; whereas if it has a lower electron affinity ($ <\\\\! \\\\text{{5.7 eV}}$), trap-assisted tunneling dominates, which might introduce additional series resistance. At even lower electron affinity, S-shaped J–V curves may appear for these solar cells, which are found to be due to an insufficient trap state density in the MoO$_{x}$ film in contrast to the expectation of better performance at low trap density. These traps may assist carrier transport when present near the conduction band edge of the MoO$_{x}$ film. Our simulations predict that performance optimization for the MoO$_{x}$ film has to target either 1) a high electron affinity and a moderate doping density film or, 2) if the electron affinity is lower than the optimum value, a high defect density not exceeding the doping density inside the film.

  7. Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahiro; Furukawa, Keiko; Serizawa, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kawai, Tomoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2009-06-02

    Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals and surface-modified substrates were investigated by measuring adsorption behavior and adhesion strength with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and a contact-mode atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The goal was to develop better control of HAp-nanocrystal coatings on biomedical materials. HAp nanocrystals with rodlike or spherical morphology were prepared by a wet chemical process followed by calcination at 800 degrees C with an antisintering agent to prevent the formation of sintered polycrystals. The substrate surface was modified by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, or graft polymerization with a functional monomer. QCM measurement showed that the rodlike HAp nanocrystals adsorbed preferentially onto anionic COOH-modified substrates compared to cationic NH2- or hydrophobic CH3-modified substrates. On the other hand, the spherical nanocrystals adsorbed onto NH2- and COOH-modified substrates, which indicates that the surface properties of the HAp nanocrystals determined their adsorption behavior. The adhesion strength, which was estimated from the force required to move the nanocrystal in contact-mode AFM, on a COOH-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was almost 9 times larger than that on a COOH-modified substrate prepared by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, indicating that the long-chain polymer grafted on the substrate mitigated the surface roughness mismatch between the nanocrystal and the substrate. The adhesion strength of the nanocrystal bonded covalently by the coupling reaction to a Si(OCH3)-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was approximately 1.5 times larger than that when adsorbed on the COOH-grafted substrate.

  8. Effect of SiO$_{2}$ passivating layer in segmented silicon planar detectors on the detector response

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Golubkov, S; Konkov, K; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Sidorov, A; Weilhammer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Silicon detectors with a fine segmentation (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of LHC experiments. Due to the high luminosity of the LHC machines they are required to have a fast response to fit the short shaping time of 25 ns and to be radiation hard. Evaluation of silicon microstrip detectors developed for the ATLAS silicon tracker and carried out under collaboration of CERN and PTI has shown the reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short- range radiation. Since the negative signal is of about 30% of the normal positive one, the effect strongly reduces the charge collection efficiency in irradiated detectors. The investigation presents the consideration on the origin of a negative response in Si microstrip detectors and the experimental proof of the model. The study of the effect has been carried out using "baby" strip detectors with a special design: each strip has a window in a metallization, which covers the p/sup +/ implant. The sca...

  9. Theoretical Studies of Pb on Si(111) and Si(100), Global Search for H-Passivated Si nanowires, and Construction of highly Localized Quasiatomic Minimal Basis Orbitals for Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzu-Liang Chan

    2005-01-01

    Metal on semiconductor surfaces has been the topic of intense studies due to its technological applications. As nano-devices shrink in size, the conventional understanding of electronic devices are no longer applicable as quantum effects start to play an important role in the behavior of the devices. At the same time, when structures are approaching atomic scale, the precise fabrication by lithographic techniques, for example, are not even applicable. Very often, the fabrication of regular structures rely on self-assembly which is susceptible to fluctuations. Therefore, a deeper understanding to exploit the quantum behavior of nano-devices and precise control of building nano-structures are highly desired. Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces are the most studied system because they are the Si surfaces with the lowest surface energy. Pb on Si(100) and Si(111) is often chosen as the prototype system for the study of metal/semiconductor interfaces because Pb is not reactive with Si thus forming a clean well-defined hetero-interface. A prominent problem for studying the physics of metal/semiconductor interfaces is that the interface structures are usually not known. While various experimental techniques can be employed to provide clues to the atomic geometries, definite conclusions usually cannot be drawn due to the intrinsic limitations of the experiments. For example, scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) only probes the local electronic density of states in which a maximum in intensity does not necessarily correspond to atomic positions. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and X-ray diffraction experiments provide results in the reciprocal space, which may elude a direct interpretation in the real space

  10. Influence of reductant and germanium concentration on the growth and stress development of germanium nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, H G; Zheng, F; Choi, W K; Chim, W K; Foo, Y L; Fitzgerald, E A

    2007-01-01

    Germanium (Ge) nanocrystals have been synthesized by annealing co-sputtered SiO 2 -Ge samples in N 2 or forming gas (90% N 2 +10% H 2 ) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 deg. C. We concluded that the annealing ambient, temperature and Ge concentration have a significant influence on the formation and evolution of the nanocrystals. We showed that a careful selective etching of the annealed samples in hydrofluoric acid solution enabled the embedded Ge nanocrystals to be liberated from the SiO 2 matrix. From the Raman results of the as-grown and the liberated nanocrystals, we established that the nanocrystals generally experienced compressive stress in the oxide matrix and the evolution of these stress states was intimately linked to the distribution, density, size and quality of the Ge nanocrystals

  11. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico

    2015-10-27

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  12. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico; Striccoli, Marinella; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Brescia, Rosaria; Falqui, Andrea; Comparelli, Roberto; Corricelli, Michela; Tommasi, Raffaele; Agostiano, Angela; Curri, M Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  13. Nanocrystals Technology for Pharmaceutical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongyao; Lian, Yumei; Kamal, Zul; Ma, Xin; Chen, Jianjun; Zhou, Xinbo; Su, Jing; Qiu, Mingfeng

    2018-05-17

    Nanocrystals technology is a promising method for improving the dissolution rate and enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In recent years, it has been developing rapidly and applied to drug research and engineering. Nanocrystal drugs can be formulated into various dosage forms. This review mainly focused on the nanocrystals technology and its application in pharmaceutical science. Firstly, different preparation methods of nanocrystal technology and the characterization of nanocrystal drugs are briefly described. Secondly, the application of nanocrystals technology in pharmaceutical science is mainly discussed followed by the introduction of sustained release formulations. Then, the scaling up process, marketed nanocrystal drug products and regulatory aspects about nanodrugs are summarized. Finally, the specific challenges and opportunities of nanocrystals technology for pharmaceutical science are summarized and discussed. This review will provide a comprehensive guide for scientists and engineers in the field of pharmaceutical science and biochemical engineering. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Formation of nanocrystals embedded in a silicon nitride film at a low temperature ({<=}200 deg. C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan [Department of Nano Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Wan-Shick [Department of Nano Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: wshong@uos.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Silicon-rich silicon nitride films with embedded silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) were fabricated successfully on plastic substrates at a low temperature by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} was used as a source gas. Formation of the silicon nanocrystals was analyzed by photoluminescence spectra and was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The formation of Si NCs required an H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} mixture ratio that was higher than four.

  15. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  16. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias; Choi, Joshua J.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Micromagnetic study of single-domain FePt nanocrystals overcoated with silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Changbae; Lee, Doh C; Korgel, Brian A; Lozanne, Alex de

    2007-01-01

    Chemically-synthesized FePt nanocrystals must be annealed at a high temperature (>550 deg. C) to induce the hard ferromagnetic L 1 0 phase. Unfortunately, the organic stabilizer covering these nanocrystals degrades at these temperatures and the nanocrystals sinter, resulting in the loss of control over nanocrystal size and separation in the film. We have developed a silica overcoating strategy to prevent nanocrystal sintering. In this study, 6 nm diameter FePt nanocrystals were coated with 17 nm thick shells of silica using an inverse micelle process. Magnetization measurements of the annealed FePt-SiO 2 nanocrystals indicate ferromagnetism with a high coercivity at room temperature. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) results show that the film composed of nanocrystals behaves as a dipole after magnetization by an 8 T external field. The individual nanocrystals are modelled as single-domain particles with random crystallographic orientations. We propose that the interparticle magnetic dipole interaction is weaker than the magnetocrystalline energy in the remanent state, leading to an unusual material with no magnetic anisotropy and no domains. Films of these nanoparticles are promising candidates for magnetic media with a data storage density of ∼Tb/in 2

  18. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers for the in-situ passivation of GaN-based HEMT structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunin, P. A., E-mail: yunin@ipmras.ru; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Drozdov, M. N.; Korolev, S. A.; Okhapkin, A. I.; Khrykin, O. I.; Shashkin, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A method for the in situ passivation of GaN-based structures with silicon nitride in the growth chamber of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor is described. The structural and electrical properties of the obtained layers are investigated. The in situ and ex situ passivation of transistor structures with silicon nitride in an electron-beam-evaporation device are compared. It is shown that ex situ passivation changes neither the initial carrier concentration nor the mobility. In situ passivation makes it possible to protect the structure surface against uncontrollable degradation upon the finishing of growth and extraction to atmosphere. In the in situ passivated structure, the carrier concentration increases and the mobility decreases. This effect should be taken into account when manufacturing passivated GaN-based transistor structures.

  20. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

    2012-01-01

    The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter...... the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window....

  1. Light emission from silicon with tin-containing nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Roesgaard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin-containing nanocrystals, embedded in silicon, have been fabricated by growing an epitaxial layer of Si1−x−ySnxCy, where x = 1.6 % and y = 0.04 % on a silicon substrate, followed by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 650 ∘C to 900 ∘C. The nanocrystal density and average diameters are determined by scanning transmission-electron microscopy to ≈1017 cm−3 and ≈5 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the light emission is very pronounced for samples annealed at 725 ∘C, and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry shows that the nanocrystals are predominantly in the diamond-structured phase at this particular annealing temperature. The origin of the light emission is discussed.

  2. Comparison of silicon nanocrystals prepared by two fundamentally different methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cibulka, Ondřej; Vorkotter, C.; Purkrt, Adam; Holovský, Jakub; Benedikt, J.; Herynková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct (2016), s. 1-7, č. článku 445. ISSN 1556-276X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-18 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * electrochemical etching * low-pressure plasma * photoluminescence * size distribution * surface passivation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  3. SiGe layer thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of well-organized SiGe/SiO2 multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Toudert, J.; Rolo, A. G.; Parisini, A.; Leitão, J. P.; Correia, M. R.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Chahboun, A.; Martín-Sánchez, J.; Serna, R.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we report on the production of regular (SiGe/SiO2)20 multilayer structures by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering, at 350 °C. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, raman spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry measurements revealed that annealing at a temperature of 1000 °C leads to the formation of SiGe nanocrystals between SiO2 thin layers with good multilayer stability. Reducing the nominal SiGe layer thickness (t SiGe) from 3.5-2 nm results in a transition from continuous SiGe crystalline layer (t SiGe ˜ 3.5 nm) to layers consisting of isolated nanocrystals (t SiGe ˜ 2 nm). Namely, in the latter case, the presence of SiGe nanocrystals ˜3-8 nm in size, is observed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the evolution of the onset in the effective optical absorption, as well as the dielectric function, in SiGe multilayers as a function of the SiGe thickness. A clear blue-shift in the optical absorption is observed for t SiGe ˜ 2 nm multilayer, as a consequence of the presence of isolated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the observed near infrared values of n = 2.8 and k = 1.5 are lower than those of bulk SiGe compounds, suggesting the presence of electronic confinement effects in the nanocrystals. The low temperature (70 K) photoluminescence measurements performed on annealed SiGe/SiO2 nanostructures show an emission band located between 0.7-0.9 eV associated with the development of interface states between the formed nanocrystals and surrounding amorphous matrix.

  4. Heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous alloys on catalytic nanoparticles to produce 2D patterned nanocrystal arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, A K [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Krishna, H [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Miller, C [Center for Materials Innovation, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2007-12-05

    Templates are widely used to produce artificial nanostructures. Here, laser-assisted self-organization has been used to form one- and two-dimensional (D) nanoarrays of Cu nanocrystals. Using these nanoarrays as a template, a 2D patterned ferromagnetic nanostructure of FeCrSi nanocrystals has been produced by heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nanocrystals by partial devitrification from an amorphous Fe{sub 64.5}Cr{sub 10}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3} alloy with the Cu nanoparticles acting as catalytic nucleation sites. The interaction among the ferromagnetic nanocrystals via the residual amorphous matrix can be controlled by suitable choice of the amorphous alloy composition. Although demonstrated for a ferromagnetic system, the processing method may have much wider applicability for producing artificial nanostructures of a wide variety of materials when materials-specific catalysts and amorphous alloy compositions are judiciously chosen.

  5. Heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous alloys on catalytic nanoparticles to produce 2D patterned nanocrystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A K; Krishna, H; Favazza, C; Miller, C; Kalyanaraman, R

    2007-01-01

    Templates are widely used to produce artificial nanostructures. Here, laser-assisted self-organization has been used to form one- and two-dimensional (D) nanoarrays of Cu nanocrystals. Using these nanoarrays as a template, a 2D patterned ferromagnetic nanostructure of FeCrSi nanocrystals has been produced by heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nanocrystals by partial devitrification from an amorphous Fe 64.5 Cr 10 Si 13.5 B 9 Nb 3 alloy with the Cu nanoparticles acting as catalytic nucleation sites. The interaction among the ferromagnetic nanocrystals via the residual amorphous matrix can be controlled by suitable choice of the amorphous alloy composition. Although demonstrated for a ferromagnetic system, the processing method may have much wider applicability for producing artificial nanostructures of a wide variety of materials when materials-specific catalysts and amorphous alloy compositions are judiciously chosen

  6. Formation and characterization of varied size germanium nanocrystals by electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Liu, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Germanium nanocrystals are being extensively examined. Their unique optical properties (brought about by the quantum confinement effect) could potentially be applied in wide areas of nonlinear optics, light emission and solid state memory etc. In this paper, Ge nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2...... matrix were formed by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible technology, e.g. plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and annealing. Different sizes of the Ge nanocrystals were prepared and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy with respect to their size, distribution...... and crystallization. The samples of different size Ge nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 matrix were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Interplayed size and strain effect of Ge nanocystals was demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy after excluding the thermal effect with proper excitation laser...

  7. Inorganic Nanocrystals Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Fabrication and Enhanced Bio-applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiancong Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles (MSNs are one of the most promising materials for bio-related applications due to advantages such as good biocompatibility, tunable mesopores, and large pore volume. However, unlike the inorganic nanocrystals with abundant physical properties, MSNs alone lack functional features. Thus, they are not sufficiently suitable for bio-applications that require special functions. Consequently, MSNs are often functionalized by incorporating inorganic nanocrystals, which provide a wide range of intriguing properties. This review focuses on inorganic nanocrystals functionalized MSNs, both their fabrication and bio-applications. Some of the most utilized methods for coating mesoporous silica (mSiO2 on nanoparticles were summarized. Magnetic, fluorescence and photothermal inorganic nanocrystals functionalized MSNs were taken as examples to demonstrate the bio-applications. Furthermore, asymmetry of MSNs and their effects on functions were also highlighted.

  8. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  9. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2016-03-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameters. This method is applied to a Si quantum well and a Si ultra-thin body transistor oxidized with SiO2 in several oxidation configurations. Comparison with ab-initio results and experiments verifies the presented method. Oxidation configurations that severely hamper the transistor performance are identified. It is also shown that the commonly used implicit H atom passivation overestimates the transistor performance.

  10. Passive safety; Passive Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, J. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Interieurentwicklung und Versuche; Hau, M. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Koordination der Fahrzeugsicherung

    2004-05-01

    The specifications for passive safety are partly based on the legal requirements for all export markets combined with the strict internal standards of Volkswagen Group. The Euro NCAP tests and their precisely defined testing methods using the new point assessment are very important. (orig.)

  11. Improved size distribution control of silicon nanocrystals in a spatially confined remote plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, I.; Westerman, R. H. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates how to improve the size distribution of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) synthesized in a remote plasma, in which the flow dynamics and the particular chemistry initially resulted in the formation of small (2-10 nm) and large (50-120 nm) Si-NCs. Plasma consists of two regions: an

  12. Passivation effect on optical and electrical properties of molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe/CdTe/Si layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Rajni; Mallick, Shubhrangshu; Hahn, Suk-Ryong; Lee, T. S.; Sivananthan, Sivalingam; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    2006-06-01

    The effects of passivation with two different passivants, ZnS and CdTe, and two different passivation techniques, physical vapor deposition (PVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), were quantified in terms of the minority carrier lifetime and extracted surface recombination velocity on both MBE-grown medium-wavelength ir (MWIR) and long-wavelength ir HgCdTe samples. A gradual increment of the minority carrier lifetime was reported as the passivation technique was changed from PVD ZnS to PVD CdTe, and finally to MBE CdTe, especially at low temperatures. A corresponding reduction in the extracted surface recombination velocity in the same order was also reported for the first time. Initial data on the 1/ f noise values of as-grown MWIR samples showed a reduction of two orders of noise power after 1200-Å ZnS deposition.

  13. Spectral diffusion of quasi localized excitons in single silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Joerg; Cichos, Frank [Centre for nanostructured Materials and Analytics, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Street 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Borczyskowski, Christian von, E-mail: Borczyskowski@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Centre for nanostructured Materials and Analytics, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Street 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Evolution in time of photoluminescence spectra of SiO{sub x} capped single silicon nanocrystals has been investigated by means of confocal optical spectroscopy at room temperature. Large spectral jumps between subsequent spectra of up to 40 meV have been detected leading to noticeable line broadening and variation in the electron-phonon coupling. Further, a correlation between emission energy and emission intensity has been found and discussed in terms of an intrinsic Stark effect. Anti-correlated variations of the electron-phonon coupling to Si and SiO{sub 2} phonons as a function of photoluminescence energy indicate that the nearly localized excition is to some extent coupled to phonons in the shell covering the silicon nanocrystal. However, coupling is reduced upon increasing Stark effect, while at the same time coupling to phonons of the Si core increases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single silicon nanocrystals are detected via confocal microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence energies fluctuate strongly in time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral fluctuation is described in the form of spectral diffusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic processes are strongly controlled by electron-phonon coupling.

  14. Mechanism of phosphorus passivation of near-interface oxide traps in 4H–SiC MOS devices investigated by CCDLTS and DFT calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Asanka; Shen, X.; Mooney, P. M.; Dhar, Sarit

    2018-06-01

    Interfacial charge trapping in 4H–SiC MOS capacitors with P doped SiO2 or phospho-silicate glass (PSG) as a gate dielectric has been investigated with temperature dependent capacitance–voltage measurements and constant capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (CCDLTS) measurements. The measurements indicate that P doping in the dielectric results in significant reduction of near-interface electron traps that have energy levels within 0.5 eV of the 4H–SiC conduction band edge. Extracted trap densities confirm that the phosphorus induced near-interface trap reduction is significantly more effective than interfacial nitridation, which is typically used for 4H–SiC MOSFET processing. The CCDLTS measurements reveal that the two broad near-interface trap peaks, named ‘O1’ and ‘O2’, with activation energies around 0.15 eV and 0.4 eV below the 4H–SiC conduction band that are typically observed in thermal oxides on 4H–SiC, are also present in PSG devices. Previous atomic scale ab initio calculations suggested these O1 and O2 traps to be carbon dimers substituted for oxygen dimers (CO=CO) and interstitial Si (Sii) in SiO2, respectively. Theoretical considerations in this work suggest that the presence of P in the near-interfacial region reduces the stability of the CO=CO defects and reduces the density of Sii defects through the network restructuring. Qualitative comparison of results in this work and reported work suggest that the O1 and O2 traps in SiO2/4H–SiC MOS system negatively impact channel mobility in 4H–SiC MOSFETs.

  15. Surface passivation of n-type doped black silicon by atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Loo, B.W.H.; Ingenito, A.; Verheijen, M.A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) nanotextures can significantly enhance the light absorption of crystalline silicon solar cells. Nevertheless, for a successful application of b-Si textures in industrially relevant solar cell architectures, it is imperative that charge-carrier recombination at particularly

  16. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  17. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  18. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  19. Wet chemical treatment of boron doped emitters on n-type (1 0 0) c-Si prior to amorphous silicon passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddeb, H., E-mail: hosny.meddeb@gmail.com [KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Research and Technology Center of Energy, Photovoltaic Department, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 (Tunisia); University of Carthage, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerta (Tunisia); Bearda, T.; Recaman Payo, M.; Abdelwahab, I. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Abdulraheem, Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering & Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat (Kuwait); Ezzaouia, H. [Research and Technology Center of Energy, Photovoltaic Department, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 (Tunisia); Gordon, I.; Szlufcik, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), K.U. Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Faculty of Sciences, University of Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The influence of the cleaning process using different HF-based cleaning on the amorphous silicon passivation of homojunction boron doped emitters is analyzed. • The effect of boron doping level on surface characteristics after wet chemical cleaning: For heavily doped surfaces, the reduction in contact angle was less pronounced, which proves that such surfaces are more resistant to oxide formation and remain hydrophobic for a longer time. In the case of low HF concentration, XPS measurements show higher oxygen concentrations for samples with higher doping level, probably due to the incomplete removal of the native oxide. • Higher effective lifetime is achieved at lower doping for all considered different chemical pre-treatments. • A post-deposition annealing improves the passivation level yielding emitter saturation currents determined by Auger recombination in the order of 70 fA/cm{sup 2} and below. • The dominance of Auger recombination over other type of B-induced defects on lifetime quality in the case of our p+ emitter. - Abstract: The influence of the cleaning process on the amorphous silicon passivation of homojunction emitters is investigated. A significant variation in the passivation quality following different cleaning sequences is not observed, even though differences in cleaning performance are evident. These results point out the effectiveness of our cleaning treatment and provide a hydrogen termination for intrinsic amorphous silicon passivation. A post-deposition treatment improves the passivation level yielding emitter saturation currents determined by Auger recombination in the order of 70 fA/cm{sup 2} and below.

  20. Shrinking of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxide matrix during rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sebille, M.; Fusi, A.; Xie, L.; Ali, H.; van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Leifer, K.; Zeman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen on the crystallization process of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide matrix. We show that hydrogen gas during annealing leads to a lower sub-band gap absorption, indicating passivation of defects created during annealing. Samples annealed in pure nitrogen show expected trends according to crystallization theory. Samples annealed in forming gas, however, deviate from this trend. Their crystallinity decreases for increased annealing time. Furthermore, we observe a decrease in the mean nanocrystal size and the size distribution broadens, indicating that hydrogen causes a size reduction of the silicon nanocrystals.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass doped with Nd{sup 3+} and CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serqueira, E.O.; Dantas, N.O. [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil); Anjos, V. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); Bell, M.J.V., E-mail: mjvbell@yahoo.com.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The formation of CdS nanocrystals in the glassy host is shown by Raman measurements. • Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass. • Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals. -- Abstract: We report the Raman spectroscopic characterization of a SNAB glass system doped with neodymium and CdS nanocrystals and fabricated by the fusion process. Raman spectra revealed CdS nanocrystals in the glass host and bands associated with Si–O vibrational modes with five structural configurations, boroxol modes of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al–O and Cd–S vibrational modes. Additionally, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass and Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals.

  2. Synthesis and applications of crack-free SiO2 monolith containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as passive lighting sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dong Kee

    2008-09-01

    A reverse microemulsion technique has been used to synthesize quantum dot nanocomposites within a SiO2 surface coating. With this approach, the unique optical properties of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were preserved. CdSe/ZnS/SiO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in a tetramethyl orthosilicate ethanol solution and gelation process was initiated within a 10 min, and was left over night at room temperature and dried fully to achieve a solid SiO, monolith. The resulting monolith was transparent and fluorescent under ultraviolet (UV) lamp. Moreover the monolith produced was crack-free. Further studies on the photo stability of the monolith were performed using a high power UV LED device. Remarkably, quantum dots in the SiO, monolith showed better photo stability compared with those dispersed in a polymer matrix.

  3. Modified spontaneous emission of silicon nanocrystals embedded in artificial opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Petr; Valenta, Jan; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Mafouana, Rodrigue R.; Linnros, Jan; Elliman, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Si nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in synthetic silica opals by means of Si-ion implantation or opal impregnation with porous-Si suspensions. In both types of sample photoluminescence (PL) is strongly Bragg-reflection attenuated (up to 75%) at the frequency of the opal stop-band in a direction perpendicular to the (1 1 1) face of the perfect hcp opal structure. Time-resolved PL shows a rich distribution of decay rates, which contains both shorter and longer decay components compared with the ordinary stretched exponential decay of Si NCs. This effect reflects changes in the spontaneous emission rate of Si NCs due to variations in the local density of states of real opal containing defects.

  4. Modified spontaneous emission of silicon nanocrystals embedded in artificial opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janda, Petr; Valenta, Jan; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Mafouana, Rodrigue R; Linnros, Jan; Elliman, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Si nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in synthetic silica opals by means of Si-ion implantation or opal impregnation with porous-Si suspensions. In both types of sample photoluminescence (PL) is strongly Bragg-reflection attenuated (up to 75%) at the frequency of the opal stop-band in a direction perpendicular to the (1 1 1) face of the perfect hcp opal structure. Time-resolved PL shows a rich distribution of decay rates, which contains both shorter and longer decay components compared with the ordinary stretched exponential decay of Si NCs. This effect reflects changes in the spontaneous emission rate of Si NCs due to variations in the local density of states of real opal containing defects

  5. Modified spontaneous emission of silicon nanocrystals embedded in artificial opals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, Petr [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Valenta, Jan [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Rehspringer, Jean-Luc [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, GMI et GONLO, UMR46 CNRS-ULP-ECPM, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Mafouana, Rodrigue R [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, GMI et GONLO, UMR46 CNRS-ULP-ECPM, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Linnros, Jan [Laboratory of Material and Semiconductor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 21 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden); Elliman, Robert G [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-10-07

    Si nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in synthetic silica opals by means of Si-ion implantation or opal impregnation with porous-Si suspensions. In both types of sample photoluminescence (PL) is strongly Bragg-reflection attenuated (up to 75%) at the frequency of the opal stop-band in a direction perpendicular to the (1 1 1) face of the perfect hcp opal structure. Time-resolved PL shows a rich distribution of decay rates, which contains both shorter and longer decay components compared with the ordinary stretched exponential decay of Si NCs. This effect reflects changes in the spontaneous emission rate of Si NCs due to variations in the local density of states of real opal containing defects.

  6. High-dose MeV electron irradiation of Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high doses Si+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschieva, S.; Angelov, Ch; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The influence was studied of 22-MeV electron irradiation on Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high-fluence Si+ ions. Our earlier works demonstrated that Si redistribution is observed in Si+-ion-implanted Si-SiO2 structures (after MeV electron irradiation) only in the case when ion implantation is carried out with a higher fluence (1016 cm-2). We focused our attention on the interaction of high-dose MeV electron irradiation (6.0×1016 cm-2) with n-Si-SiO2 structures implanted with Si+ ions (fluence 5.4×1016 cm-2 of the same order magnitude). The redistribution of both oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted Si-SiO2 samples after MeV electron irradiation was studied by Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) spectroscopy in combination with a channeling technique (RBS/C). Our results demonstrated that the redistribution of oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted samples reaches saturation after these high doses of MeV electron irradiation. The transformation of amorphous SiO2 surface into crystalline Si nanostructures (after MeV electron irradiation) was evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon nanocrystals are formed on the SiO2 surface after MeV electron irradiation. The shape and number of the Si nanocrystals on the SiO2 surface depend on the MeV electron irradiation, while their size increases with the dose. The mean Si nanocrystals height is 16-20 nm after irradiation with MeV electrons at the dose of 6.0×1016 cm-2.

  7. Tuning Confinement in Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals with Saturated Surface Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neale, Nathan R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carroll, Gerard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Limpens, Rens [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-16

    The optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are a subject of intense study and continued debate. In particular, Si NC photoluminescence (PL) properties are known to depend strongly on the surface chemistry, resulting in electron-hole recombination pathways derived from the Si NC band-edge, surface-state defects, or combined NC-conjugated ligand hybrid states. In this Letter, we perform a comparison of three different saturated surface functional groups - alkyls, amides, and alkoxides - on nonthermal plasma-synthesized Si NCs. We find a systematic and size-dependent high-energy (blue) shift in the PL spectrum of Si NCs with amide and alkoxy functionalization relative to alkyl. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies reveal no change in the excited-state dynamics between Si NCs functionalized with alkyl, amide, or alkoxide ligands, showing for the first time that saturated ligands - not only surface-derived charge-transfer states or hybridization between NC and low-lying ligand orbitals - are responsible for tuning the Si NC optical properties. To explain these PL shifts we propose that the atom bound to the Si NC surface strongly interacts with the Si NC electronic wave function and modulates the Si NC quantum confinement. These results reveal a potentially broadly applicable correlation between the optoelectronic properties of Si NCs and related quantum-confined structures based on the interaction between NC surfaces and the ligand binding group.

  8. Tuning Confinement in Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals with Saturated Surface Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gerard M; Limpens, Rens; Neale, Nathan R

    2018-05-09

    The optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are a subject of intense study and continued debate. In particular, Si NC photoluminescence (PL) properties are known to depend strongly on the surface chemistry, resulting in electron-hole recombination pathways derived from the Si NC band-edge, surface-state defects, or combined NC-conjugated ligand hybrid states. In this Letter, we perform a comparison of three different saturated surface functional groups-alkyls, amides, and alkoxides-on nonthermal plasma-synthesized Si NCs. We find a systematic and size-dependent high-energy (blue) shift in the PL spectrum of Si NCs with amide and alkoxy functionalization relative to alkyl. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies reveal no change in the excited-state dynamics between Si NCs functionalized with alkyl, amide, or alkoxide ligands, showing for the first time that saturated ligands-not only surface-derived charge-transfer states or hybridization between NC and low-lying ligand orbitals-are responsible for tuning the Si NC optical properties. To explain these PL shifts we propose that the atom bound to the Si NC surface strongly interacts with the Si NC electronic wave function and modulates the Si NC quantum confinement. These results reveal a potentially broadly applicable correlation between the optoelectronic properties of Si NCs and related quantum-confined structures based on the interaction between NC surfaces and the ligand binding group.

  9. Silicon Nanocrystal Synthesis in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with grains smaller than 5 nm are widely recognized as a key material in optoelectronic devices, lithium battery electrodes, and bio-medical labels. Another important characteristic is that silicon is an environmentally safe material that is used in numerous silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. In this study, we explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles on a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using a very-high-frequency (144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with volume of less than 1 μl. Fundamental plasma parameters of the microplasma were characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, which respectively indicated electron density of 1015 cm-3, argon excitation temperature of 5000 K, and rotational temperature of 1500 K. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma can decompose silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated silicon vapor, followed by gas-phase nucleation via three-body collision: particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation processes. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei can be terminated in a short-residence-time reactor. Micro-Raman scattering spectra showed that as-deposited particles are mostly amorphous silicon with a small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrography confirmed individual 3-15 nm silicon nanocrystals. Although particles were not mono-dispersed, they were well separated and not coagulated.

  10. Synthesis of Silicon Nanocrystals in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with a grain size of at least less than 10 nm are widely recognized as one of the key materials in optoelectronic devices, electrodes of lithium battery, bio-medical labels. There is also important character that silicon is safe material to the environment and easily gets involved in existing silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. We explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for the efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles in a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using very high frequency (VHF = 144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with a volume of less than 1 μ-liter. Fundamental plasma parameters of VHF capacitively coupled microplasma were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy, showing electron density of approximately 1015 cm-3 and rotational temperature of 1500 K, respectively. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma has a capability of decomposing silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated atomic silicon vapor, followed by gas phase nucleation via three-body collision. The particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation process. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei was able to be favorably terminated in a short-residence time reactor. Micro Raman scattering spectrum showed that as-deposited particles were mostly amorphous silicon with small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrograph confirmed individual silicon nanocrystals of 3-15 nm size. Although those particles were not mono-dispersed, they were

  11. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  12. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    The impact of nanotechnology on our society is getting larger every year. Electronics are becoming smaller and more powerful, the "Internet of Things" is all around us, and data generation is increasing exponentially. None of this would have been possible without the developments in nanotechnology. Crystalline semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystals) are one of the latest developments in the field of nanotechnology. This thesis addresses three important challenges for the transition of silicon nanocrystals from the lab bench to the marketplace: A better understanding of the nanocrystal synthesis was obtained, the electronic properties of the nanocrystals were characterized and tuned, and novel silicon nanocrystal inks were formed and applied using simple coating technologies. Plasma synthesis of nanocrystals has numerous advantages over traditional solution-based synthesis methods. While the formation of nanoparticles in low pressure nonthermal plasmas is well known, the heating mechanism leading to their crystallization is poorly understood. A combination of comprehensive plasma characterization with a nanoparticle heating model presented here reveals the underlying plasma physics leading to crystallization. The model predicts that the nanoparticles reach temperatures as high as 900 K in the plasma as a result of heating reactions on the nanoparticle surface. These temperatures are well above the gas temperature and sufficient for complete nanoparticle crystallization. Moving the field of plasma nanoparticle synthesis to atmospheric pressures is important for lowering its cost and making the process attractive for industrial applications. The heating and charging model for silicon nanoparticles was adapted in Chapter 3 to study plasmas maintained over a wide range of pressures (10 -- 105 Pa). The model considers three collisionality regimes and determines the dominant contribution of each regime under various plasma conditions. Strong nanoparticle cooling at

  13. Optimizing colloidal nanocrystals for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytnyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature colloidal nanocrystals are presented as promising materials for multiple applications, in areas covering optoelectronics, photovoltaics, spintronics, catalysis, and bio-medicine. On the marked are, however, only a very limited number of examples found, indeed implementing colloidal nanocrystals. Thus the scope of this thesis was to modify nanocrystals and to tune their properties to fulfill specific demands. While some modifications could be achieved by post synthetic treatments, one key problem of colloidal nanocrystals, hampering there widespread application is the toxicity of their constituents. To develop nanocrystals from non-toxic materials has been a major goal of this thesis as well. Roughly, the results in this thesis could be subdivided into three parts: (i) the development of ion exchange methods to tailor the properties of metallic and metal-oxide based nanocrystal heterostructures, (ii), the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals from non-toxic materials, and (iii) the characterization of the nanocrystals by measurements of their morphology, chemical composition, magnetic-, optical-, and electronic properties. In detail, the thesis is subdivided into an introductory chapter, 4 chapters reporting on scientific results, a chapter reporting the used methods, and the conclusions. The 4 chapters devoted to the scientific results correspond to manuscripts, which are either currently in preparation, or have been published in highly ranked scientific journals such as NanoLetters (chapter 2), ACS Nano (chapter 4), or JACS (chapter 5). Thus, these chapters provide also an extra introduction and conclusion section, as well as separate reference lists. Chapter 2 describes a cation exchange process which is used to tune and improve the magnetic properties of different iron-oxide based colloidal nanocrystal-heterostructures. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature, magnetic remanence, and coercivity is tuned by replacing Fe2+ by Co2

  14. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of the interface between nanocrystalline Si and SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, X.D.; Coleman, P.G.; Harding, R.; Davies, G.; Gwilliam, R.M.; Sealy, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy has been employed to study changes in the interface region between nanocrystalline Si and SiO 2 , following annealing between 400 deg. C and 900 deg. C in nitrogen or oxygen. With the support of photoluminescence spectroscopy we find that nitrogen and oxygen are trapped in voids at the interface at low temperatures. At temperatures above 700 deg. C both nitrogen and oxygen react with Si nanocrystals, and the resulting volume increase introduces stress in the SiO 2 matrix which is relaxed by the shrinkage of its intrinsic open volume. Oxygen appears to enhance Si diffusion in SiO 2 so that the agglomeration of Si nanocrystals occurs more readily during annealing in oxygen than in nitrogen

  15. PECVD Tekniği ile Büyütülmüş İnce Filmlerde Oluşan Ge ve SiGe Nanokristallerin Geçirgen Elektron Mikroskobu (TEM) ,Raman ve Fotoışıma Spektroskopisi Teknikleri ile İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Bünyamin; Ağan, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental study, optical properties of Ge and SiGe nanocrystals in SiOx structures are investigated by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman and Photlüminescence Spectroscopy techniques. Ge nanocrystals in silicon oxide thin films have been grown with different annealing time by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technique. The aim of our work is to determine size and size distiributions Ge, SiGe nanocrystals in SiOx martix due to annealing process...

  16. Electronic Structure of Hydrogenated and Surface-Modified GaAs Nanocrystals: Ab Initio Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamsa Naji Nasir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods are used to simulate electronic structure of gallium arsenide nanocrystals. The cluster full geometrical optimization procedure which is suitable for small nanocrystals and large unit cell that simulates specific parts of larger nanocrystals preferably core part as in the present work. Because of symmetry consideration, large unit cells can reach sizes that are beyond the capabilities of first method. The two methods use ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory, respectively. The results show that both energy gap and lattice constant decrease in their value as the nanocrystals grow in size. The inclusion of surface part in the first method makes valence band width wider than in large unit cell method that simulates the core part only. This is attributed to the broken symmetry and surface passivating atoms that split surface degenerate states and adds new levels inside and around the valence band. Bond length and tetrahedral angle result from full geometrical optimization indicate good convergence to the ideal zincblende structure at the centre of hydrogenated nanocrystal. This convergence supports large unit cell methodology. Existence of oxygen atoms at nanocrystal surface melts down density of states and reduces energy gap.

  17. Structural and optical characterization of self-assembled Ge nanocrystal layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; Buters, F.; Dohnalova, K.; Wosinski, L.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a structural and optical study of solid-state dispersions of Ge nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Structural analysis shows the presence of nanocrystalline germanium inclusions embedded in an amorphous matrix of Si-rich SiO2. Optical characterization

  18. Temperature-Dependent Physical and Memory Characteristics of Atomic-Layer-Deposited RuOx Metal Nanocrystal Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maikap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and memory characteristics of the atomic-layer-deposited RuOx metal nanocrystal capacitors in an n-Si/SiO2/HfO2/RuOx/Al2O3/Pt structure with different postdeposition annealing temperatures from 850–1000°C have been investigated. The RuOx metal nanocrystals with an average diameter of 7 nm and a highdensity of 0.7 × 1012/cm2 are observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy after a postdeposition annealing temperature at 1000°C. The density of RuOx nanocrystal is decreased (slightly by increasing the annealing temperatures, due to agglomeration of multiple nanocrystals. The RuO3 nanocrystals and Hf-silicate layer at the SiO2/HfO2 interface are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For post-deposition annealing temperature of 1000°C, the memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of ~9 nm possess a large hysteresis memory window of >5 V at a small sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V. A promising memory window under a small sweeping gate voltage of ~3 V is also observed due to charge trapping in the RuOx metal nanocrystals. The program/erase mechanism is modified Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling of the electrons and holes from Si substrate. The electrons and holes are trapped in the RuOx nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of 106 cycles and a large memory window of 4.3 V with a small charge loss of ~23% at 85°C are observed after 10 years of data retention time, due to the deep-level traps in the RuOx nanocrystals. The memory structure is very promising for future nanoscale nonvolatile memory applications.

  19. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanocrystals and polystyrene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juangsa, Firman Bagja; Muroya, Yoshiki; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are well known for their size-dependent optical and electronic properties; they also have the potential for low yet controllable thermal properties. As a silicon-based low-thermal conductivity material is required in microdevice applications, SiNCs can be utilized for thermal insulation. In this paper, SiNCs and polymer nanocomposites were produced, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was measured. Measurement results were compared with thermal conductivity models for composite materials, and the comparison shows a decreasing value of the thermal conductivity, indicating the effect of the size and presence of the nanostructure on the thermal conductivity. Moreover, employing silicon inks at room temperature during the fabrication process enables a low cost of fabrication and preserves the unique properties of SiNCs. (paper)

  20. Numerical simulations: Toward the design of 27.6% efficient four-terminal semi-transparent perovskite/SiC passivated rear contact silicon tandem solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel four-terminal perovskite/SiC-based rear contact silicon tandem solar cell device has been proposed and simulated to achieve 27.6% power conversion efficiency (PCE) under single AM1.5 illumination. 20.9% efficient semitransparent perovskite top subcell has been used for perovskite/silicon tandem architecture. The tandem structure of perovskite-silicon solar cells is a promising method to achieve efficient solar energy conversion at low cost. In the four-terminal tandem configuration, the cells are connected independently and hence avoids the need for current matching between top and bottom subcell, thus giving greater design flexibility. The simulation analysis shows, PCE of 27.6% and 22.4% with 300 μm and 10 μm thick rear contact Si bottom subcell, respectively. This is a substantial improvement comparing to transparent perovskite solar cell and c-Si solar cell operated individually. The impact of perovskite layer thickness, monomolecular, bimolecular, and trimolecular recombination have also been obtained on the performance of perovskite top subcell. Reported PCEs of 27.6% and 22.4% are 1.25 times and 1.42 times higher as compared to experimentally available efficiencies of 22.1% and 15.7% in 300 μm and 10 μm thick stand-alone silicon solar cell devices, respectively. The presence of SiC significantly suppressed the interface recombination in bottom silicon subcell. Detailed realistic technology computer aided design (TCAD) analysis has been performed to predict the behaviour of the device.

  1. Cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers by spin coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontturi, E.J.; Johansson, L.S.; Kontturi, K.S.; Ahonen, P.; Thune, P.C.; Laine, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dilute concentrations of cellulose nanocrystal solutions were spin coated onto different substrates to investigate the effect of the substrate on the nanocrystal submonolayers. Three substrates were probed: silica, titania, and amorphous cellulose. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) images,

  2. Passive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2018-01-01

    This paper does not present an advocacy of a passive education as opposed to an active education nor does it propose that passive education is in any way 'better' or more important than active education. Through readings of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and B.S. Johnson, and gentle critiques of Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, passive…

  3. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  4. Aqueous based synthesis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals with intense blue emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, Ehsan; Sahraei, Reza; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    In this work a very simple reflux route for preparation of ZnSe nanocrystals with minor modification and faster preparation over conventional ones is introduced. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnSe nanocrystals have a cubic structure. The complete disappearance of the S-H band in FT-IR spectrum of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals was an indication over formation of Zn-thiol covalent bonds at the surface of the nanocrystals which results in passivation of small nanocrystals. The strong size-quantization regime was responsible of significant blue shift in absorption/emission spectra. Using the well-known calculations, band gap and Urbach energy of the ZnSe nanocrystals were measured and their average size was estimated optically to be around 4.6 nm along with the TEM image. A dark blue emission with higher relative intensity of excitonic to trap emissions (compared to conventional method), very narrow excitonic emission peak of about 16 nm and remarkable stability was obtained from the ZnSe nanocrystals.

  5. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of silicon oxide and silicon nitride superlattices containing silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleiko, D V; Ilin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence and electrical properties of superlattices with thin (1 to 5 nm) alternating silicon-rich silicon oxide or silicon-rich silicon nitride, and silicon oxide or silicon nitride layers containing silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with subsequent annealing were investigated. The entirely silicon oxide based superlattices demonstrated photoluminescence peak shift due to quantum confinement effect. Electrical measurements showed the hysteresis effect in the vicinity of zero voltage due to structural features of the superlattices from SiOa 93 /Si 3 N 4 and SiN 0 . 8 /Si 3 N 4 layers. The entirely silicon nitride based samples demonstrated resistive switching effect, comprising an abrupt conductivity change at about 5 to 6 V with current-voltage characteristic hysteresis. The samples also demonstrated efficient photoluminescence with maximum at ∼1.4 eV, due to exiton recombination in silicon nanocrystals. (paper)

  6. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2008-11-01

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO2/QDs /p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO2/QDs /Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  7. Size limit on the phosphorous doped silicon nanocrystals for dopant activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: pengyuan.yang@surrey.ac.uk [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Gwilliam, R.M. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Crowe, I.F.; Papachristodoulou, N.; Halsall, M.P. [Photon Science Institute, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hylton, N.P. [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hulko, O.; Knights, A.P. [Department of Engineering Physics and the Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton L8S 4L7, Ontario (Canada); Shah, M.; Kenyon, A.J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    We studied the photoluminescence spectra of silicon nanocrystals doped with and without phosphorus as a function of isothermal annealing time. Silicon nanocrystals were prepared by the implantation of 80 keV Si{sup +} into a 500 nm SiO{sub 2} film to an areal density of 8 × 10{sup 16} at/cm{sup 2}. Half of the samples were co-implanted with P{sup +} at 80 keV to 5 × 10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence of the annealed samples were photo-excited at wavelength of 405 nm. For short anneal times, when the nanocrystal size distribution has a relatively small mean diameter, formation in the presence of phosphorus yields an increase in the luminescence intensity and a blue shift in the emission peak compared with intrinsic nanocrystals. As the mean size increases with annealing time, this enhancement rapidly diminishes and the peak energy shifts to the red. Our results indicate the donor electron generation depends strongly on the nanocrystal size. We also found a critical limit above which it allows dopant activation.

  8. Diazonium salts as grafting agents and efficient radical-hydrosilylation initiators for freestanding photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Ignaz M D; Kehrle, Julian; Helbich, Tobias; Yang, Zhenyu; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Rieger, Bernhard

    2014-04-07

    The reactivity of diazonium salts towards freestanding, photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) is reported. It was found that SiNCs can be functionalized with aryl groups by direct reductive grafting of the diazonium salts. Furthermore, diazonium salts are efficient radical initiators for SiNC hydrosilylation. For this purpose, novel electron-deficient diazonium salts, highly soluble in nonpolar solvents were synthesized. The SiNCs were functionalized with a variety of alkenes and alkynes at room temperature with short reaction times. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  10. Chemically Addressable Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haizhu

    2017-07-10

    Whereas organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have remarkable potential in the development of optoelectronic materials, their relatively poor chemical and colloidal stability undermines their performance in optoelectronic devices. Herein, this issue is addressed by passivating PNCs with a class of chemically addressable ligands. The robust ligands effectively protect the PNC surfaces, enhance PNC solution processability, and can be chemically addressed by thermally induced crosslinking or radical-induced polymerization. This thin polymer shield further enhances the photoluminescence quantum yields by removing surface trap states. Crosslinked methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) PNCs are applied as active materials to build light-emitting diodes that have low turn-on voltages and achieve a record luminance of over 7000 cd m−2, around threefold better than previous reported MA-based PNC devices. These results indicate the great potential of this ligand passivation approach for long lifespan, highly efficient PNC light emitters.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: yanglin_1028@163.com; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-04-15

    High-quality ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal microemulsion technique. Effective surface passivation of monodisperse ZnSe:Fe nanocrystals is achieved by overcoating them with a ZnSe shell. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, EDX, TEM, PSD, XPS, photoluminescence, and Raman spectrum. The results show that the as-synthesized nanocrystals are cubic zinc blende ZnSe structure with high purity and the average particle size of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystal is larger than that of ZnSe:Fe core. The growth of ZnSe shell causes a small red shift in PL spectra, and then the PL quantum yield (QY) increases from 16% before shell growth to the maximum of 37% after increasing shell thickness up to 1.2 monolayers (ML). Moreover, both transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal optic (LO) phonon modes of ZnSe are shifted toward lower frequency as compared with the reported ones. -- Highlights: • ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell QDs were prepared by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. • ZnSe shell efficiently passivates surface defects by serving as a physical barrier. • The particle size and PL properties can be turned with the growth of ZnSe shell. • The luminescence efficiency and stability of QDs could be improved in this manner.

  12. Mineral contents and their solubility on calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals from cockle shell powder (Anadara granosa Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, S.; Pramushinta, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Prepared and characterized calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals improves solubility. Calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals were synthesized using precipitation method from the waste of blood clam cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn). This study was conducted to analyze mineral composition of nanocrystals calcium carbonat calcite cockle (Anadara granosa) shell for calcium fortification of food applications and to evaluate the solubilities of Calsium and Phospor. The sample of nanocrystals from cockle shells was evaluated to determine the content of 11 macro-and micro-elements. These elements are Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Ferrum (Fe), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Zink (Zn), Boron (B) and Silica (Si)). Cockleshell powders were found to contain toxic elements below detectable levels. The solubilities of Calcium and Phospor were p<0.05.

  13. Zero-reabsorption doped-nanocrystal luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Christian S; Bradshaw, Liam R; McDowall, Stephen; Gilbertson, John D; Gamelin, Daniel R; Patrick, David L

    2014-04-22

    Optical concentration can lower the cost of solar energy conversion by reducing photovoltaic cell area and increasing photovoltaic efficiency. Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to combined spectral and spatial concentration of both specular and diffuse light without tracking, but they have been plagued by luminophore self-absorption losses when employed on practical size scales. Here, we introduce doped semiconductor nanocrystals as a new class of phosphors for use in luminescent solar concentrators. In proof-of-concept experiments, visibly transparent, ultraviolet-selective luminescent solar concentrators have been prepared using colloidal Mn(2+)-doped ZnSe nanocrystals that show no luminescence reabsorption. Optical quantum efficiencies of 37% are measured, yielding a maximum projected energy concentration of ∼6× and flux gain for a-Si photovoltaics of 15.6 in the large-area limit, for the first time bounded not by luminophore self-absorption but by the transparency of the waveguide itself. Future directions in the use of colloidal doped nanocrystals as robust, processable spectrum-shifting phosphors for luminescent solar concentration on the large scales required for practical application of this technology are discussed.

  14. Compact intra-cavity pumped low-threshold passively Q-switched Ho:Sc2SiO5 laser by a LD-pumped Tm:YAP laser at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-tao; Xie, Wen-qiang; Liu, Long; Li, Lin-jun

    2017-08-01

    A compact intra-cavity pumped low-threshold passively Q-switched (PQS) Ho:Sc2SiO5 (Ho:SSO) laser is reported for the first time. The Tm:YAlO3 (Tm:YAP) crystal and the Ho:SSO crystal are placed in the same laser cavity. A laser diode with a central wavelength of 793 nm is used to realize the output of the Ho:SSO laser. Both the continuous wave (CW) and PQS operation are investigated. A Cr2+:ZnSe is used as the saturable absorber in the PQS Ho:SSO laser. For the CW mode, the laser threshold is only 750 mW, which is 980 mW in the PQS mode. A maximum pulse energy of 699 µJ is primarily obtained, corresponding to the pulse width of 96 ns. The maximum repetition frequency is 1.46 kHz. The maximum pulse peak power can be calculated to be 7.28 kW. The beam quality factor M 2 is calculated to be 1.4 with the maximum output power.

  15. Temperature-dependent surface density of alkylthiol monolayers on gold nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Lu, Pin; Zhai, Hua; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-03-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the surface density of passivating monolayers of alkylthiol chains on gold nanocrystals at temperatures ranging from 1 to 800 K. The results show that the surface density of alkylthiol monolayer reaches a maximum value at near room temperature (200-300 K), while significantly decreases with increasing temperature in the higher temperature region (> 300 {{K}}), and slightly decreases with decreasing temperature at low temperature (< 200 {{K}}). We find that the temperature dependence of surface ligand density in the higher temperature region is attributed to the substantial ligand desorption induced by the thermal fluctuation, while that at low temperature results from the reduction in entropy caused by the change in the ordering of passivating monolayer. These results are expected helpful to understand the temperature-dependent surface coverage of gold nanocrystals.

  16. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  17. Surface passivation technology for III-V semiconductor nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Akazawa, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    The present status and key issues of surface passivation technology for III-V surfaces are discussed in view of applications to emerging novel III-V nanoelectronics. First, necessities of passivation and currently available surface passivation technologies for GaAs, InGaAs and AlGaAs are reviewed. Then, the principle of the Si interface control layer (ICL)-based passivation scheme by the authors' group is introduced and its basic characterization is presented. Ths Si ICL is a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown ultrathin Si layer inserted between III-V semiconductor and passivation dielectric. Finally, applications of the Si ICL method to passivation of GaAs nanowires and GaAs nanowire transistors and to realization of pinning-free high-k dielectric/GaAs MOS gate stacks are presented

  18. Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ayaskanta

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are a promising technological material because their size-dependent optical and electronic properties can be exploited for a diverse range of applications such as light-emitting diodes, bio-labels, transistors, and solar cells. For many of these applications, electrical current needs to be transported through the devices. However, while their solution processability makes these colloidal nanocrystals attractive candidates for device applications, the bulky surfactants that render these nanocrystals dispersible in common solvents block electrical current. Thus, in order to realize the full potential of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in the next-generation of solid-state devices, methods must be devised to make conductive films from these nanocrystals. One way to achieve this would be to add minute amounts of foreign impurity atoms (dopants) to increase their conductivity. Electronic doping in nanocrystals is still very much in its infancy with limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern the doping process. This thesis introduces an innovative synthesis of doped nanocrystals and aims at expanding the fundamental understanding of charge transport in these doped nanocrystal films. The list of semiconductor nanocrystals that can be doped is large, and if one combines that with available dopants, an even larger set of materials with interesting properties and applications can be generated. In addition to doping, another promising route to increase conductivity in nanocrystal films is to use nanocrystals with high ionic conductivities. This thesis also examines this possibility by studying new phases of mixed ionic and electronic conductors at the nanoscale. Such a versatile approach may open new pathways for interesting fundamental research, and also lay the foundation for the creation of novel materials with important applications. In addition to their size-dependence, the intentional incorporation of

  19. Annealing-induced evolution of optical properties of the multilayered nanoperiodic SiOx/ZrO2 system containing Si nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A. V.; Tetelbaum, D. I.; Chugrov, I. A.; Mashin, A. I.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Ershov, A. A.; Karabanova, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The photoluminescence, infrared absorption, and Raman spectra of amorphous multilayered nanoperiodic a-SiO x /ZrO 2 structures produced by vacuum evaporation and then annealed at different temperatures (500–1100°C) are studied. It is established that the evolution of the optical properties with increasing annealing temperature is controlled by sequential transformation of Si clusters formed in the SiO x layers from nonphase inclusions to amorphous clusters and then to nanocrystals. The finally formed nanocrystals are limited in sizes by the thickness of the initial SiO x layers and by chemical reactions with ZrO 2 .

  20. Formation, structure, and phonon confinement effect of nanocrystalline Si1-xGex in SiO2-Si-Ge cosputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.M.; Wu, X.L.; Siu, G.G.; Huang, G.S.; Shen, J.C.; Hu, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    Using magnetron cosputtering of SiO 2 , Ge, and Si targets, Si-based SiO 2 :Ge:Si films were fabricated for exploring the influence of Si target proportion (P Si ) and annealing temperature (Ta) on formation, local structure, and phonon properties of nanocrystalline Si 1-x Ge x (nc-Si 1-x Ge x ). At low P Si and Ta higher than 800 deg. C, no nc-Si 1-x Ge x but a kind of composite nanocrystal consisting of a Ge core, GeSi shell, and amorphous Si outer shell is formed in the SiO 2 matrix. At moderate P Si , nc-Si 1-x Ge x begins to be formed at Ta=800 deg. C and coexists with nc-Ge at Ta=1100 deg. C. At high P Si , it was disclosed that both optical phonon frequency and lattice spacing of nc-Si 1-x Ge x increase with raising Ta. The possible origin of this phenomenon is discussed by considering three factors, the phonon confinement, strain effect, and composition variation of nc-Si 1-x Ge x . This work will be helpful in understanding the growth process of ternary GeSiO films and beneficial to further investigations on optical properties of nc-Ge 1-x Si x in the ternary matrix

  1. Annealing temperature dependence of photoluminescent characteristics of silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon-rich silicon nitride films grown by PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, D.S.; Liang, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, light emission from silicon nanostructures has gained great interest due to its promising potential of realizing silicon-based optoelectronic applications. In this study, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (Si–NCs) were in situ synthesized in silicon-rich silicon nitride (SRSN) films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SRSN films with various excess silicon contents were deposited by adjusting SiH 4 flow rate to 100 and 200 sccm and keeping NH 3 one at 40 sccm, and followed by furnace annealing (FA) treatments at 600, 850 and 1100 °C for 1 h. The effects of excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature on optical properties of Si–NCs were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The origins of two groups of PL peaks found in this study can be attributed to defect-related interface states and quantum confinement effects (QCE). Defect-related interface states lead to the photon energy levels almost kept constant at about 3.4 eV, while QCE results in visible and tunable PL emission in the spectral range of yellow and blue light which depends on excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature. In addition, PL intensity was also demonstrated to be highly correlative to the excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature due to its corresponding effects on size, density, crystallinity, and surface passivation of Si–NCs. Considering the trade-off between surface passivation and structural properties of Si–NCs, an optimal post-annealing temperature of 600 °C was suggested to maximize the PL intensity of the SRSN films

  2. Negligible Electronic Interaction between Photoexcited Electron-Hole Pairs and Free Electrons in Phosphorus-Boron Co-Doped Silicon Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpens, Rens [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neale, Nathan R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fujii, Minoru [Kobe University; Gregorkiewicz, Tom [University of Amsterdam

    2018-03-05

    Phosphorus (P) and boron (B) co-doped Si nanocrystals (NCs) have raised interest in the optoelectronic industry due to their electronic tunability, optimal carrier multiplication properties, and straightforward dispersibility in polar solvents. Yet a basic understanding of the interaction of photoexcited electron-hole (e-h) pairs with new physical features that are introduced by the co-doping process (free carriers, defect states, and surface chemistry) is missing. Here, we present the first study of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in SiO2-embedded P-B co-doped Si NC ensembles using induced absorption spectroscopy through a two-step approach. First, the induced absorption data show that the large fraction of the dopants residing on the NC surface slows down carrier relaxation dynamics within the first 20 ps relative to intrinsic (undoped) Si NCs, which we interpret as enhanced surface passivation. On longer time-scales (picosecond to nanosecond regime), we observe a speeding up of the carrier relaxation dynamics and ascribe it to doping-induced trap states. This argument is deduced from the second part of the study, where we investigate multiexciton interactions. From a stochastic modeling approach we show that localized carriers, which are introduced by the P or B dopants, have minor electronic interactions with the photoexcited e-h pairs. This is understood in light of the strong localization of the introduced carriers on their original P- or B-dopant atoms, due to the strong quantum confinement regime in these relatively small NCs (<6 nm).

  3. Systematic spatial and stoichiometric screening towards understanding the surface of ultrasmall oxygenated silicon nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Shanawer; Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Gülseren, Oǧuz; Sadiq, Imran

    2016-11-01

    In most of the realistic ab initio and model calculations which have appeared on the emission of light from silicon nanocrystals, the role of surface oxygen has been usually ignored, underestimated or completely ruled out. We investigate theoretically, by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) possible modes of oxygen bonding in hydrogen terminated silicon quantum dots using as a representative case of the Si29 nanocrystal. We have considered Bridge-bonded oxygen (BBO), Doubly-bonded oxygen (DBO), hydroxyl (OH) and Mix of these oxidizing agents. Due to stoichiometry, all comparisons performed are unbiased with respect to composition whereas spatial distribution of oxygen species pointed out drastic change in electronic and cohesive characteristics of nanocrytals. From an overall perspective of this study, it is shown that bridge bonded oxygenated Si nanocrystals accompanied by Mix have higher binding energies and large electronic gap compared to nanocrystals with doubly bonded oxygen atoms. In addition, it is observed that the presence of OH along with BBO, DBO and mixed configurations further lowers electronic gaps and binding energies but trends in same fashion. It is also demonstrated that within same composition, oxidizing constituent, along with their spatial distribution substantially alters binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap (up to 1.48 eV) and localization of frontier orbitals.

  4. Graphene enhanced field emission from InP nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemmo, L; Di Bartolomeo, A; Giubileo, F; Luongo, G; Passacantando, M; Niu, G; Hatami, F; Skibitzki, O; Schroeder, T

    2017-12-08

    We report the observation of field emission (FE) from InP nanocrystals (NCs) epitaxially grown on an array of p-Si nanotips. We prove that FE can be enhanced by covering the InP NCs with graphene. The measurements are performed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber with a nano-controlled W-thread used as an anode. We analyze the FE by Fowler-Nordheim theory and find that the field enhancement factor increases monotonically with the spacing between the anode and the cathode. We also show that InP/p-Si junction has a rectifying behavior, while graphene on InP creates an ohmic contact. Understanding the fundamentals of such nanojunctions is key for applications in nanoelectronics.

  5. Pt Single Atoms Embedded in the Surface of Ni Nanocrystals as Highly Active Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhan; Geng, Zhigang; Zhao, Songtao; Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Li, Zhenyu; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie

    2018-06-13

    Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites, which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals reached ∼1800 h -1 under 3 atm of H 2 at 40 °C, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , and ZSM-5. Mechanistic studies reveal that the remarkable activity of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals derived from sufficient hydrogen supply because of spontaneous dissociation of H 2 on both Pt and Ni atoms as well as facile diffusion of H atoms on Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals. Moreover, the ensemble composed of the Pt single atom and nearby Ni atoms in Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals leads to the adsorption configuration of 3-nitrostyrene favorable for the activation of nitro groups, accounting for the high selectivity for 3-vinylaniline.

  6. Crystalline silicon solar cell with front and rear polysilicon passivated contacts as bottom cell for hybrid tandems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxembourg, S.L.; Zhang, D.; Wu, Y.; Najafi, M.; Zardetto, V.; Verhees, W.; Burgers, A.R.; Veenstra, S.; Geerligs, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and model perovskite/c-Si tandem cells with front and rear polySi passivated contacts on the bottom cell. A high-efficiency tandem approach will benefit from the high Voc potential of a c-Si bottom cell with front and rear polySi passivated contacts while the combination

  7. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  8. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA; Yin, Yadong [Moreno Valley, CA; Erdonmez, Can Kerem [Berkeley, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation of doped nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, Jan Frederik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (ZnS or ZnSe) in the size range (diameter) of 2 nm to 10 nm. The nanocrystals under investigation are doped with the transition metal ions manganese or copper. The goal is to study photoluminescence and electroluminescence from

  10. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon [Pinole, CA; Schlamp, Michael C [Plainsboro, NJ; Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  11. Analyses of the As doping of SiO{sub 2}/Si/SiO{sub 2} nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, Francesco; Miritello, Maria [CNR-IMM MATIS, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Tomasello, Mario Vincenzo [Scuola Superiore di Catania, via San Nullo 5/i, 95123 Catania (Italy); De Bastiani, Riccardo; Grimaldi, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IMM MATIS, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Nicotra, Giuseppe; Spinella, Corrado [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), VIII Strada 5, 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We illustrate the behaviour of As when it is confined, by the implantation technique, in a SiO{sub 2}(70nm)/Si(30nm)/SiO{sub 2}(70nm) multilayer and its spatial redistribution when annealing processes are performed. By Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and Z-contrast transmission electron microscopy we found an As accumulation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces and at the Si grain boundaries with no segregation of the As in the Si layer. Such an effect is in agreement with a model that assumes a traps distribution in the Si in the first 2-3 nm above the SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces and along the Si grain boundaries. The traps concentration at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces was estimated in 10{sup 14} traps/cm{sup 2}. The outlined results can open perspectives on the doping properties of As in Si nanocrystals, whose applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics are widely investigated (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Structural and optical properties of germanium nanostructures on Si(100 and embedded in high-k oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Samit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The structural and optical properties of Ge quantum dots (QDs grown on Si(001 for mid-infrared photodetector and Ge nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices for floating gate memory devices are presented. The infrared photoluminescence (PL signal from Ge islands has been studied at a low temperature. The temperature- and bias-dependent photocurrent spectra of a capped Si/SiGe/Si(001 QDs infrared photodetector device are presented. The properties of Ge nanocrystals of different size and density embedded in high-k matrices grown using radio frequency magnetron sputtering have been studied. Transmission electron micrographs have revealed the formation of isolated spherical Ge nanocrystals in high-k oxide matrix of sizes ranging from 4 to 18 nm. Embedded nanocrystals in high band gap oxides have been found to act as discrete trapping sites for exchanging charge carriers with the conduction channel by direct tunneling that is desired for applications in floating gate memory devices.

  13. Symmetry breaking during seeded growth of nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohu; Xia, Younan

    2012-11-14

    Currently, most of the reported noble-metal nanocrystals are limited to a high level of symmetry, as constrained by the inherent, face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of these metals. In this paper, we report, for the first time, a facile and versatile approach (backed up by a clear mechanistic understanding) for breaking the symmetry of an fcc lattice and thus obtaining nanocrystals with highly unsymmetrical shapes. The key strategy is to induce and direct the growth of nanocrystal seeds into unsymmetrical modes by manipulating the reduction kinetics. With silver as an example, we demonstrated that the diversity of possible shapes taken by noble-metal nanocrystals could be greatly expanded by incorporating a series of new shapes drastically deviated from the fcc lattice. This work provides a new method to investigate shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystal.

  14. Structure and Spatial Distribution of Ge Nanocrystals Subjected to Fast Neutron Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ionov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fast neutron irradiation on the structure and spatial distribution of Ge nanocrystals (NC embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix has been studied. The investigation was conducted by means of laser Raman Scattering (RS, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The irradiation of Ge- NC samples by a high dose of fast neutrons lead to a partial destruction of the nanocrystals. Full reconstruction of crystallinity was achieved after annealing the radiation damage at 8000C, which resulted in full restoration of the RS spectrum. HR-TEM images show, however, that the spatial distributions of Ge-NC changed as a result of irradiation and annealing. A sharp decrease in NC distribution towards the SiO2 surface has been observed. This was accompanied by XPS detection of Ge oxides and elemental Ge within both the surface and subsurface region.

  15. Organo-Functionalization of Silicon Nanocrystals Synthesized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Don-Sung; Choe, Dong-Hoe; Jeong, Hyun-Dam [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seung-Wan; Kim, Jung-Hyung [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Octadecyl-terminated silicon nanocrystals (ODE-Si NCs) are obtained via a surface-initiated thermal hydrosilylation reaction on hydride-terminated Si NCs (H-Si NCs). Pristine Si NCs were synthesized at the gram scale by using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) . The H-Si NCs were produced through a chemical etching process with hydrofluoric acid (HF), ethanol (EtOH), and distilled water (d-H{sub 2}O). The results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicate that the synthesized Si NCs obtained via ICP-CVD have diamond cubic-structured silicon with a grain size of 10 nm and a densely packed Si NC array consisting of individual NCs. Organo-functionalized Si NCs, i.e., ODE-Si NCs, are well soluble in organic solvent whereas pristine Si NCs synthesized through ICP-CVD are not. The surface chemistry of the ODE-Si NCs was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-NMR), and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). Thereby, these newly synthesized and scalable organo-functionalized Si NCs are applicable as raw materials for practical use in devices by tuning the surface chemistry with various capping molecules.

  16. Systematic spatial and stoichiometric screening towards understanding the surface of ultrasmall oxygenated silicon nanocrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niaz, Shanawer, E-mail: shanawersi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Molecular Engineering Laboratory, at the Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500 (Greece); Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N. [Molecular Engineering Laboratory, at the Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500 (Greece); Gülseren, Oǧuz [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sadiq, Imran [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Understanding surface science of oxygenated silicon nanocrystals by means of their composition, stoichiometry and spatial distribution. • Drastic change observed in binding energy, localization of frontier orbitals and HOMO-LUMO gap up to 1.48 eV. • Might be a safe alternative of size dependent bandgap tunability. - Abstract: In most of the realistic ab initio and model calculations which have appeared on the emission of light from silicon nanocrystals, the role of surface oxygen has been usually ignored, underestimated or completely ruled out. We investigate theoretically, by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) possible modes of oxygen bonding in hydrogen terminated silicon quantum dots using as a representative case of the Si{sub 29} nanocrystal. We have considered Bridge-bonded oxygen (BBO), Doubly-bonded oxygen (DBO), hydroxyl (OH) and Mix of these oxidizing agents. Due to stoichiometry, all comparisons performed are unbiased with respect to composition whereas spatial distribution of oxygen species pointed out drastic change in electronic and cohesive characteristics of nanocrytals. From an overall perspective of this study, it is shown that bridge bonded oxygenated Si nanocrystals accompanied by Mix have higher binding energies and large electronic gap compared to nanocrystals with doubly bonded oxygen atoms. In addition, it is observed that the presence of OH along with BBO, DBO and mixed configurations further lowers electronic gaps and binding energies but trends in same fashion. It is also demonstrated that within same composition, oxidizing constituent, along with their spatial distribution substantially alters binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap (up to 1.48 eV) and localization of frontier orbitals.

  17. Systematic spatial and stoichiometric screening towards understanding the surface of ultrasmall oxygenated silicon nanocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaz, Shanawer; Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Gülseren, Oǧuz; Sadiq, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Understanding surface science of oxygenated silicon nanocrystals by means of their composition, stoichiometry and spatial distribution. • Drastic change observed in binding energy, localization of frontier orbitals and HOMO-LUMO gap up to 1.48 eV. • Might be a safe alternative of size dependent bandgap tunability. - Abstract: In most of the realistic ab initio and model calculations which have appeared on the emission of light from silicon nanocrystals, the role of surface oxygen has been usually ignored, underestimated or completely ruled out. We investigate theoretically, by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) possible modes of oxygen bonding in hydrogen terminated silicon quantum dots using as a representative case of the Si 29 nanocrystal. We have considered Bridge-bonded oxygen (BBO), Doubly-bonded oxygen (DBO), hydroxyl (OH) and Mix of these oxidizing agents. Due to stoichiometry, all comparisons performed are unbiased with respect to composition whereas spatial distribution of oxygen species pointed out drastic change in electronic and cohesive characteristics of nanocrytals. From an overall perspective of this study, it is shown that bridge bonded oxygenated Si nanocrystals accompanied by Mix have higher binding energies and large electronic gap compared to nanocrystals with doubly bonded oxygen atoms. In addition, it is observed that the presence of OH along with BBO, DBO and mixed configurations further lowers electronic gaps and binding energies but trends in same fashion. It is also demonstrated that within same composition, oxidizing constituent, along with their spatial distribution substantially alters binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap (up to 1.48 eV) and localization of frontier orbitals.

  18. Aqueous-phase synthesis and color-tuning of core/shell/shell inorganic nanocrystals consisting of ZnSe, (Cu, Mn)-doped ZnS, and ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongwan; Yoon, Sujin [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Felix Sunjoo, E-mail: fskim@cau.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nakjoong, E-mail: kimnj@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    We report synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals based on ZnSe core, (Cu,Mn)-doped ZnS inner-shell, and ZnS outer-shell by using an eco-friendly method and their optical properties. Synthesis of core/shell/shell nanocrystals was performed by using a one-pot/three-step colloidal method with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a stabilizer in aqueous phase at low temperature. A double-shell structure was employed with inner-shell as a host for doping and outer-shell as a passivation layer for covering surface defects. Copper and manganese were introduced as single- or co-dopants during inner-shell formation, providing an effective means to control the emission color of the nanocrystals. The synthesized nanocrystals showed fluorescent emission ranging from blue to green, to white, and to orange, adjusted by doping components, amounts, and ratios. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the core/doped-shell/shell nanocrystals approached 36%. - Highlights: • ZnSe/ZnS:(Cu,Ms)/ZnS core/(doped)shell/shell nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous phase. • Emission color of nanocrystals was controlled from blue to white to orange by adjusting the atomic ratio of Cu and Mn co-dopants. • Photoluminescence quantum yields of the colloidal nanocrystals approached 36%.

  19. Development Considerations for Nanocrystal Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; John, Mathew; Lee, Sau L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-05-01

    Nanocrystal technology has emerged as a valuable tool for facilitating the delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and enhancing API bioavailability. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received over 80 applications for drug products containing nanocrystals. These products can be delivered by different routes of administration and are used in a variety of therapeutic areas. To aid in identifying key developmental considerations for these products, a retrospective analysis was performed on the submissions received by the FDA to date. Over 60% of the submissions were for the oral route of administration. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), most nanocrystal drugs submitted to the FDA are class II compounds that possess low aqueous solubility and high intestinal permeability. Impact of food on drug bioavailability was reduced for most nanocrystal formulations as compared with their micronized counterparts. For all routes of administration, dose proportionality was observed for some, but not all, nanocrystal products. Particular emphasis in the development of nanocrystal products was placed on the in-process tests and controls at critical manufacturing steps (such as milling process), mitigation and control of process-related impurities, and the stability of APIs or polymorphic form (s) during manufacturing and upon storage. This emphasis resulted in identifying challenges to the development of these products including accurate determination of particle size (distribution) of drug substance and/or nanocrystal colloidal dispersion, identification of polymorphic form (s), and establishment of drug substance/product specifications.

  20. Growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica by rf co-sputter deposition and post-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Kumar, V.V.; Singh, F.; Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films with ZnO nanocrystals in silica were synthesized by rf reactive magnetron co-sputter deposition and post-annealing. The films were deposited from a ZnO/Si composite target in an rf oxygen plasma. The deposited films were annealed in air/vacuum at high temperatures to grow ZnO nanocrystals. The deposited and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), uv-vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. FT-IR results of the films show the vibrational features of Si-O-Si and Zn-O bonds. UV-VIS spectra of the deposited film shows the band edge of ZnO. The XRD results of the films annealed at 750 deg. C and 1000 deg. C indicate the growth of ZnO nanocrystals with average crystallite sizes between 7 nm and 26 nm. PL measurements of the deposited film show a broad visible luminescence peak which can be due to ZnO. These results suggest the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica matrix

  1. Compositional properties of passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    The classical passivity theorem states that the negative feedback interconnection of passive systems is again passive. The converse statement, - passivity of the interconnected system implies passivity of the subsystems -, turns out to be equally valid. This result implies that among all feasible

  2. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  3. Observing the morphology of single-layered embedded silicon nanocrystals by using temperature-stable TEM membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We use high-temperature-stable silicon nitride membranes to investigate single layers of silicon nanocrystal ensembles by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. The silicon nanocrystals are prepared from the precipitation of a silicon-rich oxynitride layer sandwiched between two SiO2 diffusion barriers and subjected to a high-temperature annealing. We find that such single layers are very sensitive to the annealing parameters and may lead to a significant loss of excess silicon. In addition, these ultrathin layers suffer from significant electron beam damage that needs to be minimized in order to image the pristine sample morphology. Finally we demonstrate how the silicon nanocrystal size distribution develops from a broad to a narrow log-normal distribution, when the initial precipitation layer thickness and stoichiometry are below a critical value.

  4. A novel one-pot room-temperature synthesis route to produce very small photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Gallardo, Oscar A.; Burgos-Paci, Maxi A.; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Putnam, Karl G.; Josefina Arellano-Jiménez, M.; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Macagno, Vicente A.; Sánchez, Cristián G.; Pérez, Manuel A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) from a reaction between tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethyl-hexadecyl-ammonium borohydride (CTABH4) in organic solvent is presented. The formation reaction occurs spontaneously at room temperature in homogeneous phase. The produced silicon nanocrystals are characterized by using their photoluminescent properties and via HRTEM. In addition, theoretical calculations of the optical absorption spectrum of silicon quantum dots in vacuum with different sizes and surface moieties were performed in order to compare with the experimental findings. The new chemical reaction is simple and can be implemented to produce silicon nanocrystal with regular laboratory materials by performing easy and safe procedures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Photoluminescence from ZnO-SiO2 opals with different sphere diameters and thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingling; Yan Hongwei; Fu Zhengping; Yang Beifang; Xia Linsheng; Wang Zhen; Zuo Jian; Yu Shijun; Fu Shengquan; Li Fanqing

    2007-01-01

    We systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) and transmittance characteristics of ZnO-SiO 2 opals with varied positions of the stop-band and film thicknesses. An improved ultraviolet (UV) luminescence was observed from ZnO-SiO 2 composites over pure ZnO nanocrystals under 325 nm He-Cd laser excitation at room temperature. The UV PL of ZnO nanocrystals in SiO 2 opals with stop-bands center of 410 nm is sensitive to the thickness of opal films, and the UV PL intensity increases with the film thickness increasing. The PL spectra of ZnO nanocrystals in SiO 2 opals with stop-bands center of 570 nm show a suppression of the weak visible band. The experimental results are discussed based on the scattering and/or absorbance in opal crystals

  6. Charge transport in a CoPt3 nanocrystal microwire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecher, P.; De Marzi, G.; Quinn, A.J.; Redmond, G.; Shevchenko, E.V.; Weller, H.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of single CoPt 3 nanocrystal microwires formed by magnetic field-directed growth from colloidal solutions are presented. The wires comprise disordered assemblies of discrete nanocrystals, separated from each other by protective organic ligand shells. Electrical data indicate that the activated charge transport properties of the wires are determined by the nanocrystal charging energy, governed by the size and capacitance of the individual nanocrystals. Focused ion beam-assisted deposition of Pt metal at the wire-electrode junctions is employed to optimize the wire-electrode contacts, whilst maintaining the nanocrystal-dominated transport characteristics of these one-dimensional nanocrystal structures

  7. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  8. High Temperature AL-Nanocrystal Alloy Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perepezko, J

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum-rich metallic glasses containing transition metals and rare earth elements have been found to yield finely mixed microstructures of Al nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix and exhibit...

  9. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  10. Photoluminescence of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Kunold, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.; Pereyra, P.

    2006-12-01

    We used the theory of finite periodic systems to explain the photoluminescence spectra dependence on the average diameter of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices. Because of the broad matrix band gap, the photoluminescence response is basically determined by isolated nanocrystals and sequences of a few of them. With this model we were able to reproduce the shape and displacement of the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra. (author)

  11. Applying analytical ultracentrifugation to nanocrystal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Jennifer A; Krueger, Karl M; Mayo, J T; Yavuz, Cafer T; Redden, Jacina J; Colvin, Vicki L, E-mail: colvin@rice.ed [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-60, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-09-02

    While applied frequently in physical biochemistry to the study of protein complexes, the quantitative use of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for nanocrystal analysis is relatively rare. Its application in nanoscience is potentially very powerful as it provides a measure of nanocrystal density, size and structure directly in the solution phase. Towards that end, this paper examines the best practices for applying data collection and analysis methods for AUC, geared towards the study of biomolecules, to the unique problems of nanoparticle analysis. Using uniform nanocrystals of cadmium selenide, we compared several schemes for analyzing raw sedimentation data. Comparable values of the mean sedimentation coefficients (s-value) were found using several popular analytical approaches; however, the distribution in sample s-values is best captured using the van Holde-Weischt algorithm. Measured s-values could be reproducibly collected if sample temperature and concentration were controlled; under these circumstances, the variability for average sedimentation values was typically 5%. The full shape of the distribution in s-values, however, is not easily subjected to quantitative interpretation. Moreover, the selection of the appropriate sedimentation speed is crucial for AUC of nanocrystals as the density of inorganic nanocrystals is much larger than that of solvents. Quantitative analysis of sedimentation properties will allow for better agreement between experimental and theoretical models of nanocrystal solution behavior, as well as providing deeper insight into the hydrodynamic size and solution properties of nanomaterials.

  12. Bright trions in direct-bandgap silicon nanocrystals revealed bylow-temperature single-nanocrystal spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůsová, Kateřina; Pelant, Ivan; Valenta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, Oct (2015), e336 ISSN 2047-7538 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * single-nanocrystal spectroscopy * luminescing trions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.600, year: 2015

  13. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  14. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  15. Thermal evolution of the morphology, structure, and optical properties of multilayer nanoperiodic systems produced by the vacuum evaporation of SiO and SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A. V.; Chugrov, I. A.; Tetelbaum, D. I.; Mashin, A. I.; Pavlov, D. A.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Bobrov, A. I.; Grachev, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The alternate vacuum evaporation of SiO and SiO 2 from separate sources is used to produce amorphous a-SiO x /SiO 2 multilayer nanoperiodic structures with periods of 5–10 nm and a number of layers of up to 64. The effect of annealing at temperatures T a = 500–1100°C on the structural and optical properties of the nanostructures is studied. The results of transmission electron microscopy of the samples annealed at 1100°C indicate the annealing-induced formation of vertically ordered quasiperiodic arrays of Si nanocrystals, whose dimensions are comparable to the a-SiO x -layer thickness in the initial nanostructures. The nanostructures annealed at 1100°C exhibit size-dependent photoluminescence in the wavelength range 750–830 nm corresponding to Si nanocrystals. The data on infrared absorption and Raman scattering show that the thermal evolution of structural and phase state of the SiO x layers with increasing annealing temperature proceeds through the formation of amorphous Si nanoinclusions with the subsequent formation and growth of Si nanocrystals.

  16. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  17. Evolution of microstructural defects with strain effects in germanium nanocrystals synthesized at different annealing temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghuan; Cai, Rongsheng; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Chao [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang, Yiqian, E-mail: yqwang@qdu.edu.cn [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Physics Science, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Ross, Guy G.; Barba, David [INRS-EMT, 1650 Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were produced by implantation of {sup 74}Ge{sup +} into a SiO{sub 2} film on (100) Si, followed by high-temperature annealing from 700 °C to 1100 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the average size of Ge-ncs increases with the annealing temperature. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations reveal the presence of planar and linear defects in the formed Ge-ncs, whose relative concentrations are determined at each annealing temperature. The relative concentration of planar defects is almost independent of the annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. However, from 1000 °C to 1100 °C, its concentration decreases dramatically. For the linear defects, their concentration varies considerably with the annealing temperatures. In addition, by measuring the interplanar spacing of Ge-ncs from the HRTEM images, a strong correlation is found between the dislocation percentage and the stress field intensity. Our results provide fundamental insights regarding both the presence of microstructural defects and the origin of the residual stress field within Ge-ncs, which can shed light on the fabrication of Ge-ncs with quantified crystallinity and appropriate size for the advanced Ge-nc devices. - Highlights: • Growth of Ge nanocrystals at different annealing temperatures was investigated. • Strain field has great effects on the formation of dislocations. • Different mechanisms are proposed to explain growth regimes of Ge nanocrystals.

  18. Ultrafast Silicon Photonics with Visible to Mid-Infrared Pumping of Silicon Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diroll, Benjamin T; Schramke, Katelyn S; Guo, Peijun; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Schaller, Richard D

    2017-10-11

    Dynamic optical control of infrared (IR) transparency and refractive index is achieved using boron-doped silicon nanocrystals excited with mid-IR optical pulses. Unlike previous silicon-based optical switches, large changes in transmittance are achieved without a fabricated structure by exploiting strong light coupling of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) produced from free holes of p-type silicon nanocrystals. The choice of optical excitation wavelength allows for selectivity between hole heating and carrier generation through intraband or interband photoexcitation, respectively. Mid-IR optical pumping heats the free holes of p-Si nanocrystals to effective temperatures greater than 3500 K. Increases of the hole effective mass at high effective hole temperatures lead to a subpicosecond change of the dielectric function, resulting in a redshift of the LSPR, modulating mid-IR transmission by as much as 27%, and increasing the index of refraction by more than 0.1 in the mid-IR. Low hole heat capacity dictates subpicosecond hole cooling, substantially faster than carrier recombination, and negligible heating of the Si lattice, permitting mid-IR optical switching at terahertz repetition frequencies. Further, the energetic distribution of holes at high effective temperatures partially reverses the Burstein-Moss effect, permitting the modulation of transmittance at telecommunications wavelengths. The results presented here show that doped silicon, particularly in micro- or nanostructures, is a promising dynamic metamaterial for ultrafast IR photonics.

  19. Stress evolution of Ge nanocrystals in dielectric matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahariqushchi, Rahim; Raciti, Rosario; Emre Kasapoğlu, Ahmet; Gür, Emre; Sezen, Meltem; Kalay, Eren; Mirabella, Salvatore; Aydinli, A.

    2018-05-01

    Germanium nanocrystals (Ge NCs) embedded in single and multilayer silicon oxide and silicon nitride matrices have been synthesized using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by conventional furnace annealing or rapid thermal processing in N2 ambient. Compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The formation of NCs under suitable process conditions was observed with high resolution transmission electron microscope micrographs and Raman spectroscopy. Stress measurements were done using Raman shifts of the Ge optical phonon line at 300.7 cm-1. The effect of the embedding matrix and annealing methods on Ge NC formation were investigated. In addition to Ge NCs in single layer samples, the stress on Ge NCs in multilayer samples was also analyzed. Multilayers of Ge NCs in a silicon nitride matrix separated by dielectric buffer layers to control the size and density of NCs were fabricated. Multilayers consisted of SiN y :Ge ultrathin films sandwiched between either SiO2 or Si3N4 by the proper choice of buffer material. We demonstrated that it is possible to tune the stress state of Ge NCs from compressive to tensile, a desirable property for optoelectronic applications. We also observed that there is a correlation between the stress and the crystallization threshold in which the compressive stress enhances the crystallization, while the tensile stress suppresses the process.

  20. Some fundamental and applicative properties of [polymer/nano-SiC] hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassiba, A; Boucle, J; Makowska-Janusik, M; Errien, N

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites which combine polymer as host matrix and nanocrystals as active elements are promising functional materials for electronics, optics or photonics. In these systems, the physical response is governed by the nanocrystal features (size, surface and defect states), the polymer properties and the polymer-nanocrystal interface. This work reviews some selective nanostructured architectures based on active elements such as silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals and polymer host matrices. Beyond an overview of some key properties of the nanocrystals, a main part will be devoted to the electro-optical (EO) properties of SiC based hybrid systems where SiC nanocrystals are embedded in polymer matrices of different chemical nature such as poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly-vinylcarbazole (PVK) or polycarbonate. Using this approach, the organic-inorganic interface effects are emphasised with regard to the dielectric or hole transporting behaviour of PMMA and PVK respectively. These effects are illustrated through different EO responses associated with hybrid composites based on PMMA or PVK

  1. Some fundamental and applicative properties of [polymer/nano-SiC] hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassiba, A.; Bouclé, J.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Errien, N.

    2007-08-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites which combine polymer as host matrix and nanocrystals as active elements are promising functional materials for electronics, optics or photonics. In these systems, the physical response is governed by the nanocrystal features (size, surface and defect states), the polymer properties and the polymer-nanocrystal interface. This work reviews some selective nanostructured architectures based on active elements such as silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals and polymer host matrices. Beyond an overview of some key properties of the nanocrystals, a main part will be devoted to the electro-optical (EO) properties of SiC based hybrid systems where SiC nanocrystals are embedded in polymer matrices of different chemical nature such as poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly-vinylcarbazole (PVK) or polycarbonate. Using this approach, the organic-inorganic interface effects are emphasised with regard to the dielectric or hole transporting behaviour of PMMA and PVK respectively. These effects are illustrated through different EO responses associated with hybrid composites based on PMMA or PVK.

  2. Linear electro-optical behavior of hybrid nanocomposites based on silicon carbide nanocrystals and polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouclé, J.; Kassiba, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.; Desert, A.; Emery, J.; Bulou, A.; Sanetra, J.; Pud, A. A.; Kodjikian, S.

    2006-11-01

    An electro-optical activity has been recently reported for hybrid nanocomposite thin films where inorganic silicon carbide nanocrystals (ncSiC) are incorporated into polymer matrices. The role of the interface SiC polymer is suggested as the origin of the observed second order nonlinear optical susceptibility in the hybrid materials based on poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or poly-( N -vinylcarbazole) matrices. In this work, we report an analysis of the electro-optical response of this hybrid system as a function of the ncSiC content and surface state in order to precise the interface effect in the observed phenomenon. Two specific ncSiC samples with similar morphology and different surface states are incorporated in the PMMA matrix. The effective Pockels parameters of the corresponding hybrid nanocomposites have been estimated up to 7.59±0.74pm/V ( 1wt.% of ncSiC in the matrix). The interfacial region ncSiC polymer is found to play the main role in the observed effect. Particularly, the electronic defects on the ncSiC nanocrystal surface modify the interfacial electrical interactions between the two components. The results are interpreted and discussed on the basis of the strong influence of these active centers in the interfacial region at the nanoscale, which are found to monitor the local hyperpolarizabilities and the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibilities. This approach allows us to complete the description and understanding of the electro-optical response in the hybrid SiC /polymer systems.

  3. Assembling a Lasing Hybrid Material With Supramolecular Polymers and Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Leiming

    2003-01-01

    .... In the system containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid material forming an ultraviolet lasing medium with a lower threshold relative to pure ZnO nanocrystals.

  4. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal Metal and Photovoltaic Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-01-01

    -performing photovoltaic nanocrystals contain toxic elements, such as Pb, or scarce elements, such as In; thus, the production of solution-processable nanocrystals from earth-abundant materials using environmentally benign synthesis and processing methods has become a

  6. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  7. Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results

  8. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  9. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of single nanocrystals: mapping of tin allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesgaard, Søren; Ramasse, Quentin; Chevallier, Jacques; Fyhn, Mogens; Julsgaard, Brian

    2018-05-01

    Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), we are able to map different allotropes in Sn-nanocrystals embedded in Si. It is demonstrated that α-Sn and β-Sn, as well as an interface related plasmon, can be distinguished in embedded Sn-nanostructures. The EELS data is interpreted by standard non-negative matrix factorization followed by a manual Lorentzian decomposition. The decomposition allows for a more physical understanding of the EELS mapping without reducing the level of information. Extending the analysis from a reference system to smaller nanocrystals demonstrates that allotrope determination in nanoscale systems down below 5 nm is possible. Such local information proves the use of monochromated EELS mapping as a powerful technique to study nanoscale systems. This possibility enables investigation of small nanostructures that cannot be investigated through other means, allowing for a better understanding and thus leading to realizations that can result in nanomaterials with improved properties.

  10. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  11. Cellulose nanocrystal: electronically conducting polymer nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Soon Yee

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of cellulose nanocrystals for the fabrication of porous nanocomposites with electronic conducting polymers for electrochemical supercapacitor applications. The exceptional strength and negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals are utilised in these nanocomposites. The negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals allow their simultaneous incorporation into electropolymerised, positively charged conducting polymer ...

  12. Optical properties of uniformly sized silicon nanocrystals within a single silicon oxide layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    En Naciri, A., E-mail: aotmane.en-naciri@univ-lorraine.fr [Universite de Lorraine, LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol (France); Miska, P. [Universite de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour CNRS UMR 7198 (France); Keita, A.-S. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Germany); Battie, Y. [Universite de Lorraine, LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol (France); Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour CNRS UMR 7198 (France)

    2013-04-15

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC) with different sizes (2-6 nm) are synthesized by evaporation. The system is composed of a single Si-NC layer that is well controlled in size. The numerical modeling of such system, without a large size distribution, is suitable to perform easily the optical calculations. The nanocrystal size and confinement effects on the optical properties are determined by photoluminescence (PL) measurements, absorption in the UV visible range, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The optical constants and the bandgap energies are then extracted and analyzed. The dependence of the optical responses with the decrease of the size of the Si-NC occurs not only with a drastic reduction of the amplitudes of dielectric function but also by a significant expansion of the optical gap. This study supports the idea of a presence of a critical size of Si-NC for which the confinement effect becomes weak. The evolution of those bandgap energies are discussed in comparison with values reported in literature.

  13. Determination of silicon and aluminum in silicon carbide nanocrystals by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravecz, Gabriella; Bencs, László; Beke, Dávid; Gali, Adam

    2016-01-15

    The determination of Al contaminant and the main component Si in silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals with the size-distribution of 1-8nm dispersed in an aqueous solution was developed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFAAS). The vaporization/atomization processes were investigated in a transversally heated graphite atomizer by evaporating solution samples of Al and Si preserved in various media (HCl, HNO3). For Si, the best results were obtained by applying a mixture of 5µg Pd plus 5µg Mg, whereas for Al, 10µg Mg (each as nitrate solution) was dispensed with the samples, but the results obtained without modifier were found to be better. This way a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 1200°C for Si and 1300°C for Al could be used, and the optimum (compromise) atomization temperature was 2400°C for both analytes. The Si and Al contents of different sized SiC nanocrystals, dispersed in aqueous solutions, were determined against aqueous (external) calibration standards. The correlation coefficients (R values) of the calibrations were found to be 0.9963 for Si and 0.9991 for Al. The upper limit of the linear calibration range was 2mg/l Si and 0.25mg/l Al. The limit of detection was 3µg/l for Si and 0.5µg/l for Al. The characteristic mass (m0) was calculated to be 389pg Si and 6.4pg Al. The Si and Al content in the solution samples were found to be in the range of 1.0-1.7mg/l and 0.1-0.25mg/l, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Optoelectronic Devices based on Si Quantum Dots/Si Nanowires Hetero-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J; Zhai, Y Y; Cao, Y Q; Chen, K J

    2017-01-01

    Si quantum dots are currently extensively studied since they can be used to develop many kinds of optoelectronic devices. In this report, we review the fabrication of Si quantum dots (Si QD) /Si nanowires (Si NWs) hetero-structures by deposition of Si QDs/SiO 2 or Si QDs/SiC multilayers on Si NWs arrays. The electroluminescence and photovoltaic devices based on the formed hetero-structures have been prepared and the improved performance is confirmed. It is also found that the surface recombination via the surface defects states on the Si NWs, especially the ones obtained by the long-time etching, may deteriorate the device properties though they exhibit the better anti-reflection characteristics. The possible surface passivation approaches are briefly discussed. (paper)

  15. Optical characterization of nanocrystals in silicon rich oxide superlattices and porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agocs, E.; Petrik, P.; Milita, S.; Vanzetti, L.; Gardelis, S.; Nassiopoulou, A.G.; Pucker, G.; Balboni, R.; Fried, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose to analyze ellipsometry data by using effective medium approximation (EMA) models. Thanks to EMA, having nanocrystalline reference dielectric functions and generalized critical point (GCP) model the physical parameters of two series of samples containing silicon nanocrystals, i.e. silicon rich oxide (SRO) superlattices and porous silicon layers (PSL), have been determined. The superlattices, consisting of ten SRO/SiO 2 layer pairs, have been prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The porous silicon layers have been prepared using short monopulses of anodization current in the transition regime between porous silicon formation and electropolishing, in a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and ethanol. The optical modeling of both structures is similar. The effective dielectric function of the layer is calculated by EMA using nanocrystalline components (nc-Si and GCP) in a dielectric matrix (SRO) or voids (PSL). We discuss the two major problems occurring when modeling such structures: (1) the modeling of the vertically non-uniform layer structures (including the interface properties like nanoroughness at the layer boundaries) and (2) the parameterization of the dielectric function of nanocrystals. We used several techniques to reduce the large number of fit parameters of the GCP models. The obtained results are in good agreement with those obtained by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. We investigated the correlation of the broadening parameter and characteristic EMA components with the nanocrystal size and the sample preparation conditions, such as the annealing temperatures of the SRO superlattices and the anodization current density of the porous silicon samples. We found that the broadening parameter is a sensitive measure of the nanocrystallinity of the samples, even in cases, where the nanocrystals are too small to be visible for X-ray scattering. Major processes like sintering, phase separation, and intermixing have been

  16. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S. [Thin Film Nano Tech. Lab., Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Taiwan (China); Tien, T.-C. [Material Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 310, Taiwan (China); Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO{sub x}) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO{sub x} metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x} structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO{sub x} nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO{sub x} nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of {approx}2 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO{sub x} nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-}5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-} 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO{sub x} nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} and 2 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10{sup 6} cycles and good retention of 10{sup 4} s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of {+-} 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO{sub x} nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  17. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S.; Tien, T.-C.; Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO x ) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO x metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO x nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO x nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of ∼2 x 10 12 /cm 2 have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO x nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ± 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO x nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO x nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10 13 /cm 2 and 2 x 10 13 /cm 2 , respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO x nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10 6 cycles and good retention of 10 4 s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of ± 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO x nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO x nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  18. Gas-phase synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rajib

    Luminescent nanomaterials is a newly emerging field that provides challenges not only to fundamental research but also to innovative technology in several areas such as electronics, photonics, nanotechnology, display, lighting, biomedical engineering and environmental control. These nanomaterials come in various forms, shapes and comprises of semiconductors, metals, oxides, and inorganic and organic polymers. Most importantly, these luminescent nanomaterials can have different properties owing to their size as compared to their bulk counterparts. Here we describe the use of plasmas in synthesis, modification, and deposition of semiconductor nanomaterials for luminescence applications. Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications in several areas. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (NCs) have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices. For the field to advance towards new and versatile applications for nanocrystal-based devices, there is a need to investigate whether these NCs can be used in flexible and stretchable devices. We show how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Synthesis of these NCs was performed in a nonthermal, low-pressure gas phase plasma reactor. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of direct deposition of NCs onto stretchable substrates. Additionally, in order to prevent oxidation and enhance the luminescence properties, a silicon nitride shell was grown around Si NCs. We have demonstrated surface nitridation of Si NCs in a single step process using non?thermal plasma in several schemes including a novel dual-plasma synthesis/shell growth process. These coated NCs exhibit SiNx shells with composition depending on process parameters. While measurements including

  19. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ''point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies

  20. Doping in silicon nanocrystals: An ab initio study of the structural, electronic and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, Federico; Degoli, Elena; Luppi, Eleonora; Magri, Rita; Marri, Ivan; Cantele, G.; Ninno, D.; Trani, F.; Ossicini, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    There are experimental evidences that doping control at the nanoscale can significantly modify the optical properties with respect to the pure systems. This is the case of silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc), for which it has been shown that the photoluminescence (PL) peak can be tuned also below the bulk Si band gap by properly controlling the impurities, for example by boron (B) and phosphorus (P) codoping. In this work, we report on an ab initio study of impurity states in Si-nc. We consider B and P substitutional impurities for Si-nc with a diameter up to 2.2 nm. Formation energies (FEs), electronic, optical and structural properties have been determined as a function of the cluster dimension. For both B-doped and P-doped Si-nc the FE increases on decreasing the dimension, showing that the substitutional doping gets progressively more difficult for the smaller nanocrystals. Moreover, subsurface impurity positions result to be the most stable ones. The codoping reduces the FE strongly favoring this process with respect to the simple n-doping or p-doping. Such an effect can be attributed to charge compensation between the donor and the acceptor atoms. Moreover, smaller structural deformations, with respect to n-doped and p-doped cases, localized only around the impurity sites are observed. The band gap and the optical threshold are largely reduced with respect to the undoped Si-nc showing the possibility of an impurity-based engineering of the Si-nc PL properties

  1. Chemical insight into the origin of red and blue photoluminescence arising from freestanding silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasog, Mita; Yang, Zhenyu; Regli, Sarah; Atkins, Tonya M; Faramus, Angelique; Singh, Mani P; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Tilley, Richard D; Veinot, Jonathan G C

    2013-03-26

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are attractive functional materials. They are compatible with standard electronics and communications platforms and are biocompatible. Numerous methods have been developed to realize size-controlled Si NC synthesis. While these procedures produce Si NCs that appear identical, their optical responses can differ dramatically. Si NCs prepared using high-temperature methods routinely exhibit photoluminescence agreeing with the effective mass approximation (EMA), while those prepared via solution methods exhibit blue emission that is somewhat independent of particle size. Despite many proposals, a definitive explanation for this difference has been elusive for no less than a decade. This apparent dichotomy brings into question our understanding of Si NC properties and potentially limits the scope of their application. The present contribution takes a substantial step forward toward identifying the origin of the blue emission that is not expected based upon EMA predictions. It describes a detailed comparison of Si NCs obtained from three of the most widely cited procedures as well as the conversion of red-emitting Si NCs to blue emitters upon exposure to nitrogen-containing reagents. Analysis of the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of trace nitrogen and oxygen even at the parts per million level in Si NCs gives rise to the blue emission.

  2. Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba, D; Martin, F; Ross, G G

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) and amorphous silicon (α-Si) produced by silicon implantation in fused silica have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Information regarding the Raman signature of the α-Si phonon excitation was extracted from Raman depth-probing measurements using the phenomenological phonon confinement model. The spectral deconvolution of the Raman measurements recorded at different laser focusing depths takes into account both the Si-nc size variation and the Si-nc spatial distribution within the sample. The phonon peak associated with α-Si around 470 cm -1 is greatest for in-sample laser focusing, indicating that the formation of amorphous silicon is more important in the region containing a high concentration of silicon excess, where large Si-nc are located. As also observed for Si-nc systems prepared by SiO x layer deposition, this result demonstrates the presence of α-Si in high excess Si implanted Si-nc systems

  3. Highly aqueous soluble CaF2:Ce/Tb nanocrystals: effect of surface functionalization on structural, optical band gap, and photoluminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Anees A; Parchur, Abdul K; Kumar, Brijesh; Rai, S B

    2016-12-01

    The design of nanostructured materials with highly stable water-dispersion and luminescence efficiency is an important concern in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. In this paper, we described the synthesis and distinct surface modification on the morphological structure and optical (optical absorption, band gap energy, excitation, emission, decay time, etc.) properties of highly crystalline water-dispersible CaF 2 :Ce/Tb nanocrystals (core-nanocrystals). The epitaxial growth of inert CaF 2 and silica shell, respectively, on their surface forming as CaF 2 :Ce/Tb@CaF 2 (core/shell) and CaF 2 :Ce/Tb@CaF 2 @SiO 2 (core/shell/SiO 2 ) nanoarchitecture. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope image shows that the nanocrystals were in irregular spherical phase, highly crystalline (~20 nm) with narrow size distribution. The core/shell nanocrystals confirm that the surface coating is responsible in the change of symmetrical nanostructure, which was determined from the band gap energy and luminescent properties. It was found that an inert inorganic shell formation effectively enhances the luminescence efficiency and silica shell makes the nanocrystals highly water-dispersible. In addition, Ce 3+ /Tb 3+ -co-doped CaF 2 nanocrystals show efficient energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ ion and strong green luminescence of Tb 3+ ion at 541 nm( 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ). Luminescence decay curves of core and core/shell nanocrystals were fitted using mono and biexponential equations, and R 2 regression coefficient criteria were used to discriminate the goodness of the fitted model. The lifetime values for the core/shell nanocrystals are higher than core-nanocrystals. Considering the high stable water-dispersion and intensive luminescence emission in the visible region, these luminescent core/shell nanocrystals could be potential candidates for luminescent bio-imaging, optical bio-probe, displays, staining, and multianalyte optical sensing. A newly designed CaF 2 :Ce

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  5. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to  nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials.  Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale  materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientati...

  6. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  7. The structure and morphology of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadavanich, Andreas V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Organically capped nanocrystals were found to have faceted shapes consistent with Wulff polyhedra after the effects of capping ligands on surface energies were taken into account. The basic shape thus derived for wurtzite (WZ) structure CdSe nanocrystals capped by tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) was a truncated hexagonal prism, elongated alone the <001> axis with (100) and (002) facets. This structure has C{sub 3v} point group symmetry. The main defect in this structure is a stacking fault (a single layer of zinc blende type stacking), which does not significantly affect the shape (does not alter the point group).

  8. Developing New Nanoprobes from Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots havegarnered the spotlight as an important new class of biological labelingtool. Withoptical properties superior to conventional organicfluorophores from many aspects, such as high photostability andmultiplexing capability, quantum dots have been applied in a variety ofadvanced imaging applications. This dissertation research goes along withlarge amount of research efforts in this field, while focusing on thedesign and development of new nanoprobes from semiconductor nanocrystalsthat are aimed for useful imaging or sensing applications not possiblewith quantum dots alone. Specifically speaking, two strategies have beenapplied. In one, we have taken advantage of the increasing capability ofmanipulating the shape of semiconductor nanocrystals by developingsemiconductor quantum rods as fluorescent biological labels. In theother, we have assembled quantum dots and gold nanocrystals into discretenanostructures using DNA. The background information and synthesis,surface manipulation, property characterization and applications of thesenew nanoprobes in a few biological experiments are detailed in thedissertation.

  9. Selective Epitaxy of InP on Si and Rectification in Graphene/InP/Si Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Capellini, Giovanni; Hatami, Fariba; Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Niermann, Tore; Hussein, Emad Hameed; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Krause, Hans-Michael; Zaumseil, Peter; Skibitzki, Oliver; Lupina, Grzegorz; Masselink, William Ted; Lehmann, Michael; Xie, Ya-Hong; Schroeder, Thomas

    2016-10-12

    The epitaxial integration of highly heterogeneous material systems with silicon (Si) is a central topic in (opto-)electronics owing to device applications. InP could open new avenues for the realization of novel devices such as high-mobility transistors in next-generation CMOS or efficient lasers in Si photonics circuitry. However, the InP/Si heteroepitaxy is highly challenging due to the lattice (∼8%), thermal expansion mismatch (∼84%), and the different lattice symmetries. Here, we demonstrate the growth of InP nanocrystals showing high structural quality and excellent optoelectronic properties on Si. Our CMOS-compatible innovative approach exploits the selective epitaxy of InP nanocrystals on Si nanometric seeds obtained by the opening of lattice-arranged Si nanotips embedded in a SiO 2 matrix. A graphene/InP/Si-tip heterostructure was realized on obtained materials, revealing rectifying behavior and promising photodetection. This work presents a significant advance toward the monolithic integration of graphene/III-V based hybrid devices onto the mainstream Si technology platform.

  10. Passivation Layers for Indoor Solar Cells at Low Irradiation Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Rühle, K.; Rauer, M.; Rüdiger, M.; Giesecke, J.; Niewelt, T.; Schmiga, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Kasemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    The passivation mechanisms and qualities of Al2O3, SiNx, SiO2 and a-Si:H(i) on p- and n-type silicon are investigated by quasi-steady-state photoluminescence measurements. This technique allows effective lifetime measurements in an extremely large injection range between 1010 cm-3 and 1017 cm-3. The measurements are discussed focusing on injections below 1012 cm-3 in order to determine the most effective passivation layer for solar cells arranged for indoor applications. Fixed negative charge...

  11. Low-cost fabrication of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} nanocrystals by colloidal route using a novel combination of volatile and non-volatile capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Parul; Narain Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh@nplindia.org; Singh, Son

    2014-11-15

    Wet-route synthesis of CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) nanocrystals has been envisaged with the utilization of the unique combination of coordinating ligand and non coordinating solvent. Our work demonstrates the formation of a single-phase, nearly stoichiometric and monodispersive, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals (band gap (E{sub g})∼1.16 eV) using a novel combination of ligands; viz. volatile arylamine aniline and non-volatile solvent 1-octadecene. The synthesis and growth conditions have been manoeuvred using the colligative properties of the mixture and thus higher growth temperature (∼250 °C) could be attained that promoted larger grain growth. The beneficial influence of the capping agents (aniline and 1-octadecene) on the properties of chalcopyrite nanocrystals has enabled us to pictorally model the structural, morphological and optoelectronic aspects of CISe nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Without resorting to any post-selenization process and using the colligative properties of the mixture comprising of volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene to manoeuvre the growth conditions to promote Ostwald ripening, a single phase, monodispersive and nearly stoichiometric ternary CISe nanocrystals are formed by wet-synthesis route. - Highlights: • Wet-route synthesis of CISe nanocrystals reported without post-selenization process. • Single-phase, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals formed. • Novel combination of capping agents: volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene. • Higher growth temperature attained using the colligative properties of the mixture. • Metallic salts presence explains exp. and theoretical boiling point difference.

  12. Multi-mode interference revealed by two photon absorption in silicon rich SiO2 waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Ramiro-Manzano, F.; Mancinelli, M.; Turri, F.; Pavesi, L.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pucker, G.

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) from Si nanocrystals (NCs) excited by two-photon absorption (TPA) has been observed in Si nanocrystal-based waveguides fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The TPA excited photoluminescence emission resembles the one-photon excited photoluminescence arising from inter-band transitions in the quantum confined Si nanocrystals. By measuring the non-linear transmission of waveguides, a large TPA coefficient of β up to 10 −8  cm/W has been measured at 1550 nm. These values of β depend on the Si NCs size and are two orders of magnitude larger than the bulk silicon value. Here, we propose to use the TPA excited visible PL emission as a tool to map the spatial intensity profile of the 1550 nm propagating optical modes in multimode waveguides. In this way, multimode interference has been revealed experimentally and confirmed through a finite element simulation

  13. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  14. Luminescence in colloidal Mn2+-doped semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulac, Remi; Archer, Paul I.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystal doping chemistries have substantially broadened the variety of photophysical properties that can be observed in colloidal Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals. A brief overview is provided, focusing on Mn 2+ -doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals prepared by direct chemical synthesis and capped with coordinating surface ligands. These Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation. A brief outlook on future research directions is provided. - Graphical abstract: Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation

  15. Extrinsic passivation of silicon surfaces for solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, R.S.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Martins, G.; Wilshaw, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we study the extent to which extrinsic chemical and field effect passivation can improve the overall electrical passivation quality of silicon dioxide on silicon. Here we demonstrate that, when optimally applied, extrinsic passivation can produce surface recombination velocities below 1.2 cm/s in planar 1 Omega cm n-type Si. This is largely due to the additional field effect passivation component which reduces the recombination velocity below 2.13 cm/s. On textured surface...

  16. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  17. Role of the inversion layer on the charge injection in silicon nanocrystal multilayered light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondini, S. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Pucker, G. [Advanced Photonics and Photovoltaics Group, Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pavesi, L. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-07

    The role of the inversion layer on injection and recombination phenomena in light emitting diodes (LEDs) is here studied on a multilayer (ML) structure of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. Two Si-NC LEDs, which are similar for the active material but different in the fabrication process, elucidate the role of the non-radiative recombination rates at the ML/substrate interface. By studying current- and capacitance-voltage characteristics as well as electroluminescence spectra and time-resolved electroluminescence under pulsed and alternating bias pumping scheme in both the devices, we are able to ascribe the different experimental results to an efficient or inefficient minority carrier (electron) supply by the p-type substrate in the metal oxide semiconductor LEDs.

  18. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  19. Annealing effect and photovoltaic properties of nano-ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Liang-Wen; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Tang, I-Tseng; Meen, Teen-Hang; Liu, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Wu, Yue-Sian

    2013-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of heterojunction solar cell with ZnS nanocrystals synthesized by chemical bath deposition method were studied in this work. The ZnS nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Lower reflectance spectra were found as the annealing temperature of ZnS film increased on the textured p-Si substrate. It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the AZO/ZnS/textured p-Si h...

  20. Annealing effect and photovoltaic properties of nano-ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liang-Wen; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Tang, I.-Tseng; Meen, Teen-Hang; Liu, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Wu, Yue-Sian

    2013-11-01

    The preparation and characterization of heterojunction solar cell with ZnS nanocrystals synthesized by chemical bath deposition method were studied in this work. The ZnS nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Lower reflectance spectra were found as the annealing temperature of ZnS film increased on the textured p-Si substrate. It was found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the AZO/ZnS/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cell with an annealing temperature of 250°C was η = 3.66%.

  1. Wet-Chemical Preparation of Silicon Tunnel Oxides for Transparent Passivated Contacts in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Malte; Pomaska, Manuel; Lentz, Florian; Finger, Friedhelm; Rau, Uwe; Ding, Kaining

    2018-05-02

    Transparent passivated contacts (TPCs) using a wide band gap microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H(n)), silicon tunnel oxide (SiO 2 ) stack are an alternative to amorphous silicon-based contacts for the front side of silicon heterojunction solar cells. In a systematic study of the μc-SiC:H(n)/SiO 2 /c-Si contact, we investigated selected wet-chemical oxidation methods for the formation of ultrathin SiO 2 , in order to passivate the silicon surface while ensuring a low contact resistivity. By tuning the SiO 2 properties, implied open-circuit voltages of 714 mV and contact resistivities of 32 mΩ cm 2 were achieved using μc-SiC:H(n)/SiO 2 /c-Si as transparent passivated contacts.

  2. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  3. Fundamental aspects of nucleation and growth in the solution-phase synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Codoluto, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal Ge nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via the solution phase reduction of germanium(ii) iodide. We report a systematic investigation of the nanocrystal nucleation and growth as a function of synthesis conditions including the nature of coordinating solvents, surface bound ligands, synthesis duration and temperature. NC synthesis in reaction environments with weakly bound phosphine surface ligand led to the coalescence of nascent particles leading to ensembles with broad lognormal particle diameter distributions. Synthesis in the presence of amine or alkene ligands mitigated particle coalescence. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs revealed that NCs grown in the presence of weak ligands had a high crystal defect density whereas NCs grown in amine solutions were predominantly defect-free. We applied infrared spectroscopy to study the NC surface chemistry and showed that alkene ligands project the NCs from surface oxidation. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements showed that alkene ligands passivate surface traps, as indicated by infrared fluorescence, conversely oxidized phosphine and amine passivated NCs did not fluoresce. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence from CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yue Li; Li, Yong; Ji, Peng Fei; Zhou, Feng Qun; Sun, Xiao Jun; Yuan, Shu Qing; Wan, Ming Li [Pingdingshan University, Department of Physics, Solar New Energy Research Center, Pingdingshan (China); Ling, Hong [North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Department of Mathematics and Information Science, Zhengzhou (China)

    2016-12-15

    CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions have been fabricated by growing nanocrystal CdS (nc-CdS) on the silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) through using a chemical bath deposition method. The nanoheterojunctions have been constructed by three layers: the upper layer being a nc-CdS thin films, the intermediate layer being the interface region including nc-CdS and nanocrystal silicon (nc-Si), and the bottom layer being nc-Si layer grown on sc-Si substrate. The room temperature and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) have been measured and analyzed to provide some useful information of defect states. Utilizing the Gauss-Newton fitting method, five emission peaks from the temperature-dependent PL spectra can be determined. From the high energy to low energy, these five peaks are ascribed to the some luminescence centers which are formed by the oxygen-related deficiency centers in the silicon oxide layer of Si-NPA, the band gap emission of nc-CdS, the transition from the interstitial cadmium (I{sub Cd}) to the valence band, the recombination from I{sub Cd} to cadmium vacancies (V{sub Cd}), and from sulfur vacancies (V{sub s}) to the valence band, respectively. Understanding of the defect states in the CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions is very meaningful for the performance of devices based on CdS/Si nanoheterojunctions. (orig.)

  5. Manipulating emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals embedded in synthetic opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benalloul, Paul; Vion, Celine; Barthou, Charles; Schwob, Catherine; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; MaItre, Agnes; Gruzintsev, Alex; Emelchenko, Gennadi; Masalov, Wladimir; Nga, Pham Thu

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are the object of great interest due to the possibility, for appropriate PCs, to modify and control light propagation and even to influence the emission properties of an emitter, such as its emission diagram and its life time. One of the most common approaches to prepare 3D PCs takes advantage of the spontaneous self-organisation of spherical colloidal particles. Various self-assembly techniques such as sedimentation, convective or Langmuir-Blodgett ones have been studied as they provide a low cost and relatively easy protocol to obtain artificial opals. SiO 2 opals exhibit a pseudo-band gap. Nevertheless the coupling of II-VI nanocrystal emitters in such PCs allows one to recognize and study some basic problems. Large opals have been prepared by the sedimentation method and the size of the balls has been adjusted so that the pseudo-band gap of those PCs lies in the same region as the emission band of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. Diagrams of radiation and the modification of the spontaneous life time of the embedded nanocrystals will be presented and discussed. Introducing well-defined defects in PCs which are necessary to guide the photons through the crystal remains a hard technological challenge. Several top-down methods have been investigated. We will present different bottom-up routes proposed by different groups to engineer planar defects into colloidal PCs.

  6. Thermal stability of iron silicide nanowires epitaxially grown on Si(110) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang, E-mail: zouzhq@shanghaitech.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 100 Haike Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 201210 (China); Li, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Kai-Juan; Guo, Xin-Qiu [Analytical and Testing Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The α-FeSi{sub 2} nanowires epitaxially grown on Si(110) can be stable up to 750 °C. • The stable temperature of the nanowires is much lower than that of the bulk α-FeSi{sub 2} due to their small size and high relative surface area. • With increasing annealing temperature, the α-FeSi{sub 2} nanowires undergo an Ostwald ripening process and transform into large β-FeSi{sub 2} nanorods or three-dimensional nanocrystals. • The reduction in surface energy drives the transformation from metallic α-FeSi{sub 2} phase to semiconducting β-FeSi{sub 2} phase. - Abstract: Metallic α-FeSi{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) are epitaxially grown on Si(110) at 650 °C. Their evolution as a function of annealing temperature has been studied in situ by scanning tunneling microscopy. The NWs are stable up to 750 °C, which is much lower than that of the bulk α-FeSi{sub 2}. With further increasing the annealing temperature, some NWs begin to shrink in length and transform into wider and higher semiconducting β-FeSi{sub 2} nanorods or three-dimensional (3D) islands at 925 °C. The phase transformation is driven by the reduction in surface energy. On the other hand, some α-FeSi{sub 2} NWs begin to dissolve and become thinner until disappearing. The growth of the β-FeSi{sub 2} nanorods or 3D nanocrystals follows the Ostwald ripening mechanism, i.e., the large islands grow in size at the expense of the small ones. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study shows that the Fe 2p peaks of β-FeSi{sub 2} nanocrystals exhibit a negative shift of 0.2 eV with respect to the α-FeSi{sub 2} NWs.

  7. Prospects of Colloidal Copper Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, W.; Berends, A.C.; de Mello-Donega, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, colloidal copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs. Owing to their wide size, shape, and composition tunability, Cu chalcogenide NCs hold great promise for several applications, such as

  8. Hafnium carbide nanocrystal chains for field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Song; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang

    2014-01-01

    A hafnium carbide (HfC) nanostructure, i.e., HfC nanocrystal chain, was synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were employed to characterize the product. The synthesized one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with many faceted octahedral nanocrystals possess diameters of tens of nanometers to 500 nm and lengths of a few microns. The chain-like structures possess a single crystalline structure and preferential growth direction along the [1 0 0] crystal orientation. The growth of the chains occurred through the vapor–liquid–solid process along with a negative-feedback mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of the HfC nanocrystal chains as the cold cathode emitters were examined. The HfC nanocrystal chains display good FE properties with a low turn-on field of about 3.9 V μm −1 and a high field enhancement factor of 2157, implying potential applications in vacuum microelectronics.

  9. Atomic force microscopy characterization of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya R. Lahiji; Xin Xu; Ronald Reifenberger; Arvind Raman; Alan Rudie; Robert J. Moon

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are gaining interest as a “green” nanomaterial with superior mechanical and chemical properties for high-performance nanocomposite materials; however, there is a lack of accurate material property characterization of individual CNCs. Here, a detailed study of the topography, elastic and adhesive properties of individual wood-derived CNCs...

  10. Biocompatibility of bio based calcium carbonate nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance ...

  11. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of CZTS nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumasiya, Ajay; Shah, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising thin film absorber material for low cost solar cell applications. CZTS nanoparticle ink synthesized using solvothermal route is an attractive option to deposit absorber layer using screen printing or spin coating method in CZTS thin film solar cell. In this study we have synthesized CZTS nanocrystals using solvothermal method from aqueous solution of Copper nitrate [Cu(NO3)2], Zinc nitrate [Zn(NO3)2], tin chloride [SnCl4] and thiourea with varying concentration of Cu(NO3)2 (viz 0.82 mmol,1.4 mmol, 1.7 mmol) keeping concentrations of rest of solutions constant. As synthesized CZTS nanocrystals are characterized using Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX) to verify stoichiometry of elements. Analysis of EDAX data suggests that CZTS nanocrystals having Copper nitrate [Cu (NO3)2] concentration of 1.4 m mole is near stoichiometric. X-ray diffraction analysis study of CZTS nanocrystals having Copper nitrate [Cu (NO3)2] concentration of 1.4 m mole reveals the preferred orientation of the grains in (112), (220) and (312) direction confirming Kesterite structure of CZTS.

  12. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  13. Biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals -PVA nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rohani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals-poly vinyl alcohol nanocomposites were investigated. Nanocomposite films with different filler loading levels (3, 6, 9 and 12% by wt were developed by solvent casting method. The effect of cellulose nanocrystals on the biodegradation behaviors of nanocomposite films was studied. Water absorption and water solubility tests were performed by immersing specimens into distilled water. The characteristic parameter of diffusion coefficient and maximum moisture content were determined from the obtained water absorption curves. The water absorption behavior of the nanocomposites was found to follow a Fickian behavior. The maximum water absorption and diffusion coefficients were decreased by increasing the cellulose nanocrystals contents, however the water solubility decrease. The biodegradability of the films was investigated by immersing specimens into cellulase enzymatic solution as well as by burial in soil. The results showed that adding cellulose nanocrystals increase the weight loss of specimens in enzymatic solution but decrease it in soil media. The limited biodegradability of specimens in soil media attributed to development of strong interactions with solid substrates that inhibit the accessibility of functional groups. Specimens with the low degree of hydrolysis underwent extensive biodegradation in both enzymatic and soil media, whilst specimens with the high degree of hydrolysis showed recalcitrance to biodegradation under those conditions.

  14. Mechanistic Study of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To gain better insight into the formation of iron oxide nanocrystals from the solution phase thermal decomposition of iron (III) oleate complex, different reaction conditions including time, heating ramp, as well as concentrations of iron oleate precursor and oleic acid ligand were systematically varied and the resulting ...

  15. Biomimetic synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Yi

    At the nanometer scale, the physical and chemical properties of materials heavily depend on their sizes and shapes. This fact has triggered considerable efforts in developing controllable nanomaterial synthesis. The controlled growth of colloidal nanocrystal is a kinetic process, in which high-energy facets grow faster and then vanish, leading to a nanocrystal enclosed by low-energy facets. Identifying a surfactant that can selectively bind to a particular crystal facet and thus lower its surface energy, is critical and challenging in shape controlled synthesis of nanocrystals. Biomolecules exhibiting exquisite molecular recognition properties can be exploited to precisely engineer nanostructured materials. In the first part of my thesis, we employed the phage display technique to select a specific multifunctional peptide sequence which can bind on Pd surface and mediate Pd crystal nucleation and growth, achieving size controlled synthesis of Pd nanocrystals in aqueous solution. We further demonstrated a rational biomimetic approach to the predictable synthesis of nanocrystals enclosed by a particular facet in the case of Pt. Specifically, Pt {100} and Pt {111} facet-specific peptides were identified and used to synthesize Pt nanocubes and Pt nano-tetrahedrons, respectively. The mechanistic studies of Pt {111} facet-specific peptide had led us to study the facet-selective adsorption of aromatic molecules on noble metal surfaces. The discoveries had achieved the development of design strategies to select facet-selective molecules which can synthesize nanocrystals with expected shapes in both Pt and Pd system. At last, we exploited Pt facet-specific peptides and controlled the molecular interaction to produce one- and three- dimensional nanostructures composed of anisotropic nanoparticles in synthetic conditions without supramolecular pre-organization, demonstrating the full potential of biomolecules in mediating material formation process. My research on biomimetic

  16. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped glass ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Xvsheng; Fan Xianping; Wang Minquan; Zhang Xianghua

    2009-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped 50SiO 2 -10Al 2 O 3 -20ZnF 2 -20SrF 2 glass and glass ceramic containing SrF 2 nanocrystals were investigated. The formation of SrF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic was confirmed by XRD. The oscillator strengths for several transitions of the Er 3+ ions in the glass ceramic have been obtained and the Judd-Ofelt parameters were then determined. The XRD result and Judd-Ofelt parameters suggested that Er 3+ and Yb 3+ ions had efficiently enriched in the SrF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic. The lifetime of excited states has been used to reveal the surroundings of luminescent Er 3+ and Yb 3+ and energy transfer (ET) mechanism between Er 3+ and Yb 3+ . Much stronger upconversion luminescence and longer lifetime of the Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped glass ceramic were observed in comparison with the Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped glass, which could be ascribed to more efficient ET from Yb 3+ to Er 3+ due to the enrichment of Yb 3+ and Er 3+ and the shortening of the distance between lanthanide ions in the precipitated SrF 2 nanocrystals.

  17. Synthesis of transparent chloroborosilicate nanoglass-ceramics: Crystallization and growth mechanism of BaCl2 nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Shasmal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxyfluoride glass-ceramics are extensively being investigated for their excellent optical properties and widespread use in photonic applications. But oxychloride systems are scarcely studied although they are potential candidates for those fields. Here we report chloroborosilicate glass system SiO2–B2O3–BaO–K2O–Al2O3–BaCl2 (mol% within which BaCl2 nanocrystals have been generated by melt-quench technique followed by heat treatment. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared and UV–vis spectroscopy, elastic constants measurement, etc. Micro- and nanostructures were analyzed by using FESEM, TEM and SAED. Formation and growth mechanism of BaCl2 nanocrystals have been demonstrated with the help of schematic representations. Size (7–47 nm and morphology of the nanocrystals were found to be controlled by temperature and heat-treatment time. Activation energy for crystallization was determined by non-isothermal method using DSC and found to be 510 kJ/mol. Chloroborosilicate glasses containing BaCl2 nanocrystals having low-phonon energy (∼350 cm−1 are promising for different photonic applications.

  18. Synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoying

    Chapter 1. A general introduction is presented on nanomaterials and nanoscience. Nanoparticles are discussed with respect to their structure and properties. Ferroelectric materials and nanoparticles in particular are highlighted, especially in the case of the barium titanate, and their potential applications are discussed. Different nanocrystal synthetic techniques are discussed. Nanoparticle superlattices, the novel "meta-materials" built from self-assembly at the nanoscale, are introduced. The formation of nanoparticle superlattices and the importance and interest of synthesizing these nanostructures is discussed. Chapter 2. Advanced applications for high k dielectric and ferroelectric materials in the electronics industry continues to demand an understanding of the underlying physics in decreasing dimensions into the nanoscale. The first part of this chapter presents the synthesis, processing, and electrical characterization of nanostructured thin films (thickness ˜100 nm) of barium titanate BaTiO3 built from uniform nanoparticles (alcohols were used to study the effect of size and morphological control over the nanocrystals. Techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy are used to examine crystallinity and morphology. Chapter 3. By investigating the self-assembly of cadmium selenide-gold (CdSe-Au) nanoparticle mixtures by transmission electron microscopy after solvent evaporation, the effect of solvents in the formation process of CdSe-Au binary nanoparticle superlattices (BNSLs) was studied. 1-dodecanethiol was found to be critical in generating conditions necessary for superlattice formation, prior to the other factors that likely determine structure, highlighting the dual role of this organic polar molecule as both ligand and high boiling point/crystallization solvent. The influence of thiol was investigated under various concentrations (and also

  19. Structural and photoluminescent properties of a composite tantalum oxide and silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Becerril, T.; Herrera, V.; Morales, C.; García-Salgado, G.; Rosendo, E.; Coyopol, A.; Galeazzi, R.; Romano, R.; Nieto-Caballero, F.G.; Sarmiento, J.

    2017-01-01

    Tantalum oxide crystals encrusted in a silicon oxide matrix were synthesized by using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition system (HFCVD). A solid source composed by a mixture in different percentages of Ta 2 O 5 and silicon (Si) powders were used as reactants. The films were grown at 800 °C and 1000 °C under hydrogen ambient. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. From the XPS results it was confirmed the formation of a mixture of Tantalum oxide, silicon oxide and Si nanoparticles (Ta 2 O 5- SiO 2 -Si(nc)) as seen from the Si (2p) and Ta (4f) lines corresponding to Si + and Ta + states respectively. Ta 2 O 5 and Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in the silicon oxide films were observed on HRTEM images which corroborate the XPS results. Finally the emission properties of the films exhibited a broad band from 400 to 850 nm caused by the independent PL properties of tantalum oxide and Si-NCs that compose the film. The intensity of the emissions was observed to be dependent on both temperature of deposition and the ratio Ta 2 O 5 /Si, used as initial reactants. Results from this work might supply useful data for the development of future light emitter devices.

  20. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Ionel; Maraloiu, Valentin Adrian; Negrila, Catalin; Prepelita, Petronela; Gruia, Ion; Iordache, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. This article reports on a significant progress given by structuring Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films by heating the substrate at 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency with peak value reaching 850% at -1 V and about 1000 nm. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the effort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.